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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.

org

Volume 16, Number 3 - May 2000 to July 2000

A Hybrid Solar-Wind Power Generation


System as an Instructional Resource
for Industrial Technology Students
By Dr. Recayi Pecen, Dr. MD Salim, & Dr. Marc Timmerman

KEYWORD SEARCH

Electricity
Electronics
Energy
Environmental Issues
Teaching Methods

Reviewed Article

The Official Electronic Publication of the National Association of Industrial Technology • www.nait.org
© 2000

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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.org

A Hybrid Solar-Wind Power


Generation System as an In-
structional Resource for In-
Dr. Recayi Pecen holds a B.S.E.E. and an M.S. in Con-
dustrial Technology Students
trols and Computer Engineering from the Istanbul
Technical University, an M.S.E.E. from the University By Dr. Recayi Pecen, Dr. MD Salim, & Dr. Marc Timmerman
of Colorado at Boulder, and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engi-
neering from the University of Wyoming. Dr. Pecen
is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Indus- Abstract • They may fail to convey the notion
trial Technology at the University of Northern Iowa. The detailed study of electrical of the true complexity and interre-
Dr. Pecen is the recipient of University of Wyoming,
G. Nicholson Power System Lab Scholarship in 1996, power systems is a key element of many lations of industrial electrical
recipient of Provost’s two Mini-Grants for Achieving curricula in Industrial Technology. A power systems.
Educational Excellence, in 1999 and 2000, and re-
cipient of UNI Summer Fellowship in wind/PV power novel laboratory set-up has been • They may not capture the
systems. Dr. Pecen is a member of Tau Beta Pi- designed and implemented at the student’s attention and motivate
National Engineering Honor Society, IEEE, and NAIT.
His research interests and publications are in the University of Northern Iowa as an learning.
areas of AC/DC power systems, HVDC transmission, instructional resource for teaching • They may not give an intuitive
power system control, power quality, and grid-con-
nected wind/PV renewable energy systems. electrical power system and renewable feeling for what electrical quanti-
energy concepts. The set-up consists of ties really mean physically.
a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast
mounted wind generator, lead-acid Iowa is a geographically large state
storage batteries, an inverter unit to with a low population density. Electri-
convert DC power to AC power, cal power needs are supplied by a large
electrical lighting loads and electrical number of local power companies.
heating loads, several fuse and junction Due to the isolation of many dwellings,
boxes and associated wiring, and test agricultural sites, and industrial sites,
instruments for measuring voltages, there is considerable interest in novel
currents, power factors, and harmonic forms of electricity production. Two
contamination data throughout the such forms of production are solar
Dr. MD Salim holds a B.S. in Civil Engineering from system. This hybrid solar-wind power photo-voltaic (PV) cells based on DC-
the Bangladesh Institute of Technology, an M.S. in
Construction Engineering from the University of generating system is extensively used to power generating arrays and wind-
Leeds (UK) and a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the
North Carolina State University. He has served in
illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on turbines based on propeller-driven DC-
numerous industrial positions and on the faculty of laboratories and demonstrations in the power generators. In fact, Iowa is now
the University of Northern Iowa. His research inter-
ests and publications are in the applications of arti- Industrial Technology curriculum. the home of the largest wind-turbine
ficial intelligence to construction management. power installation in the world (Pecen,
Introduction 1999). Electrical power generation and
Electricity cannot be seen, felt, special sources of electric power, like
tasted, smelled, heard or (safely) wind-turbines, are frequently discussed
touched. Providing Industrial Technol- in the public media and are very
ogy students with vivid, memorable, vividly in the minds of Industrial
hands-on learning experiences in the Technology students from daily-life
area of electricity is a challenge for all experiences. The additional factor of
educators in the Industrial Technology the general concern and interest for
area. The traditional measuring instru- environmental issues is a further
ments for electricity (oscilloscopes, enticement to attract the student’s
voltmeters, ammeters, and power interest in these “green-technology”
meters) and traditional signal sources forms of electricity generation.
Dr. Marc A. Timmerman holds a B.S.E.E. from the (motors, transformers, resistors, induc-
Santa Clara University, a M.Eng.E.E. from the
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a Ph.D. from tors) are fine but have some drawbacks: Special Educational Issues of Wind-
the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engi- • They have a tendency to become turbines and Photo-Voltaic Cells
neering at Georgia Tech. He has served on the fac-
ulties of the University of Tulsa, the Louisiana State repetitive and boring. As the wind does not blow all the
University at Baton Rouge, and the University of time nor does the sun shine all the time,
Northern Iowa. His research publications are in the
• They have an artificial, educa-
area of embedded microprocessors and DSP, tional non-real-world feel. solar and wind power alone are poor
Mechatronics, vibrations, and magnetic bearings.

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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.org

power sources. Hybridizing solar and Wind-turbines and PV cells provide is Wind and Solar Power Systems by
wind power sources together with DC power. A semiconductor-based Patel (1999) that covers the specific
storage batteries to cover the periods of device known as a power inverter is issues in this project in a style appro-
time without sun or wind provides a used to convert the DC power to AC priate for Industrial Technology
realistic form of power generation. power. This device has a relatively students. Sabin (1999) and coworkers
This variable feature of wind- simple operation that is a vivid illustra- have summarized the various standards
turbine power generation is different tion of many topics traditionally and benchmarks used in large-scale
from conventional fossil fuel, nuclear, covered in power electronics classes. power quality, and Koval (1999) and
or hydro-based power generation. The inverter also introduces the coworkers have presented similar
Wind energy has become the least problem of power quality. Power finding for rural (small-scale) power
expensive renewable energy technol- quality is an extremely important issue quality problems. Many articles have
ogy in existence and has peaked the in real-life industrial electric power appeared on the impact of new elec-
interest of scientists and educators the systems. Power quality is the contami- tronics technologies on power quality
world over. A simple relationship exists nation of the voltage or frequency management, for example Poisson
relating the power generated by a characteristics of electric power. The (1999) and coworkers have described
wind-turbine and the wind parameters: system exhibits many common prob- the impact of DSP chips on the prob-
lems of power quality such as voltage lem. Barbosa (1998) and coworkers
P = 0.5ρA Cpv3ηg ηb (1) sag (sudden drops in voltage due to have described the use of PWM (pulse-
over demand of battery capacity and/or width-modulation) control schemes to
where, loss of wind or sun), harmonic con- power quality control.
ρ = air density (about 1.225 kg/m3 at tamination (errors in the 60 Hz fre- Numerous studies have appeared
sea level, less at higher eleva- quency due to nonlinear loads such as describing the impact of power quality
tions). computers, energy efficient light bulbs, problems caused by PV systems from
Α = rotor swept area, exposed to the laser printers, scanners), and voltage early work by McNeil (1983) and
wind (m2). regulation problems (prolonged drops coworkers in to more recent work by
Cp = Coefficient of performance in voltage due to interactions of system Oliva (1988) and coworkers and most
(.59 to .35 depending on turbine). elements). Power quality is an recently by Chowdhury (1999). The
v = wind speed in meters/sec extremely important problem in extensive literature on power quality
ηg = generator efficiency industrial electricity applications and aspects of wind generation includes
ηb = gearbox/bearings efficiency this setup offers unique opportunities work by Demoulias and Dokopoulos
for the students to study power quality (1996) on transient power measurement
A mast-mounted anemometer problems in a real system. and by Thiringer (1996) on harmonic
(wind meter) allows the students to Three major phases of the develop- contamination measurement issues.
directly measure wind speed and to ment and implementation of this Taylor (1987) is responsible for some of
vividly relate this easily felt force-of- facility have been completed. First, the the early practical work on power
nature to electrical measurements. set-up itself has been constructed and quality measurements in wind genera-
Photo-Voltaic or PV cells, known debugged. Second instruments for tion. Kariniotakis and Stavrakakis
commonly as solar cells, convert the hands-on measurement of electrical (1995) have written extensively on
energy from sunlight into DC electricity. quantities in the system have been simulation problems in wind generator
PVs offer added advantages over other acquired and deployed for hands-on lab and power grid interactions.
renewable energy sources in that they use. And third, numerous simulations Finally, many papers have been
give off no noise and require practically have been performed on PSCAD/ written on the electronics regulation/
no maintenance. PV cells are a familiar EMTDC (1996), a well-known power control aspects of the problem includ-
element of the scientific calculators system computer simulation package ing a recent study by Neris and co-
owned by many students. Their operat- used by industry and universities. This workers (1999) proposing an IGBT
ing principles and governing relation- software allows the students to make an (Integrated-Base-Bipolar-Transistor)
ships are unfortunately not as pedagogi- intuitive link between the physical based regulator.
cally simple as that of wind-turbines. system present in the hands-on labs and
However, they operate using the same the more abstract mathematical Methodology
semiconductor principles that govern equations presented in their lecture In order to address the shortcom-
diodes and transistors and the explana- notes and texts. Two such simulations ings of existing instructional tech-
tion of their functioning is straightfor- are presented in this paper. niques for electrical power systems, a
ward and helps to make more intuitive hybrid wind-turbine and solar cell
many of the principles covered in Literature Review system has been implemented at the
semiconductor electronic classes. The literature in the subject areas University of Northern Iowa. The
Most industrial uses of electricity of this paper is very extensive. An system was designed and implemented
require AC or alternating 60 Hz power. excellent textbook for instructional use with the following goals:

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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.org

• To be completely different from ticated internal regulator that periodi- good sinusoidal waveform output and
traditional electricity labs and to cally checks the line voltage and causes problems such as harmonic
be fresh and interesting. corrects for low voltage conditions. contamination and poor voltage
• To be intimately related to real- The solar panels are 12 VDC units and regulation. According to the IEEE (a
world industrial power issues such were chosen for their ultra clear professional society which codifies
as power quality. tempered glass that is manufactured for such issues) standards, a maximum of 3
• To show a complex, interrelated long term durability. Figure 3 shows to 4% total harmonic distortion (this is
system that is closer to the “real the DC voltage measured across the 12 a quantitative measure of how bad the
world” than the usual simple volt DC bus where the wind turbine harmonic contamination is) may be
systems covered in educational labs. and PV arrays outputs are connected. allowed from inverter outputs. How-
• To motivate learning by introduc- A slight ripple in power regulation can ever, many inverter outputs have much
ing such elements as environmen- clearly be seen. This ripple is a func- more harmonic distortion than is
tal and economic concerns of tion of the unpredictable nature of wind allowed. The inverter used in this
practical interest to the students. and sunshine along with the dynamic system has a power rating of a 1.5
effects of the electrical load. KVA and was manufactured by Trace
Establishment of a Wind/PV Hybrid As mentioned earlier, one of the Technologies ®. The battery banks
Unit largest problems in systems containing contain 4 deep-cycle lead-acid batteries
The hybrid unit contains two power inverters is power quality. This connected in parallel. High power
complete generating plants, a PV solar- problem becomes serious if the inverter capacity heating resistors, energy
cell plant and a wind-turbine system. used in the system does not have a efficient light bulbs, incandescent light
These sources are connected in parallel
to a 12V DC line. The power is next Figure 1. Established Wind/PV hybrid power generation unit.
connected to a DC to AC inverter and
is then supplied from the inverter’s
output to a single-phase 60 HZ, 120
VAC load. The overall project structure
is presented in Figure 1. The wind
turbine is installed at the top of a steel
tower that has a height of 18.3 meters
and a diameter of 8.9 cm. The wind
turbine depicted is a 0.7 kW unit and
the solar panels depicted number four
in all with a capacity of 50 Watts each.
The instrumentation panel depicted
monitors the outputs of the generator
using digital panel meters.
A small wind turbine was chosen
for its low maintenance and many
safety features. One of the low
maintenance features is the turbine’s
brushless alternator and an internal
governor. The turbine generates 0.4
kW when turning at its rated speed of
47 km/hr and it is capable of generat- Figure 2. Actual pictures of wind/PV hybrid power station.
ing up to 0.7 kW at its peak wind speed
of 72 km/hr. The actual system’s
pictures are shown in Figure 2. The
turbine’s blades are made of a carbon
fiber reinforced composite that will
intentionally deform as the turbine
reaches its rated output. This deforma-
tion effect changes the shape of the
blade, causing it to go into a stall
mode, thus limiting the rotation speed
of the alternator and preventing
damage in high winds. Another
feature of the wind turbine is a sophis-

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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.org

bulbs, and two small AC motors Figure 3. DC voltage generated by hybrid wind/PV power system.
constitute electrical loads that can be
applied to the system. Vdc (V)
To monitor and store the voltage,
current, power, and harmonic contami-
nation data, two Fluke ® power quality
50
analyzers (types 39 and 41) are used in
the system. In addition, permanently
mounted AC/DC digital panel meters 0
form part of the system’s instrumenta-
tion. A laptop computer is interfaced to
the system via the Fluke power quality -50
analyzers to store data in real-time.
Figure 4 illustrates such data as voltage
t(min)
and current waveforms on the load side 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
of the inverter in the case of small heat
and lighting loads connected to the
system. As shown in Figure 4, the Figure 4. AC load voltage and current waveforms.
current waveform is much more dis-
torted than voltage waveform. Since
current harmonic contamination has a
more detrimental effects on industrial
power quality problems than voltage
harmonic contamination, the current
harmonic spectrum of the inverter
output is a vivid illustration of the
pitfalls present in the measurement of
real power quality problems in industrial
simulations. Figure 5 illustrates the
current harmonic spectrum in the case
of nonlinear loads. A harmonic spec-
trum is a graphical plot of harmonic
contamination on the y-axis and the
frequency where this contamination
occurs on the x-axis. This plot is
commonly used in industry to study
harmonic contamination and its possible
remedies.
Voltage sags may cause a crucial Figure 5. Current harmonic spectrum of the system when linear/nonli
damage to high precision measurement near loads are connected.
and protection devices, especially
computer equipment present in many
highly-automated industrial plants. A
voltage sag example for the system is
shown in Figure 6.

Simulation of the Hybrid System


Figure 7 presents the overall system
including a passive RLC filter on the AC
side of inverter. This filter is a circuit
made up of a resistor (R), inductor (L),
and a capacitor (C). Such filters are
commonly installed in industrial situa-
tions to remedy power quality problems.
The inverter is of a twelve pulse
type and the inverter and the control
circuit models are both standard

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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.org

models in the PSCAD/EMTDC electronics classes to be extended to The use of solar and wind hybrid
software package. Two simulation control and instrumentation classes. power generation is an especially vivid
cases were run, with and without this and relevant choice for students of
RLC filter. Figures 8 presents raw and Conclusions and Industrial Technology in Iowa as these
analyzed data for the system with and Recommendations are power sources of technological,
without the RLC filter. The students Obviously, a complete hybrid political, and economic importance in
can vividly see from such simulations power system of this nature may be too their state. In other places, other power
the practical remedies for power expensive and too labor intensive for sources could be used. For example
quality problems used in industry. many Industrial Technology Depart- hybrid combinations of wind power,
ments. However, many of the same solar power, geothermal power,
Findings benefits could be gleaned from having hydroelectric power, tidal power,
To date, the experience gained some subset of the system, for example biomass generated power, power from
from using this setup in numerous a PV panel, batteries, and an inverter, or incineration of solid wastes, and many
hands-on labs and demonstrations has even just a PV panel and a DC motor. other technologies could be considered
shown the following: The enhancements to instruction, depending on local interests and
• The students find the system to be especially in making electrical power resources. The key elements of this
highly interesting and an enhance- measurements more physical, intuitive, test bed concept presented in this paper
ment to even simple tasks like and real-world are substantial and the are two or more renewable power
learning how to use a voltmeter. costs and labor involved in some sources connected to a power grid with
• The students gain a better intuitive adaptation of the ideas in this paper to a complex electrical interactions.
knowledge of the generation and smaller scale setup are reasonable.
distribution of electric power than
they can from textbooks and Figure 6. Voltage sags recorded in the wind/PV system.
traditional lab experiments alone.
• The students’ interest in electrical
power systems is raised and they
are able to gain a better physical
understanding of the quantities
and units involved.
• The system’s use of a power
inverters and of PV cells provides a
vivid illustration of semiconductor
issues and the students are better
able to assimilate semiconductor
concepts in their electronics classes.

Future Study
Figure 9 show the future direction
of this project. A computer measure-
ment and control bus will be added to
the system. Computer controlled Figure 7. PSCAD/EMTDC Simulation of system with load and RLC filter.
relays will be added to allow all the
major elements of the system to be
switched in and out of the system
through computer programs. The
measurement bus will be connected to
all the major signals in the system and
will allow for computerizes data
acquisition simultaneously of all the
major signals in the system. These
improvements will allow for the study
of more complex issues like power
faults caused by sudden over voltages
like lightning. These improvements
will also allow the same benefits to
instruction realized in electricity and

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Journal of Industrial Technology • Volume 16, Number 3 • May 2000 to July 2000 • www.nait.org

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