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‫اﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﷲ رب اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﻦ واﻟﺼﻠﻮة واﻟﺴﻼم‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺪاﻻوﻟﻴﻦ واﻻﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬


Dua
• Allah, help us to study Your Book (the Quran)
and understand it, the way it deserves to be
studied and understood.
• Allah make it easy to understand and follow.
• Allah increase the love for Your Book in our
hearts so we read and understand it with love
and devotion.
• Allah be Happy with each of us and give us all,
our parents, family members, friends and all
Muslims a high place in Jannah. Amin.
Juz 30: Juz Al Amm
78 Surah An-Nabaa 96 Surah Al-Alaq
79 Surah An-Nazi'at 97 Surah Al-Qadr
80 Surah Abasa 98 Surah Al-Baiyina
81 Surah At-Takwir 99 Surah Al-Zalzalah
82 Surah Al-Infitar 100 Surah Al-Adiyat
83 Surah Al-Mutaffifin 101 Surah Al-Qari'a
84 Surah Al-Inshiqaq 102 Surah At-Takathur
85 Surah Al-Buruj 103 Surah Al-Asr
86 Surah At-Tariq 104 Surah Al-Humaza
87 Surah Al-A'la *105 Surah Al-Fil
88 Surah Al-Gashiya *106 Surah Quraish
89 Surah Al-Fajr *107 Surah Al-Ma'un
90 Surah Al-Balad *108 Surah Al-Kauthar
91 Surah Ash-Shams *109 Surah Al-Kafirun
92 Surah Al-Lail *110 Surah An-Nasr
93 Surah Adh-Dhuha *111 Surah Al-Lahab
94 Surah Al-Sharh *112 Surah Al-Ikhlaas
95 Surah At-Tin *113 Surah Al-Falaq
*114 Surah An-Nas
Makki
Order in the Quran: 105
Revelation Order: 19
No. of Ayats: 5
Historical
Najran
In Najran
Jewish ruler Dhu-Nuwas of
Yemen Persecuted the
followers of Prophet Jesus
Christ (PBOH)

In retaliation Christian Kingdom of Abyssinia, invaded Yemen


(in 525 AD). This happened through collaboration between
the Byzantine empire of Constantinople and the Abyssinian
kingdom. An the army had 70,000 troops

This put an end to Himyarite rule and


the land passed under Abyssian control
According to Arab historians
Abyssinian Army

2 Commanders

Aryat Abrahah

Killed in the encounter Took possession of the country

Persuaded the Abyssinian king to


appoint him his viceroy over
Yemen
According to Greek and Syrian historians
After conquest of Yemen

Abyssinians started to put the Yemenite chiefs to death.


One chief As-Sumayfi Ashwa (Greek historians call him
Esymphaeus) yield to Abyssinians, promising to pay
tribute obtained, and warranted to be Governor over
Yemen

Abyssinian army revolted against him and made


Abrahah Governor in his place (Abrahah was a slave of
a Greek merchant but by his clever diplomacy had a
great influence on the Abyssian army)

After the king’s death Abrahah became his Viceregent


of Yemen
Abrahah [Abrames (Greeks); Abrahim (Syrian)]

Became an independent ruler of Yemen

He then started to fulfill his objectives:


• Spread Christianity in Arabia.
• Capture the trade carried out through the Arabs
between eastern lands and Byzantine dominions

Built a magnificent cathedral (al-Qalis, al-Qullais, or al-Qulais) from


Ekklesia, meaning church). He wrote to the Negus (King):
• “I shall not rest until I have diverted the Arabs pilgrimage to it”
(Mahammen bin Ishaq)
• He openly declared his intention in Yemen and got it announced (Ibn
Kathir) to provoke Arabs into doing something which should provide
him with an excuse to attach Makkah and destroy Kabah.
• An Arab enraged with his declaration went into the Cathedral and
defiled it (a Quraishite – Ibn Kathir) or some men of Quraish set fire to
the cathedral (Maqatil bin Suleman).
A Cathedral
•When the report reached Abrahah that the
devotees of the Ka'bah had thus defiled his
cathedral, he swore that he would not rest until he
had destroyed the Ka'bah.

In 570 or 571 A.D., he took 60,000 troops and 13


elephants (according to another tradition, 9
elephants) and set off for Makkah

First a Yamanite chief, Dhu Nafr by name, mustering an


army of the Arabs, resisted him but was defeated and taken
prisoner.

In Khath'am he was opposed by Nufail bin Habib al-Khath'am,


with his tribe, but he too was defeated and taken prisoner, and
in order to save his life he accepted to serve him as guide in
the Arab country
al-Mughammas
•When he reached near Ta'if, Bani Thaqif felt that
they would not be able to resist such a big force
and feeling the danger that he may destroy the
temple of their deity Lat, too; their chief, Mas'ud
came out to Abrahah with his men, and he told
him that their temple was not the temple he had
come to destroy. The temple He sought was in
Makkah, and they would send with him a man to
guide him there. Abrahah accepted the offer, and
Bani Thaqif sent Abu Righal as guide with him.

When they reached al-Mughammas (or al-Mughammis), a place


about 3 miles from Makkah, Abu Righal died [The Arabs stoned
his grave and the practice survives to this day. They cursed the
Bani Thaqif too, for in order to save the temple of Lat they had
cooperated with the invaders of the House of Allah.]
•From al-Mughammas Abrahah sent
forward his vanguard and they brought
him the plunder of the people of Tihamah
and Quraish, which included two hundred
camels of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather
of the Holy Messenger of Allah (upon
whom be His peace).
Abrahah sent an envoy to Makkah with the message that he
had not come to fight the people of Makkah, but to destroy
the House (i.e. the Kabah). The message was sent to Abdul
Muttalib (the leading chief of Makkah)

Abdul Muttalib replied “We have no power to fight


Abrahah, this is Allah’s House. If He wills He will save
His House”. Abdul Muttalib was asked to accompany
the envoy to Abrahah and he did

Abdul Muttalib was a very handsome and dignified


man. Abrahah was impressed with him and got off his
throne and sat beside him on the carpet and asked
what he wanted.

Abdul Muttalib asked him to return his camels.


Abrahah said “you only demand your camels, but say
nothing of this House”.
Abdul Muttalib replied “I am owner of my camels and I
request you to return them. As for the House, it has its own
Owner. He will defend it”.

Abrahah returned his camels and said the Owner of the


House will not be able to defend it against him. Abdul
Muttalib said that that rested between “Him” and “him”, and
returned.

Abul Muttalib ordered the Quraish to withdraw from the city


and to go to the mountains. He went to Kabah and prayed to
Allah to protect His House and its keeper. There were about
360 idol in and around Kabah
Supplications of Abdul Muttalib:

Ibn Hisham in his Life of the Prophet (PBUH) has


cited some verses of ‘Abdul Muttalib, which are to
the following effect:

“O God, a man protects his house, so protect


Your House; Let not their cross and their craft
tomorrow overcome Your craft”. If you will to
leave them and our qiblah to themselves, You
may do as You please”

“Help today Your devotees against the devotees


of the cross and its worshippers”.
• Abrahah prepared to enter Makkh, but his special
elephant, Mahmud, which was in the forefront,
knelt down.

• It was beaten with iron bars, goaded, even


scarified, but it would not get up.

• When they made it face south, north, or east, it


would immediately start off, but as soon as they
directed it towards Makkah, it knelt down.

• In the meantime swarms of birds appeared


carrying stones in their beaks and claws and
showered these on the troops. Whoever was hit
would start disintegrating.
• Ibn ‘Abbas says that whoever was struck by a
pebble, would start scratching his body resulting
in breaking of the skin and falling off of the flesh.

• In another tradition Ibn ‘Abbas says that the


flesh and blood flowed like water and bones in
the body became visible.

• The same thing happened with Abrahah too.

• His flesh fell in pieces and there arose sores on


his body emitting pus and blood.

• In confusion they withdrew and fled towards


Yemen.
• Nufail bin Habib, whom they had brought as guide
asked to guide them back to Yemen, but he
refused and said: “Now where can one flee when
God pursues? The split-nose (Abrahah) is the
conquered, not the conqueror”.

• As they withdrew they were continually falling by


the way and dying. ‘Ata’ bin Yasar says that all
the troops did not perish at the spot; some
perished there and others perished by the
wayside as they withdrew.

• Abrahah died in the country of Khath’am.


• This event too place at Muhassir (Mashir) by the
Muhassab valley, between Muzdalifah and Mina.
• According to the Sahih of Muslim and Abu Daud,
in the description of the Holy Prophet’s farewell
pilgrimage that Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq has related
from his father, Imam Muhammad Baqir, and he
from Hadrat Jabir bin ‘Abdullah, he says that
when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) proceeded from
Muzdalifah to Mina, he increased his speed in
the valley of Muhassir (Vadi-i-Mashir).
• Imam Nawawi has explained it saying: that the
incident of the people of the elephant had
occurred there; therefore, the pilgrims have been
enjoined to pass by quickly, for Muhassir is a
tormented place.
• Imam Malik in Mu’atta has related that
the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that the
whole of Muzdalifah is a fit place for
staying but one should not stay in the
valley of Muhassir (Mashir).
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Have you not seen1 how your Lord dealt with the people of the
elephant?2. Did He not cause their plan3 to end in vain?4 and sent
down on them swarms of birds5, which pelted them with stones of
the baked clay6. Then He rendered them like straw eaten up by
cattle7.
Have you seen O Muhammed Seest thou not how thy Lord
dealt with the Owners of the Elephant?
1. Though the address apparently is directed to the Holy Prophet
(PBUH), its real addressees are not only the Quraish but all the
people of Arabia, who were well aware of the event. At many places
in the Qur’an the words alam tara (have you not seen?) have been
used, and they are meant not to address the Holy Prophet but the
people in general.
The word ‘seeing’ has been used here to signify that in and around
Makkah and in the vast country of Arabia, from Makkah to Yemen,
there were many such people still living, who had witnessed with
their own eyes the event of the destruction of the people of the
elephant, for it had occurred only about forty to forty-five years
earlier, and the people of Arabia has continually heard it described
by the eye witnesses themselves so that they had become so
certain of it as though they had seen it with their own eyes.
2. Here, Allah has not given any detail
as to who were the people of the
elephant, from where they had come
and what was the object of their
march, for all these things were well
known among the people.
Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray?

3. The word kayd is used for a secret plan meant to harm


somebody. The question is, what was secret in this case?
Sixty-thousand troops together with several elephants had
openly come from Yemen to Makkah, and they had kept no
secret that they had come to destroy the Ka’bah. Therefore,
there was nothing secret about this plan. However, what was
secret was the motive of the Abyssinians. They by destroying
the Ka’bah crushing down the Quraish and intimidating the
Arabians, wanted to take control of the trade route that led
from south Arabia to Syria and Egypt. This motive they kept
hidden, and instead proclaimed their intent that they wanted to
destroy the Ka’bah, the principal House of Arab worship, in
relation for the pollution of their cathedral by the Arabs.
4. Literally, fi tadlil means: “led their plan
astray”, bringing it to nothing successful
and rendering it fruitless.
And He sent against them birds, in flocks
5. Ababil means many separate and scattered groups whether of men or other
creatures, which come from different sides successively. ‘Ikrimah and
Qatadah say that these swarms of birds had come from the Red Sea side.
Sa’id bin Jubair and ‘Ikrimah say that such birds had neither been seen
before nor even after; these were neither birds of Najd, nor of Hijaz, nor of
tihamah (the land between Hijaz and the Red Sea). Ibn ‘Abbas says that
their beaks were like those of birds and claws like the god’s paw. ‘Ikrimah
has stated that their heads were like the heads of the birds of prey, and
almost all the reporters are agreed that each bird carried a stone in its beak
and two stones in its claws. Some people of Makkah had these stones
preserved with them for a long time. Thus, Abu Nu’aim has related a
statement of Naufal bin Abi Mu’awiyah, saything that he had seen the
stones which had been thrown on the people of the elephant; they equaled
a small pea seed in size and were dark red in colour. Obviously, all the
stones might not be equal but differing in size to some extent.
Striking them with stones of baked clay (baked clay).

6. Literally, bi hijarat-im-min sijjil means “stones of


sijjil type.” Ibn ‘Abbas says that sijjil is the Arabic
version of the Persian sand and gil, and it implies
the stones made from clay and become hard when
baked. The Qur’an also confirms the same. In Surah
Hud : 82 and Al-Hijr : 74, it has been said that stones
of baked clay (sijjil) were rained on the people of
Lot, and about the same stones in Adh-Dhariyat :
33, it has been said that they were the stones made
from clay (jijarat-im-min (in).
The Dead Sea
Then did He make them like an empty field of stalks and
straw (of which the corn) has been eaten up.

7. ‘asf means the outer covering of seeds,


which the farmer throws away after the grain
has been separated from it. Then the
animals eat it, and some of it falls down in
the chewing and some is tramped under the
hoofs.
Makki
Order in the Quran: 106
Revelation Order: 29
No. of Ayats: 4
Name

After the word Quraish in the very first verse.


Period of Revelation and
Subject Matter
•The subject matter of Surah Quraish closely
relates to that of Surah Al-Fil.
• Probably it was revealed immediately after Surah
Al-Fil, without any other Surah between them.
• Some of the earliest scholars regard the two
Surahs as one entity.
• However, they are two different Surahs, as in the
Quran copy which Hadrat Uthman (may Allah
bless him) got written down officially by the
cooperation of a large number of the Companions
and sent to the centres of Islamic lands, the
Bismillah was written between these two Surahs.
Historical Background
Before the time of Quraish tribe was
Qusayy bin Kilab scattered
(the ancesters of throughout Hijaz
Prophet (PBUH)
• Gathered his tribe in Makkah.
Qusayy bin Kilab • His tribe gained authority over
known as Ka’bah.
Mujammi (Uniter) • Founded a city state in Makkah
and made excellent
arrangement for the welfare of
the pilgrims coming from all
over Arabia.
• So Quraish gained greater
fame and influence on other
Arab tribes.
Byzantine Northern Lands, Syria,
Empire Sasanian
Kingdom of
Iran

Eastern Many
countries, Egypt Trade
Routes
Important trade routes between
Southern Arabia to Syria and Egypt
along the Red Sea Coast

Since Quraish were held in high


esteem on account of their being
keeper of the Ka’bah, their
caravans had no fear of being
robbed or harmed any where on
the way
• After Qusayy, the offices of the state
of Makkah were divided between his
sons, Abdi Manaf and Abd ad-Dar.
• Abdi Manaf gained great fame and
high position.
• He had 4 sons:
• Hashim – conceived the idea of
trade between eastern countries
and Syria and Egypt through
Arabia and to purchase
necessities of life for Arabians.
• Abdi Shams
• Al-Muttalib
• Naufal
Hashim

Father of Abdul Muttalib

Grandfather of Prophet (PBUH)

Hashim had trade privileges from King of Syria, Negus, Yamanite,


Iraq and Iran

So the four brothers (son of Hashim)


• Hashim → from Ghassanide, King of Syria
• Abdi Shams → from Negus
• Al-Muttalib → from Yamanite nobles
• Naufal → from Iraq and Iran Governments

The brothers were called ashab al-ilaf (generators of love and


affection
Quraish became a very wise and knowledgeable
tribe because of their relation with Syria, Egypt,
Iraq, Iran, Yemen and Abyssinia

Makkah became the most important commercial


center of the Arabian Peninsula

Prophet (PBUH) said “Quraish are the leaders of


the Arabs
The Prophet (PBUH) said: “First the leadership of
the Arabians was in the hands of the people of
Himyar, then Allah withdraw it from then and gave
it to Quraish
The Quraish were prospering and flourishing when
the vent of Abrahah’s invasion of Makkah took place

Swarms of birds destroyed 60,000 Abyssinian troops


brought by Abrahah by pelting them with stones.

• The belief that the Kabah was the House of Allah


increased manifold and the glory of Quraish
increased.
• Arabs were under Allah’s special favour and so that
passed every where in Arabia fearlessly and passed
through every land with their trade caravan
unharmed.
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
(It is a Great Grace from Allah) for the protection of the Quraish. (And for all
those Allah’s Grace and Protection, We cause) the Quraish caravans to set
forth safe in winters (to the south) and in summers (to the north) without any
fear. So let them worship (Allah) the Lord of this House (Ka’bah). He Who
has fed them against hunger and has made them safe from fear.
(It is a great Grace from Allah) for the security and protection
of the Quraish

1. The word ilaf, as used in the original, is from alf, which means
to be habituated and accustomed, to be reunited after breaking
up, and to adopt something as a habit. About the lum that is
prefixed to ilaf, some Arabists have expressed the opinion that
it is to express surprise and wonder. Thus, Li-ilaf-I Quraish-in
means: :How surprising is the conduct of Quraish ! It is only by
virtue of Allah’s bounty that they are reunited after their
dispersion and have become accustomed to the trade
journeys which have brought them their prosperity, and yet
from Allah’s worship and service they are turning away”.
On the contrary, Khaill bin Ahmad, and others, say
that this is the idem of ta’[i] and it related to the
following sentence: Fal-ua’bundu Babba hadh al-Bait,
which means: “Allah’s blessings on the Quraish are
countless. But if for no other blessing, they should
worship Allah at least for this blessing that by His
bounty they became accustomed to the trade
journeys, for this by itself is indeed a great favour of
Allah to them”
( And with all those Allah’s Grace and Protection, We cause)
The (Quraish) caravans to set forth safe in winter (to the south)
And in summer (to the north) without any fear
That is, the trade
journeys. In summer
the Quraish traveled
northward to Syria
and Palestine, for
they are cool lands,
and in winter
southward to Yemen,
etc. for they are
warm.
So let them worship (Allah) the Lord of this House (Ka’bah)

“This House”: the Holy Ka’bah. The sentence means that the
Quraish have obtained this blessing only by virtue of the House of
Allah. They themselves acknowledge that the 360 idols, which they
worship, are not its lord, but Allah alone is its Lord. He alone saved
them from the invasion of the army of elephants. Him alone they had
invoked for help against Abrahah’s army. It was His House the
keeping of which enhanced their rank and position in Arabia.
For before that they were dispersed and commanded no position
whatever. But when they rallied round this House in Makkah and
began to serve it, they became honourable throughout Arabia, and
their trade caravans began to visit every part of the country
fearlessly. Therefore, whatever they have achieved, it has been
possible only by the help of the Lord of this House; therefore, they
should worship Him alone.
(He) Who provides them with food against hunger and with
security against fear (of danger).

The allusion implies that before the Quraish came to


Makkah, they were a scattered people in Arabia and living
miserable lives. After their gathering together in Makkah
they began to prosper, and the Prophet Abraham’s
prayer for them was literally fulfilled when he had prayed:
“Lord, I have settled some of my descendents in a barren
valley near Thy sacred House. Lord, I have done this in
the hope that they will establish salat there. So turn the
hearts of the people towards them, and provide fruits for
their food.” (Ibrahim : 37).
“Secure against fear”: secure from the fear from
which no one anywhere in Arabia was safe. There
was no settlement anywhere in the country the
people of which could sleep peacefully at night, for
they feared an attack any time from any quarter by
some unknown enemy. No one could step out of the
bounds of his tribe for fear of life or of being taken
prisoner and made a slave. No caravan could travel
safely from fear of attack, or without bribing
influential chiefs of the tribes on the way for safe
conduct. But the Quraish were immune from every
danger; they had no fear of an attack from an
enemy, their caravans, small or big, freely passed on
the trade routes everywhere in the country.
As soon as it became known about a certain caravan
that it belong to the keepers of the Ka’bah, no one
could dare touch it with an evil intention, so much so
that even if a single Quraishite was passing on the
way, he was allowed to pass unharmed and un-
touched as soon as the word “harami” or “ana min
haramillah was heard from him.
‫وﷲ‬
‫ﺤﻤﺪ‬
‫ﻟ‬ ‫ا‬