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RESEARCH PROJECT

ON
EFFEECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING ON THE
CONSUMER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE
STUDENTS IN DELHI REGION

Submitted for Partial Fulfilment for the Degree of


MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
(MBA)

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF


(Ms. Sangeeta Mehrolia)

SUBMITTED BY
DHRUV MARWAH
Enrolment No.- 0931913908
IV SEMESTER

GITARATTAN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL


(Affiliated to GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA
UNIVERSITY)
ROHINI, NEW DELHI – 10085
(2008-2010)
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Advertising has played a major role in consumer marketing, and has enabled
companies to meet communication and other marketing objectives. Typically,
advertising is used to inform,
persuade, and remind consumers. It importantly reinforces their attitudes and
perceptions. Advertising has been a target of criticism for decades. Advertising has
been hailed as a capitalistic virtue, an engine of free market economy, and a promoter
of consumer welfare. Its detractors on the other hand accuse it of an array of sins
ranging from an economic waste to purveying of harmful products, from sexism to
deceit and manipulation, from triviality to
intellectual and moral pollution (Mittal, 1994). Advertising is seen by many as a
threat to the cultural identity and self realisation of many developing countries: it
brings to many people alien ethical values; it may deviate consumer demands in
developing countries to areas which can inhibit development priorities; it affects and
can often deform ways of life and lifestyles (Mac Bride, 1980). Advertising is
considered unethical when it degrades rival’s product or substitute product, gives
misguiding information, gives false information, conceals information that vitally
affects human life (e.g., side effects of drugs), makes exaggerated claims, is obscene
or immoral or is against broad national interest. While comparative advertising may
be considered legal and its widespread use may have granted it acceptance, the debate
on whether or not it is ethical, still continues. There is no unanimity among
advertising professionals and marketing clients regarding such questionable practices.
However, all agree to one aspect that while considering the question of unethical
practices, the focus must be to safeguard the interest of buyers at the micro level and
the society at the macro level as their satisfaction is the key to the marketing success.
The criticism has been related not only to its intended effects on society, but also to its
unintended effects. Most of the criticism has come from "elite" observers of society.
In contrast, the general public has historically viewed advertising in a more positive
way. Whereas criticisms of advertising have generally originated from the highest
socio-economic classes since the earliest days of the modern marketing era and
before, lower and middle class people have historically been more positive toward
advertising (Bauer & Greyser, 1968; Fullerton & Nevett, 1986; Steiner, 1976; Zanot,
1984).
CHAPTER–1 INTRODUCTION
HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT
Archaeologists have found evidence of advertising dating back to the 3000s bc,
among the Babylonians. One of the first known methods of advertising was the
outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building.
Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs, notably in the ruins of ancient Rome
and Pompeii. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent,
and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travelers to a tavern
situated in another town.
In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but
effective form of advertising, the use of so-called town criers. The criers were citizens
who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the
praises of their wares. Later they became familiar figures on the streets of colonial
American settlements. The town criers were forerunners of the modern announcer
who delivers radio and television commercials.
Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history, printed advertising
made little headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press by German
printer Johannes Gutenberg about 1450. This invention made the mass distribution of
posters and circulars possible. The first advertisement in English appeared in 1472 in
the form of a handbill announcing a prayer book for sale. Two hundred years later, the
first newspaper ad was published offering a reward for the return of 12 stolen horses.
In the American colonies, the Boston News-Letter, the first regularly published
newspaper in America, began carrying ads in 1704, and about 25 years later Benjamin
Franklin made ads more readable by using large headlines.
In the United States, the advertising profession began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
in 1841 when Volney B. Palmer set up shop as an advertising agent, the forerunner of
the advertising agency. Agents contracted with newspapers for large amounts of
advertising space at discount rates and then resold the space to advertisers at a higher
rate. The ads themselves were created by the advertisers. In 1869 Francis Ayer bought
out Palmer and founded N. W. Ayer & Son, an agency that still exists today. Ayer
transformed the standard agent practice by billing advertisers exactly what he paid to
publishers plus an agreed upon commission. Soon Ayer was not only selling space but
was also conducting market research and writing the advertising copy.
Advertising agencies initially focused on print. But the introduction of radio created a
new opportunity and by the end of the 1920s, advertising had established itself in
radio to such an extent that advertisers were producing many of their own programs.
The early 1930s ushered in dozens of radio dramatic series that were known as soap
operas because they were sponsored by soap companies.
Television had been introduced in 1940, but because of the high cost of TV sets and
the lack of programming, it was not immediately embraced. As the American
economy soared in the 1950s, so did the sale of TV sets and the advertising that paid
for the popular new shows. Soon TV far surpassed radio as an advertising medium.
The tone of the advertising was also changing. No longer did advertising simply
present the product benefit. Instead it began to create a product image. Bill Bernbach,
founder of Doyle Dane Bernbach in New York City; Leo Burnett, founder of the Leo
Burnett agency in Chicago, Illinois; and David Ogilvy, founder of Ogilvy & Mather
in New York City, all came to prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s and led what
has been called the 'creative revolution.' Bernbach's agency captured the spirit of the
new age. Bernbach believed that advertising had to be creative and artistic or it would
bore people. He also believed that good advertising began with respect for the public's
intelligence. The ads his agency created were understated, sophisticated, and witty.
For example, when Bernbach's agency picked up the account for the Henry S. Levy
Bakery in Brooklyn, a borough of New York City, the agency created an ad that
entertained New Yorkers and provided fodder for many conversations. The ad showed
a Native American eating a slice of the bakery's rye bread with the headline, 'You
don't have to be Jewish to love Levy's.' But it was the advertising for Volkswagen that
made the agency's reputation. At a time when American cars were getting bigger and
bigger and the advertising for them trumpeted that bigger was better, Doyle Dane
Bernbach created a magazine ad that showed a small picture of the Volkswagen
Beetle surrounded by a sea of white space with the headline, 'think small.' An equally
unconventional ad carried the headline 'lemon' beneath a photo of an apparently
flawed Volkswagen. The ad's copy explained that 'this Volkswagen missed the boat.
The chrome strip on the glove compartment is blemished and must be replaced…We
pluck the lemons; you get the plums.' In an era of hype and bombast, the Volkswagen
ads stood out because they admitted failure in a witty way and gave facts in a
believable manner that underlined the car's strengths. This wit together with a
conversational and believable style was a hallmark of the advertising created by
Doyle Dane Bernbach and that style became highly influential.
The creative foundation established by Bernbach and others has been critical to the
success of contemporary advertising. The introduction of the TV remote control and
access to hundreds of cable channels mean that today advertising must interest and
entertain consumers or else they will simply use the remote to change the channel.
New digital devices even threaten to make it possible to edit out commercials. The
development of interactive television, combining the functions of a computer with
access to high-speed transmission over cable lines or optical fibers, will likely enable
consumers to select from a vast video library. Consumers will be able to determine
not only when they watch something, but also, to a greater extent than ever before,
what they will watch. Some industry observers believe that as consumers gain greater
control over their viewing activities, they will find it easier to avoid advertising.

DEFINITION OF ADVERTISING
The word advertising originates from a Latin word advertise, which means to turn to.
The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice or to announce publicly”.
Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor-identified media space
or time in order to promote a product or an idea.
The American Marketing Association, Chicago, has defined advertising as “any form
of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services, by an identified
sponsor.”

What Advertisement Is?


Advertisement is a mass communicating of information intended to persuade buyers
to by products with a view to maximizing a company’s profits.
The elements of advertising are:
(i) It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers.
(ii) It makes mass production possible.
(iii) It is non-personal communication, for it is not delivered by an actual person, nor
is it addressed to a specific person.
(iv) It is a commercial communication because it is used to help assure the advertiser
of a long business life with profitable sales.
(v) Advertising can be economical, for it reaches large groups of people. This keeps
the cost per message low.
(vi) The communication is speedy, permitting an advertiser to speak to millions of
buyers in a matter of a few hours.
(vii) Advertising is identified communication. The advertiser signs his name to his
advertisement for the purpose of publicizing his identity.

What is Included in Advertising?


(i) The information in an advertisement should benefit the buyers. It should give them
a more satisfactory expenditure of their rupees.
(ii) It should suggest better solutions to their problems.
(iii) The content of the advertisement is within the control of the advertiser, not the
medium.
(iv) Advertising without persuasion is ineffective. The advertisement that fails to
influence anyone, either immediately or in the future, is a waste of money.
(v) The function of advertising is to increase the profitable sales volume. That is,
advertising expenses should not increase disproportionately.

Advertising includes the following forms of messages: The messages carried in-
Newspapers and magazines;
On radio and television broadcasts;
Circular of all kinds, (whether distributed by mail, by person, thorough tradesmen,
or by inserts in packages);
Dealer help materials,
Window display and counter – display materials and efforts;
Store signs, motion pictures used for advertising,
Novelties bearing advertising messages and Signature of the advertiser,
Label stags and other literature accompanying the merchandise.

What is excluded from Advertising?


Advertising is not an exact science. An advertiser’s circumstances are never identical
with those of another; he cannot predict with accuracy what results his future
advertising efforts will produce.
(i) Advertising is not a game, because if advertising is done properly, both the buyer
and the seller benefit from it.
(ii) Advertising is not a toy. Advertiser cannot afford to play with advertising.
Advertising funds come from sales revenue and must be used to increase sales
revenue.
(iii) Advertisements are not designed to deceive. The desire and hope for repeat sales
insures a high degree of honesty in advertising.

The activities excluded from advertising are:


The offering of premiums to stimulate the sale of products;
The use of exhibitions and demonstrations at fairs, show and conventions;
The use of samples and activities, involving news releases and the activities of
personal selling forces;
The payment of advertising allowances which are not used for advertising;
The entertainment of customers

Advertising Objectives
Each advertisement is a specific communication that must be effective, not just for
one customer, but for many target buyers. This means that specific objectives should
be set for each particular advertisement campaign. Advertising is a form of promotion
and like a promotion; the objectives of advertising should be specific. This requires
that the target consumers should be specifically identified and that the effect which
advertising is intended to have upon the consumer should be clearly indicated. The
objectives of advertising were traditionally stated in terms of direct sales. Now, it is to
view advertising as having communication objectives that seek to inform persuade
and remind potential customers of the worth of the product. Advertising seeks to
condition the consumer so that he/she may have a favourable reaction to the
promotional message. Advertising objectives serve as guidelines for the planning and
implementation of the entire advertising programme.

The basic objectives of an advertising programme may be listed as below:


(i) To stimulate sales amongst present, former and future consumers. It involves a
decision regarding the media, e.g., TV rather than print ;
(ii) To communicate with consumers. This involves decision regarding copy ;
(iii) To retain the loyalty of present and former consumers. Advertising may be used
to reassure buyers that they have made the best purchase, thus building loyalty to the
brand name or the firm.
(iv) To increase support. Advertising impliedly bolsters the morale of the sales force
and of distributors, wholesalers, and retailers, ; it thus contributes to enthusiasts and
confidence attitude in the organizational. :
(v) To project an image. Advertising is used to promote an overall image of respect
and trust for an organization. This message is aimed not only at consumers, but also at
the government, shareholders, and the general public.

Importance of Advertising
Generally, advertising is a relatively low-cost method of conveying selling messages
to numerous prospective customers. It can secure leads for salesmen and middlemen
by convincing readers to request more information and by identifying outlets handling
the product. It can force middlemen to stock the product by building consumer
interest. It can help train dealers salesmen in product uses and applications. It can
build dealer and consumer confidence in the company and its products by building
familiarity. Advertising is to stimulate market demand. While sometimes
advertising alone may succeed in achieving buyer acceptance, preference, or even
demand for the product, it is seldom solely relied upon. Advertising is efficiently used
with at least one other sales method, such as personal selling or point-of-purchase
display, to directly move customers to buying action.
Advertising has become increasingly important to business enterprises –both large
and small. Outlay on advertising certainly is the voucher. Non-business enterprises
have also recognized the importance of advertising. The attempt by army recruitment
is bases on a substantial advertising campaign, stressing the advantages of a military
career. The health department popularizes family planning through advertising Labour
organizations have also used advertising to make their viewpoints known to the public
at large. Advertising assumes real economic importance too. Advertising strategies
that increase the number of units sold stimulate economies in the production process.
The production cost per unit of output is lowered. It in turn leads to lower prices.
Lower consumer prices then allow these products to become available to more people.
Similarly, the price of newspapers, professional sports, radio and TV programmes,
and the like might be prohibitive without advertising. In short, advertising pays for
many of the enjoyable
entertainment and educational aspects of contemporary life. Advertising has become
an important factor in the campaigns to achieve such societal-oriented objectives such
as the discontinuance of smoking, family planning, physical fitness, and the
elimination of drug abuse. Though in India, advertising was accepted as a potent and
recognized means of promotion only 25 years ago, its growing productive capacity
and output necessitates the finding of consumers and advertising plays an important
role in this process. Advertising helps to increase mass marketing while helping the
consumer to choose from amongst the variety of products offered for his selection. In
India, advertising as a profession is in its infancy. Because of this fact, there is a
tremendous scope for development so that it may be productively used for the benefit
of producers, traders, consumers, and the country’s economy.
CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES OF ADVERTISING
1. Product – Related Advertising
A. Pioneering Advertising
B. Competitive Advertising
C. Retentive Advertising
2. Public Service Advertising
3. Functional Classification
A. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level.
A. Primary Demand (Stimulation)
B. Selective Demand (Stimulation)
B. Institutional Advertising
C. Product Advertising
A. Informative Product Advertising
B. Persuasive Product Advertising
C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising
4. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle
A. Consumer Advertising
B. Industrial Advertising
5. Trade Advertising
A. Retail Advertising
B. Wholesale Advertising
6. Advertising Based on Area of operation
A. National advertising
B. Local advertising
C. Regional advertising
7. Advertising According to Medium Utilized

1. Product – Related Advertising


It is concerned with conveying information about and selling a product or service.
Product advertising is of three types, viz.,
A. Pioneering Advertising
B. Competitive Advertising
C. Retentive Advertising

A. Pioneering Advertising:
This type of advertising is used in the introductory stages in the life cycle of a
product. It is concerned with developing a “primary” demand. It conveys information
about, and selling a product category rather than a specific brand. For example, the
initial advertisement for black – and – white television and color television. Such
advertisements appeal to the consumer’s emotions and rational motives.
B. Competitive Advertising:
It is useful when the product has reached the market-growth and especially the
market-maturity stage. It stimulates “selective” demand. It seeks to sell a specific
brand rather than a general product category. It is of two types:
A. Direct Type: It seeks to stimulate immediate buying action.
B. Indirect Type: It attempts to pinpoint the virtues of the product in the expectation
that the consumer’s action will be affected by it when he is ready to buy.
Example: Airline advertising.
Air India attempts to bid for the consumer’s patronage either immediately - direct
action-in which case, it provides prices, time tables and phone numbers on which the
customer may call for reservations; or eventually – indirect action – when it suggests
that you mention Air India’s name when talking to your travel agent.
C. Retentive Advertising:
This may be useful when the product has achieved a favourable status in the market –
that is, maturity or declining stage. Generally in such times, the advertiser wants to
keep his product’s name before the public. A much softer selling approach is used, or
only the name may be mentioned in “reminder” type advertising.
2. Public Service Advertising
This is directed at the social welfare of a community or a nation. The effectiveness of
product service advertisements may be measured in terms of the goodwill they
generate in favour of the sponsoring organization. Advertisements on not mixing
drinking and driving are a good example of public service advertising. In this type of
advertising, the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or
behaviour and benefit the public at large.
3. Functional Classification
Advertising may be classified according to the functions which it is intended to fulfil.
(i) Advertising may be used to stimulate either the primary demand or the selective
demand.
(ii) It may promote either the brand or the firm selling that brand.
(iii) It may try to cause indirect action or direct action.

i. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level.


A. Primary Demand Stimulation
Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather than for a particular
brand. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of product, and not the brand of
that product. Some advertise to stimulate primary demand. When a product is new,
primary demand stimulation is appropriate. At this time, the marketer must inform
consumers of the existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing
from its use. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have entered
the market, the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the selective demand.
B. Selective Demand Stimulation
This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes, Surf detergent
powder, or Vimal fabrics. To establish a differential advantage and to acquire an
acceptable sort of market, selective demand advertising is attempted. It is not to
stimulate the demand for the product or service. The advertiser attempts to
differentiate his brand and to increase the total amount of consumption of that
product. Competitive advertising stimulates selective demand. It may be of either the
direct or the indirect type.
ii. Institutional Advertising
Institutional Advertising may be formative, persuasive or reminder oriented in
character. Institutional advertising is used extensively during periods of product
shortages in order to keep the name of the company before the public. It aims at
building for a firm a Positive public image in the eyes of shareholders, employees,
suppliers, legislators, or the general public. This sells only the name and prestige of
the company. This type of advertising is used frequently by large companies whose
products are well known. HMT or DCM, for example, does considerable institutional
advertising of its name, emphasizing the quality and research behind its products.
Institutional advertisements are at consumers or focus them upon other groups, such
as voters, government officials, suppliers, financial institutions, etc. If it is effective,
the target groups will respond with goodwill towards, and confidence in the sponsor.
It is also a useful method or introducing sales persons and new product to consumers.
It does not attempt to sell a particular product; it benefits the organization as a whole.
It notifies the consumers that the company is a responsible business entity and is
patriotic; that its management takes ecologically responsible action, is an affair-
motive action employer, supports the socialistic pattern of society or provides
employment opportunities in the community. When Indian Oil advertisements
describe the company’s general activities, such as public service work, this may be
referred to as institutional advertising because it is intended to build an overall
favorable attitude towards the company and its family of products. HMT once told the
story of the small-scale industries
supplying it with component parts, thus indicating how it aided the development of
ancillary industries.
iii. Product Advertising
Most advertising is product advertising, designed to promote the sale or reputation of
a particular product or service that the organization sells. Indane’s Cooking Gas is a
case in point. The marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure attention,
comprehension, attitude change or action for an offering. It deals with the non-
personal selling of a particular good or service. It is of three types as follows:-
A. Informative Product Advertising
B. Persuasive Product Advertising
C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising
A. Informative Product Advertising:
This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type of
product to develop an initial demand. It is usually done in the introductory stages of
the product life cycle. It was the original approach to advertising.
B. Persuasive Product Advertising:
Persuasive product advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand.
It is a type of promotion used in the growth period and, to some extent, in the maturity
period of the product life cycle.
C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising:
The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous promotional activity by
keeping the brand name in front of the public. It is used in the maturity period as well
as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle.
4. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle
A. Consumer Advertising
B. Industrial Advertising

A. Consumer Advertising
Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product advertising.
Marketers of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, scooters, detergents and soaps, cigarettes
and alcoholic beverages are examples. Baring a few, all these products are all package
goods that the consumer will often buy during the year. There is a heavy competition
among the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand.

B. Industrial Advertising
Industrial executives have little confidence in advertising. They rely on this form of
promotion merely out of fear that their competitors may benefit if they stop their
advertising efforts. The task of the industrial advertiser is complicated by the multiple
buying influence characteristics like, the derived demand, etc. The objectives vary
according to the firm and the situation. They are:
To inform,
To bring in orders,
To induce inquiries,
To get the advertiser’s name on the buyer’s list of sources,
To provide support for the salesman,
To reduce selling costs,
To help get items in the news column of a publication,
To establish recognition for the firm or its product,
To motivate distributors,
To recognition for the firm or its products,
To motivate distributors, to create or change a company’s image,
To create or change a buyer’s attitude, and
The basic appeals tend to increase the rupee profits of the buyer or help in achieving
his non-monetary objectives. Trade journals are the media most generally used
followed by catalogues, direct mail communication, exhibits, and general
management publications. Advertising agencies are much less useful in industrial
advertising.
5. Trade Advertising
A. Retail Advertising
B. Wholesale Advertising

A. Retail Advertising
This may be defined as “covering all advertising by the stores that sell goods directly
to the consuming public. It includes, also advertising by establishments that sell
services to the public, such as beauty shops, petrol pumps and banks.” Advertising
agencies are rarely used. The store personnel are usually given this responsibility as
an added task to be performed, together with their normal functions. The result is that
advertising is often relegated to a secondary position in a retail store. One aspect of
retail advertising is co-operative advertising. It refers to advertising costs between
retailers and manufacturers. From the retailer’s point of view, co-operative advertising
permits a store to secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been
available.
B. Wholesale Advertising
Wholesalers are, generally, not advertising minded, either for themselves or for their
suppliers. They would benefit from adopting some of the image-making techniques
used by retailers – the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. They also
need to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programs in a way
advantageous to them.

6. Advertising based on Area of Operation


It is classified as follow:
A. National Advertising
B. Regional Advertising
C. Local Advertising

A. National advertising
It is practiced by many firms in our country. It encourages the consumer to buy their
product wherever they are sold. Most national advertisements concentrate on the
overall image and desirability of the product. The famous national advertisers are:
Hindustan Levers
DCM
ITC
Jay Engineering
TISCO
B. Regional advertising
It is geographical alternative for organizations. For example, Amrit Vanaspati based
in Rajpura claims to be the leading hydrogenated oil producer in the Punjab. But, until
recently, it mainly confined itself to one of the vegetable oil brands distribution to
Malihabad district (in U.P. near Lucknow).

C. Local advertising
It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers. These advertisements save
the customer time and money by passing along specific information about products,
prices, location, and so on. Retailer advertisements usually provide specific goods
sales during weekends in various sectors.

7. Advertising According to Medium


The most common classification of advertising is by the medium used. For example:
TV, radio, magazine, outdoor, business periodical, newspaper and direct mail
advertising. This classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here only for
the sake of completeness.
Advertising Agency
Getting the best out of advertising is a highly skilled job. It requires the inputs of
experts in many different fields like writers, artists, photographers, designers,
television production crews and many others. Even the biggest advertisers cannot
afford to employ all these experts. Almost all advertising is therefore arranged
through an advertising agency which provides the necessary skill to turn the message
into a memorable and effective advertisement. Advertising has not only come to
reflect pop culture but has also become an important element of economic growth.
Today, every person connected with the Indian economy or public should be fully
aware what advertising really is and why effective advertising campaigns can be
performed by full-service advertising agencies.
Advertising agency is one of the most important components of advertising industry.
It has played a significant role in the development of modern advertising. The
advertising agency has evolved to provide the specialized knowledge, skills and
experience needed to produce effective advertising campaigns. It provides a quality
range of service greater than any single advertiser could afford or would need to
employ. An advertising agency is a firm that specializes in the creation, design and
placement of advertisements, and in the planning and execution of promotional
campaigns for products and services of their clients.
The Association of Advertising Agencies of America (AAAA) defines advertising
agency as “An independent business organization composed of creative and business
people who develop, prepare and place advertising media for sellers seeking to find
customers for their goods and services.”
The glamour, the unlimited expense accounts, and the exhilarating lifestyle - all these
popular portraits of life in the big-time advertising agency are misleading. Advertising
is demanding, challenging, hard work. It is also interesting and fulfilling. Advertising
requires a mix of personal abilities, considerable business skills, and an ability to
work under pressure to meet deadlines. Compared to larger industries, there are never
many entry-level positions open in advertising agencies (dozens rather than
hundreds). And competition is stiff. The industry, however, is constantly on the look
out for skilled, bright, articulate, creative and personable men and women with a well-
rounded education and a good business sense.
An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating,
planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for their
clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of
view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. An agency can also
handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients.
Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profit
organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce single ads
or, more commonly, ongoing series of related ads, called an advertising campaign.
Advertising Process
When preparing your search proposal, you should take into account that the “lead-in”
time needed to place an ad can vary anywhere from days to months depending on the
publication. You should plan to have your ad approved and an estimate of the cost
done at least one month prior to the date when you want the ad to be published. The
advertising process for professional staff and faculty positions involves five basic
steps:
1. Writing an Ad

2. Getting Approval for the Text of the Ad


3. Estimating the Cost of the Ad

4. Placing Ads & Posting Announcements

5. Paying for Ads

Typical work flow in agency


STAGE WORK PERFORMED AT STAGE
Briefing Stage • Briefing from the client

• Internal briefing to the creative and media

• Any research briefing if required


Creation Stage • Ad campaign and media plan development

• Internal review and finalization

• Presentation to client and approvals

• Any pre-testing if required


Production Stage • Budget and estimate approvals

• Production of film, press ads, collaterals

• Media Scheduling and media booking

• All release approvals for creative & media


Post Production Stage • Material dispatch to media

• Media release monitoring

• Any post-testing if required

• Billing and collection

Types of advertising agencies


Ad agencies come in all sizes, from small one- or two-person shops to large multi-
national, multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP Group,
Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas.
Some agencies specialize in particular types of advertising, such as print ads or
television commercials. Other agencies, especially larger ones, produce work for
many types of media. Lately, Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine
Optimization (SEO) firms have been classified by some as 'agencies' due to the fact
that they are creating media and implementing media purchases of text based (or
image based in some instances of search marketing) ads. This relatively young
industry has been slow to adopt the term 'agency' however with the creation of ads
(either text or image) and media purchases they do qualify technically as an
'advertising agency' as well as recent studies suggest that both SEO and SEM are set
to outpace magazine spending in the next 3-5 years.
Not all advertising is created by agencies. Companies that create and plan their own
advertising are said to do their work in house. Today selection of ad-agency is very
difficult. The advertiser should make list of all possible agencies that can serve his
purpose and the agency best qualified to provide required and effective services are
selected. Some advertiser may select more than one advertising agency to handle
effectively the various product lines.
Following are major types of advertising agencies that are currently serving the
advertising industry.

Full Service Agencies


A full service ad agency is one that provides a range of marketing services. A
full services agency provides services that are directly related to advertising such as
copywriting, artwork, production of ads, media planning etc. It also provides such
services in respect of pricing, distribution, packaging, product design etc.

Modular agencies
A modular agency is a full service agency that sells its services on a piece
meal basis. Thus an advertiser may commission an agency’s creative department to
develop an ad campaign while obtaining other agency services elsewhere. Or, an
advertiser may hire an agencies media department to plan and execute a program for
advertising that another agency has developed. Fees are charged for actual work
undertaken.

In House agencies
Those companies, which prefer to have closer control over advertising, have their own
in-house agency. This type is owned completely by the advertiser. It performs almost
all functions that an outside advertising agency would perform and that’s why some
people refer to it as full-service advertising department of the advertiser. However, the
difference between an in-house agency and an advertising department is that the in-
house agency can undertake to serve several other clients, if the owner so desires, but
an advertising department solely undertakes that work of its owner and not of outside
clients. Secondly an advertising department may not be equipped the personnel and
facilities, which an in-house agency would posses. In-house agency not only provides
control over advertising schedule and costs, but also offers convenience for its owner,
because it is just available in the same building as that of the head office of advertiser.
Such in-house agency also benefits the owner as it can bring revenue through agency
commission that are offered by the media and by way of fees that are collected from
outside parties for undertaking their advertising work. Such revenue increases the
funds and profits of the company. There is another version of in-house agency
whereby advertiser handles the total agency functions by buying service unit to buy
time, space and place the ads. Such an In-house agency is an administrative center
(under the direction of an advertising director) that gathers and directs varying outside
for its operation.

Creative Boutiques
These are shop agencies that provides only creative functions and not full-
service. The specialized creative functions include copy writing, artwork and
production of ads, they charge a fee or percentage of full service agencies, and as such
most of them convert into a full service agency or merge with other agencies to
provide a wide range of services.

Mega agencies
A significant of 1980’s is the development of mega agency. Agencies worldwide
merge with each other serve their clients in much better way. It was in 1986, Saachi
& Saachi, a London based agency who started the movement and at present it is the
third largest agency network in the world.

The Specialists Agency


There are some agencies who undertake advertising work only in certain areas. there
are agencies that specialize only in financial services or only in publicity or only in
point-of-purchase material etc. for instance Soubhagya advertising agency
concentrate on specialized in financial advertising.
The functions of an advertising agency:
• To accelerate economic growth and create public awareness

• To provide a total, professional, experienced service which is very personal in


its nature

• To take the advertiser's message and convert it into an effective and


memorable communication

The Benefits of Using an Advertising Agency


• Added Expertise

• Media Knowledge and Unbiased Advice

• Easier Administration

• Media Buying

• Quality Control

• Information

• Fending off the media

• And when things go wrong

• Cost Saving

• Time Saving

Advertising Agency's Role


Suppose you are a company with a product. It may be a totally new product.
As a company with a product or service to sell, designing and making that item is
only part of the battle. People are not going to beat a path to your door. You have to
seek a channel of communication.
Ad agency need to consider, for example:
• For whom is the product or service designed?

• Who would use it?

• Who is the "target group"?


• What's special about the product? In what way is it distinct? Unique?
Different?

• What's its "position" in relation to other similar products?

• What do you want to convey to the public about your product?

• How should your company contact the public?

• What medium should it use? Radio? TV? Newspapers? Magazines?


Billboards? Bus/subway ads? Direct mail? etc.

• How extensive a region should your company try to cover?

• How often?

Communication and marketing decisions involve specialized expertise. Many


companies that design and produce products or offer services lack these specific
capabilities. This is where advertising agencies fit in. Advertising agencies exist to
help companies to communicate with the public, Market the company's product.
Media
Company
Ad
Public with a
product or
Agency
service

The process of advertising involves considerable specialized knowledge and expertise


• about people - their interests, preferences, needs, wants, lifestyles,
expectations

• about media - their reach, their effectiveness, their specific appeal

• about the company and its product – and about competing companies and
their products

Services offered by ad agency


Total Advertising Services
Strategic planning, creative development and media services for advertising,
particularly in television, newspapers, magazines and radio; providing the best
creative designed to capture the imagination of consumers
Marketing Services
Provision of a number of advertising related services, including sales promotion,
market research, PR and event marketing.
e-Solution Services
e-solution services, including system integration services, e-business consulting and
customer relationship management (CRM), Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and
Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and e-promotions using the Internet and mobile.

Content Business
Sales of sponsorship, broadcasting and other rights, and the production and marketing
of such media / content as sporting events, films, TV programs, animated content,
music and other forms of entertainment.

Integrated Media Services


Bringing value to both clients and media-related companies by offering a wide range
of media solution services

Sales Promotion
Providing comprehensive sales promotion planning designed to complement mass
media and other activities

Event Marketing
Assisting clients by providing dynamic vehicles for their messages in the form of on-
the-spot interactive communications

Integrated Branding Services


Assuring clients the highest quality of branding services for their communication
needs

Organization Structure
The activities within an advertising agency are typically divided into 4 broad groups:
account management, the creative department, media buying, and research. These
divisions are usually physically separated, although all four areas work closely
together to produce an advertising campaign in its entirety.
Account managers usually have daily interaction with a counterpart at the client's
office and coordinate the activities of the other departments according to the client's
wishes. The creative department designs original themes or concepts for ads, while
the media department places finished ads within the media in which they will receive
the most exposure to a target audience. The research department provides data about
consumers to help the agency and the client make informed advertising decisions.
Recently added to advertising agencies' roster of services are public relations, direct
marketing, and promotional services. Other activities that used to be completed by
outside vendors, such as photography and high-tech print work, have been brought in-
house in many agencies.

ADVERTISEMENT AND STUDENT

There is so much written these days about the impact of ‘new’ media, be it internet or
i-pods, that we forget the reach of ‘old’ media — newspapers, television and films on
our youth.Even if we presume they read less these days, many youngsters do flip
through the daily newspaper at home.Sensational headlines often catch their attention
especially when they are about their own generation — the Rathore scandal and
student suicides are cases in point. As for television, which the media guru, Marshal
McLuhan, described as an ‘extension of our senses’, continues to dominate youth
attention with its umpteen reality shows.While some promote talent, many create
stressful situations where participants begin to question their sense of worth in our
success-driven society.
So as one looks at the impact of media on youth behaviour, which recently has been
identified as one of the influencing factors in teen suicides, one cannot overlook the
critical role played by the ‘old’ media which are competing aggressively with the
‘new’ media.TV and print have been quietly reinventing themselves to grab TRPs and
readership. In a recent newspaper article, not even poor Santa was spared! He was
positioned as a scary character with five pictures to support this tall claim. Another
headline screamed: ‘Neighbour arrested for raping and killing minor’; a 23-year old
rapes an 8-year old.A routine story perhaps, but young minds reading these headlines
day after day are bound to develop anxiety and question the sanity of our times. As
the academic Mark Crispin Miller observed: ‘Technology now infiltrates rather than
invades.No longer appearing as an alien force, TV is irresistible, blending in with the
woodwork, as it were. Television blinds us to any visual event that takes longer than
an instant to comprehend and keeps us sitting down, staying home.’
In smaller towns and rural areas, where the internet has not made much headway, TV
remains the main source of information and entertainment. Umpteen ads prey upon
greed and bring in their own brand of sexuality and consumerism. Regional television
often feeds the hunger of the aspiring, rural youth looking forward to moving to big
cities.No one wants youngsters to become prudes, but in this transitional age, when
they are neither children nor adults, they are very impressionable to environmental
conditions. And television is the world’s most popular babysitter. But where are the
programmes to help youngsters deal with career selection, personality development
and social issues like juvenile crimes?
In an effort to understand the contributory factors of teen suicides, when recent
studies point a finger at an over-burdened education system, let us not underestimate
the impact and continuing growth of the all-pervading ‘old’ media. A recent
development in UK of allowing product placement in programmes has resulted in a
hue and cry by British doctors and teachers.In an article in the Guardian News,
(January 3, 2010) headlined ‘Backlash over plan to extend TV advertising’,Denis
Campbell writes: “This will result in millions of pounds of extra revenue but the
medicos fear it will also result in increased obesity as sugar-based products are
promoted in many programmes… often, the storyline is altered to promote a
particular product.”
Not that the ‘new’ media does not finds ways to draw people.Cell phones have
literally metamorphosed into ‘magic boxes’ which can do practically anything!The
growth of internet is phenomenal. But, at the same time, our TV barons are not sitting
quietly for the demise of the ‘idiot box’.
Dr Michael Rich, of Children’s Hospital Boston, who directs the Centre on Media and
Child Health, has said that with media use so ubiquitous, it was time to stop arguing
over whether it was good or bad and accept it as part of children’s environment. The
average young American now spends practically every waking minute — except for
the time in school — using a smart phone, computer, television or other electronic
device, according to a new study from the Kaiser Family Foundation.Moreover, the
study found, that heavy media use is associated with several negatives, including
behaviour problems and lower grades.
As we reconsider our educational system and the influence of all media in face of
rising suicides, our educationists should also think in terms of developing a ‘media-
literate’ society.Let’s make youth aware of how media influences, even manipulates,
them. We need to guide our youth in this media-saturated society.Going further, we
must also involve them in the creation of programmes that help cope with life.

"Have It Your Way", "Just Do It", "Ipod, Therefore I Am", "Reach Out and Touch
Someone", "It's Everywhere You Want To Be", "Finger Lickin' Good", "Got Milk?",
"Be All You Can Be"--We have heard these slogans many times during the course of
a day in some fashion or other. What they all have in common is that they are directed
toward teenagers. Teenagers are probably more influenced by advertising than any
other age group, and they are really not aware of it.

"The advertising industry itself has funded dozens of studies on children designed to
enhance marketing effectiveness. According to the industry newsletter, Selling to
Kids, Saatchi & Saatchi hired clinical psychologists and cultural anthropologists to
record more than 500 hours of interviews and observations of children between the
ages of six and 20. Increasingly, such research is taking place in schools." (Linn 2)
"And according to USA TODAY, grade schools in Connecticut accepted ,000 from a
company in exchange for permission to interview 10-to 12-year-old students in
classrooms after school. The Gepetto Group conducts focus groups and consults with
psychologists to help businesses better understand how to market to teens by
exploiting their vulnerabilities. Teens are ?... an oppositional subculture, interested in
shutting out the adult world,' the firm's chief strategic officer explained in a Selling to
Kids interview. There are enormous opportunities for the marketer who is able to
understand both the reality and fantasy of teen life." (Linn 2)

"It has been documented that the average teenager spends about 6 ¾ hours a day (38+
hours/week) using media--television, movies, magazines, newspapers, playing video
games and using the computer. The average child sees approximately 20,000
commercials a year. About 57% of viewers surveyed in 1996 enjoy commercials as
much as television programs. Advertisers spend over billion each year on television
commercials. By the time a child is 18, he or she will have seen about 20,000 food
commercials advertising food low in nutrition. It is estimated that teenagers between
the ages of 13 and 19 spend 0 a week or 4 billion per year on clothing, entertainment,
and fast food. Advertisers now realize that children not only influence the purchases
of the goods and services that appeal to them, but they also influence many of the
purchases in the entire household. For example, it is estimated that 78% of children
influence what their parents buy (McDougal Littell, 2001). These purchases can be
small to large ticket items. It is no longer up to the parents alone to decide what the
family needs. With our fast-paced society, teenagers are being left more on their own
to make decisions that have a direct impact on families, and these decisions are often
influenced by what advertising they see--through print, television, radio, and the
internet.
This is an advertisers dream. Is it any wonder that this particular age group is
targeted? We as adults have the ability to think logically when it comes to making
purchases. We see something that we need, research the product to see what best fits
those needs, and then make a purchase. Teenagers, on the other hand, are "impulse"
purchasers. "CEA's (Consumer Electronics Association) research says teens may be
more open to impulse purchases because they tend not to overanalyze. They are less
likely than others to compare prices or seek recommendations(Vision 3)." They buy
based upon what their friends are buying, what will make them more popular with
their peer group, or what a celebrity whom they admire or respect says they need.
They are more insecure and more rebellious than people of any other age group.
Advertisers are aware of this and desperately try to meet their fluctuating--and they
are succeeding. They know that teenagers' tastes will change on any given day -
what's popular today can be passé tomorrow.

Do teenagers give any serious thought about the role that advertising plays in what
they buy? Do they realize that a great deal of time, effort, manpower, and money goes
into developing products and services and marketing them to young people? Do they
truly understand how the images they see, hear, touch, smell, and taste trigger their
desires to accumulate more and more "stuff?"

Advertisers have found their niche with teenagers. They have become very creative
when it comes to marketing to this group. We often notice that advertising geared
toward this demographic is often very visual, interactive, incorporates catchy slogans,
employs celebrities to pitch the products, and is simple yet effective in its language.
This project objective is to how they are being manipulated to buy certain products or
services. Students will learn how advertisers change their "wants" into "needs," and
the different strategies and techniques that are incorporated in their advertising
campaigns. Students will learn that since the advent of our technological age, they are
being bombarded by advertising at an alarming pace. The advent of cable television,
cell phones, computers, video games, and ipods, has afforded the advertising industry
numerous vehicles to expose young people to more and more advertising. This unit
will aim to show my students how this is done and how they are influenced by it.

The design of this unit has been directly influenced by the circumstances under which
I teach. I am the Business/Technology Coordinator at West Delhi High School, where
I have taught for thirty-four years. West Delhi High School has a population of
approximately 1,000 students that is 97% high income group. Seventy-nine percent of
students at West Delhi High School come from low-income households (School
District of Philadelphia/Demographics). For the past few years, a very large
percentage of students have scored below basic on standardized testing. This has
placed the school in the unenviable position of being slated for takeover--possibly by
one of the private companies, such as Foundations or Edison Schools. As with all
urban schools, there are many problems for students, including a high dropout rate,
low attendance, violence in the neighborhood, and fragmented family structure.
Ironically, the school also sits in a neighborhood where gentrification has caused
housing prices to rise; where you can easily find a house selling for upwards of 0,000
or more.

Educating young people who must deal with some of these problems can be an
awesome task. Making learning interesting, fun and relevant to their lives takes a
great deal of effort and planning. Because of their backgrounds and environmental
conditions, advertising plays an important role in their lives. This unit was developed
to show my students just how much of a role it plays and how they can use it to their
advantage.

Sometimes school students are thought of as the forgotten children. They are in
desperate need of life skills. They need to become informed consumers who make
choices based on facts and not always on emotions. I, as a teacher, feel obligated to
try and bridge this gap between reality and fantasy. I feel that the debunking of the
myths of advertising is but one way of providing this information for my students.

Positive Effects
The positive side of advertising is that it makes you aware that a product or service is
available. New and improved products are developed all the time and we can't be
expected to keep track of these developments ourselves. So its manufacturer helps us
in our lack of awareness and tells us: "Our new and improved product is now even
better! Go out and buy it!".
This happy message really pleases the consumer in us and if the product is one that
we use we are pleased that it has now been improved (again) and is even better. Even
though the message is the same as it was the last time it was improved, chances are, if
we were using it before, that we will continue to use it and that we react positively to
the latest improvement. So far so good. When a good product is improved it does
become a better product, right?
The ad will tell us in a variety of ways that it is any or all of the following:
• better than the competitor's product
• cheaper than the competitor's product
• easier to use than the competitor's product
• has more prestige value than any similar product
• lasts longer the competitor's product
• it's made of superior parts or ingredients
• it's healthier for you
• it's wholly organic
• it's stronger, faster acting, larger, shorter etc. etc. and so forth.
So we are grateful for advertisements because they keep us up to date on the
improvement of existing products and the creation of new ones. This is all very
good.Unfortunately many advertisements, despite rigorous guidelines, rules, laws and
consumer magazines and organisations, tell us a product or service is good only to
find out after purchase that it is not good at all. And sometimes we get mad because
we feel we have been taken for a ride. And this is definitely not good.

Before, in those good old days (when everybody complained), we got to recognize
certain brands and products as good quality and we stuck by them. Reputation is
important, as we have mentioned before, and when a company sticks to its original
success formula we can trust them and continue to use their products or services
without having to worry about it too much. And that is good because in our busy
modern lives we have plenty to worry about already.
Negative Effects
The negative side of an ad is that it is not usually a neutral and objective statement.
The ad is made by the product's manufacturer and that already tells us that it will
never be objective. According to the box every product is the best after all.

No one can deny that an unbelievable quantity of bad products are for sale.
Depending on the power of the manufacturer it can be blatantly obvious that we are
dealing with a bad or substandard product. But if the manufacturer has a lot of power,
the ad is so sophisticated in its execution that, we are wholly convinced with what we
are dealing is genuinely great product.
In retrospect, after the sale in other words, we can find out that the ad failed to let us
know any or all of the following:
• it's made of substandard materials
• it tastes bad
• it's badly made
• it's made from leftovers and rejected materials
• it's made by someone undergoing forced labor
• it's far too expensive and should cost 10% of what it does because it is made
much much cheaper somewhere else
• some of its ingredients or additives such as preservatives, colorings, etc. have
been banned in your country for at least 30 years because of their carcinogenic
effects (cancer inducing)
• there's really nothing in the product that is in the least bit beneficial to your
physical or mental health
• it could be dangerous to your children
• it's made up of animal byproducts
• they are destroying a rain forest to produce it
• it's been designed exclusively to use all those other bits and pieces they would
otherwise be stuck with
• it would kill any insect better than any spray if you would feed it to them
instead of eating it yourself
• it's made from organic materials, not mentioning that those organics are
animal byproducts and leftovers, bio-material even an experimental laboratory
would label bio-hazard etc. etc. and so forth.
The list is quite endless once you get going the reality of it is quite depressing. The
only thing we can do is learn from our failures, i.e., never buy a product or anything
else manufactured by that company, or use that service again, until we are absolutely
sure it is now really worth our hard earned money and time.

LITRATURE REVIEW
All advertising efforts are directed mainly towards the achievement of business,
marketing and advertising objectives i.e., to increase the sales turnover and thus to
market the maximum profit. The advertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this
advertising activity. In the background of all these efforts, is an attempt to attract the
customer towards the product through advertising. As soon as the advertising
campaign is over, a need is generally arisen to measure the effectiveness of the
campaign. Whether, it has achieved the desired results i.e. desired sales profitability
or results in terms the change in customer’ behaviour in favour of the company’s
product which will naturally, affect the future sale of the product.
In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy, two types of tests pre tests
and post tests- can be undertaken. Pre tests are generally conducted in the beginning
of the creation process or at the end of creation process or production stage. There are
several pre and post tests techniques to measure the effectiveness of the advertising
copy.
The effectiveness of advertising in a particular media may also be measured
in any of the following ways –
(a) By giving different addresses to different media,
(b) Different newspapers may be selected for advertisements of different departments,
(c) Coupon blank etc. May be provided with the advertisement or
(d) Enquiry from consumers should mention the name of the source of information.
The technique is known as keying the advertising. Thus in measuring the
effectiveness of advertising we include measuring of the effectiveness of advertising
campaign, advertising copy and the effectiveness of individual media. This chapter
deals these three problems.
Importance of measuring the Effectiveness of Advertising
(1) It acts as a Safety measure
Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective advertisement and
advertising campaigns. It facilitates timely adjustments in advertising to make
advertising consumer oriented and result oriented. Thus waste of money in faulty
advertising can be avoided.
(2) Provides feedback for remedial measures
Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to
take remedial steps against ineffective advertisements.
(3) Avoids possible failure
Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising
campaign. Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to
avoid complete loss.
(4) To justify the Investment in Advertising
The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. The investment
in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt out clearly
indicating the results expected from the campaign. The rate and size of return should
be determined in advance. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of
additional profits, the advertisement can be considered as effective one.
(5) To know the communication Effect
The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their
communication effects on the target consumers or audience. The main purpose of
advertising is communicated the general public, and existing and prospective
consumers, various information about the product and the company. It is therefore
desirable to seek post measurements of advertising in order to determine whether
advertisement have been seen or heard or in other words whether they have
communicated the theme, message or appeal of the advertising.
(6) Compare two markets
Under this procedure, advertising is published in test markets and results are
contrasted with other. Markets – so called control markets – which have had the
regular advertising program. The measurements made to determine results may be
measurements of change in sales, change in consumer attitudes, changes in dealer
display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the advertiser.
METHODS OF MEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS
Advertising is aimed at improving the sales volume of a concern so its effectiveness
can be evaluated by its impact on sales. Most of the managers believe that the
advertisement directly affects the sales volume and hence they evaluate the
effectiveness of the advertising campaign by the increase in the sales volume.
There may be two types measures

(i) Direct measures: and

(ii) Indirect measures:-

(1) Direct Measures of Advertising Effectiveness


Under direct measures, a relationship between advertising and sales is established. A
comparison of sales of two periods or two periods or two markets may be done and
the corresponding changes may be noted. The following are some of the methods that
are generally used in measuring that advertising effects.
(a) Historical Sales Method
Some insights into the effectiveness of past advertising may be obtained by measuring
the relationship between the advertising expenditure and the total sales of the product.
A multiple regression analysis of advertising expenditure and sales over several time
periods may be calculated. It would show how the changes in advertising expenditure
have corresponding changes in sales volume. This technique estimates the
contribution that advertising has made to explaining in a co relational manner rather
than a casual sales, the variation in sales over the time periods covered in the study
(b) Experimental Control
The other measure of advertising effectiveness is the method of experimental control
where a casual relationship between advertising and sales is established. This method
is quite expensive when related to other advertising effectiveness measures yet it is
possible to isolate advertising contribution to sales. Moreover this can be done as a
pre-test to aid advertising in choosing between alternative creative designs. Media
schedules expenditure levels or some combination of these advertising decision areas.
One experimental approach to measuring the sales effectiveness of advertising is test
marketing.

(i) Before-after with Control Group Design


This classic design uses several test and control cities in this design two types of cities
are selected. Cities in which advertising campaigns are affected may be named as test
cities and other cities may be called central cities. First of all, the normal sales level is
calculated for both type of cities prior to advertising campaign, and then the
advertising campaign is presented to the test cities and not the central cities. The
effect of advertising campaign, can then, be measured by subtracting the amount of
post campaign figure of sale from the pre campaign sale figures in test cities
(ii) Multivariable Experimental Designs
While the experimental design discussed above yields a reasonably accurate estimate
of the effects of the advertising on sales, it is not successful in explaining the success
or failure of the campaign itself. Multivariable designs Produce these explanations
and are, therefore used by some very large firm because of their diagnostic value.The
power of this multivariable factorial design is explained by G.H.Brown, former Fords
Director of Marketing Research. For any single medium, eight possible geographic
areas have been exposed and eight have not been exposed. Thus, in this experimental
model it is possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all
possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible
combinations with other media.
(2) Indirect Measures
As it is very difficult to measure the direct effect of advertising on company’s profits
or sales, most firms rely heavily on indirect measures. These measures do not evaluate
the effects of advertisements directing on sales or profits but all other factors such as
customer awareness or attitude or customer recall of advertising message affect the
sales or profits or goals of the business indirectly. Despite the uncertainties about the
relationship between the intermediate effects of advertising and the ultimate results,
there is no other alternative but to use indirect measures. The most commonly used
measures are –
(i) Exposure to Advertisement
In order to be effective, the advertisement must gain exposure. The management is
concerned about the number of target audiences who see or hear the organization
message set in the advertisement. Without exposure, advertisement is bound to
failure. Marketers or advertisers may obtain an idea of exposure generated by the
medium by examining its circulation or audience data which reveal the number of
copies of the magazine, newspaper or journal sold the number of persons passing the
billboards or riding in transit facilities, or the number of persons living in the
televiewing or radio listening area, and the number of persons switching on their T.V.
and radio sets at various points of time. This number can be estimated by interviewing
the numbers of the audience for different media.
(ii) Attention or Recall of Advertising Message Content
This is one of the widely used measures of advertising results. Under this measure, a
recall of the message content among a specified group or groups or prospective
customers is measured within 24 hours of the exposure of the advertisement.
Attention value is the chief quality of the advertising copy the advertisements cannot
be said to be effective unless they attract the attention of the target consumers. There
are two methods for evaluating the attention getting value of the advertisements. One
is pre-test and the other is post-test. In a pre-test evaluation, the consumers are asked
to indicate the extent to which they recognise or recall the advertisement, they have
already seen. This test is conducted in the laboratory setting. Here consumers read,
hear or listen to the advertisement and then researchers ask question regarding the
advertisement just to test the recall and then evaluate it. In post-test method, the
consumers are asked questions about the indication of recognition or recall after the
advertisement has been run. These measures assume that customers can recall or
recognize what they have viewed or listened to. Various mechanical devices are being
used in the western countries which provide indices of attention such as eye-camera
etc.
(iii) Brand Awareness
The marketers who rely heavily on advertising often appraise its effectiveness by
measuring the customer’s awareness about the particular product or brand. The
assumption of this type of measure is that there is a direct relationship between the
advertisements and the awareness. This type of measure is also subject to the same
criticisms as is applicable to direct measures of effectiveness (sales measures because
awareness is also not the direct result of the advertisements. It is also affected by
many other factors. But, for new products, changes in awareness can often be
attributed to the influence of advertising.

(iv) Comprehension
Consumers generally use advertisements as a means of obtaining information about
the product, brand or the manufacturer. They cannot be informed unless they
comprehend the message (grasp the message mentally and understand it fully).
Various tests for valuating comprehension are available –
One is recall tests – an indicator of comprehension because it is evident that
consumers recall what they comprehend. Another measure of the variable is to ask
questions about subjects how much they have comprehended a message they have
recently heard or seen. One may employ somewhat imprecise test of the
comprehension of a newspaper and radio advertisement. One may ask typical target
consumers from time to time such questions like ‘what did you think of our new
commercial?’ and ‘Did it get the message across’? The answers of these questions
will provide sufficient insight into advertising decision making.
(v) Attitude Change
Since advertising is considered to be one way of influencing the state of the mind of
the audience towards a product, service or organisation, the results are very often
measured in terms of attitudes among groups exposed to advertising communication.
Several measures are used ranging from asking the questions about willingness to buy
the likelihood of buying to the measurement of the extent to which specific attributes
(such as modern or new) are associated with a product.
(vi) Action
One objective of advertisement may be assumed to be to stimulate action or behavior.
The action or intention to take an action may be measured on the intention to buy
measuring instrument. Under this type of measure, consumers are asked to respond
why they are interested in purchasing the product or brand. One type of action that
advertisers attempt to induce is buying behavior. The assumption is that if an increase
in sales follows a decrease in advertising expenditure, the change in sales levels are
good indicators of the effectiveness of advertising. Logic suggests that measurement
of sales is preferable to other measurements.
Thus, these above measures (direct or indirect) are used to evaluate the effectiveness
of advertisements. It seems from the analysis of the above methods of measuring
effectiveness that directly or indirectly changes in sales or profits are taken as the
measuring rod of the effectiveness of the advertising.
COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT
The management should attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising
campaign if the firm’s advertising goals are to be achieved and the ad effectiveness is
to be increased. By regular evaluation of the effectiveness, the short comings and the
plus points would be revealed and the management would be able to improve the
campaign by negating the shortcomings and retaining the favorable point. For this
purpose, it is very necessary to know how advertising affects the buyer’s behaviors.
But this is very difficult task because measurements are imperfect and imprecise.
The effectiveness of advertising can be measured by the extent, it to which it achieves
the objectives set for it. If it succeeds in attaining the objectives. Advertising can be
said to be effective otherwise it will be a waste of money and time. In this sense,
advertising can be recognized as a business activity like other activities.
In a very real sense the integrity of promotional activities rests on how well those
activities work. An advertising budget that is spent on some poorly defined task or on
undefined tasks may be regarded as an economic waste as compared to that spent to
achieve the well defined objectives for which the results can be measured. Any social
institution upon which a significant portion of our total productive efforts is expanded
should be able to point to its specific accomplishment. Indeed, it is a source of
discomfort that specific results of advertising activities have not always been subject
to precise measurement. Both practitioners and critics feel that promotional activities
should only be accepted as socio – economic – institution with full right and
privileges “when the means
exist to prove that advertising super are productive rupees’ It is undoubtedly a source
of embarrassment that we cannot exactly measure the effectiveness of advertising in
definitive terms.
The exact result of advertisement expenditure is very difficult to predict because.-
(a) The reaction of consumer – buyers to the advertising efforts cannot be known in
advance.
(b) The reaction of competitors in the field cannot be guessed in anticipation and
(c) The unexpected events (such as change in social and economic environment and
the government policies etc.) cannot be accurately anticipated. Such events may
influence the results of the advertising efforts. If we take a hypothetical case of a
retailer who contract to spent Rs.5000 on advertisement with a local newspaper for a
special sales even. The advertisement is seen and the response is much greater than it
is anticipated. What caused the success of sale? They message theme colors etc., of
the advertisement or the low prices quoted during the sale of the superior quality of
the product or absence of competition in the market on the day or the favorable.
Weather conditions or the goodwill of the firm etc. The overwhelming success of the
sale is the joint result of all the above variables and it is quite impossible to isolate the
role of any one variable. It is so because the cause and effect – relationship cannot be
established in advance when a multitude of variable impinge upon a particular event.
It is entirely possible that a poor advertising support may push up the sale because
everything else falls into its proper place or the reverse may be possible. But it does
not mean that that we cannot measure the effects of particulars advertising effort. The
advertising executives are much concerned about the assessment of the effectiveness
of the advertising efforts. For this purpose, the management needs answers to such
questions as: was the advertising campaign really successful in attaining the
advertising goals? Were our T.V. commercials as good as those of our competitors?
Will the print advertisement, which we have designed, make consumers aware of our
new product? To get answers of these questions, various tests of effectiveness (Pre-
tests and post – tests ) are deeded to determine whether proposed advertisement
should be used, and if they are not satisfactory how they might be improved, and
whether on going campaign should be stopped continued or changed. Pre- tests are
conducted before exposing target consumers to the advertisements and post tests after
consumers have been exposed to them.
As indicated earlier, the advertisers are interested in knowing what they are getting for
their advertising rupees, So they test the proposed advertisement with pre test and
measure the actual results with a post test. In the past, protesting was done by the
advertising agencies but now the advertisers have been taking an increasingly active
role in protesting process. Pre test may be done either before an advertisement has
been designed or executed after it is ready for public distribution or at both points.
During protesting there is often research on three vital questions:-
(i) Do consumers feel that the advertisement communicates something desirable about
the product?
(ii) Does the message have an exclusive appeal that differentiates the product from
that of the competitors?
(iii) Is the advertisement believable?
Although a lot of money is spent on protesting yet the advertisers like to confirm the
results by post testing of their promotional campaigns due to the following reasons:-
(i) There is a need produce more effective advertising by retaining the good and
removing the bad.
(ii) The advertising executives can prove to the satisfaction of the management that a
higher advertising budget will benefit the firm.
(iii) There is a need for measuring the results to determine the level of expenditure
that is most promising.
Most research focuses on the communication effect rather than sales effect because it
is a long run process. In the short run, however sales may be slight and important but
in the long run its effects ob brands and companies may be of great importance.
Indirectly it will affect the sales in the long run, by changing the consumer awareness
and attitude. The advertisers are therefore, concerned with their impact on consumer
awareness and attitude.
The communication effect on sales may be presented in the following figure:-
Communication Effect on Sales
Awareness builds a favorable or at least a curious attitude towards the product which
leads to experimentation. If consumer is satisfied with the trial he may decide to
purchase the product. There are many critical and unresolved issues in determining
how to test the communication effects of advertising. Among these are:-
(1) Exposure Conditions – Should advertising be tested under realistic conditions or
under more controlled laboratory conditions?
(2) Execution – Protesting a finished advertisement as an expensive and time
consuming. Does protesting a preliminary execution produce accurate and useful
data?
(3) Quality Vs. Quantity Data- Quantitative data are the easiest and the almost precise
measurement. But qualitative data collected through interviews may provide
information that short answer questions never can.

Many types of advertising tests are conducted (different methods of pre tests and post
– test are given in question number) In T.V. commercials are tested by inviting a
group of people to the studio to view a program. The audience is then surveyed about
the commercials. Print advertisements are tested through dummy magazine portfolio
tests.
Compunction Effectiveness Vs Sales Effectiveness
It is easier to assess the communication effect of advertising than the sales effect.
Many firms try to measure the effectiveness of advertising in terms of sales results but
this practice is always misleading. Since, the effect is the result of so many variables,
a distinct effect of advertising on sales cannot be correctly measured, Although there
may be some exceptions. For example direct mail advertising can effectively be
measured by the inquiries received. But in many situations the exact relationship
between advertising activity and sales cannot be established satisfactorily.
We can correctly assume that some sales will occur even though there is no
advertising or little advertising or conversely there will be no increase in sales after
the point of saturation is reached or it may be that sales will show a decreasing trend
at this point in spite of large amount of expenditure on advertising is done. It is so
because advertising is no the only variable that effect the sales.
Thus, we may conduct that sales effect of advertising is difficult to measure because a
number of variables affect the quantum of tales and the contribution of advertisement
cannot be measured separately unless all other variables are presumed to be constant.
This situation is quite hypothetical and almost nonexistent. Added to this is the fact
that advertisement itself is made of a variety of variables such as media, messages,
colours, page or time of the day, locations, the size of the headline and the appeals
used. Thus even if the advertising variable is separated this would still not answer the
question about the effectiveness of the individual components of the advertising
campaign. So advertisers try to measure the communication effect of the advertising.

Suitability
In small business firms where the marketing research resources are limited advertising
managers may decide on less expensive and less relevant measures. The big business
house, which has more access to research, may decide on the more relevant and
expensive measures.
Factors Affecting Advertising
The final external factor in the planning framework concerns environmental factor
social, legal, and global. Law forbids deceptive advertising. One solution is to create
brand advertising that is vague and contains little specific information. However, such
an approach can result not only in ineffective advertising; by it can lessen the social
value of advertising by reducing the amount for useful information that it provides to
society. Thus, and advertiser who attempts to provide specific, relevant information
must be well aware of advertising regulation.
Even more difficult consideration for people involved in the advertising effort is
broad social and economic issues. Another concern is that advertising, especially
when it is more irritating than entertaining, is an intrusion into an already excessively
polluted environment. A whole set of rules is emerging to cover advertising directed
at children, and advertising for products such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the use of
environmental and health claims in advertising.
Thus advertising has a tremendous impact on international marketing and the two
concepts therefore go hand in hand and are dependent on each other.

IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT
Advertising has an important effect on a country’s economy, society, culture, and
political system. This is especially true in the United States where the advertising
industry plays such a prominent role.
1. Economic Impact

Most economists believe that advertising has a positive impact on the economy
because it stimulates demand for products and services, strengthening the economy by
promoting the sale of goods and services. Manufacturers know that advertising can
help sell a new product quickly, enabling them to recoup the costs of developing new
products. By stimulating the development of new products, advertising helps increase
competition. Many economists believe that increased competition leads to lower
prices, thereby benefiting consumers and the economy as a whole. These economists
also argue that by interesting consumers in purchasing goods, advertising enables
manufacturers and others to sell their products in larger quantities. The increased
volume of sales enables companies to produce individual units at lower costs and
therefore, sell them at a lower price. Advertising thus benefits consumers by helping
lower prices.
Other economists, however, believe that advertising is wasteful. They argue that the
cost of advertising adds to the cost of goods and that most advertising simply
encourages consumers to buy one brand rather than another. According to this view,
advertising simply moves sales from one company to another, rather than increasing
sales overall and thereby benefiting the economy as a whole.

2. Social Impact

Advertising can have wide-ranging repercussions on a society. Some critics suggest


that advertising promotes a materialistic way of life by leading people to believe that
happiness is achieved by purchasing products. They argue that advertising creates a
consumer culture in which buying exciting new products becomes the foundation of
the society's values, pleasures, and goals.
Other critics express concern over the way advertising has affected women and racial
minority groups. Ads in the 1950s depicted women primarily as decoration or sex
objects. Although millions of women worked outside the home in the 1960s, ads
continued to focus on their role as homemakers. Whether owing to the feminist
movement or to women's increasing economic power, after the 1960s it became more
common to see women depicted in professional roles. However, many ads today still
emphasize a woman’s sexuality.
The way advertising has depicted racial minorities has also been harmful. Prior to
1960, African Americans were usually shown in a subordinate position. Due to the
influence of the civil rights movement, however, advertisers by the 1980s had begun
to depict African Americans as students, professionals, or business people. However,
many African American organizations and community activists continue to object to
the way that alcohol and tobacco companies have seemingly targeted low-income
minority communities with a heavy preponderance of outdoor advertising for their
products.
As ads have begun to more fully reflect the lives of women and African Americans in
the United States, increasing attention has been paid to the way in which advertising
shows other ethnic groups, including Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and
Eastern Europeans. There is still considerable debate over how advertising influences
public perception of gender and of particular ethnic groups.
Advertising has a major social impact by helping sustain mass communications media
and making them relatively inexpensive, if not free, to the public. Newspapers,
magazines, radio, and broadcast television all receive their primary income from
advertising. Without advertising, many of these forms of mass communication might
not exist to the extent that they do today, or they might be considerably more
expensive, offer less variety, or even be subject to government control through
subsidies. In-depth news programs, a diversity of magazines, and free entertainment
might no longer be widely available.
At the same time, however, some critics warn that because advertising plays such a
major economic role, it may exercise undue influence on the news media and thereby
curtail the free flow of information in a free society. Reporters and editors, for
example, may be hesitant to develop a news story that criticizes a major advertiser. As
a result, society might not be alerted to harmful or potentially harmful conduct by the
advertiser. Most members of the news media deny that pressure from an advertiser
prevents them from pursuing news stories involving that advertiser, but some
members of the media acknowledge that they might not be inclined to investigate an
issue aggressively if it threatened to offend a major advertiser.
Advertisers may affect media programming in other ways, too, critics charge. For
example, companies that sponsor TV programs prefer relatively wholesome,
noncontroversial programming to avoid offending a mass audience. This preference
causes TV networks to emphasize this type of programming. The result is that society
may be denied the benefits of being able to view challenging or highly original
entertainment programs or news programs on controversial issues. Because
advertisers are especially interested in attracting the 18 to 34 year olds who account
for most consumer spending, television shows are often developed with this audience
in mind. If the ratings show that a program is not attracting large audiences,
particularly among 18 to 34 year olds, advertisers often withdraw support, which
causes a program to be canceled. As a result, shows that are more likely to interest
and to be of value to older audiences are not produced.
The impact of television on young children has received much attention. Research
suggests that children see television advertising as just another form of programming
and react uncritically to its messages, which makes them especially vulnerable to
advertising. There is also concern about the way in which adolescent girls respond to
advertising that features beautiful, thin models. Research indicates that many
adolescent girls are unduly influenced by this standard of beauty, become dissatisfied
with their own bodies, and may develop eating disorders in pursuit of a thin figure.
New research suggests that adolescent boys are also being influenced by advertising
images of bulked-up, buffed bodies. As a result, many become dissatisfied with their
own body image, devote large amounts of time to weightlifting, and may even take
drugs that have harmful side effects in order to develop more muscle. Those over the
age of 60 are thought to be less influenced by advertising, but some elderly people no
longer process messages as easily as younger people, making them more susceptible
to questionable advertising claims.

3. Political Impact

Advertising is now a major component of political campaigns and therefore has a big
influence on the democratic process itself. In 1998 more than $467 million was spent
on election campaigns in the United States. That amount of spending placed political
advertising in the ranks of the country’s 30 leading advertisers that year. Political
advertising is a relatively new development in U.S. history. Advertising professionals
did not become involved in electoral campaigns until the 1950s. But since then,
political advertising has grown in sophistication and complexity.
Political advertising enables candidates to convey their positions on important issues
and to acquaint voters with their accomplishments and personalities. Television
advertising is especially effective for candidates running for national or statewide
office because it can reach so many people at once. Candidates can also use
advertising to respond effectively to the charges of their opponents.
Various campaign finance reform proposals, however, have tried to address the
impact of television advertising on political campaigning. Because of the high cost of
television ads, the costs of political campaigns have skyrocketed, making it necessary
for candidates to raise money continually, even after they have been elected to office.
Critics say this factor jeopardizes the democratic process by making elected officials
beholden to wealthy contributors and by making it more likely that only the wealthy
will run for office. Some reform proposals have called for free airtime, but television
and radio networks have resisted this idea.
Critics of political advertising also charge that the 30-second television spot has
become more important to a political campaign than a thorough discussion of the
issues. As a result, voters are bombarded with image advertising rather than being
acquainted with the candidate’s positions. They contend that this practice is harmful
to good government. Issues are simplified, and candidates are “packaged and sold”
much like a consumer product, thereby distorting the political process.
4. Cultural Impact

Advertising can affect cultural values. Some advertising messages, for example,
encourage aggressive individualism, which may clash with the traditional cultural
values of a country where the collective or group is emphasized over the individual or
humility or modesty is preferred to aggressiveness. With the globalization of the
world economy, multinational corporations often use the same advertising to sell to
consumers around the world. Some critics argue that advertising messages are thus
helping to break down distinct cultural differences and traditional values, causing the
world to become increasingly homogeneous.
Many advertising campaigns, however, have universal appeal, overriding cultural
differences, or they contribute to culture in a positive way. Humor in advertising has
made many ad campaigns widely popular, in some cases achieving the status of
folklore or taking on new life in another arena. For example, a popular ad campaign
for a fast-food chain with the slogan “Where’s the beef?” became part of the 1980
Democratic presidential primary campaign between Gary Hart and Walter Mondale.
The ad ridiculed a competitor by depicting a small hamburger patty dwarfed by a
huge bun. During a primary debate one of the candidates used the ad slogan to suggest
that his opponent’s campaign lacked substance.
CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
DESIGN

RESEARCH PROBLEM
Advertising these days is the major tool of promotion and without advertising it is
very difficult for any company to survive in this competitive world. The youth being
one of the major people amongst the population being targeted by the companies and
the companies now days are coming out with the products which are specially meant
for the youth.
The research would be regarding the effects of advertising on the customers in with
special reference to the students in Delhi region. The customers tend buy the product
when they watch the advertisements and what would be the major focus of the
research is that the frequency of advertisements has a impact on the repeat purchase.
So what really needs to be found is that do the advertisements tend to boost the sales
of the company as companies are investing huge amounts in the advertising activities.
So is the practice made by the companies fruitful or it is only an expense and whether
there is a significant difference in the attitudes of school students and the college
students for the advertisements.

OBJECTIVES
• To study the impact of advertisement on students in Delhi
• To study the association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase
level of customers
• To study the difference between the impact of advertisement on college and
school students.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis I
7Ho : There is no significant impact of advertisement on the students in Delhi.
Ha : There is a significant impact of advertisement on students in Delhi.
Hypothesis II

Ho : There is no significant association between frequency of advertising and


repeat purchase level of customers.
Ha : There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and
repeat purchase level of customers.

Hypothesis III

Ho : There is no significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college


students and school students.
Ha : There is a significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college
students and school students.

TYPE OF RESEARCH
• Descriptive Type of Research.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This would help us to know the impact of advertisements on the students who live in
Delhi and would make it clear that what companies should do more in order to attract
the youth towards them.

SCOPE OF STUDY
Since my research is comprises of the students only in Delhi Region, so future
researches can be conducted on the students all over India to get better and accurate
results.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Universe : All Students in India.


Population : Students in Delhi.
Sampling Frame : Students in North Delhi.
Sample : Students in Ashok Vihar, Pitampura, Rohini, Model Town.
Sample Size : 100 Students (50 students in college and 50 students in
schools)
Sampling Technique : Convenience Sampling

EXPECTED OUTCOME OF THE RESEARCH


The outcome which is expected is that there would be a considerable impact of
advertising on the students, as students these days are more inclined towards the latest
trends prevailing in the market and also like to link themselves with the known brands
and products. Companies these days are investing huge amounts just to make their
products known amongst the people, so that they could make attract customers and
make them buy those products.

DATA COLLECTION TOOL


Primary Data : Questionnaire, Survey Method.

Secondary Data : Journals, Magazines, Reports, Websites.

CHAPTER-4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING, DATA ANALYSIS


AND INTERPRETATION
1. From where do you get information about the new product?

Answers No. of respondents


Television 42
Newspapers 26
Magazines 11
Internet 6
Peers (Family / Friends) 15

Interpretation:

A large size of population is influenced by Television and Newspapers. Which means


advertisement would be the best medium to get them the information to the youth .

2. Which form of advertisement do you like more?

Answers No. of respondents


Still image 28
Moving image 72
Interpretation:

People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. Specially in this case
where 50 college and 50 school student is contributing to this survey result it is more
likely to be students are from Delhi would like more moving image advertisement
rather than going for the still or print media advertisement.

3. For you advertisement is a source of :

Answers No. of respondents


Information 62
Entertainment 38
Interpretation:

More number of Delhi’s Student consider advertisement as a source of information


rather than a source of entertainment. Out of 100 student 62% of them are going for
the advertisement because of the information that they will get from that for example
latest trend and what phone going to be launch in the market etc.

4. Does entertaining advertisement affect your opinion about the product?

Answers No. of respondents


NO 26
Yes 74
Interpretation:

Entertaining advertisement does affect the opinion of customer about the product
which is one of the objective of the project to find out where as Advertisement affects
the customer perception towards the product. This has been told by the 74% of the
students from the Delhi and from the schools and college going as well. Here from
this question we got to know if the advertisement is more interesting It would be liked
by the students more and more.

5. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about


the product?

Answers No. of respondents


Yes 87
No 13
Interpretation:

Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of


consumers about the product, which means 87% of the students are said yes it is
impact on there purchasing behavior so it is most important factor for the students to
target on.

6. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the


product?

Answers No. of respondents


Yes 63
No 37
Interpretation:

Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about
the product. Which is the one of objective to reach out because student looking for
more trendy and stylish advertisement pattern which is told by the 63% of students
from school and college.

7. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion


about the product?

Answers No. of respondents


Yes 69
No 31
Interpretation:

Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product
because most of the student are influence by the celebrity 69% of the students are
given there views that yes if any celebrity will comes to the ad that will influence
there purchasing behavior.

8. Does intensity (frequency) of the advertisement affects your opinion about


the product?

Answers No. of respondents


Yes 52
No 48
Interpretation:

The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the
product. This is one of our objective to be reach out also because the frequency of
advertisement will increase the brand recall of the students which is admitted by the
52% of the students from Delhi.

9. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion


about the product?

Answers No. of respondents


Yes 59
No 41
Interpretation:
Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of
consumers about the product. In coming months of advertisement there are lot many
social issues covered by the organization w.r.t social advertisement yes 63% of the
student changes there buying behavior only because of that.

10. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product?

Answers No. of respondents


Yes 87
No 13
Interpretation:

Advertisement helps very much in increasing the sales of any product. It has been
proved from this question that it will impact on the customer directly if the company
launched any good advertisement. 87% of the people suggested for the same as per
our study.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

Hypothesis I

Ho : There is no significant impact of advertisement on the students in Delhi.


1. What impact is most for the purchasing of any new product for you?
Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree. 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5.
Strongly Disagree.

A. Advertisement
B. Money
C. Price
D. Availability of product
E. Quality of the product.
F. Brand.
C. Promotion.
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
Advertisement 10 21 11 40 18
Money 45 34 1 2 18
Price 45 17 4 31 3
Availability 15 23 7 22 33
Quality of the
product. 44 34 6 9 7
Brand. 29 39 12 10 10
Promotion. 37 27 12 14 10

Chi-Square Test

Advertisement

Observed N Expected N Residual


10.00 1 1.0 .0
11.00 1 1.0 .0
18.00 1 1.0 .0
21.00 1 1.0 .0
40.00 1 1.0 .0
Total 5

Money

Observed N Expected N Residual


1.00 1 1.0 .0
2.00 1 1.0 .0
18.00 1 1.0 .0
34.00 1 1.0 .0
45.00 1 1.0 .0
Total 5

Price

Observed N Expected N Residual


3.00 1 1.0 .0
4.00 1 1.0 .0
17.00 1 1.0 .0
31.00 1 1.0 .0
45.00 1 1.0 .0
Total 5

Availability
Observed N Expected N Residual
7.00 1 1.0 .0
15.00 1 1.0 .0
22.00 1 1.0 .0
23.00 1 1.0 .0
33.00 1 1.0 .0
Total 5

Quality

Observed N Expected N Residual


6.00 1 1.0 .0
7.00 1 1.0 .0
9.00 1 1.0 .0
34.00 1 1.0 .0
44.00 1 1.0 .0
Total 5

Brand

Observed N Expected N Residual


10.00 2 1.3 .8
12.00 1 1.3 -.3
29.00 1 1.3 -.3
39.00 1 1.3 -.3
Total 5

Promotion

Observed N Expected N Residual


10.00 1 1.0 .0
12.00 1 1.0 .0
14.00 1 1.0 .0
27.00 1 1.0 .0
37.00 1 1.0 .0
Total 5

Test Statistics

Advertisement Money Price Availability Quality Brand Promotion


Chi-
.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .600 .000
Square(a,b)
df 4 4 4 4 4 3 4
Asymp. Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 .896 1.000
a 5 cells (100.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.0.
b 4 cells (100.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.3.
CORRELATION TEST
Correlations

Advertisem Availabilit Promotio


ent Money Price y Quality Brand n
Advertisem Pearson
1 -.448 .166 .392 -.342 -.278 -.340
ent Correlation
Sig. (2-
.450 .789 .514 .573 .650
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
Money Pearson
-.448 1 .516 .135 .933(*) .816 .891(*)
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.450 .373 .828 .021 .092
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
Price Pearson
.166 .516 1 -.179 .690 .372 .760
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.789 .373 .774 .198 .538
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
Availability Pearson
.392 .135 -.179 1 -.126 -.066 -.227
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.514 .828 .774 .839 .916
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
Quality Pearson
-.342 .933(*) .690 -.126 1 .885(*) .989(**)
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.573 .021 .198 .839 .046
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
Brand Pearson
-.278 .816 .372 -.066 .885(*) 1 .828
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.650 .092 .538 .916 .046
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
Promotion Pearson
-.340 .891(*) .760 -.227 .989(**) .828 1
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.575 .043 .136 .714 .001 .084
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5 5 5
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
As per the correlation and chi square test suggested that the Advertisement does not
seems to be significant here and there is no significant impact of the advertisement on
student because if we asked for the most valuable and the crucial things for the
student to make a purchase decision our correlation test suggested that it would be
pocket money and the quality of that product which is also correlation by the 93.33%
so major factor for the student is not the advertisement but the money that they have.
Advertisement is impacted negatively as per the chi square test tells us that the
probability that a standard deviation would be less than or equal to is 0.44. This
means (by the subtraction rule) that the probability that the standard deviation would
be greater is 1 - 0.96 or .04.
Ha : There is a significant impact of advertisement on students in Delhi.

2. If you have a money from where you get the maximum information about the
product that you want to purchase?
Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree. 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5.
Strongly Disagree.

A. Advertisement
B. Friend
C. Relative
D. Direct sales team
E. Promotion.

Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
Advertisement 42 38 5 8 7
Friend 34 34 1 11 20
Relative 18 17 14 31 20
Direct sales team 15 14 7 31 33
Promotion. 29 39 6 19 7

T-Test

One-Sample Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Advertisement 5 20.0000 18.34394 8.20366
Friend 5 20.0000 14.43953 6.45755
Relative 5 20.0000 6.51920 2.91548
Direct Sales 5 20.0000 11.40175 5.09902
Promotion 5 20.0000 14.21267 6.35610

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0
95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Mean
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Difference Lower Upper
Advertisement 2.438 4 .071 20.00000 -2.7770 42.7770
Friend 3.097 4 .036 20.00000 2.0710 37.9290
Relative 6.860 4 .002 20.00000 11.9053 28.0947
Direct Sales 3.922 4 .017 20.00000 5.8429 34.1571
Promotion 3.147 4 .035 20.00000 2.3526 37.6474

Correlations

Advertisement Friend Relative Direct Sales Promotion


Advertisement Pearson Correlation 1 .899(*) -.293 -.387 .893(*)
Sig. (2-tailed) .038 .633 .520 .041
N 5 5 5 5 5
Friend Pearson Correlation .899(*) 1 -.146 -.009 .813
Sig. (2-tailed) .038 .815 .988 .095
N 5 5 5 5 5
Relative Pearson Correlation -.293 -.146 1 .763 -.005
Sig. (2-tailed) .633 .815 .133 .993
N 5 5 5 5 5
Direct Sales Pearson Correlation -.387 -.009 .763 1 -.242
Sig. (2-tailed) .520 .988 .133 .695
N 5 5 5 5 5
Promotion Pearson Correlation .893(*) .813 -.005 -.242 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .041 .095 .993 .695
N 5 5 5 5 5
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

As per the our alternate hypothesis suggested that the it makes sense when we are
saying the advertisement makes impact over the student in Delhi Correlation test
suggested that the significance level of the advertisement is much higher i.e. 71% as t
test reflects that which means advertisement does impact when we are saying that
Student customer behaviour influence by the various factor. So our alternative
hypothesis has been proved that it makes impact to the student of Delhi.

Hypothesis II
Ho : There is no significant association between frequency of advertising and
repeat purchase level of customers.
1. Does advertisement is appealing you most of time to purchase same product or
what factor most of time influence you to repurchase the same brand?
Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree. 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5.
Strongly Disagree.

A. Quality
B. Customer service’
C. Advertisement
D. Necessity
E. Offers

Strongly Neutra Disagre Strongly


Agree Agree l e Disagree
Quality 44 34 6 9 7
Customer
service’ 44 33 1 10 12
Advertisement 20 10 19 31 20
Necessity 56 14 18 2 10
Offers 19 39 6 19 17

Correlations
Quality CS Advertisement Necessity Offers
Quality Pearson Correlation 1 .979(**) -.467 .763 .599
Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .427 .133 .285
N 5 5 5 5 5
CS Pearson Correlation .979(**) 1 -.416 .725 .674
Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .486 .166 .213
N 5 5 5 5 5
Advertisement Pearson Correlation -.467 -.416 1 -.218 -.357
Sig. (2-tailed) .427 .486 .725 .556
N 5 5 5 5 5
Necessity Pearson Correlation .763 .725 -.218 1 -.020
Sig. (2-tailed) .133 .166 .725 .974
N 5 5 5 5 5
Offers Pearson Correlation .599 .674 -.357 -.020 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .285 .213 .556 .974
N 5 5 5 5 5
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlations
Quality CS Advertisement Necessity Offers
Quality Pearson Correlation 1 .979(**) -.467 .763 .599
Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .427 .133 .285
N 5 5 5 5 5
CS Pearson Correlation .979(**) 1 -.416 .725 .674
Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .486 .166 .213
N 5 5 5 5 5
Advertisement Pearson Correlation -.467 -.416 1 -.218 -.357
Sig. (2-tailed) .427 .486 .725 .556
N 5 5 5 5 5
Necessity Pearson Correlation .763 .725 -.218 1 -.020
Sig. (2-tailed) .133 .166 .725 .974
N 5 5 5 5 5
Offers Pearson Correlation .599 .674 -.357 -.020 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .285 .213 .556 .974
N 5 5 5 5 5
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Paired Samples Statistics

Std. Error
Mean N Std. Deviation Mean
Pair 1 Quality 20.0000 5 17.73415 7.93095
Advertisement 20.0000 5 7.44983 3.33167
Pair 2 CS 20.0000 5 17.81853 7.96869
Advertisement 20.0000 5 7.44983 3.33167
Pair 3 Advertisement 20.0000 5 7.44983 3.33167
Necessity 20.0000 5 20.97618 9.38083
Pair 4 Advertisement 20.0000 5 7.44983 3.33167
Offers 18.0000 5 8.18535 3.66060
Paired Samples Correlations

N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 Quality & Advertisement 5 -.467 .427
Pair 2 CS & Advertisement 5 -.416 .486
Pair 3 Advertisement & Necessity 5 -.218 .725
Pair 4 Advertisement & Offers 5 -.357 .556

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences
95%
Confidence
Interval of the
Std. Std. Difference
Deviatio Error Sig. (2-
Mean n Mean Lower Upper t df tailed)
Pai Quality - -
. 22.2148 9.934 27.58
r1 Advertisement 27.58 .000 4 1.000
00000 6 79 339
339
Pai CS - -
. 21.9886 9.833 27.30
r2 Advertisement 27.30 .000 4 1.000
00000 3 62 249
249
Pai Advertisement – -
. 23.7381 10.61 29.47
r3 Necessity 29.47 .000 4 1.000
00000 5 603 481
481
Pai Advertisement - -
2.000 12.8841 5.761 17.99
r4 Offers 13.99 .347 4 .746
00 0 94 772
772

As per the null hypothesis concern i.e. no significant association between frequency
of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers which seams to be true from the
t test and regression test which is done by the SPSS ANOVA which suggest there are
various other factor which play important role while customer going for the
purchasing for example customer service customer service of the product and the
quality will represent 97.9% of the customer happiness and in the ANOVA test of
advertisement series will have negative impact it has been prove that no significant
association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers

Ha : There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and


repeat purchase level of customers.

2. Does advertisement is appealing you most of time to purchase same product if that
product advertisement will repeat continuously please state when you influence most?
Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree. 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5.
Strongly Disagree.
A. Watching advertisement one time
B. Watching advertisement every day.
C. Watching advertisement every weekends
D. Watching advertisement in a month.
E. No advertisement impact.

Strongly Agree Neutra Disagre Strongly


Agree l e Disagree
One time 19 13 6 39 23
Every day 44 33 1 10 12
Every weekends 39 27 19 11 4
Month 12 14 18 28 28
No Adv impact 10 11 16 29 34

One-Sample Statistics
Std. Error
N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
One 5 20.0000 12.40967 5.54977
Everyday 5 20.0000 17.81853 7.96869
Weekends 5 20.0000 13.67479 6.11555
Month 5 20.0000 7.61577 3.40588
No 5 20.0000 10.88577 4.86826

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0
95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Mean
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Difference Lower Upper
One 3.604 4 .023 20.00000 4.5914 35.4086
Everyday 2.510 4 .066 20.00000 -2.1246 42.1246
Weekends 3.270 4 .031 20.00000 3.0205 36.9795
Month 5.872 4 .004 20.00000 10.5438 29.4562
No 4.108 4 .015 20.00000 6.4835 33.5165

Correlations
One Everyday Weekends Month No
One Pearson Correlation 1 -.071 -.402 .672 .633
Sig. (2-
.909 .502 .214
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5
Everyday Pearson Correlation -.071 1 .804 -.693 -.623
Sig. (2-
.909 .101 .195
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5
Weekends Pearson Correlation -.402 .804 1 -.941(*) -.930(*)
Sig. (2-
.502 .101 .017
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5
Month Pearson Correlation .672 -.693 -.941(*) 1 .983(**)
Sig. (2-
.214 .195 .017
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5
No Pearson Correlation .633 -.623 -.930(*) .983(**) 1
Sig. (2-
.252 .262 .022 .003
tailed)
N 5 5 5 5
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
In the case of Alternate hypothesis which suggested that There is a significant
association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers
so it means if the frequency of detriment increase the repurchase will increase. And
form the T-test suggested that it is valid because until or unless organization not
fleshing there advertisement regularly Student may changed there brand so if the
company doing advertisement once in a month would not required to do that because
if they will not do so 98.3% of the customer does not know about that product. So
significance level is much higher in the case of Daily advertisement for the student.
Hypothesis III

Ho : There is no significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college


students and school students.

1. Do you think in the only advertisement can change you purchasing power decision
or other factor also influences that?
Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree. 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5.
Strongly Disagree.
A. Advertisement
B. Personal contact.
C. Environment of school or College
D. Family
E. Friends.
F. Movie

Strongly Neutra Disagre Strongly


Agree Agree l e Disagree
Advertisement 22 14 17 14 33
Personal contact. 56 20 1 11 12
Environment 31 47 2 11 9
Family 32 41 1 25 1
Friends. 37 48 1 2 12
Movie 38 37 2 11 12
Ha : There is a significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college
students and school students.

1. Which way of advertisement impacts you and your personal expenses. Please
rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree. 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5.
Strongly Disagree.

A. Emotionally
B. Spreading the product knowledge
C. Brand reconnect
D. Promotionally
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
Emotionally 37 20 1 14 28
product
knowledge 35 29 1 11 24
Brand reconnect 33 47 2 11 7
Promotionally 38 49 1 11 1

It is significant from the study is there is major impact of advertisement on the school
and the college student although it may vary from the product and service provided by
the company because as per the study college student will go for accessories but the
school student go for the play and for the sports thing for example different gaming
and cartoon things or health drinks.

CHAPTER-5 MAJOR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

• People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. Specially in


this case where 50 college and 50 school student is contributing to this survey
result it is more likely to be students are from Delhi would like more moving
image advertisement rather than going for the still or print media
advertisement.
• More number of Delhi’s Student consider advertisement as a source of
information rather than a source of entertainment. Out of 100 student 62% of
them are going for the advertisement because of the information that they will
get from that for example latest trend and what phone going to be launch in the
market etc.
• Entertaining advertisement does affect the opinion of customer about the
product which is one of the objective of the project to find out where as
Advertisement affects the customer perception towards the product. This has
been told by the 74% of the students from the Delhi and from the schools and
college going as well. Here from this question we got to know if the
advertisement is more interesting It would be liked by the students more and
more.

• Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of


consumers about the product, which means 87% of the students are said yes it
is impact on there purchasing behavior so it is most important factor for the
students to target on.
• Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers
about the product. Which is the one of objective to reach out because student
looking for more trendy and stylish advertisement pattern which is told by the
63% of students from school and college.

• Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the


product because most of the student are influence by the celebrity 69% of the
students are given there views that yes if any celebrity will comes to the ad
that will influence there purchasing behavior.

• The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the
product. This is one of our objective to be reach out also because the
frequency of advertisement will increase the brand recall of the students which
is admitted by the 52% of the students from Delhi.

• Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion


of consumers about the product. In coming months of advertisement there are
lot many social issues covered by the organization w.r.t social advertisement
yes 63% of the student changes there buying behavior only because of that.
• As per the correlation and chi square test suggested that the Advertisement
does not seems to be significant here and there is no significant impact of the
advertisement on student because if we asked for the most valuable and the
crucial things for the student to make a purchase decision our correlation test
suggested that it would be pocket money and the quality of that product which
is also correlation by the 93.33% so major factor for the student is not the
advertisement but the money that they have. Advertisement is impacted
negatively as per the chi square test tells us that the probability that a standard
deviation would be less than or equal to is 0.44. This means (by the
subtraction rule) that the probability that the standard deviation would be
greater is 1 - 0.96 or .04.

CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSION

Despite the fact that advertising is an effective tool for the business along with its
being an
important element of the modern age and a fast growing industry, the public image of
advertising is still a matter of great concern. (O’Donohoe,1995). Advertising is
criticized for its presenting misleading information, promoting adverse values, fake
claims, subliminal seduction messages and persuading people to buy things they no
longer need (Katona, 1964; Pollay, 1986; Pollay and Mittal,1993). Again, this
industry is blamed of spreading unsustainable consumption patterns around the world
over and encouraging excessive consumption. All the foregoing aspects are apt to
hinder its effectiveness as well as efficiency as a marketing tool (Beales et al., 1981;
Calfee and Ringold, 1987; Pollay and Mittal, 1993; Wright, 1986). Therefore, it is
critical of the advertising concerns to follow the public opinion advertising for its for
reaching impact on the economy, cultural values and on the business itself. (Wills and
Ryans; 1982). The students represent a sizeable segment of the society. They have
dominating role in opinion making. That is why; exclusive studies on the students’
attitude towards advertising are being carried out in different parts of the world today.
To exploring the college students’ attitudes towards advertising is important for
several reasons. They are a large and ever growing segment of the populace. They
have considerable amount
of money at their disposal. They are the outstanding asset for the product and service
sellers as they are the trendsetters and early adopters. They can influence the
purchasing decisions of their peers and parents, establish brand loyalties that continue
long after the college days, and ensure a higher standard of living after their
graduation (Morton, 2001; Russell, 1996; Wolburg and Pokrywczynski, 2000).

RECOMMENDATION

This research study is an endeavor to secure adequate evidence on the consequences


of the advertising and their relationship to the general attitude of the college students
it. The results of the research clearly reveal that most of the respondents feel that the
ongoing advertising is unethical because of its deceiving, exaggerating nature for and
putting more emphasis on the sex appeals. At the same time majority of the
respondents consider the advertising to be an important tool for the economic growth,
improvement of standard of living, guaranteeing the quality products and an effective
means to curtail prices. The results of the study show very significant negative
feelings of the respondent about the social consequences of the current advertising.
The advertising is considered to be the sole source which convinces the people to buy
the products that they no more need, confuse the people by creating clutter effect,
promotes materialism and inculcate obscene values in the youth populace of Delhi.
The results of the study also depict that the college students demand lexical changes
by the regulatory authorities with the view to controlling the advertising. The results
show an overall, positive, general attitude of the college students towards the
advertising. Also, the results of the study highlight the technique as to how to assess
and evaluate the ethical, economic and social consequences of the advertising on the
part of the marketers and the regulatory authorities before they launch any campaign.
The growing ethical, social and regulatory concern of the college students as indicated
in the results of the study invites attention of the marketers and the regulatory
authorities like to avoid any disruption in the positive, general attitude towards the
advertising.

REFERENCES

Books
1. Advertising Management – concepts and cases Mahendra
Mohan.
2. Marketing Management – Philip Kotler
3. Branding – Geoffrey Randoll
4. Strategic Brand Management – Kapferer
5. Advertising and Sales Promotion Management – S.L.Gupta,
V.V.Ratra
6. Advertising and Salesmanship – P.Saravanavel.

Internet

1. www.books.google.com
2. www.paulbeelen.com
3. www.decisionanalyst.com
APPENDIX
Name: ……………………………….................................
Sex: a. Male [ ] b. Female [ ]
Age:
a. Below 20 [ ]
b. 20 to 30 [ ]
c. 30 to 40 [ ]
d. Above 40 [ ]
Occupation:
a. Student [ ]
b. Business class [ ]
c. House hold [ ]
d. Service class [ ]

1. From where do you get information about the new product?


a. Television [ ]
b. Newspapers [ ]
c. Magazines [ ]
d. Internet [ ]
e. Peers (friends/family) [ ]
1. Which form of advertisement do you like more?
a. Still image (Magazines / Newspapers) [ ]
b. Moving image (Television / Internet) [ ]
1. For you advertisement is a source of
a. Information [ ]
b. Entertainment [ ]
1. Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the
product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about
the product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about
the product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
1. Which type of advertisement influences you more?
a. National advertisement [ ]
b. Local advertisement [ ]