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SmartGrid and what it means for

Utility Technology Systems

Chris Knudsen
Chief Architect
Director, Technology Innovation Center
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Pacific Gas and Electric Company

Energy services to 15 MM people:


•  5.1 MM Electric customer accounts

•  4.3 MM Natural Gas accounts

70,000 square miles with diverse topography


and climate zones

20,000 employees

A regulated investor-owned utility

Ranked the greenest utility in the United States


in 2009 and 2010

2
What is the problem we are trying to solve?
NERC 2009 Long Term Reliability Report

From 2006 report

From 2009 report

  Demand response and economic slowdown has extended margins, but…

  Demand projected to grow in the next three years as economy recovers

3
What are some of the specific drivers of technology?

21,000

19,000 But it Represents


10% of Total Gen or
17,000
2,200 MW
15,000

13,000 22000

Peak Load
July 25 @ 1700 hours
21000
11,000

20,883 MWs 20000

only 51 hours
9,000

MW
19000

7,000 18000

  Imperative: NERC Reliability & GHG Reduction 5,000


17000

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
16000
1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91
Time

  Opportunities: Load Peak


Peak = 2X Base Load Intermittent Renewables

Imperative,
Opportunities, and
Local Concentrations of DG Local Concentrations of EVs pragmatic challenges
drives the execution
of a SmartGrid
  Near term, pragmatic, challenges
4
SmartGrid is System of Systems
  Inter-dependent systems: New systems need to communicate
across systems in a distributed way
  As closed loop systems are developed, system stability will be a T rans mis s ion
&
D is tribution
Information

Integration
and
Analytics
critical factor ∙ energy
flow
“routing
tables ”/
control

algorithms 
around
cus tomer
D R /AS /s hift

∙ Manag es 
s upply

demand
equation
∙ (S 
±∆S )
‐(D
±∆D)=0
T &D 
S ens ors /C ontrol
&
C ros s 
C orrelation

∙ P rovides 
MR T U
pric ing Analytics
∙ Would
like
dynamic 
 ∙ E nergy
F low
Management
load
c ontrol ∙ O utage

∙ A S 
load
payments ∙ Network
vis ualiz ation
&
operation
tools

O ther
Areas 
that
mus t
be



integrated
MR T U
P ricing ∙ T ies 
to
G eneration
5
min,
1
hr,
24
hr
look
ahead Available
demand
 ∙ E nergy
P rocurement
res pons e
is 
dynamic ∙ Ancillary
S ervices

IS O 
load
control
 ±∆ D

P G &E 
D emand
C apacity
&
 A g g reg ate


C E 
devices
contral
Ack
s ignals A vailable
Demand

[MWatts ] Appliances
Meter
Application
P roces s ing
∙ D is trubed
billing
proces s 

L ighting
s implified
B O 
and
data
traffic
∙ L ocal
HAN
energy
management

HV AC
s hifts 
load,
increas es 
efficiency
∙ D emand
C apacity
calculations 

P ool/
S P A
P rice and
s ignals
∙ R T P 
s ig nals
V ehicle
∙ Manag es 
dis tributed
 D emand
C ontrol
demand
s ys tem
S olar
∙ C ontrols 
Utility
HA N
 HA N

ac c es s ,
A A A ,
and

provis ioning
S mart
Meters Interfac e S torage
∙ A S 
s ig naling 
and

c ontrol
from
demand

40
T era
B ytes 
of

s ide dis tributed
memory

>100x10^6
MIP s 
of

dis tributed

proces s ing
power
5
Within the next 5 to 10 years, bandwidth demand is
projected to increase by an average of 300%
Grid Ops & Mgmt Meter Data Customer Network & Security
Applications /
Operations

DMS EMS Data Warehouse CIS / Billing Network Ops & Mgmt

OMS Asset Mgmt Data Management Web Presentment Security – InfoSec

GIS Dispatch AMI Headends Demand Response


Core Network

Core Network •  Fiber Optic •  IP Enabled


+300% Capacity •  Leased Lines
•  Microwave

Elec. Transmission Elec. Distribution Gas Distribution Mobile


Substation Substation +100% Capacity Workforce
+300% Capacity +1200% Capacity +200% Capacity
Private Private
Public Leased Public Public 3G / 4G Broadband RF Private RF Mesh
Lines (TDM/IP) Narrowband
Satellite Cellular (RF/WiMAX/LTE) (SSN AMI)
(LMR / RF MAS)
Bulk Generation Distribution / Distributed Customer / HAN
+300% Capacity Feeder Generation +400% Capacity
Edge Network

Data +300% Capacity +120% Capacity


Centers Call Center Ops. Center

Large Large-Med. Bulk Small Transmission Distribution Gas Distributed Mobile Customer
Offices Sub Generation Small Office Substation Devices Devices Devices Generation Worker Premise

©2011 PG&E. Proprietary and Confidential. 6


The SmartGrid Requires a Scalable Near Real-Time IT System

Power Plants Electric Grid Customers

Nuclear Power Utility-scale Distributed


As distributed
Natural Gas
Generators
Plants
Transmission Storage Storage resources (generation,
Lines
load) increase, electric
Rooftop flows on the grid
Solar
Smart Grid functionality restores the balance Distribution
become more dynamic
Hydro Power
Plants
Substations
Plug-in and complex
Electric
Vehicles
Wind Farms

Solar Farms / Power Plants

SmartGrid is Dependant on a Common Technology Foundation

Enterprise Mobile
Generation Customer Trans Distribution Aps Workers

Common Networks
Integrated Security Architecture
Common Information Architecture

7
Key Points to Take Away
Generation and Load are becoming more complex
requiring a fundamental change in the Utility
System Architecture
•  More Devices, more data, more information to
manage
•  IP networks, layered architectures, common
information models, structured compliance
•  Interoperable across vendors, standards based
The SmartGrid will be a long road…
We cannot even begin to predict the twitter or
Iphone of 2030…
We can design and build a system that enables
them