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Solid State Lighting

James S. Speck
Materials Department
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA
Outline

• Brief primer on light and lighting

• Impact of solid state lighting

• Technology and economics of solid state lighting

• Highlights of UCSB efforts in solid state lighting

Special thanks to M. Krames (Soraa) and D. Feezell (UCSB) for slides SSLEC
Light and Lighting
First … a few definitions (I know it’s confusing!) …

Candela (cd):
Luminous intensity from ~1 candle*
Luminous intensity Iv(λ), radiant intensity I(λ)
includes the human eye response V(λ)!

Iv(λ) = 683 V(λ) I(λ)

Lumen (lm):
Luminous flux = Luminous intensity x solid angle
e.g., sphere 4π sr

A candle: 1 cd x 4π sr = 12.6 lm

100 W lightbulb: ~1000 lm


i.e, 10 lm/W

*formally: luminous intensity at 555 nm of a source


with a radiant intensity I(λ) of 1.46 x 10-3 W/sr

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Human Eye Response
Daylight (Photopic – Cones)

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More on Light

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More on White Light

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Conventional Light Sources

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LED Retrofit Lamps Today

after Krames, CLEO Presentation, June 2009.

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Lighting Efficiency

DOE Solid State Lighting MYP – March 2011 SSLEC


Electricity Consumption in CA by End Use

Lighting accounts for 34.5% of electricity consumption in CA!

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Impact of Solid State Lighting

2030 Energy Savings from SSL in the U.S.

190 TW-hrs
= 24 GW power plants
= 31.4 tons CO2

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl
US Electricity Use:
20-25% for Lighting

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What is a Light Emitting Diode?

•  Monocrystalline atomic arrangement determines semiconductor bandgap


–  Specifies optical properties
•  Impurity doping provides p- and n-type regions
•  At forward bias, injected electrons and holes recombine
•  Energy may be released radiatively (light) or non-radiatively (heat)
•  Fundamentally non-destructive

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III-V Materials Systems for SSL

•  (Al,Ga)InP system offers red (~650 nm) to yellow (~580 nm) emission
•  (In,Ga)N system offers UV-A (~ 380 nm) to green (~550 nm) emission

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Real Atomic Scale Structure of an LED!

UCSB
m‐GaN
LED
(60
million
atom
dataset)

n‐GaN
 InGaN
Quantum
Wells
 AlGaN

EBL
 Doped
Mg
 p‐GaN


GaN

Barrier
Layers


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Example Approaches to Solid State Lighting

RYGB White
•  Multi-Primary Color Mixing
Mixing –  Color tuning option
Optics
–  Requires color control
–  Requires color mixing optics
RYGB
LEDs

•  Down-Conversion Materials
–  Typically inorganic phosphors
–  Disadvantage: Stoke’s shift
–  Advantage: integrated color mixing

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after Mueller-Mach et al., phys. stat. sol. (a) 202, 1727 (2005)
High Brightness LED Market

•  Largest segment in 2010 was mobile (cell phones, mobile computing, mp3)
•  Fastest growing segment was TV and monitor back lighting
•  General lighting expected to drive the market by 2015
•  Total available SSL market in 2020: ~$50B - $100B

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Timeline for SSL

200
Commercial

LED
Products
LEDs
2700‐4100K
150
Luminous
Efficacy,
lm/W

HID

100
TUBE
FL

COMPACT
FL
50
*U.S. Dept. of Energy
Multi-Year Plan W‐HALOGEN
INCANDESCENT
W
0
2003 2007 2011 2015 2019

•  Emerging ~ 70-80 lm/W warm white power LEDs (2700-4100K)


•  Expect > 150 lm/W power LED performance in the future

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SSL Economics – our ‘Sunshot’!

SSL Targets for 2020

$1/klm cost

Industry targets
$0.50 light engine
$0.50 electronics+base+luminaire …

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Major GaN SSL Issues: Droop

Droop – major challenge in LEDs

Droop origin: under investigation


UCSB theory: indirect Auger

Experimental verification in progress …

Kiopakis and Van de Walle, APL 98, 161107 (2011) SSLEC


Major GaN SSL Issues: Green Gap

UV
60%
SSLDC 2006 (AlxGa1-x).52In.48P
By UCSB

External Quantum Efficiency


50%
InxGa1-xN
40%

30% Nonpolar C-plane


UCSB
20%

10% Semipolar IWN06


UCSB By Nichia
0%
350 450 550 650
Peak Wavelength (nm)

New orientations of GaN


Pioneered at UCSB

Nonpolar and Semipolar

Promise to fill the green gap


… ultimate RGB solutions for SSL

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Major issue in SSL: Light Extraction
Recent UCSB work on Photonic Crystal LEDS

Rough LED PhC LED


1.6x

Improvement over rough LED:


•  25% higher EQE
3 µm 1 •  60% higher vertical output
µm power (directionality effect)

Rangel et al. APL 98, 081104 (2011)


Prospects

•  High-power LEDs
–  Beginning to enter general lighting
–  Commercial LEDs 70-80 lm/W (warm white)
–  Costs are ~ 75 lm/$ (LED) vs. ~ 5 lm/$ (lamp)
–  Compare to ~ 1000 lm/$ (general incand. bulb)

•  Adoption
–  Generally slow; slower due to high costs
–  Cost reduction breakthrough is key
–  Green trend / legislation will help
–  New markets have helped – LED LCD TV
–  Major driver/barrier: cost … our Sunshot: $1/klm

•  Energy efficiency
–  SSL has the promise to reduce global electricity consumption >10%
–  $100B/yr in energy costs, and > 200 M tonnes per yr of CO2

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Extra Slides

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LED Fabrication

LUXEON® Rebel

•  Material systems typically III-V compound semiconductor alloys


•  Layer deposition by metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition
(MOCVD)
•  Similar roadmap as for Si-based integrated circuit technology

after Krames et al., CLEO Presentation, SSLEC


June 2009
Current Light Source Efficiencies

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DOE SSL Multi-Year Program Plan: 2009-2015
Wurtzite GaN - Polarization

[0001]
c-direction
[0001]

<1010>

<1120> m-direction

a-direction

Figure: Mel McLaurin


P. Waltereit et al, Nature 406, L1329 (2000).
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Semipolar LEDs – Solution to Green Gap

Significant
improvement
has
been
made
in
the
efficiency
of
semipolar
LEDs
over
the
last
two
years


Emission
 Crystal
 Output
power
at
 EQE UV


Wavelength Orientation 20mA
60%
1413nm
SSLDC 2006 (AlxGa1-x).52In.48P
(10‐1‐1) 20.6
mW 33.9%
By UCSB

External Quantum Efficiency


2433nm 50%
(10‐1‐1) 19.7
mW 34.4% InxGa1-xN
3444nm (10‐1‐1) 16.2
mW 29%
24.3
mW
 43.5%
 40%
4489nm (11‐22) 9
mW 18%
30% Nonpolar C-plane
5519nm (11‐22) 9
mW 18.9%
UCSB
6562.7nm (11‐22) 5.9
mW 13.4% 20%

1.  Tyagi
et
al.
Jpn.
J.
Appl.
Phys.
46
(2007)
L129.
 Semipolar IWN06


10%
2.  Sato
et
al.
(unpublished)

3.  Zhong
et
al.
Appl.
Phys.
Le;.
90
(2007)
233504

UCSB By Nichia
4.  Zhong
et
al.
Electronics
Le;.
43
(2007)
No.
15.
 0%
5.  Sato
et
al.
J.
Light
and
Vis
Env.
Vol
32
(2)
p
107‐110
(2008)
 350 450 550 650
6.  Sato
et
al.
Appl.
Phys.
Le;.
92
(2008)
22110
 Peak Wavelength (nm)

Summary:


 Semipolar
LEDs
have
demonstrated
tremendous
potenOal
in
solving
the
‘green‐gap’
problem

 Experiments
to
understand
the
‘efficiency‐droop’
is
currently
in
progress

 Semipolar
LEDs
could
potenOally
be
used
for
next
generaOon
red‐LEDs
with
improved
thermal
performance


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State-of-Art GaN-based LED Performance

after Krames et al., CLEO Presentation, June 2009


•  > 60% peak external quantum efficiency
•  ~ 80% peak internal quantum efficiency
•  Slope efficiency up to 1.7 Watts/amp (blue), but decreases with drive current

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Overall System Efficiency

Cree (2010)

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