216 views

Uploaded by mechanism_disp

- GEF_LARROSA_2011
- Me671 Simulation and Analysis Laboratory1
- Jacket Examples
- SMO 13 TrussLayoutOptimization
- XFEM
- 2007_Arias Et Al_numerical Modelling and Experimental Validation of Dynamic Facture Events Along Weak Planes
- Fracture Mechanics Midterm Test
- Load Paths Visualization in Plane Elasticity Using Load Path Function Method
- 2010 Evaluation of the Impact of Residual Stresses in Crack Initiation
- Ttt
- 768
- Case Studies in the Application of Advanced Technology to Pipeline Flaw Assessment
- Design of Machine Elements Two Marks
- THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER IN THE LAYERS OF ROAD PAVEMENT
- Concrete Fracture Model1
- Ixcube Brief Introduction
- syallbus
- notes on the site that takes calculations.docx
- Full Text 01
- Basic Applied Finite Element Analysis

You are on page 1of 11

com

www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

Review

Yazid Abdelaziz *, Abdelmadjid Hamouine

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bechar, Bechar 08000, Algeria

Available online 20 December 2007

Abstract

This article presents an overview and recent progress of the extended ﬁnite element method X-FEM in the analysis of crack growth

modeling. It summarizes the important milestones achieved by the ﬁnite element community in the arena of computational fracture

mechanics. The methodology of X-FEM, diﬀerent from that of the classical ﬁnite element method, presents a very particular interest

since it does not force the discontinuities to be in conformity with the borders. It makes possible the accurate solution of engineering

problems in complex domains, which may be practically impossible to solve using the classical ﬁnite element method.

Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1142

2. X-FEM: concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1142

2.1. Basic review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1142

2.2. Partition of unity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143

2.3. Crack tip enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143

2.4. Heaviside function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143

2.5. Multiple branched cracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144

2.6. Criterion selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144

2.7. Numerical integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144

2.8. Level set method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

3. Robustness and improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

3.1. Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

3.2. Stress intensity calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

3.3. Stress analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

4. X-FEM: extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

4.1. Space–time X-FEM formulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

4.2. Dynamic cracks growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146

4.3. Elastic–plastic fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146

4.4. Intrinsic X-FEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146

4.5. Superposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146

5. X-FEM implantation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146

6. X-FEM: divers applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147

*

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: abdelaziz970@yahoo.fr (Y. Abdelaziz).

0045-7949/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2007.11.001

1142 Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151

6.2. Contact and friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147

6.3. Thin film and shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147

6.4. Cohesive cracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147

6.5. Strong and weak discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147

6.6. Orthotropic media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148

6.7. Microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148

7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148

References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148

et al. [25,26] and Moes et al. [27] introduced a much more ele-

The ﬁnite element method is widely used in industrial gant technique by adapting an enrichment that includes the

design applications, and many diﬀerent software packages asymptotic near-tip ﬁeld and a Heaviside function H(x). The

based on FEM techniques have been developed. It has Heaviside jump function is a discontinuous function across

proved to be very well suited for the study of fracture the crack surface and is constant on each side of the crack:

mechanics. However, modeling the propagation of a crack +1 on one side and 1 on the other. Its use represents the

through a ﬁnite element mesh turns out to be diﬃcult main improvement of this technique over that presented in

because of the modiﬁcation of the mesh topology. More- [17], where a mapping algorithm introduced by Fleming

over, the crack tip singularity needs to be accurately repre- et al. [14] was used. Daux et al. [28] proposed a junction func-

sented by the approximation [1]. To accurately model tion concept to account for multiple branched cracks. For

discontinuities with ﬁnite element methods, it is necessary branched cracks, They used the near-tip asymptotic ﬁelds

to conform the discretization to the discontinuity. This [17], the discontinuous function H(x) for a single crack

becomes a major diﬃculty when treating problems with [27], and a new discontinuous function J(x) to account the

evolving discontinuities where the mesh must be regener- branching. This technique was employed for modeling com-

ated at each step. Re-projecting the solution on the plicated geometries such as multiple branched cracks, voids

updated mesh is not only a costly operation but also it and cracks emanating from holes. Dolbow et al. [29] studied

may have a troublesome impact on the quality of results. the modeling of cracks growth in plates in the Mind-

Over the past few decades, several approaches have been lin–Reissner framework. The form of the enriched approxi-

proposed to model crack problems: method based on quar- mation is similar to that in [27] with diﬀerent sets of near-tip

ter-point ﬁnite element [2], enriched ﬁnite element method functions for the rotations and transverse displacement.

[3,4], the boundary collocation method [5], the integral Sukumar et al. [30] presented an implementation of the

equation method [6], the body force method [7], the bound- X-FEM method into three-dimensional crack modeling.

ary elements method [8], the dislocation method [9–11], They demonstrated the accuracy of this technique for

mesh-free methods such as the element-free Galerkin three-dimensional static cracks: a discontinuous function

method [12–14]. To avoid the re-meshing step in crack was used to model the interior of the crack surface, and

modeling, a divers techniques were proposed: the incorpo- functions from the two-dimensional asymptotic crack tip

ration of a discontinuous mode on an element level [15], a displacement ﬁelds were used for the crack front enrich-

moving mesh technique [16], and an enrichment technique ment. Belytschko et al. [31] generalized the methodology

based on a partition-of-unity X-FEM [17]. for representing discontinuities that are independent of the

The essential idea in the extended ﬁnite element method, mesh. The work uniﬁes and extends the modeling of func-

which is closely related to the generalized ﬁnite element tions with arbitrary discontinuities and discontinuous deriv-

method [18–21], both belonging to the class of partition of atives in ﬁnite elements ﬁrst proposed in Refs. [17,27,28,30].

unity methods, is to add discontinuous enrichment func- Stolarska et al. [32] used the extended ﬁnite element

tions to the ﬁnite element approximation using the partition method in conjunction with the level set method [33] to

of unity [22,23]. An overview of the early developments of treat crack growth in two dimensions. They presented an

the X-FEM method has been given by Karihaloo and Xiao algorithm that couples the LSM with the X-FEM to solve

[24]. Since that overview many new extensions been made. the elasto-static fatigue crack problem. The LSM is used to

represent the crack location, including the location of crack

2. X-FEM: concepts tips. The X-FEM is used to compute the stress and dis-

placement ﬁelds necessary for determining the rate of crack

2.1. Basic review growth. Non-planar 3D cracks growth was carried out

using X-FEM/LSM [34,35]. The X-FEM method was also

The X-FEM method was originally proposed by Bely- used in concert with a particular level set method, the fast

tschko and Black [17]. They presented a method for enrich- marching method (FMM) [36] to model the growth of sin-

ing ﬁnite element approximations so that crack growth gle [37] and multiple [38] planar 3D cracks.

Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151 1143

Belytschko et al. [39] presented a simpliﬁed method for 2.2. Partition of unity

modeling solid objects by structured ﬁnite elements. The

method use implicit functions to describe the outside sur- A partition of unity (PU) is a parading where a domain

face of the object and any inner surfaces, such as material is devised into overlapping sub-domains XI, each of which

interfaces, sliding surfaces and cracks. Mariani and Perego is associated with a function /I(x)that is non-zero only in

[40] introduced a higher order displacement discontinuity XI and has the following property

in a standard ﬁnite element model. They utilized the cubic

X

N

displacement discontinuity, able to reproduce the typical /ðxÞ ¼ 1 in X ð1Þ

cusp-like shape of the process zone at the tip of a cohesive I¼1

crack, to study the mode I crack growth in a wedge-split-

ting test and the mixed I–II mode crack growth in an asym- The partition of unity method gives a theoretical frame-

metric three-point bending test. Bellec and Dolbow [41] work to new techniques such as extended ﬁnite elements or

exposed a note on enrichment functions for modeling crack hp-clouds, generalized ﬁnite elements.

nucleation. They focused on the particular case where the

extent of the crack approaches the support size of the nodal 2.3. Crack tip enrichment

shape functions. Under these circumstances, the asymp-

totic ‘branch’ functions for each tip may extend beyond The idea of X-FEM consists of an enrichment of the

the length of the crack, resulting in a non-conforming ﬁnite element near the crack tip with functions whose span

approximation. The new approximation corrects this deﬁ- includes the two-dimensional plane strain asymptotic crack

ciency with the aid of a ‘ramp function’: They modiﬁed tip ﬁelds [17]

the near-tip functions through multiplication with a set of

‘ramp functions’ that enforce the appropriate level of 4 pﬃﬃ h pﬃﬃ h pﬃﬃ h

fF I ðr; hÞgi¼1 ¼ r cos ; r sin ; r sin sin h;

continuity. 2 2 2

Ventura et al. [42] developed a vector level set method pﬃﬃ h

for describing the growth of cracks for two-dimensional r cos sin h ð2Þ

2

problems. In the method, the crack geometry is described

by a three-tuple for cracks in two dimensions. The level The approximation takes the form of an extrinsic enrich-

set function is updated by simple geometric formulas. By ment and can be written as

contrast, in standard level set methods the level set is !

X

n X

NeðIÞ

updated by the solution of a hyperbolic partial diﬀerential h

u ðxÞ ¼ N I ðxÞ uI þ ajI F j ðr; hÞ ð3Þ

equation. Budyn et al. [43] used the vector level set method I¼1 J ¼1

developed by Ventura [42] for modeling the evolution of !

X

n X

NeðIÞ

multiple cracks in the framework of the extended ﬁnite ele- h

m ðxÞ ¼ N I ðxÞ VI þ bjI F j ðr; hÞ ð4Þ

ment method. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous I¼1 J ¼1

materials were considered.

Dolbow and Devan [44] developed a formulation of an where (r,h) is a polar co-ordinate system with origin at the

enhanced assumed strain method with discontinuous crack tip NI(x) are the standard ﬁnite element shape func-

enrichment of the displacement ﬁeld that exhibits lock- tions. The enrichment coeﬃcients ajI and bjI are associated

ing-free response in the incompressible limit. Ventura with nodes and ne(I) is the number of coeﬃcients for node I:

et al. [45] proposed a new ﬁnite element method for accu- it is chosen to be four for all nodes around the crack tip

rately modeling the displacement and stress ﬁelds produced and zero at all other nodes.

by a dislocation. In their approaches, the local strain ﬁeld

generated by the dislocation is included in the ﬁnite element 2.4. Heaviside function

basis and no projection procedures are involved.

Larsson and Fagerstrom [46] presented a framework for After intruding the Heaviside jump function, the

fracture modeling based on the material forces concept approximation will be changed to the following formula

with X-FEM-kinematics. The work established a theoreti- [27]:

cal and computational framework for fracture mechanics !

on the basis of the inverse deformation problem with an X X X X

4

1

uh ¼ ui /i þ bj /j H ðxÞ þ /k cl1

k F l ðxÞ

applied discontinuous deformation separated from the con- i2I j2J k2K1 l¼1

tinuous deformation using the extended ﬁnite element !

method, or perhaps rather the partitions of unity concept X X

4

2

þ /k cl2

k F l ðxÞ ð5Þ

for crack propagation. Moes et al. [47] introduced a strat- k2K2 l¼1

egy to impose Dirichlet boundary conditions on stationary

or evolving surfaces while preserving the optimal rate of In which J is the set enriched by the crack tip functions

convergence. The key aspect is the construction of the cor- and K is the set enriched by the jump function (Fig. 1). bj

rect Lagrange multiplier space on the boundary. and clk are vectors of additional nodal degrees of freedom.

1144 Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151

K1 and K2 are the sets of nodes to be enriched for the ﬁrst

and second crack tip, respectively. H(x) is Heaviside func-

tion and F l1 ðxÞ and F l2 (x) are near-tip crack functions. Aab

w

rab ¼ ð6Þ

Aw

Abe

rbe ¼ w ð7Þ

2.5. Multiple branched cracks Aw

If either of the above ratios are below a speciﬁed toler-

In the case of two crossing cracks, it is not proper to ance, the node is no longer enriched with H. In practice,

consider them as independent; they should be considered a tolerance of 104 is used (Fig. 3).

to be a main crack and two secondary cracks that join

the main crack [28] (Fig. 2). 2.7. Numerical integration

jump function H(x), Moes et al. [27] make a modiﬁcation

2.6. Criterion selection

to the element quadrature routines for the assembly of

the weak form. As the crack is allowed to be arbitrarily ori-

The criterion for selection of H enriched nodes, as given

ented in an element, standard Gauss quadrature may not

in [25], relies on the following considerations. For a certain

adequately integrate the discontinuous ﬁeld. The numerical

node, the area of its support denoted by Aw is computed.

integration of cut elements is generally performed by parti-

The part of its support’s area above, Aab w and below, Aw

be

tioning them into standard subtriangles (Fig. 4). Hence

the crack, are computed. Then, the following ratios are

every time the crack propagates, one uses a new set of sub-

calculated:

triangles as well and a new Gauss points set.

Ventura [48] studied the elimination of quadrature sub-

cells for discontinuous functions in the extended ﬁnite ele-

ment method. In the work, he was shown how standard

Gauss quadrature could be used in the elements containing

the discontinuity without splitting the elements into sub-

cells or introducing any additional approximation. This is

developed with reference to displacement jumps in one,

two and three dimensions and to material discontinuities

in one and two dimensions and in the hypothesis of a linear

Fig. 2. Example of enrichment for a branched crack [28]. discontinuity surface crossing completely an element.

Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151 1145

2.8. Level set method asymptotic values. Nagashima et al. [55] exposed the stress

intensity factor analysis of the bi-material interface crack

The level set method is a numerical scheme developed by problem. They used asymptotic solution of a homogeneous

Osher and Sethian [33] to model the motion of interfaces. (not interface) crack to enrich the crack tip nodes, and

The principle of the method is to represent an interface adopted a fourth order Gauss integration for a 4-node iso-

by the zero of a function, called the level set function, parametric element with enriched nodes. Xiao and Kariha-

and to update this function with Hamilton–Jacobi equa- loo [56] enhanced the accuracy of the local ﬁelds and

tions knowing the speed of the interface in the direction determined the SIF directly without extra post-processing.

normal to this interface. They enriched the nodes of the elements surrounding the

A moving interface c(t) R2 can be formulated as the crack tip with the leading as well as higher order terms of

level set curve of a function /(x,t) the asymptotic crack tip ﬁelds using the PUM. Liu et al.

[57] extend this technique to direct evaluation of mixed

cðtÞ ¼ fx 2 R2 : /ðx; tÞ ¼ 0g ð8Þ

mode SIFs in homogeneous and bi-materials. Menouillard

The motion of c(t) can then be expressed as an evolution et al. [58] presented a general method for the calculation of

equation for / by taking the time derivative of / mixed mode intensity factors for graded materials.

(x(t),t) = 0:

3.3. Stress analysis

/t þ F kr/k ¼ 0

ð9Þ

/ðx; t ¼ 0Þ ¼ given Legrain et al. [59] studied the stress analysis around crack

where F is the speed of the front at x 2 c(t) in the direction tips in ﬁnite strain problems. They showed how to solve

normal to the interface. The initial conditions on / are typ- non-linear fracture mechanics problems with the extended

ically deﬁned as the signed distance to the interface ﬁnite method, particularly for rubber-like materials. Béchet

et al. [60] improved the robustness of the X-FEM method

/ðx; tÞ ¼ min kx xk ð10Þ for stress analysis around cracks by introducing a diﬀerent

xuðtÞ

enrichment scheme; developing new integration quadrature

for asymptotic functions and implementing a precondition-

3. Robustness and improvements ing scheme adapted to the enriched functions.

Xiao and Karihaloo [61] improved the accuracy of

3.1. Convergence X-FEM crack tip ﬁelds using higher order quadrature

and statically admissible stress recovery. The quadrature

An advantage of the X-FEM method is to obtain more technique utilizes guarantees convergence of regular nodal

accurate numerical results than classical ﬁnite element one. values and coeﬃcients corresponding to enrichment

However, the rate of convergence is not optimal with functions, except of coeﬃcients with very small values.

respect to the mesh parameter ‘‘h”. This rate is lower than Dumstorﬀ and Meschke [62] studied numerically the

it is expected with classical ﬁnite element method for a performance of the diﬀerent crack propagation criteria in

smooth problem as pointed out in Stazi et al. [49]. To the framework of X-FEM based structural materials: The

obtain the optimal accuracy, some methods have been pro- two local criteria include an averaged stress criterion [63]

posed such as X-FEM with a ﬁxed enrichment area, high and the maximum circumferential stress criterion based

order X-FEM and the construction of blending elements. on the linear elastic fracture mechanics [64]. The two global

Laborde et al. [50] studied the capabilities of the criteria include a global tracking criterion [65] and an

extended ﬁnite element method to achieve accurate compu- energy based X-FEM formulation recently proposed in [66].

tations in non-smooth situations such as crack problems.

They proposed some improvements of the X-FEM method 4. X-FEM: extension

to obtain the optimal accuracy. Chahine et al. [51] gave a

note of the convergence result for a variant of the X- 4.1. Space–time X-FEM formulation

FEM method on cracked domains using a cut-oﬀ function

to localize the singular enrichment area. Chessa and Belytschko [67] proposed an approach to

treat discontinuities in space–time FE. They consider a

3.2. Stress intensity calculation space discontinuity that is moving in space–time FE using

an enriched approximation in space. In [68], the interest is

In Several works, e.g., [17,27,28], the stress intensity fac- on the modeling of space and time discontinuities and the

tors are computed at the tip of a crack in 2D bodies using approximation will be enriched in space as well as in time.

domain forms of the interaction integrals [52]. Sukumar Chessa and Belytschko [69] presented a locally enriched

et al. [30] used domain integral methods to evaluate SIFs space–time ﬁnite element method for solving hyperbolic

along the 3D crack front [53]. Duarte et al. [54] extracted problems with discontinuities. They examined how the

the SIFs by a least squares ﬁt method by minimizing the enriched space–time formulation of [67], in which disconti-

errors among the stresses calculated numerically and their nuities are explicitly tracked with enrichment and level sets,

1146 Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151

can be combined with standard ﬁnite element formulations one shape function per node, and these functions are able

for hyperbolic equations. to represent known characteristics of the solution such as

discontinuities, singularities, etc.

4.2. Dynamic cracks growth

4.5. Superposing

Chen et al. [70] and, more recently, Belytschko [71] pre-

sented a new enrichment technique to avoid the diﬃculties Fish [81] has proposed the concept of superposing a

encountered with the original X-FEM in time-dependent cracked mesh on a continuous mesh in the s-method. In

problems. They introduced a methodology for treating the ﬁeld of X-FEM method, Sang-Ho et al. [82] presented

dynamic crack growth by the extended ﬁnite element a combination of the extended ﬁnite element method and

method. The method was developed for switching from a the mesh superposition method (s-version FEM). He

continuum to a discrete discontinuity where the governing modeled the near-tip ﬁeld by superimposing quarter-point

partial deferential equation loses hyperbolicity. Réthoré elements on an overlaid mesh while the rest of the disconti-

et al. [72] proposed an energy-conserving scheme for nuity was implicitly described by a step function. Xiao and

dynamic crack growth using the extended ﬁnite element Karihaloo [83] proposed an implementation of the hybrid

method. The work proposed a generalization of the X- crack element (HCE) on a general ﬁnite element mesh and

FEM to model dynamic fracture and time-dependent prob- in combination with the extended ﬁnite element method.

lems in a general sense, and it gave a proof of the stability of The incorporation of the HCE into commercial FE pack-

the numerical scheme in the linear case. Zi et al. [73] exposed ages was detailed and validated. Furthermore, it was shown

a method for modeling arbitrary growth of dynamic cracks. how to couple the HCE with the extended/generalized ﬁnite

In this way, the extended ﬁnite element method was coupled element method (X-FEM).

with the level set method. Svahn et al. [74] proposed a dis-

crete crack modeling in a new X-FEM format with emphasis 5. X-FEM implantation

on dynamic response. The discontinuous approximation

was accomplished by usage of basis functions of very limited The extended ﬁnite element method can be implemented

support; only non-zero in the elements containing the crack. within a ﬁnite element code with relatively small modiﬁca-

tions: variable number of degrees of freedom per node; mesh

4.3. Elastic–plastic fracture geometry interaction (a procedure to detect elements inter-

secting with the geometry of the discontinuities); enriched

Shamloo et al. [75] employed the X-FEM in elasto-plas- stiﬀness matrices; numerical integration. Sukumar and Pré-

tic behavior of material based on the cap plasticity model. vost [84] described the implementation of the X-FEM for

The double-surface plasticity model was applied based on a the modeling of crack discontinuities within Dynaﬂow

failure surface and an elliptical yield cap, which closes the [85], a standard ﬁnite element package. Huang et al. [86]

open space between the failure surface and hydrostatic focused their attention on the application of the X-FEM

axis. Elguedj et al. [76] utilized the well-known Hutchin- to crack problems in isotropic and bi-material media. Nisto

son–Rice–Rosengren (HRR) ﬁelds [77,78] to represent the et al. [87] proposed a numerical implantation in an explicit

singularities in elastic–plastic fracture mechanics. This code for treating dynamic crack propagation. The explicit

analysis is done in the context of conﬁned plasticity, and dynamic FEM code DynELA [88] developed in the LGP

shall be used to predict fatigue crack growth. Prabel in Tarbes using an object-oriented framework was used to

et al. [79] demonstrated that the modelization of a propa- support the implementation of the X-FEM as a new module

gating crack in a dynamic elastic–plastic media can be done called DynaCrack. Bordas et al. [89] proposed an extended

using X-FEM linear functions approximation. The pro- ﬁnite element library. The program structure has been

posed idea is to update the level set functions on a regular designed to meet all natural requirements for modularity,

grid that is diﬀerent from the structural mesh. By this extensibility, and robustness. Bordas et al. [90] described

method a very simple and eﬃcient ﬁnite diﬀerence scheme how X-FEM coupled with level set methods could be used

can be directly used for level set propagation simulation. to solve complex three-dimensional industrial fracture

mechanics problems through combination of an object-ori-

4.4. Intrinsic X-FEM ented (C++) research code and a commercial solid model-

ing/ﬁnite element package (EDS-PLM/I-DEAS).

Fries and Belytschko [80] proposed an intrinsic extended Although the literature widely reports the ease of

ﬁnite element method for treating arbitrary discontinuities. implantation of such enrichment schemes, practice shows

Unlike the standard extended FE method, no additional that they are not easily incorporated into existing ﬁnite ele-

unknowns are introduced at the nodes whose supports ment codes. Noteworthy advances in this direction are pre-

are crossed by discontinuities. The method constructs an sented in [91]. It is worthwhile to note that X-FEM was

approximation space consisting of mesh based, enriched ﬁrst applied successfully to damage tolerance assessment

moving least squares (MLS) functions near discontinuities of complex industrial structures in [92]. This work was sub-

and standard FE shape functions elsewhere. There is only sequently followed by investigations along similar lines by

Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151 1147

Wyrat et al. [93–96]. Today, the X-FEM is being used in 6.3. Thin ﬁlm and shell

industry, and suitable very eﬀective a posteriori error indi-

cation were recently devised by Bordas et al. [97,98]. Liang et al. [108] utilized the extended ﬁnite element

method to evolve complex crack patterns in a brittle thin

6. X-FEM: divers applications ﬁlm susceptible to subcritical cracking. Huang et al. [109]

applied this technique to compute the steady-state energy

The X-FEM method has obtained so promising results release rate of channeling cracks in thin ﬁlms. Pedro

that some authors have immediately foreseen the opportuni- et al. [110] exposed a methodology for non-linear analysis

ties of applying X-FEM to many kinds of problems in which of shells with arbitrary evolving cracks.

discontinuities and moving boundaries have to be modeled.

6.4. Cohesive cracks

6.1. Holes and material interfaces

Various crack tip enrichment functions have been sug-

Sukumar et al. [99] proposed a methodology to modeled gested; a simple linear ‘‘ramp” function was proposed in

arbitrary holes and material interfaces without meshing the [111] and modiﬁed in [112] for triangular elements. Recently,

internal boundaries. The numerical method couples the the representation of discontinuities using X-FEM-kinemat-

level set method [33] to the extended ﬁnite element method ics has been re-formulated within the concept of material

[27]; the level set method was used for representing the loca- forces [46].

tion of holes and inclusions, and in addition, the level set Wells and Sluys [63] used the jump function as an

was used to develop the local enrichments for material inter- enrichment function for the whole cohesive crack; hence

faces to model inclusions. Sukumar et al. [100] proposed a the cohesive crack tip touches the element boundary. Moes

partition of unity enrichment technique for bi-material and Belytschko [113] used the jump function for the part of

interface cracks. This work has extended the capabilities the cohesive crack not adjacent to its tip, and a branch

of the extended ﬁnite element method to the analysis of function adjacent to the tip. Zi and Belytschko [111]

cracks that lie at the interface of two elastically homoge- enriched all cracked linear 3-node or quadratic 6-node tri-

neous isotropic materials. Hettich and Ramm [101] studied angular elements including the elements containing the

the interface material failure modeled by the X-FEM and crack tip by the sign function. Alfaiate et al. [114] embed-

LSM. They presented a detailed geometric modeling of ded displacement jumps that do not need to be homoge-

multi-phase materials, as well as at a local mechanical mod- neous within each ﬁnite element. Mariani and Perego [40]

eling of material interfaces and interfacial failure. introduced in a standard ﬁnite element model a cubic dis-

placement discontinuity, to reproduce the typical cusp-like

6.2. Contact and friction shape of the process zone at the tip of a cohesive crack.

Remmers et al. [115] studied the possibility of deﬁning

Dolbow et al. [102] demonstrated how to enforce non-lin- cohesive segments that can arise at arbitrary locations

ear constitutive laws on arbitrary interfaces. They studied and in arbitrary directions and thus allow for the resolution

fracture in 2D crack growth under three diﬀerent interfacial of complex crack patterns including crack nucleation at

constitutive laws on the crack faces: perfect contact and uni- multiple locations, followed by growth and coalescence.

lateral contact with or without friction. The iterative scheme Xiao et al. [116] exposed an incremental-secant modulus

implemented in the LATIN method (nonlinear-computa- iteration scheme for the simulation of cracking process in

tional-structural-mechanics) [103] was applied to resolve quasi-brittle materials described by cohesive crack models

the non-linear boundary value problem. Khoei and Nik- whose softening law is composed of linear segments. Mes-

bakht [104,105] presented an enriched ﬁnite element algo- chke and Dusmstor [66] proposed a variational format of

rithm for numerical computation of contact friction the X-FEM for propagation of cohesionless and cohesive

problems. The aim of the study is to present a model for sim- cracks in brittle and quasi-brittle solids was proposed.

ulation of frictional contact problem using the extended Comi et al. [117] proposed an integrated strategy for the

ﬁnite element method based on the penalty approach. Vitali simulation of damage development and crack propagation

and Benson [106] exposed an extended ﬁnite element in concrete structures. The strategy combines a non-local

method for contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrang- continuum damage approach to an extended ﬁnite element

ian–Eulerian (MMALE) formulations. They demonstrated cohesive crack methodology.

that the results of this technique are better than those

obtained with the mixture theories and agree well with the 6.5. Strong and weak discontinuities

Lagrangian solution. Ribeaucourt et al. [107] proposed a

new fatigue frictional contact crack propagation model with Hansbo and Hansbo [118] presented an interesting

the coupled X-FEM/LATIN method. The aim is to model method for modeling arbitrary strong and weak disconti-

2D fatigue cracks submitted to cyclic multi-axial non-pro- nuities, including an a-priori error analysis. The method

portional loadings inducing complex contact sequences oﬀers many interesting possibilities. In [119], a comment

along the crack faces (opening, contact, sliding and ticking). about this work was presented. It showed that the

1148 Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151

kinematic decomposition in their method is equivalent to tational fracture tool to study complex failure mechanisms

the one in the extended ﬁnite element method (X-FEM) in materials. The X-FEM is a numerical method to model

by Moes et al. [27] and Belytschko and Black [17]. internal (or external) boundaries such as holes, inclusions,

Legay et al. [120] described a method for constructing or cracks, without requiring the mesh to conform to these

strong and weak arbitrary discontinuities within spectral boundaries. It is based on a standard Galerkin procedure,

ﬁnite elements. A key aspect of the implementation of this and uses the concept of partition of unity to accommodate

method is the treatment of the blending elements adjacent the internal boundaries in the discrete model.

to the local partition of unity. He found that a partition The advantage of the method is that the element topol-

constructed from spectral functions one order lower than ogy need not conform to the surfaces of the cracks. With

the continuous approximation is optimal and no special this methodology, diﬀerent to the conventional ﬁnite ele-

treatment is needed for higher order elements. Oliver et al. ment method, discretization of the domain with a mesh

[121] presented a comparative study on ﬁnite elements for adapted to the geometry of the discontinuity is not required.

capturing strong discontinuities by means of elemental (E- The standard ﬁnite element method is used as the building

FEM) or nodal enrichments (X-FEM). Based on the same block in the X-FEM; hence much of the theoretical and

constitutive model (continuum damage) and linear elements numerical developments in FEM can be readily extended

(triangles and tetrahedra), both enrichments have been and applied. Moreover, X-FEM coupled with LSM makes

implemented in the same ﬁnite element non-linear code. possible the accurate solution of engineering problems in

complex domains, which may be practically impossible to

6.6. Orthotropic media solve using the standard ﬁnite element method.

ﬁeld around a crack tip in orthotropic media to extract

near-tip enrichment functions. Near-tip asymptotic dis- [1] Tong P, Pian TH. On the convergence of the ﬁnite element method

placement ﬁeld was based on the work in [123]. Stress–inten- for problems with singularity. Int J Solids Struct 1973;9:313–21.

[2] Henshell R, Shaw K. Crack tip ﬁnite elements are unnecessary. Int J

sity factors were evaluated via a form domain of interaction Numer Meth Eng 1975;9:495–507.

integral proposed by Kim and Paulino [124] for homoge- [3] Benzley SE. Representation of singularities with isoparametric ﬁnite

neous orthotropic materials. Asadpoure et al. [125] they elements. Int J Numer Meth Eng 1974;8:537–45.

developed a new method for a branch of 2D orthotropic [4] Giﬀord J, Hilton P. Stress intensity factors by enriched ﬁnite

elements. Eng Fract Mech 1978;10:485–96.

materials. In [126], they a new set of enrichment functions

[5] Newman J. An improved method of collocation for the stress

to simulate orthotropic cracked media. analysis of cracked plates with various shaped boundaries. Technical

Report TN D-6376 1971, NASA.

6.7. Microstructure [6] Sneddon I. Integral transform methods. In: Methods of analysis and

solutions of crack problems. Nordho_International: Leyden; 1973.

Sukumar et al. [127] presented a two-dimensional numer- [7] Nisitani H. Body force method for determination of the stress

intensity factors. J Aeronaut Soc Ind 1985;37:21–41 [Special Issue

ical model of microstructural eﬀects in brittle fracture, with on Fracture Mechanics].

an aim towards the understanding of toughening mecha- [8] Cruse T. Boundary element analysis in computational fracture

nisms in polycrystalline materials such as ceramics. Patzák mechanics. Kluwer: Dordrecht; 1988.

and Jirásek [128] introduced macrocracks in the zones of [9] Vitek V. Plane strain stress intensity factors for branched cracks. Int

J Fract 1977;13:481–501.

highly localized damage developing in the simulation with

[10] Obata M, Nemat-Nasser S, Goto Y. Branched cracks in anisotropic

smeared damage and plasticity models. Mariano and Stazi elastic solids. J Appl Mech Trans ASME 1989;56(4):858–64.

[129] analyzed the interaction between a macrocrack and a [11] Chen Y, Hasebe N. New integration scheme for the branch crack

population of microcracks by adapting the extended ﬁnite problem. Eng Fract Mech 1995;52(5):791–801.

element method to a multiﬁeld model of microcracked [12] Belytschko T, Lu Y, Gu L. Element-free Galerkin methods. Int J

bodies. Numer Meth Eng 1994;37:229–56.

[13] Belytschko T, Krongauz Y, Organ D, Fleming M, Krysl P. Mesh

The X-FEM has been utilized to model computational less methods: an overview and recent developments. Comput Meth

phenomena in areas such as ﬂuid mechanics, phase trans- Appl Mech Eng 1996;139:3–47.

formations, and materials science: Solidiﬁcation problems [14] Fleming M, Chu YA, Moran B, Belytschko T. Enriched element-

[130–132], multi-phase ﬂow [133], functionally graded free Galerkin methods for crack tip ﬁelds. Int J Numer Meth Eng

materials FGMs [134,135], powder forming problems 1997;40(8):1483–504.

[15] Oliver J. Continuum modeling of strong discontinuities in solid

[136,137], and bio-ﬁlm growth [138]. mechanics using damage models. Comput Mech 1995;17:49–61.

[16] Rashid M. The arbitrary local mesh reﬁnement method: an

7. Conclusion alternative to remeshing for crack propagation analysis. Comput

Meth Appl Mech Eng 1998;154:133–50.

[17] Belytschko T, Black T. Elastic crack growth in ﬁnite elements with

This paper presented a state-of-the-art survey of the

minimal remeshing. Int J Numer Meth Eng 1999;45:601–20.

recent advance in extended ﬁnite method for modeling [18] Strouboulis T, Babuska I, Copps K. The design and analysis of the

crack growth without re-meshing. This study has demon- generalized ﬁnite element method. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng

strated the utility and potential of the X-FEM as a compu- 2000;181:43–69.

Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151 1149

[19] Strouboulis T, Copps K, Babuska I. The generalised ﬁnite element [44] Dolbow J, Devan A. Enrichment of enhanced assumed strain

method: an example of its implementation and illustration of its approximations for representing strong discontinuities: addressing

performance. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2000;47:1401–17. volumetric incompressibility and the discontinuous patch test. Int J

[20] Strouboulis T, Copps K, Babuska I. The generalized ﬁnite element Numer Meth Eng 2004;59:47–67.

method. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2001;190:4081–193. [45] Ventura G, Moran B, Belytschko T. Dislocations by partition of

[21] Duarte C, Babuska I, Oden J. Generalized ﬁnite element methods unity. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2005;62:1463–87.

for three dimensional structural mechanics problems. Comput [46] Larsson R, Fagerstrom M. A framework for fracture modeling

Struct 2000;77:215–32. based on the material forces concept with XFEM kinematics. Int J

[22] Duarte C, Oden J. Hp clouds – a mesh less method to solve Numer Meth Eng 2005;62:1763–88.

boundary-value problems. Technical Report, TICAM; 1995. [47] Moes N, Béchet E, Tourbier M. Imposing Dirichlet boundary

[23] Melenk JM, Babuska I. The partition of unity ﬁnite element conditions in the extended ﬁnite element method. Int J Numer Meth

method: basic theory and applications. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2006;67:1641–69.

Eng 1996;139:289–314. [48] Ventura G. On elimination of quadrature subcells for discontinuous

[24] Karihaloo BL, Xiao QZ. Modelling of stationary and growing functions in the extended ﬁnite element method. Int J Numer Meth

cracks in FE framework without remeshing: a state-of-the-art Eng 2006;66:761–95.

review. Comput Struct 2003;81:119–29. [49] Stazi FL, Budyn E, Chessa J, Belytschko T. An extended ﬁnite

[25] Dolbow J. An extended ﬁnite element method with discontinuous element method with higher-order elements for curved cracks.

enrichment for applied mechanics. PhD thesis, Northwestern Comput Mech 2003;31:38–48.

University; 1999. [50] Laborde P, Pommier J, Renard Y, Salaun M. High order extended

[26] Dolbow J, Moes N, Belytschko T. Discontinuous enrichment ﬁnite element method for cracked domains. Int J Numer Meth Eng

inﬁnite elements with a partition of unity method. Finite Elem 2005;64:354–81.

Anal Des 2000;36(3–4):235–60. [51] Chahine E, Laborde P, Renard Y. A quasi-optimal convergence

[27] Moes N, Dolbow J, Belytschko T. A ﬁnite element method for crack result for fracture mechanics with XFEM. C R Acad Sci Paris, Ser I

growth without remeshing. Int J Numer Meth Eng 1999;46:131–50. 2006;342:527–32.

[28] Daux C, Moes N, Dolbow J, Sukumar N, Belytschko T. Arbitrary [52] Yau J, Wang S, Corten H. A mixed-mode crack analysis of isotropic

branched and intersecting cracks with the extended ﬁnite element solids using conservation laws of elasticity. J Appl Mech 1980;47:

method. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2000;48:1741–60. 335–41.

[29] Dolbow J, Moes N, Belytschko N. Modeling fracture in Mind- [53] Moran B, Shih C. Crack tip and associated domain integrals from

lin–Reissner plates with the extended ﬁnite element method. Int J momentum and energy balance. Eng Fract Mech 1987;27:615–41.

Solids Struct 2000;37:7161–83. [54] Duarte C, Hamzeh O, Liszka T, Tworzyd W. A generalized ﬁnite

[30] Sukumar N, Moes N, Moran B, Belytschko T. Extended ﬁnite element method for the simulation of three-dimensional dynamic

element method for three-dimensional crack modelling. Int J Numer crack propagation. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2001;190:227–62.

Meth Eng 2000;48:1549–70. [55] Nagashima T, Omoto T, Tani S. Stress intensity factor analysis of

[31] Belytschko T, Moes N, Usui S, Parimi C. Arbitrary discontinuities interface cracks using X-FEM. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2003;56:

in ﬁnite elements. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2001;50:993–1013. 1151–73.

[32] Stolarska M, Chopp DL, Moes N, Belyschko T. Modelling crack [56] Xiao QZ, Karihaloo BL. Direct evaluation of accurate coeﬃcients

growth by level sets in the extended ﬁnite element method. Int J of the linear elastic crack tip asymptotic ﬁeld. Fatigue Fract Eng

Numer Meth Eng 2001;51:943–60. Mater Struct 2003;25:719–29.

[33] Osher S, Sethian J. Fronts propagating with curvature dependent [57] Liu XY, Xiao QZ, Karihaloo BL. XFEM for direct evaluation of

speed: algorithms based on Hamilton–Jacobi formulations. J mixed mode SIFs in homogeneous and bi-materials. Int J Numer

Comput Phys 1988;79(1):12–49. Meth Eng 2004;59:1103–18.

[34] Moes N, Gravouil A, Belytschko T. Non-planar 3D crack growth [58] Menouillard T, Elguedj T, Combescure A. Mixed-mode stress

by the extended ﬁnite element and level sets part I: mechanical intensity factors for graded materials. Int J Solids Struct 2006;43:

model. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2002;53:2549–68. 1946–59.

[35] Gravouil A, Moes N, Belytschko T. Non-planar 3D crack growth [59] Legrain G, Moës N, Verron E. Stress analysis around crack tips in

by the extended ﬁnite element and level sets part II: level set update. ﬁnite strain problems using the extended ﬁnite element method. Int J

Int J Numer Meth Eng 2002;53:2569–86. Numer Meth Eng 2005;63:290–314.

[36] Sethian J. Fast marching methods. SIAM Rev 1999;41(2):199–235. [60] Béchet E, Minnebo H, Moës N, Burgardt B. Improved implemen-

[37] Sukumar N, Chopp DL, Moran B. Extended ﬁnite element method tation and robustness study of the X-FEM for stress analysis around

and fast marching method for three-dimensional fatigue crack cracks. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2005;64:1033–56.

propagation. Eng Fract Mech 2003;70:29–48. [61] Xiao QZ, Karihaloo BL. Improving the accuracy of XFEM crack

[38] Chopp DL, Sukumar N. Fatigue crack propagation of multiple tip ﬁelds using higher order quadrature and statically admissible

coplanar cracks with the coupled extended ﬁnite element/fast stress recovery. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2006;66:1378–410.

marching method. Int J Eng Sci 2003;41:845–69. [62] Dumstorﬀ P, Meschke G. Crack propagation criteria in the

[39] Belytschko T, Parimi C, Moes N, Sukumar N, Usui S. Structured framework of X-FEM-based structural analyses. Int J Numer Anal

extended ﬁnite element methods for solids deﬁned by implicit Meth Geomech 2007;31:239–59.

surfaces. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2003;56:609–35. [63] Wells GN, Sluys LJ. A new method for modeling cohesive cracks

[40] Mariani S, Perego U. Extended ﬁnite element method for quasi- using ﬁnite elements. Int J Num Meth Eng 2001;50:2667–82.

brittle fracture Int. J Numer Meth Eng 2003;58:103–26. [64] Cendon DA, Galvez JC, Elices M, Planas J. Modeling the fracture

[41] Bellec J, Dolbow J. A note on enrichment functions for modeling of concrete under mixed loading. Int J Fract 2000;103:293–310.

crack nucleation. Commun Numer Meth Eng 2003;19:921–32. [65] Oliver J, Huespe AE. On strategies for tracking strong discontinu-

[42] Ventura G, Budyn E, Belytschk T. Vector level sets for description ities in computational failure mechanics. In: Online proceedings of

of propagating cracks in ﬁnite elements. Int J Numer Meth Eng the ﬁfth world congress on computational mechanics (WCCM V).

2003;58:1571–92. wccm.tuwien.ac.at; 2000.

[43] Budyn E, Zi G, Moës N, Belytschko T. A method for multiple crack [66] Meschke G, Dumstor P. Energy-based modeling of cohesive and

growth in brittle materials without remeshing. Int J Numer Meth cohesionless cracks via X-FEM. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng

Eng 2004;61:1741–70. 2007;196:2338–57.

1150 Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151

[67] Chessa J, Belytschko T. Arbitrary discontinuities in space–time [91] Dunant C, Nguyen P, Belgasmia M, Bordas S, Guidoum A,

ﬁnite elements by level sets and X-FEM. Int J Numer Meth Eng Nguyen-Dang H. Architecture trade-oﬀs of including a mesher in an

2004;61:2595–614. object-oriented extended ﬁnite element code. Eur J Mech

[68] Réthoré J, Gravouil A, Combescure A. A combined space–time 2007:237–58.

extended ﬁnite element method. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2005;64: [92] Bordas S, Conley JG, Moran B, Gray J, Nichols E. A simulation-

260–84. based design paradigm for complex cast components. Eng Comput

[69] Chessa J, Belytschko T. A local space–time discontinuous ﬁnite 2007;23(1):25–37.

element method. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2006;195: [93] Wyrat E. Tree dimensional crack analysis in aeronautical structures

1325–43. using the sub structured ﬁnite element/extended ﬁnite element. PhD

[70] Chen H, Gerlach C, Belytschko T. Dynamic crack growth with X- thesis, University catholique de Louvain; 2007.

FEM. In: 6th USACM, Dearborn; 2001. [94] Wyrat S, Coulon D, Dufolt M, Pardoen J, Remande F, Lani F. A

[71] Belytschko T, Hao Chen H, Xu J, Zi G. Dynamic crack propagation sub structured Finite FE shell/XFE 3D method for crack analyisis.

based on loss of hyperbolicity and a new discontinuous enrichment. Int J Numer Meth Eng, in press.

Int J Numer Meth Eng 2003;58:1873–905. [95] Wyrat S, Coulon D., Martiny P, Pardoen J, Remande F, Lani F. A

[72] Réthoré J, Gravouil A, Combescure A. An energy-conserving sub structured ﬁnite FE shell/XFE 3D method for stress intensity

scheme for dynamic crack growth using the extended ﬁnite element factors computation in an industrial structure. Revue Européenne

method. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2005;63:631–59. de Mécanique Numérique, in press.

[73] Zi G, Chen H, Xu J, Belytschko T. The extended ﬁnite element [96] Wyrat S, Dufolt M, Coulon D, Pardoen J, Martiny P, Remande F,

method for dynamic fractures. Shock Vib 2005;12:9–23. Lani F. A substructured FE–XFE approaches applied to tree

[74] Svahn PO, Torbjon E, Runesson K. Discrete crack modeling in a dimensional crcak propagation. J Comput Appl Math, in press.

new X-FEM format with emphasis on dynamic response. Int J [97] Bordas S, Duﬂot M. Derivative recovery and a posteriori error

Numer Anal Meth Geomech 2007;31:261–83. estimation in extended ﬁnite element methods. Comput Meth Appl

[75] Shamloo A, Azami AR, Khoei AR. Modeling of pressure-sensitive Mech Eng 2007;196:3381–99.

materials using a cap plasticity theory in extended ﬁnite element [98] Bordas S, Duﬂot M, Le P. A simple a posteriori error estimator for

method. J Mater Process Technol 2005;164–165:1248–57. the extended ﬁnite element method. Commun Numer Meth Eng

[76] Elguedj T, Gravouil A, Combescure A. Appropriate extended 2007, doi:10.1002/cnm.1001.

functions for X-FEM simulation of plastic fracture mechanics. [99] Sukumar N, Chopp DL, Moes N, Belyschko T. Modeling holes end

Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2006;195:501–15. inclusions by level sets in the extended ﬁnite-element method.

[77] Hutchinson J. Singular behavior at the end of a tensile crack in a Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2001;190:6183–200.

hardening material. J Mech Phys Solids 1968;16:13–31. [100] Sukumar N, Huang ZY, Prévost JH, Suo Z. Partition of unity

[78] Rice J, Rosengren G. Plane strain deformation near a crack tip enrichment for bimaterial interface cracks. Int J Numer Meth Eng

in a power-law hardening material. J Mech Phys Solids 1968;16: 2004;59:1075–102.

1–12. [101] Hettich T, Ramm E. Interface material failure modeled by the

[79] Prabel B, Combescure A, Gravouil A, Marie S. Level set X- extended ﬁnite-element method and level sets. Comput Meth Appl

FEM non-matching meshes: application to dynamic crack propa- Mech Eng 2006;195:4753–67.

gation in elastic–plastic media. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2007;69: [102] Dolbow J, Moes N, Belytschko T. An extended ﬁnite element

1553–69. method for modeling crack growth with frictional contact. Comput

[80] Fries T, Belytschko T. The intrinsic XFEM: a method for arbitrary Meth Appl Mech Eng 2001;190:6825–46.

discontinuities without additional unknowns. Int J Numer Meth [103] Ladevèze P. Non-linear computational structural mechanics. New

Eng 2006;68:1358–85. York: Springer; 1998.

[81] Fish J. The s-version of the ﬁnite element method. Comput Struct [104] Khoei AR, Nikbakht M. Contact friction modeling with the

1992;43:539–47. extended ﬁnite element method (X-FEM). J Mater Process Technol

[82] Sang-Ho L, Song J, Yoon Y, Zi G, Belytschko T. Combined 2006;177:58–62.

extended and superimposed ﬁnite element method for cracks. Int J [105] Khoei AR, Nikbakht M. An enriched ﬁnite element algorithm for

Numer Meth Eng 2004;59:1119–36. numerical computation of contact friction problems. Int J Mech Sci

[83] Xiao QZ, Karihaloo BL. Implementation of hybrid crack element 2007;49:183–99.

on a general ﬁnite element mesh and in combination with XFEM. [106] Vitali E, Benson D. An extended ﬁnite element formulation for

Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2007;196:1864–73. contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian calcula-

[84] Sukumar N, Prévost JH. Modeling quasi-static crack growth with tions. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2006;67:1420–44.

the extended ﬁnite element method part I: computer implementa- [107] Ribeaucourt R, Baietto-Dubourg M, Gravouil A. A new fatigue

tion. Int J Solids Struct 2003;40:7513–37. frictional contact crack propagation model with the coupled X-

[85] Prévost J. Dynaﬂow. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University; 1983. p. FEM/LATIN method. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2007;196:

08544. 3230–47.

[86] Huang R, Sukumar N, Prévost J. Modeling quasi-static crack [108] Liang J, Huang R, Prévost JH, Suo Z. Evolving crack patterns in

growth with the extended ﬁnite element method part II: numerical thin ﬁlms with the extended ﬁnite element method. Int J Solids

applications. Int J Solids Struct 2003;40:7539–52. Struct 2003;40:2343–54.

[87] Nistro I, Pantalé O, Caperaa S. On the modeling of the dynamic [109] Huang R, Prévost JH, Huang ZY, Suo Z. Channel-cracking of thin

crack propagation by extended ﬁnite element method: numerical ﬁlms with the extended ﬁnite element method. Eng Fract Mech

implantation in DYNELA code. In: VIII international conference 2003;70:2513–26.

on computational plasticity, COMPLAS VIII, Barcelona; 2005. [110] Pedro M, Aries A, Belyschoko T. Non-linear analysis of shells with

[88] Pantalé O, Caperaa S, Rakotomalala R. Development of an object arbitrary evolving cracks using XFEM. Int J Numer Meth Eng

oriented ﬁnite element program: application to metal forming and 2005;62:384–415.

impact simulation. J-CAM 2004;186(1–2):341–51. [111] Zi G, Belytschko T. New crack-tip elements for XFEM and

[89] Bordas S, Nguyen P, Dunant C, Dang H, Guidoum A. An extended applications to cohesive cracks. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2003;57:

ﬁnite element library. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2006;2:1–33. 2221–40.

[90] Bordas S, Moran B. Enriched ﬁnite elements and level sets for [112] Asferg J, Poulsen, P, Nielsen L. Cohesive crack tip element for X-

damage tolerance assessment of complex structures. Eng Fract FEM, In: Carpinteri A, editor. International conference on fracture

Mech 2006;73:1176–201. (ICF 11), CD-ROM. 564; 2005.

Y. Abdelaziz, A. Hamouine / Computers and Structures 86 (2008) 1141–1151 1151

[113] Moes N, Belytschko T. Extended ﬁnite element method for cohesive [126] Asadpoure A, Mohammadi S. Developing new enrichment func-

crack growth. Eng Fract Mech 2002;69:813–33. tions for crack simulation in orthotropic media by the extended

[114] Alfaiate J, Simone A, Sluys LJ. Non-homogeneous displacement ﬁnite element method. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2007;69:2150–72.

jumps in strong embedded discontinuities. Int J Solids Struct [127] Sukumar N, Srolovitz J, Baker T, Prévost J. Brittle fracture in

2003;40:5799–817. polycrystalline microstructures with the extended ﬁnite element

[115] Remmers J, de Borst R, Needleman A. A cohesive segments method method. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2003;56:2015–37.

for the simulation of crack growth. Comput Mech 2003;31:69–77. [128] Patzák P, Jirásek M. Process zone resolution by extended ﬁnite

[116] Xiao QZ, Karihaloo BL, Liu XY. Incremental-secant modulus elements. Eng Fract Mech 2003;70:957–77.

iteration scheme and stress recovery for simulating cracking process [129] Mariano P, Stazi F. Strain localization due to crack–microcrack

in quasi-brittle materials using XFEM. Int J Numer Meth Eng interactions: X-FEM for a multiﬁeld approach. Comput Meth Appl

2007;69:2606–35. Mech Eng 2004;193:5035–62.

[117] Comi C, Mariani S, Perego U. An extended FE strategy for [130] Chessa J, Smolinski P, Belytschko T. The extended ﬁnite element

transition from continuum damage to mode I cohesive crack method (XFEM) for solidiﬁcation problems. Int J Numer Meth Eng

propagation. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 2007;31:213–38. 2002;53:1959–77.

[118] Hansbo A, Hansbo P. A ﬁnite element method for the simulation of [131] Merle R, Dolbow J. Solving thermal and phase change problems

strong and weak discontinuities in solid mechanics. Comput Meth with the extended ﬁnite element method. Comput Mech 2002;28(5):

Appl Mech Eng 2004;193:3523–40. 339–50.

[119] Areias P, Belytschko T. A comment on the article ‘A ﬁnite element [132] Ji H, Chopp D, Dolbow J. A hybrid extended ﬁnite element/level set

method for simulation of strong and weak discontinuities in solid method for modeling phase transformations. Int J Num Meth Eng

mechanics’. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2006;195:1275–6. 2002;54:1209–33.

[120] Legay A, Wang HW, Belytschko T. Strong and weak arbitrary [133] Chessa J, Belytschko T. An extended ﬁnite element method for two-

discontinuities in spectral ﬁnite elements. Int J Numer Meth Eng phase ﬂuids. J Appl Mech 2003;70(1):10–7.

2005;64:991–1008. [134] Dolbow J, Gosz M. On the computation of mixed-mode stress

[121] Oliver J, Huespe AE, Sanchez PJ. A comparative study on ﬁnite intensity factors in functionally graded materials. Int J Solids Struct

elements for capturing strong discontinuities: E-FEM vs X-FEM. 2002;39:2557–74.

Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2006;195:4732–52. [135] Dolbow J, Nadeau JC. On the use of eﬀective properties for the

[122] Asadpoure A, Mohammadi S, Vafai A. Crack analysis in orthotro- fracture analysis of microstructured materials. Eng Fract Mech

pic media using the extended ﬁnite element method. Thin-Wall 2002;69:1607–34.

Struct 2006;44:1031–8. [136] Khoei A, Shamloo A, Anahid M, Shahim K. The extended ﬁnite

[123] Nobile L, Carloni C. Fracture analysis for orthotropic cracked element method (X-FEM) for powder forming problems. J Mater

plates. Comp Struct 2005;68(3):285–93. Process Technol 2006;177:53–7.

[124] Kim JH, Paulino GH. The interaction integral for fracture of [137] Khoei A, Shamloo A, Azami A. Extended ﬁnite element method in

orthotropic functionally graded materials: evaluation of stress plasticity forming of powder compaction with contact friction. Int J

intensity factors. Int J Solids Struct 2003;40:3967–4001. Solids Struct 2006;43:5421–48.

[125] Asadpoure A, Mohammadi S, Vafai A. Modeling crack in ortho- [138] Bordas S. Extended ﬁnite element method and level set methods

tropic media using a coupled ﬁnite element and partition of unity with applications to the growth of cracks and bioﬁlms. PhD thesis,

methods. Finite Elem Anal Des 2006;42:1165–75. Northwestern University. Eng Fract Mech 2003; 69:1607–34.

- GEF_LARROSA_2011Uploaded bySurfPod WaterProof Musik
- Me671 Simulation and Analysis Laboratory1Uploaded byPavan Kallempudi
- Jacket ExamplesUploaded byDonald.K
- SMO 13 TrussLayoutOptimizationUploaded byDesalegn Melknew
- XFEMUploaded byQiang Fang
- 2007_Arias Et Al_numerical Modelling and Experimental Validation of Dynamic Facture Events Along Weak PlanesUploaded byHarley Greaves
- Fracture Mechanics Midterm TestUploaded byBagus S Setiawan
- Load Paths Visualization in Plane Elasticity Using Load Path Function MethodUploaded byAnonymous 7MdZQn1
- 2010 Evaluation of the Impact of Residual Stresses in Crack InitiationUploaded byGabriel Mak
- TttUploaded byAkash Aku
- 768Uploaded bySudip
- Case Studies in the Application of Advanced Technology to Pipeline Flaw AssessmentUploaded byNavjotSingh
- Design of Machine Elements Two MarksUploaded bymeindya
- THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER IN THE LAYERS OF ROAD PAVEMENTUploaded byThomas Lakas
- Concrete Fracture Model1Uploaded byanon_373193406
- Ixcube Brief IntroductionUploaded byHousam Shawi
- syallbusUploaded byM.Saravana Kumar..M.E
- notes on the site that takes calculations.docxUploaded byNurdin Šabić
- Full Text 01Uploaded byCasey Jackson
- Basic Applied Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byvp989
- 2 MechanismsUploaded byRizqi Cakti Bramantyo
- Effect of Skew Angle on Static Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete Slab Bridge Decks: A ReviewUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Staad Foundation Data SheetUploaded bybigdiamond
- Full TextUploaded byKiran Phonde
- DKT DynamicUploaded byonuralpay
- Research Proposal 1Uploaded bysplatkid001
- Lecture 1Uploaded bylitrakhan
- the Stress Concentration Factor and Stress Intensity FactorcUploaded byKing1971
- Final ReportUploaded byaljr_2801
- Finite Element Methods_CEUploaded byindusekhar

- 170313 Hicks DeterringIran Web CopyUploaded byخود پەنا
- Electrical EngineeringUploaded byArushi Mohapatra
- Desktop & Technical Support Interview Questions and AnswersUploaded byvinaaypalkar
- Labor CasesUploaded byRobert Paul A Moreno
- 0500_s12_qp_11Uploaded byBogdan Butariu
- Practical Translation IssuesUploaded byMohammed Abueissa
- Calculating Resistance to Flow in Open Channels 1. IntroductionUploaded byrjpetrov9266
- 39.pdfUploaded byAnonymous ypKkMdvUv4
- The influence of William Shakespeare in the culture of our societyUploaded byma6ai89
- 202-St. Joseph Academy of Valenzuela Faculty Association v. St. Joseph Academy of Valenzuela G.R. No. 182957 June 13, 2013Uploaded byJopan SJ
- Psycho Pharmacology and Anti Anxiety DrugsUploaded bymanu sethi
- Reading Elpt PreUploaded bynonieknew
- 053&097-Western Institute of Technology, Inc. vs. Salas 278 Scra 216, 223Uploaded bywew
- Class 3 IMO 4 YearsUploaded bysarat
- Developing a Framework for a Seamless K-12Uploaded byRyan Leocario
- Machine Learning Finance - ThesisUploaded bydaselknam
- Theories on Reading AcquisitionUploaded byRonnel Manilag Atienza
- The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior_ChenUploaded byystoyanov
- 200 OperasUploaded byHanuman Sharma
- Pharmacy Competency StandardsUploaded byhappyscottlee3438
- DUDAYUploaded byRUTH DALEON NADRES
- cv-negin zaraee dec 2015Uploaded byapi-276998159
- Aquinas Treatise on LawUploaded byEmerson Cajayon Maala
- steenblik html sampleUploaded byapi-283968879
- 08-1889Uploaded byKranthi Kumar Kuna
- REEC7295 09 TB Chapter42Uploaded byNaemanGötz
- BRM Que & AnswerUploaded bySunnyPawarȜȝ
- Paper_186 - IED ManagementUploaded bysusantoj
- SS Essay PhrasesUploaded bykhaled g
- Eucalyptus Essential OilUploaded byIreneRains