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# [C022/SQP158]

## Advanced Higher Time: 3 hours NATIONAL

Civil Engineering QUALIFICATIONS
Specimen Question Paper

## Section Properties Tables (Structural Steelwork)—extracted from:

Steelwork Design—Guide to BS 5950: Part 1—Volume 1 5th Edition
Steel Construction Institute

[CO22/SQP158] 1

SECTION A

## Attempt ALL the questions in this Section (Total 40 marks)

Marks
1. Figure Q1 shows the outline of a pin-jointed, parallel boom girder, together
with its loads and its support reactions.
(a) Using joint resolution, determine the nature and magnitude of the forces
in the girder members meeting at joints A and B. 3
(b) Using the method of sections, determine the nature and magnitude of the
forces in the girder members DE, DL and DM. 5
(8)
B C D E F G H
2m

I
A N M L K J
20 kN 20 kN 15 kN 10 kN 10 kN
42.5 kN 6 @ 2 m = 12 m
Figure Q1

2. (a) Describe the main stages in the treatment of drinking water which is
abstracted from lowland rivers. 5
(b) State why slow sand filters are commonly used in drinking water
treatment and briefly describe the operation of such filters. 3
(8)

## [CO22/SQP158] 2 Page two

Marks
3. (a) The vertical sluice gate shown in Figure Q3 is 2 m square and its top edge
is 2 m below the free surface of the water.
Determine:
(i) the total hydrostatic thrust on the gate; 4
(ii) the vertical distance between the free surface of the water and the
centre of pressure on the sluice gate. 2
(b) Briefly explain why the flow of water in pipes between reservoirs is
normally turbulent. 2
(8)

2m × 2m

2m
sluice gate
water tank

empty
2m

channel

Figure Q3

## [CO22/SQP158] 3 Page three

Marks
4. Figure Q4 shows the outline of and the characteristic loading on a simply
supported steel beam for which a grade 43, 406 × 178 × 60 UB section is to be
used.
Assuming that the compression flange of the beam is fully restrained along its
length against lateral buckling, check its suitability in bending and shear. 8
(8)
+

3m
6m

Figure Q4

5. (a) Explain how the folding of rocks could have occurred and sketch two
types of fold commonly found. 4
(b) Explain how geological faults could have occurred and sketch two types
of fault commonly found. 4
(8)

Marks
SECTION B

## Attempt any THREE questions in this Section (Total 60 marks)

6. (a) Figure Q6(a) shows the outline of a simply supported timber beam, its
loading and the support reactions. The beam is to be 75 mm wide and
300 mm deep.
(i) Using the Macaulay method, show that the maximum deflection
occurs at approximately 2.05 m from support A. 8
(ii) Determine the value of the maximum deflection if the Modulus of
Elasticity (E) is 6500 N/mm2 and the Second Moment of Area
(Ixx) = 169 × 106 mm4. 3

3 kN 4 kN 1.5 kN/m
1.0 kN/m

1m 1m 1m
A 4m
Figure Q6(a)

(b) If the timber in the beam in (a) is Grade C24 and the loading is to be
medium term:
(i) check the suitability of the section in bending; 7
(ii) check the suitability of the section in deflection, using the value
obtained in (a)(ii). 2
(20)

## [CO22/SQP158] 5 Page five

Marks
7. (a) What is meant by each of the terms flexible pavement and rigid pavement
as used in highway engineering? 4
(b) Sketch cross-sections through a flexible pavement and a rigid pavement.
Identify and explain the function of each construction layer. In each case
assume that the subgrade is weak and indicate which layers comprise the
pavement foundation. 9
(c) A sample traffic survey is to be carried out at a signalised road junction
accident blackspot. The information gathered is to be used in the analysis
of existing accident data and in the preparation of a remedial upgrade
scheme for the junction.
(i) List six useful items of traffic data which might be gathered from
the survey. 3
(ii) Briefly explain two ways by which items of traffic data might be
gathered during the survey. 4
(20)

## [CO22/SQP158] 6 Page six

Marks
8. (a) An incompressible fluid flows through a converging pipeline of 450 mm
diameter at entry and 150 mm diameter at outlet. Steady flow produces a
flow rate of 0.3 m3/s.
Determine the velocities of the flow at entry and outlet. 5
(b) A 300 mm diameter galvanised steel pipeline of length 3 km is to convey
water between two reservoirs. The surface levels of the reservoirs differ
by 110 m and the flow is to be by gravity, with no pumped assistance.
(i) Assuming a pipe friction factor of 0.005, determine the flow rate in
m3/hour. 10
(ii) Using the flow rate determined in part (i) and the Moody pipe
friction chart provided, determine a more accurate value for the
pipe friction factor. 4
Comment on the significance of the answer. 1
Take the dynamic viscosity of water as 1 × 10−3 Ns/m2 and the
density as 1000 kg/m3.
(20)

## [CO22/SQP158] 7 Page seven

Marks
9. (a) Two alternative designs are being considered for a structure, one in
structural steelwork and one in reinforced concrete.
A comparison is to be made between the following designs for the
internal stanchions/columns, subjected to an approximately symmetrical
arrangement of beams.
(i) A grade 43 steel stanchion consisting of a 203 × 203 × 86 UC of
effective length 3.5 m about both axes
Using the appropriate code clauses, show that the safe design load
(compressive resistance) which such a section could carry is 2035 kN. 6
(ii) A 300 mm × 300 mm, braced, reinforced concrete column of effective
height 3.5 m about both axes
Assuming that it is to carry the same design load as that found in (i),
determine a suitable arrangement of main and transverse
reinforcement.
Take fcu = 40 N/mm2 and fy = 460 N/mm2 6
(b) Figure Q9(b) shows a plan view of the outer wall of the structure. The
wall is to be 3.5 m high and is to be built of standard format bricks of
strength 50 N/mm2, set in a grade (i) mortar.
The wall has simple resistance to lateral movement at top and bottom and
the category of both manufacturing and constructional control may be
considered as normal.
Calculate the design vertical load resistance (design strength) of the wall,
ignoring any eccentricity of load. 8
(20)
4000
440

440 440
215

Figure Q9(b)

## [CO22/SQP158] 8 Page eight

Marks
10. (a) Figure Q10(a) shows the plan of and section through a reinforced
concrete floor which consists of a slab simply supported on an effective
span of 4 m on two rectangular precast concrete beams.

I Design data:
Imposed – 5 kN/m2
4 m effective span

Finishes – 1 kN/m2
k
thic Unit weight of
0 concrete – 24 kN/m3
b 20
sla

span
.

slab
r.c Exposure – moderate

fcu = 40 N/mm2
fy = 460 N/mm2
I fyv = 250 N/mm2
7 m effective span

200 slab

300 wide
×
Section I–I 500 deep
beam
Figure Q10(a)

(i) Considering bending only, check the suitability of the given slab
thickness as a singly reinforced section and design the main and
transverse reinforcement for the slab.
Assume T10 bars for the main reinforcement. 6
(ii) The rectangular beams have an effective span of 7 m and their main
reinforcement at midspan consists of 4 T20 bars near the bottom
face.
Determine the spacing required for R8 shear links, near the
support, assuming that the beam effective depth is 450 mm and that
only two of the T20 bars at midspan are carried through and
anchored at the supports. 6
(b) It is proposed to open a new waste disposal landfill site on the outskirts of
a small town.
(i) Briefly describe two of the main adverse environmental impacts
that the project might have on the local community. 4
(ii) For each of the above impacts, briefly describe one effective
measure that could be adopted to reduce that impact. 4
(20)

## [CO22/SQP158] 9 Page nine

[CO22/SQP158] 10
[C022/SQP158]

Civil Engineering QUALIFICATIONS
Specimen Marking Instructions

[CO22/SQP158] 11

SECTION A
Q Solution Marks
1 a. Joint A − AB = 42.5 kN compression AN = 0
Joint B − BA = 42.5 kN compression BN cos 45 = 42.5
thus BN = 60.10 kN tension BC = 42.5 kN compression 3
b. Section XX − DL cos 45 + 20 + 20 − 42.5 = 0
thus DL = 3.54 kN tension
ML = DE × 2 + 20 × 2 + 20 × 4 − 42.5 × 6 = 0
thus DE = 67.5 kN compression
Section YY − DM + 20 + 20 − 42.5 = 0
thus DM = 2.5 kN compression. 5
X
B C Y D E F G H

A I
N M L K J
Y

## 2 a. Description to cover substance of the following:

• primary treatment including: screening to remove floating
debris and large particles; and coagulation, that is the
addition of alum or ferrous sulphate to form a precipitate
known as floc which settles rapidly, entrapping bacteria and
absorbing colour from the water. 2
• secondary treatment including: sedimentation of the floc in a
tank in which the floc forms into a sludge blanket and is mostly
retained in the tank as water passes to the next stage of the
process; and filtration to remove smaller particles remaining
from the raw water and the coagulation process. 2
• tertiary treatment including: pH adjustment and chlorine
disinfection. 1

## b. Slow sand filters are used as an alternative to the coagulation,

sedimentation and filtration processes. Water passes slowly, by
gravity, through a sand filter with a large surface area. The natural
biological fauna in the filter break down impurities. The sand is
periodically skimmed and washed. 3

## [CO22/SQP158] 12 Page two

SECTION A (continued)
Q Solution Marks
3 a.
O

2m
hp
P2
F1
F

2m
F2
1m

m
19.62 19.62
P

P4

## pressure at h = 2 m = ρgh = 1000 × 9.81 × 2 / 1000 = 19.62 kN/m2

pressure at h = 4 m = ρgh = 1000 × 9.81 × 4 / 1000 = 39.24 kN/m2
Force F1 = p2 × area of sluice = 19.62 × 2 × 2 = 78.48 kN
Force F2 = (p4 − p2) / 2 × area of sluice = 19.62 /2 × 2 × 2 = 39.24 kN
thus Total thrust F = 78.48 + 39.24 = 117.72 kN 4
Centre of pressure: taking moments about O:
F1 × 3 + F2 × 3.33 = F × hp
thus hp = ((78.48 × 3) + (39.24 × 3.33)) / 117.72 = 3.111 m 2

## b. The type of flow depends on Reynolds Number ie Re = ρdv/µ

If Re > 4000 then turbulence results.
Since water has low dynamic viscosity µ, resulting in a high Re for
a relatively low velocity, flow will normally be turbulent. 2

## 4 Mmax = (1.6 × 45 + 1.4 × 40) × 6/4 + 1.4 × 10 × 62/8 = 255 kNm

Vmax = 1.6 × 80/2 + 1.4 × 10 × 6/2 = 106 kN 3
Classification: b/T = 6.95 < 8.5 d/t = 45.6 < 79 thus section is plastic 1
T = 12.8 mm thus design strength = 275 N/mm2
Moment of resistance = 275 × 1199 × 1000/106 = 330 kNm
but ≤ 1.2 × 275 × 1060 × 1000/106 = 350 kNm
thus 330 kNm > 255 kNm
Shear capacity = 0.6 × 275 × 406.4 × 7.9/1000 = 530 kN > 106 kN 4

## [CO22/SQP158] 13 Page three

SECTION A (continued)
Q Solution Marks
5 a. The strata of the earth’s crust have been bent or buckled into folds
by forces acting tangentially to the earth’s surface. The rocks have
obtained relief by rising in the direction of least resistance ie
vertically. 2
Two sketches from: symmetrical, asymmetrical, isoclinal,
recumbent. 2

## b. Faults are rock fractures along which displacement has taken

place. The rocks on either side of a fault have moved relatively to
one another in opposite directions. 2
Two sketches from: normal, reversed, step, tear. 2

Total 40

## [CO22/SQP158] 14 Page four

SECTION B
Q Solution Marks
6 a. Find reaction at L.H. support: RL = (3 × 3 + 4 × 1 + 3 × 1 + 4 × 2)/4
RL = 6 kN
EIy” = −MX = − 6x + x2/2 + 3[x−1] + 0.75[x−2]2 + 4[x−3]
EIy’ = −3x2 + x3/6 + 1.5[x−1]2 + 0.25[x−2]3 + 2[x−3]2 + A
EIy = −1x3 + x4/24 + 0.5[x−1]3 + [x−2]4/16 + 0.67[x−3]3 + Ax + B
When x = 0, y = 0 thus B = 0 and When x = 4, y = 0 hence
0 = −64 + 10.67 + 13.5 + 1 + 0.67 + 4A
thus A = 9.54 kNm2
For maximum deflection at x = 2.05 m, substitute 2.05 for x in EIy’
giving −12.61 + 1.44 + 1.65 + 9.54 = + 0.02 approx. 0 thus max. deflt. 8

## thus y at x = 2.05 = ( −8 ⋅ 62 + 0 ⋅ 74 + 0 ⋅ 58 + 19 ⋅ 56) × 1012

= 11 ⋅ 16mm
6500 × 169 × 106 3

## b. Sketching shear force diagram indicates zero shear (Mmax) at 2.4 m

6 5
1
2.4 m 2.5
5.5 8
thus Mmax = 6 × 2.4 − 3 × 1.4 − 2 × 1.4 − 2.5 × 0.4 × 0.2 = 7.2 kNm
Perm bending stress = 7.5 × 1.25 × 1.00 = 9.38 N/mm2
T7 T13 K7
Actual bending stress = 7.2 × 106 × 150 / 169 × 106 = 6.39 < 9.38 7
Actual deflection = 11.16 mm
Perm deflection = 0.003 × 4000 = 12 mm > 11.16 mm 2

Total 20

Q Solution Marks
7 a. Flexible pavement: is one in which the surfacing and roadbase
materials are bound with bituminous binder.
The roadbase is the main structural layer. 2

## Rigid pavement: is one in which high strength pavement quality

concrete is used for the combined surfacing and roadbase.
The concrete slab may be jointed unreinforced, jointed reinforced or
continuously reinforced. 2

## [CO22/SQP158] 15 Page five

SECTION B (continued)
Q Solution Marks
7 cont. b.
Wearing course
Surfacing Pavement Quality
Base course Concrete
Sub-base Formation Sub-base
Foundation Foundation
Capping Capping

## 1. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 2. RIGID PAVEMENT 2×2 4

Functions of layers:

## Surfacing: it provides a safe and comfortable ride quality,

(1. only) resists skidding and protects lower layers from the
passage of water.

## Roadbase: the main structural layer which distributes the

they are not over stressed.

(1. and 2.) causing overstress in the subgrade during and after
construction and in the overlying layers after
construction.

## Capping: Improves and protects weak subgrade by the use of

(1. and 2.) cheap material between the subgrade and sub-base.
This increases the stiffness modulus and strength of
the formation on which the sub-base is placed.

## Concrete slab: provides the main structural layer in

(2. only) transmitting the traffic loads to the foundation
and subgrade. Provides good ride quality and
resists cracking. 5×1 5

## c. (i) six items of data required from:

Vehicle flow characteristics: • volume
• vehicle classification
• speed
• saturation flows

## [CO22/SQP158] 16 Page six

SECTION B (continued)
Q Solution Marks
7 cont. Vehicle manoeuvres: • turning flows
• parking
Others: • pedestrian movements
• cycle movements 6 × 0.5 3

## (ii) 2 methods to be covered in answer:

• The data might be gathered through an observational
survey to determine the patterns and volume of vehicle
movements. Different traffic streams could be counted
manually by enumerators/observers, using hand counters;
the data being subsequently transferred to reporting forms.
• or by data capture portable micro-processors;
• or by automatic detector loops which are set into the
carriageway;
• or to reduce the number of staff required, a video camera
might be positioned in a strategic position and a software
package used to analyse the recordings. 2×2 4

Total 20

Q Solution Marks
8 a. Q = A1v1 (entry) = A2v2 (outlet) 1
where A1 = π × 0.452/4 = 0.159 m2, and A2 = π × 0.152/4 = 0.0177 m2
v1 = Q/A1 = 0.3/0.159 = 1.89 m/s & v2 = Q/A2 = 0.3/0.0177 = 16.95 m/s 4
b.
A
110 m

L=3
000 m
B

## (i) Applying the energy equation between points A and B (B datum)

pA v A2 pB vB2
zA + + = zB + + + Energy head loss hf
ρg 2g ρg 2g

## thus 110 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + 0 + 4 f L v2/2 g d 5

ie 110 = 4 f L v2/2 g d thus v2 = 110 × 2 × 9 ⋅ 81 × 0 ⋅ 3
= 10 ⋅ 79
4 × 0 ⋅ 005 × 3000
ie v = 3.28 m/s and thus Q = Av = π × 0.32 × 3.28/4 = 0.232 m3/s
= 835.2 m3/h 5
or solution for Q using hf = f L Q2/3 d5

## [CO22/SQP158] 17 Page seven

SECTION B (continued)
Q Solution Marks
8 cont. (ii) For v = 3.28 m/s, Re = ρdv/µ = 1000 × 0.3 × 3.28/1 × 10−3
= 0.98 × 106
From chart, galvanised steel has k = 0.15 × 10−3 m
k/d = 0.15 × 10−3 /300 × 10−3 = 0.0005
f = 0.0044 < 0.005 4
Friction losses will be marginally less than determined in (i)
and the velocity and flow rates increased. 1

Total 20

Q Solution Marks
9 a. (i) Classification: b/T = 5.1 < 15, d/t = 12.7 < 39 thus non-slender
T = 20.5 mm thus design strength = 265 N/mm2
l/ryy = 3500/53.4 = 65.5 — T25 — T27c — pc = 185 N/mm2
Safe Load = 185 × 11000/1000 = 2035 kN 6
(ii) l/t = 3500/300 = 11.67 < 15 thus short
2035 × 1000 = 0.35 × 40 (300 × 300 − Asc) + 0.70 × 460 × Asc
thus Asc = 2516 mm2 − % = 2516 × 100/300 × 300 = 2.8 %
use 4 − T25 + 4 − T20 = 2588 mm2
transverse = 25/4 say R8 at 12 × 20 = 225 mm pitch 6

## b. Eff. thickness – T5 – pier spacing/pier width = 4000/440 = 9.1

pier thickness/wall thickness = 440/215 = 2.05 thus k = 1.25
teff = 1.25 × 215 = 268.75 mm
slenderness ratio = 3500/268.75 = 13.02 < 27 thus OK
ß (T7) = 0.91
for no eccentricity, T 2a - fk = 15 N/mm2
T4 − γm = 3.5
load capacity = 0.91 × 215 × 15/3.5 = 838.5 kN/m 8

Total 20

## [CO22/SQP158] 18 Page eight

SECTION B (continued)
Q Solution Marks
10 a. (i) Load/m = 1.4(1 + 0.2 × 24) + 1.6 × 5 = 16.12 kN/m
M = 16.12 × 42/8 = 32.24 kNm
d = 200 − 30 − 10/2 = 165 thus K = 32 ⋅ 24 × 106
= 0 ⋅ 0296
40 × 1000 × 1652
since K < 0.156, then slab is satisfactory in bending, singly
reinforced
Z = (0.5 + √ (0.25 − 0.0296/0.9)) d = 0.97d but not > 0.95d
As = 32.24 × 106/(0.95 × 460 × 0.95 × 165) = 470.7 mm2/m
= T10 at 150 (523) in bottom
transverse = 0.13 × 1000 × 200/100 = 260 mm2/m
= T10 at 300 (262) 6

## (ii) Vmax = (2.15(16.12) + 1.4 × 0.3 × 0.5 × 24) × 3.5 = 138.94 kN

or = (2.0(16.12) + 1.4 × 0.3 × 0.5 × 24) × 3.5 = 130.50 kN
design shear stress = 138.94 × 103/300 × 450 = 1.03 N/mm2
perm. (%As = 630 × 100/300 × 450 = 0.47) = 0.49 × 1.17
= 0.57 N/mm2
perm. shear + 0.4 = 0.97 < 1.03 thus ‘design’ links required
assuming R8 links − sv = 101 × 0.95 × 250/300 × 0.46 = 174 mm
use R8 at 150 mm centres. 6

## b. (i) two impacts required from:

• increased traffic causing disruption and danger
• noise nuisance due to traffic and on site plant operating for
long working hours
• loss of habitat for wildlife
• litter on site and in immediate vicinity
or others such as methane gas, odour, lechate, vermin. 2×2 4
(ii) effective measures: one required for each of two impacts
junctions
• Noise—use of bunding or use of efficient machines with
mufflers
• Habitat—relocation of species or landfill restoration
• Litter—use of fencing to catch wind borne litter or covering
fill with earth at the end of each day 2×2 4

Total 20

[CO22/SQP158] 20