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Building a Smart Green Grid

Santa Barbara Summit


on Energy Efficiency

April 26, 2001

Steve Hauser
Vice President
Grid Integration

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.
NREL
FY2010
Funding
by
Program


3.2 | Other DOE 6.9 | Other Federal Agencies


18.2 | Electric Delivery and Non Federal Funding (WFO)
Energy Reliability
Biomass | 74.2
19.4 | Office and Science

FY10
—$536.5M

65.0 | Total Infrastructure

Building Technologies | 67.7

20.8 | EERE Program Support Federal Energy | 7.6


Management Program
13.3 | Weatherization and
Intergovernmental Program Geothermal Technology | 4.5










Hydrogen Technologies | 22.6


44.0 | Wind and Hydropower
Industrial Technologies | 0.5
International | 3.0

34.5 | Vehicle Technology


Solar Energy | 118.0
Updated 10/10

NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 
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NREL
Funding
and
Staffing


NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 
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NREL’s
Mission

Community
&

Industrial
Systems


The
Built

 TransportaIon


Sustainable
Energy
System

Integrated
and
Sustainable

Environment
 Systems


VISION
 Integrated
Systems

Sustainable
Design


Highly
Efficient
•

 Highly
Efficient
•

Integrated
Renewables
 Fuel
Flexible


By
2050,
reduce
oil
use

to
<15%
of
current
 Distributed
&
U;lity‐Scale
Renewable
Power


Electricity
GeneraIon
&
Delivery

Renewable
Fuels


Fuel
ProducIon
Systems


levels
and
CO2
 Systems


emissions
by
>80%
 Provide
Credible
and
Objec1ve
Data
and
Analyses
to
Inform


Policy
and
Investment
Decisions

NREL
Roles
and
Strategic
Intents


Deliver
Market‐Relevant

Enable
Integra1on
of

Scien1fic
and
Technical
 Increase
the
Speed
of

Renewable
and
Efficiency

Knowledge
and
 Commercializa1on
and

Technologies
in

Systems

Sustainable
Energy
 the
Scale
of
Deployment

at
all
Scales

Innova1ons


Create
the
Lab
of
the
Future
to
Support
Innova1on
and
Serve
as
a
Leadership

Example
for
Sustainable
Development


NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 
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Today’s
Electricity
System


•  Produc1on
follows
demand

•  Largely
electromechanical

•  High
carbon/low
storage

•  Blind
to
distribu1on/
demand

•  Very
liQle
informa1on
and

control

•  Central
planning,
design

and
opera1on

•  Aging
assets


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21st
Century
Electricity
System

•  Informa1on‐rich

•  Distributed
design

and
opera1on

•  Clean
tech
priority

•  Ubiquitous
storage

•  Automated

opera1ons

•  Highly
differen1ated

energy
services

•  End‐user

par1cipa1on

•  Smart
homes
&

buildings


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What
is
Grid
IntegraIon?


Integration refers to efforts to optimize performance and reduce cost


among dynamic, heterogeneous, often geographically dispersed, but
interrelated energy systems to realize common goals.

The grid is a “system of systems”, comprising systems to produce,


transport, and use energy and subsystems within each of these that
function interdependently to produce, move, store or convert energy in
various forms (e.g., heat, light, power, fuels, or embedded energy in
materials).

Integration addresses the effective design and management of the


interfaces within the energy system of system and between that SOS
and other systems (earth systems; social, political, and economic
systems; and people). It also address the lifecycle issues associated
with developing, deploying, and decommissioning energy infrastructure.

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The
Challenge:
Sustainable
Future
Grid


NREL
envisions
a
sustainable,
future
energy
system
that
is
carbon
neutral,
highly
efficient,

affordable,
reliable,
and
suppor=ve
of
high‐value
domes=c
jobs.


Our
vision
of
a
sustainable
2050

energy
system
is
one
that
provides
cri=cal
energy
services
through
a
“system
of
systems”
working

in
concert
and
tailored
to
meet
regional
needs…


Achieving
this
vision
requires
a
strong,
technical
founda1on
to
enable
effec1ve

integra1on
and
opera1on
of
renewable
energy
and
energy
efficiency
technologies,
along

with
other
clean
energy
resources,
in
systems
of
all
scales.

Among
the
key
needs:


  The
ability
to
predict
variable
resources
with
greater
certainty,
to
provide
integrated
forecast

informa1on
across
mul1ple
resources,
and
to
integrate
this
informa1on
into
decision
and

opera1onal
tools

  Scalable
models
that
can
capture
the
dynamic
nature
of
individual
behaviors
(demand
response
to

variable
pricing,
weather,
renewables
and
smart
grid)
to
op1mize
the
design
of
and
the
opera1ng

protocols
for
future
energy
systems

  Advanced
communica1on
and
control
technologies
to
manage
system
interfaces

  Cost‐effec1ve
storage
technologies
to
decouple
the
temporal
aspects
of
genera1on
and
use

  Materials
and
technologies
that
reduce
the
cumula1ve
system
inefficiencies
inherent
in

conver1ng
energy
from
one
form
to
another


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Example
IntegraIon
Challenges

Grid/Microgrid
IntegraIon

•  Understanding
the
impact
of
weather
and
variable
resources
on
load
and
genera1on
in
all
parts
of
the

system

•  Making
the
built
environment
an
ac1ve
par1cipant
in
the
larger
grid
system

•  Incorpora1ng
communica1ons
and
controls
to
make
the
system
smarter
and
to
more
fully
integrate

different
parts
of
the
system


•  Understanding
the
whole‐system
impact
of
distributed
genera1on
and
resul1ng
two‐way
power
flow

•  Accoun1ng
for
the
impacts
in
all
parts
of
the
systems
of
the
large‐scale
deployment
of
new
technology
in

any
one
part
of
the
system

•  Op1mizing
the
resource
mix
for
a
given
loca1on
and
sequencing
technology
introduc1on
while
maintaining

reliability,
minimizing
cost,
and
achieving
environmental
goals


Building
IntegraIon

•  Mul1ple
power
conversions,
with
losses,

between
source
and
use

•  Lack
of
integra1on
between
thermal
and
electrical
systems

•  Inability
to
forecast
as
buildings
adopt
more
integrated
renewables


Base
IntegraIon

•  Interconnec1ng
loads
and
generators
at
FOBs
and
op1mizing
reliable
performance
to
minimize
fuel
convoys

•  Integra1ng
conven1onal
resources,
renewables
and
loads
at
fixed
installa1ons
to
assure
reliable
power
to

cri1cal
loads
and
op1mizing
cost
performance

•  Developing
a
replicable
model
for
transforming
DoD
energy
systems
to
assure
mission
and
reduce
cost

while
mee1ng
energy
mandates
at
the
por\olio
level


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Interoperability:
Not
Just
a
Technical
Challenge


8:
Economic/Regulatory
Policy
 Fully
engaging
the

regulatory
and
policy

OrganizaIonal

(Pragma1cs)

7:
Business
Objec1ves
 communi1es

6:
Business
Procedures

Defining
new
business

5:
Business
Context

models
and

InformaIonal
 understanding
the
value

(Seman1cs)

4:
Seman1c
Understanding
 proposi1ons


3:
Syntac1c
Interoperability

Striving
for
uniformity

in
the
upper
layers,
to

Technical
 2:
Network
Interoperability

(Syntax)
 enable
scale‐up
to
large

1:
Basic
Connec1vity

markets


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Impacts
of
Storage


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Managing
Variability


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Managing
Variability


NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 
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Wind and Solar Intermittency Present Dispatch and
Distribution System Challenges
Wind
profile
paQern
in
April
2007

700

Each
Day
is
a
different
color.

600
 - Day
29

Megawafs

500
 - Day
9

400

- Day
5
 - Day
26


300


200 - Average
 NREL Mesa Solar - August (24 days)
700
100

600

0

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 23
 24
 500

‐100
Hour

400

Power (kW)
Smart
charging
has
the
 300

poten1al
to
dispatch
the
EV
 200
load
synergis1cally
with
 100
intermiQent
resources
such
as

wind
and
solar
 0

-100
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind
‐
Alec
Brooks
(Tesla
Motors),
Sven
Thesen
(PG&E).
V2G
Demonstra1on
and
Evalua1on
Program.

EVS23.
(2007)
 Hour
Solar
–
Tony
Markel,
Na1onal
Renewable
Energy
Laboratory

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High
RE
PenetraIon
Impacts
on
OperaIon

Study Area Dispatch - Week of April 10th - No Wind Study Area Dispatch - Week of April 10th - 10% R

50,000 50,000

40,000 40,000

30,000 30,000

MW
MW

20,000 20,000

Nuclear Steam Coal Wind

Solar CSP w/ Storage Solar PV Combined Cycle


10,000 10,000
Gas Turbine Pumped Storage Hydro Hydro

0 0
MON APR 10 TUE APR 11 WED APR 12 THU APR 13 FRI APR 14 SAT APR 15 SUN APR 16 MON APR 10 TUE APR 11 WED APR 12 THU APR 13 FRI APR 14 SAT APR 15 SUN APR 16

Study Area Dispatch - Week of April 10th - 20%R


Study Area Dispatch - Week of April 10th - 30%R
50,000 50,000

40,000 40,000

30,000 30,000
MW

MW

20,000
20,000

10,000
10,000

0
0
MON APR 10 TUE APR 11 WED APR 12 THU APR 13 FRI APR 14 SAT APR 15 SUN APR 16
MON APR 10 TUE APR 11 WED APR 12 THU APR 13 FRI APR 14 SAT APR 15 SUN APR 16

Western
Wind
and
Solar
IntegraIon
Study

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Transformer
Loads
with
PHEVs


*Home
Charging
Only


20

houses
/
transformer

Rated Transformer
Insulation Temp


100%

penetraIon
of
EVs


with
2.6
kWh
of

Transformer
Rated Load
 charge
required
per

PEV
(36
vehicles)
@

3.3
kW
charge
rate.


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Variable
Wind
GeneraIon

PJM Wind Output vs Capability 2009
3,000
MW CAPACITY

2,500
Capacity Factor = 24.8%
2,000
MW

1,500

1,000

500

0
8,760


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PJM
Load
and
Wind
Resources
–
April
7,
2009


150

Locational marginal Price- $/MWh


100

50

Wind MW
Load MW

100
400
700
1000
1300
1600
1900
2200
-50

-100
20100407 PJM-RTO
20100407 Chicago
-150

www.pjm.com

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Chafanooga
ResidenIal
Loads


EPB
Residential
August
2009
Hourly
Load
600,000


500,000


400,000

kW

300,000


200,000


100,000


Hour

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Will
Work
for
Fuel…


What
am
I
?

480,000
Vehicles
in
United
States

Average
~66
miles
per
day

MPG
=
~7

Parked
12
hours
at
same
loca1on

Parked
for
3
months

Great
public
visibility


Available
for
a
full
Ime
summer
job.


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Chicago
BOMA

Optimized building
response to PJM signal

• 
Cooling/ heating •  Regulation signal


•  Lighting •  Synchronized reserve event
•  Refrigeration •  Emergency event
•  Water heating •  Price

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Fast
RegulaIon:
Speed
Mafers…


A
fossil
power
plant

following
a
regula1on

command
signal


Energy
Storage
Output

Regula1on
Signal


Energy
Storage

(baQeries
/
flywheels)

accurately
following
a

regula1on
command

signal


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Smart
Grid
Reduces
Transformer
Time‐at‐
Temperature


•  Simple
1‐way
communica1on
tells
vehicles
to
delay
charging
when

transformer
temperature
rises
above
98°C
threshold

•  Temperature
input
could
be
measurement‐
or
model‐based

•  Smart
Grid
extends
capacity
of
25kVA
transformer


3.6 kWh per PEV
 2.3 kWh per PEV
 charging


continues
overnight


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