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You are on page 1of 9

This implementation note contains description of functions which have been included, or

not, in the developing program (table 1). Those functions are presented in Annex 5, ITU-R

P.1546 recommendation. The rest of papers shows program algorithm and descriptions of

each used function. This colour shows functions which are not implemented. This colour is

used to indicate which paragraph of the Recommendation P.1546-3 corresponds to the discussed

point of algorithm – i.e. (Annex 5, §4.2)

Is

§ Name Description

Implemented?

Values of maximum field strength

Maximum field-strength contains table tabData In last dimension

2 YES

values on 8th position.

Done in method: compute_e()

Determination of

No terrain information are available in

3 transmitting/base antenna NO

SEAMCAT

height h1

Transmitting/base antenna

4.1 height, h1, In the range 10 m YES Done in method: compute_e()

to 3000 m

Transmitting/base antenna

4.2 height, h1, In the range 0 m to YES Done in method: compute_e()

10 m

It is not expected to use antenna with

Negative values of height less than 0. As no terrain

4.3 transmitting/base antenna NO information are available antenna height

height, h1 has always positive value

Used eq: 12, 12a, 12b, 12c

Interpolation of field strength

5 YES Done in method: compute_e()

as a function of distance

Interpolation of field strength

6 YES Done in method: compute_e()

as a function of frequency

Interpolation of field strength

7 as a function of percentage YES Done in method: compute_e()

time

Not included are calculations of the

8 Mixed path NO maritime area, thus is not expected to use

mixed areas.

Skipped guidelines for maritime areas,

Correction for

and the calculations take into account the

9 receiving/mobile antenna YES

Fresnel zone

height

Done in method: clutterCorrection()

Correction for short

10 YES Done in method: clutterCorrection()

urban/suburban paths

Terrain clearance angle No terrain information are available in

11 NO

correction SEAMCAT

Local variability In land area-

`12 YES Done in method: stdDev() and evaluate()

coverage prediction

Correction based on No terrain information are available in

13 NO

tropospheric scattering SEAMCAT

Field-strenght predictions for

14 YES Done in method: less1km()

distances less than 1 km

An approximation to the

inverse complementary

15 YES Done in method: Qi()

cumulative normal distribution

function

Equivalent basic transmission

16 YES Done in method: evaluate()

loss

An approximation to the 0.6 No terrain information are available in

17 NO

Fresnel cealrance path length SEAMCAT

Algorithm

1.1) Determination of lower and higher nominal percentages tinf and tsup (Annex 5, §7)

ݐ = 10%, ݐ௦௨ = 50%; ݂ ݎ10% ≤ < ݐ50%

ݐ = ݐ௦௨ = 50%; = ݐ50%

1.2) Determination of lower and higher nominal frequency finf and fsup (Annex 5, §6)

݂ = 600ݖܪܯ, ݂௦௨ = 2 000 ݎ݂ ;ݖܪܯ600 < ݂ ≤ ݖܪܯ3 000ݖܪܯ

݂ = ݂௦௨ = 2 000 = ݂ ݎ݂ ;ݖܪܯ2 000ݖܪܯ

1.3) Determination of lower and higher nominal distance dinf and dsup (Annex 5, §5)

Lower distance dinf is equal to distance d if field strengths are read directly from the

tabulation data. Otherwise program selects lower distance dinf (nearest tabulation distance

less then d) and distance dsup (nearest tabulation distance greater than d).

1.4) Determination of lower and higher nominal height hinf and hsup (Annex 5, §4.1)

Lower height hinf is equal to height, h1, if that height coincides with one of the eight heights

for which curves are provided. Otherwise program selects lower height hinf (nearest

tabulation height less then h1) and height hsup (nearest tabulation height greater than h1).

hinf = 600 m, hsup = 1 200 m for h1 > 1 200 m

hinf = hsup = 1 200 m for h1 = 1 200 m

If distance, d, is greater than 1km follow to step 2.1, otherwise follow to step 2.2

A) If d=dinf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data (Annex 5, §5),

otherwise:

d ݀௦௨ μܸ

ܧ = ܧ୧୬ + ൫Eୱ୳୮ − E୧୬ ൯ log ൬ ൰ / log ቆ ቇ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨

d୧୬ ݀ ݉

B) If h=hinf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data , otherwise:

hଵ ℎ௦௨ μܸ

ܧ = ܧ୧୬ + ൫Eୱ୳୮ − E୧୬ ൯ log ൬ ൰ / log ቆ ቇ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨

h୧୬ ℎ ݉

μܸ

ܧ = ܧ௭ + 0.1ℎଵ ሺܧଵ − ܧ௭ ሻ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨

݉

μܸ

ܧ௭ = ܧଵ + 0.5ሺܥଵଶ + ܥଵଵ ሻ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨

݉

Ch1neg10 in dB calculated using equation Ch1 = 6.03 – j(v) (function j(v) is described

in §I.1) at the required distance for h1 = -10 m, and follow parameter:

ܭ = ݒ௩ ߆ଶ

ℎ1

߆ଶ = arctan ൬− ൰ [݀݁݃]

9000

1.31 ݂ ݎ100ݖܪܯ

ܭ௩ ቐ 3.31 ݂ ݎ600 ݖܪܯ

6.00 ݂ ݎ2 000ݖܪܯ

Section For a sea path is not implemented

§4.3 Negative values of transmitting/base antenna height is not implemented,

used only J(v) function.

C) If f = finf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data (Annex 5, §6),

otherwise:

fଵ ݂௦௨ μܸ

ܧ = ܧ୧୬ + ൫Eୱ୳୮ − E୧୬ ൯ log ൬ ൰ / log ቆ ቇ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨

f୧୬ ݂ ݉

D) If t = tinf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data (Annex 5, §7),

otherwise

ܳ − Q ୲ ܳ௧ − ܳ௦௨ μܸ

ܧ = ܧୱ୳୮ + E୧୬ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨

Q ୧୬ − Q ୱ୳୮ ܳ − ܳ௦௨ ݉

ܳ௧ = ܳ ൬ ൰ ; ܳ = ܳ ൬ ൰ ; ܳ௦௨ = ܳ ൬ ൰;

100 100 100

Figure 1: Algorithm of computing field the strength value

2.2 Computing field strength E for distance less than 1km. (Annex 5, §14)

μܸ

ܧ ۓ୫ୟ୶ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨ ݂݀ ≤ ݀ ݎ

ۖ ݉

μܸ

=ܧ ܧ୫ୟ୶ ௗ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨ ݂݀ ݎ < ݀ ≤ 0.1݇݉

۔ ݉

ۖ ݀ μܸ

ܧ + ሺܧଵ − ܧ.ଵ ሻ log ൬ ൰ ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨ ݂ ݎ0.1݇݉ < ݀ < 1.0݇݉

ە.ଵ 0.1 ݉

where:

Emax nf: maximum field strength at a distance of dnf given by equations in §I.3

Emax d: maximum field strength at required distance given by equations in §I.3

E0.1km: maximum field strength at a distance of 0.1km given by equations in §I.3

E1 km: field strength at a distance of 1km (used function from §2.1)

dnf = 0.01 km

10.ଵீ

Equation

݀ =

10݂

is not used

3.1) Correction for receiving antenna height (Annex 5, §9)

The field-strength values given by the land curves and associated tabulations in P.1546-3

Recommendation are for a reference receiving antenna at a height, R (m), representative of

the height of the ground cover surrounding the receiving antenna, subject to a minimum

height value of 10 m.

If R is not given by user, default value of assumed height of local clutter will be set:

1 000ܴ݀ − 15ℎଵ

Representative clutter height R’(m) for urban and suburban areas:

ܴᇱ = [݉]

1 000݀ − 15

If R’ is less than 1m than R’ = 1 m

For urban and suburban environment the correction is then given by:

= ݊݅ݐܿ݁ݎݎܥቐ ℎଶ

ܭଶ log ൬ ᇱ ൰ [݀]ܤ ݂ ݎℎଶ > ܴ′

ܴ

where:

ℎௗ = ܴ ᇱ − ℎଶ [݉]

߆௨௧ = arctan ቀ ቁ

ଶ

[deg]

ܭଶ = 3.2 + 6.2log ሺ݂ሻ

ܭ௨ = 0.0108ඥ݂

In cases in an urban environment where R' is less than 10 m, the correction should be

reduced by Kh2 log(10/R′).

Where the receiving antenna is on land in a rural environment the correction is given by

ℎଶ

equation

ܭଶ log ൬ ᇱ ൰

ܴ

for all values of h2 with R' set to 10 m.

Not included also:

The distance at which the path would just have 0.6 Fresnel clearance for the required value of h1 and

for h2 = 10 m, d10, should be calculated as D06(f, h1, 10) in § 17.

If the required distance is equal to or greater than d10, then again the correction for the required

value of h2 should be calculated using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m.

If the required distance is less than d10, then the correction to be added to the field strength E should

be calculated

If a path of length less than 15 km covers buildings of uniform height over flat terrain, a

correction representing the reduction of field strength due to building clutter should be

added to the field strength. The correction is given by:

where ha is the antenna height above ground (m) and R is representative of the height of the

ground cover surrounding the receiving antenna, which also represents the height of ground

cover surrounding the transmitting/base antenna. This correction only applies when d is less

than 15 km and h1 − R is less than 150 m.

Values of standard deviation are dependent on frequency and environment, and empirical

studies have shown a considerable spread. Representative values for areas of 500 m × 500 m

are given by the following expression:

Where:

K = 1.2, for receivers with antennas below clutter height, in urban and suburban environment

K = 1.0, for receivers with antennas above clutter height, in urban and suburban environment

K = 0.5, for receiver in rural areas

Not included:

(...) Thus for a land receiving/mobile antenna location the field strength, E, which will be exceeded for

q% of locations is given by:

ݍ

ܧሺݍሻ = ܧሺ݉݁݀݅ܽ݊ሻ + ܳ ቀ ቁ ߪ ሺ݂ሻ

100

1. J(v)

ܬሺݒሻ = 6.9 + 20݈ ݃ቀඥሺ ݒ− 0.1ሻଶ + 1 + ݒ− 0.1ቁ

2. Qi() – An approximation to the inverse complementary cumulative normal

distribution function (Annex 5, §15)

ܳ ሺݔሻ = −ሼܶሺ1 − ݔሻ − ߦሺ1 − ݔሻሽ ݂ > ݔ ݎ0.5

where:

ܶሺݔሻ = ඥ[−2 lnሺݔሻ]

[ሺܥଶ ܶሺݔሻ + ܥଵ ሻܶሺݔሻ] + ܥ

ߦሺݔሻ =

[ሺܦଷ ܶሺݔሻ + ܦଶ ሻܶሺݔሻ + ܦଵ ]ܶሺݔሻ + 1

C0 = 2.515517

C1 = 0.802853

C2 = 0.010328

D1 = 1.432788

D2 = 0.189269

D3 = 0.001308

μܸ

ܧ௫ = 106.9 − 20 logሺ݀ሻ ݀ ܤ൬ ൰൨

݉

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