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ENGINEERING GEOLOGY (C 505)

Module 1
Introduction: Various branches of geology - Relevance of Geology in Engineering. Geologic time scale.
Physical Geology: Geomorphic processes-Rock weathering-Formation of soils-soil profiles-soils of India – Geologic work and engineering
significance of rivers and oceans.

Module 2
Dynamic Geology: Interior constitution of the earth-Various methods to study the interior-crust, mantle, core-lithosphere-asthenosphere-major
discontinuities-Moho, Guttenberg, Lehmann- composition of different layers-sima & sial.
Plate tectonics: Lithospheric plates-diverging, converging and transform boundaries-their characteristic features-midoceanic ridge, benioff zone and
transform faults-significance of plate tectonic concept.
Earthquake: Elastic rebound theory-types of seismic waves-cause of earthquake-intensity and magnitude of earthquake-Locating epicentre and
hypocenter-effect of earthquake-distribution of earthquake-earthquake resistant structures.

Module 3
Mineralogy: Definition and classification-important physical properties of minerals-colour, streak, lusture, transperancy, cleavage, fracture, hardness,
form, specific gravity and magnetism. Study of the diagnostic physical properties and chemical composition of the following rock forming minerals:
1.Quartz, 2.Feldspar, 3.Hypersthene, 4.Auguite, 5. Hornblende, 6. Biotite, 7.Muscovite, 8.Olivine, 9.Garnet, 10.Fluorite, 11.Tourmaline, 12.Calcite,
13.Kyanite, 14. Kaolin, 15. Serpentine.
Petrology: Definition and classification-important structures and textures of igneous sedimentary and metamorphic rocks-diagnostic texture,
mineralogy, engineering properties and uses of following rocks:
Igneous rocks: 1. Granite, 2. Syenite, 3. Diorite, 4. Gabbro, 5. Peridotite, 6.Dolerite, 7.Basalt 8.Pegmatite.
Sedimentary rocks: 1. Conglomerate, 2. Breccia, 3. Sandstone, 4. Limestone, 5. shale.Metamorphic rocks: 1. Gneiss, 2. Schist, 3. Slate, 4. Marble, 5.
Quartzite, 6. Mylonite, 7. Pseudotachyllite.
Special Indian rock types: 1. Charnockite, 2. Khondalite, 3. Laterite.

Module 4
Structural Geology: Definition-outcrop-stratification-dip and strike. Folds-definition- parts of fold-classification-recognition of folds in the field-
Faults-definition-parts of a fault-classification-recognition in the field-effects of faulting and subsequent erosion on outcrops. Joints-definition-
classification. Unconformites-definition-classification recognition in the field. Effects of all the above described structures in the major engineering
projects like reservoirs, dams, tunnels and other important structures.

Module 5
Engineering Geology: Mass movement of earth materials-Landslides-definition, classification, causes of land slides and their corrections-Geological
considerations in the selection of sites for reservoirs and dams. Geological considerations in Tunnel constructions and mountain roads-rocks as building
materials.
Hydrogeology: Groundwater table-abundance and advantages-aquifer-acquiclude-acquifuge-artesian conditions and artesian wells-cone of depression–
perched water table.
Recommended field work: Field trip to quarries or geologically significant places to learn - in site character of rocks in quarries/outcrops-measuring
strike and dip of a formation-tracing of outcrops.