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ITU-R P.

1546-3 – Implementation note

This implementation note contains description of functions which have been included, or
not, in the developing program (table 1). Those functions are presented in Annex 5, ITU-R
P.1546 recommendation. The rest of papers shows program algorithm and descriptions of
each used function. This colour shows functions which are not implemented. This colour is
used to indicate which paragraph of the Recommendation P.1546-3 corresponds to the discussed
point of algorithm – i.e. (Annex 5, §4.2)

Table 1: Description of function implementation used in program.

Is
§ Name Description
Implemented?
Values of maximum field strength
Maximum field-strength contains table tabData In last dimension
2 YES
values on 8th position.
Done in method: compute_e()
Determination of
No terrain information are available in
3 transmitting/base antenna NO
SEAMCAT
height h1
Transmitting/base antenna
4.1 height, h1, In the range 10 m YES Done in method: compute_e()
to 3000 m
Transmitting/base antenna
4.2 height, h1, In the range 0 m to YES Done in method: compute_e()
10 m
It is not expected to use antenna with
Negative values of height less than 0. As no terrain
4.3 transmitting/base antenna NO information are available antenna height
height, h1 has always positive value
Used eq: 12, 12a, 12b, 12c
Interpolation of field strength
5 YES Done in method: compute_e()
as a function of distance
Interpolation of field strength
6 YES Done in method: compute_e()
as a function of frequency
Interpolation of field strength
7 as a function of percentage YES Done in method: compute_e()
time
Not included are calculations of the
8 Mixed path NO maritime area, thus is not expected to use
mixed areas.
Skipped guidelines for maritime areas,
Correction for
and the calculations take into account the
9 receiving/mobile antenna YES
Fresnel zone
height
Done in method: clutterCorrection()
Correction for short
10 YES Done in method: clutterCorrection()
urban/suburban paths
Terrain clearance angle No terrain information are available in
11 NO
correction SEAMCAT
Local variability In land area-
`12 YES Done in method: stdDev() and evaluate()
coverage prediction
Correction based on No terrain information are available in
13 NO
tropospheric scattering SEAMCAT
Field-strenght predictions for
14 YES Done in method: less1km()
distances less than 1 km
An approximation to the
inverse complementary
15 YES Done in method: Qi()
cumulative normal distribution
function
Equivalent basic transmission
16 YES Done in method: evaluate()
loss
An approximation to the 0.6 No terrain information are available in
17 NO
Fresnel cealrance path length SEAMCAT

Algorithm
1.1) Determination of lower and higher nominal percentages tinf and tsup (Annex 5, §7)

‫ݐ‬௜௡௙ = 1%, ‫ݐ‬௦௨௣ = 10%; ݂‫ ݎ݋‬1% ≤ ‫ < ݐ‬10%


‫ݐ‬௜௡௙ = 10%, ‫ݐ‬௦௨௣ = 50%; ݂‫ ݎ݋‬10% ≤ ‫ < ݐ‬50%
‫ݐ‬௜௡௙ = ‫ݐ‬௦௨௣ = 50%; ‫ = ݐ‬50%

Propagation model is valid for time percentage range 1% ≤ t ≤ 50%

1.2) Determination of lower and higher nominal frequency finf and fsup (Annex 5, §6)

݂௜௡௙ = 100‫ݖܪܯ‬, ݂௦௨௣ = 600‫ ݎ݋݂ ;ݖܪܯ‬30‫ < ݂ ≤ ݖܪܯ‬600‫ݖܪܯ‬


݂௜௡௙ = 600‫ݖܪܯ‬, ݂௦௨௣ = 2 000‫ ݎ݋݂ ;ݖܪܯ‬600‫ < ݂ ≤ ݖܪܯ‬3 000‫ݖܪܯ‬
݂௜௡௙ = ݂௦௨௣ = 2 000‫ = ݂ ݎ݋݂ ;ݖܪܯ‬2 000‫ݖܪܯ‬

Propagation model is valid for frequency range 30MHz ≤ f ≤ 3 000MHz

1.3) Determination of lower and higher nominal distance dinf and dsup (Annex 5, §5)

Lower distance dinf is equal to distance d if field strengths are read directly from the
tabulation data. Otherwise program selects lower distance dinf (nearest tabulation distance
less then d) and distance dsup (nearest tabulation distance greater than d).

dinf = dsup = 1000, for distance d =1 000 km.

Propagation model is valid for distance range 0m < d ≤ 1 000m

1.4) Determination of lower and higher nominal height hinf and hsup (Annex 5, §4.1)

Lower height hinf is equal to height, h1, if that height coincides with one of the eight heights
for which curves are provided. Otherwise program selects lower height hinf (nearest
tabulation height less then h1) and height hsup (nearest tabulation height greater than h1).
hinf = 600 m, hsup = 1 200 m for h1 > 1 200 m
hinf = hsup = 1 200 m for h1 = 1 200 m

Propagation model is valid for distance range 0m < h ≤ 3 000m

2) Computing field strength E

If distance, d, is greater than 1km follow to step 2.1, otherwise follow to step 2.2

2.1 Computing field strength E for distance greater than 1km.

A) If d=dinf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data (Annex 5, §5),
otherwise:

d ݀௦௨௣ μܸ
‫ܧ = ܧ‬୧୬୤ + ൫Eୱ୳୮ − E୧୬୤ ൯ log ൬ ൰ / log ቆ ቇ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨
d୧୬୤ ݀௜௡௙ ݉

B) If h=hinf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data , otherwise:

a. h1 ≥ 10m (Annex 5, §4.1)

hଵ ℎ௦௨௣ μܸ
‫ܧ = ܧ‬୧୬୤ + ൫Eୱ୳୮ − E୧୬୤ ൯ log ൬ ൰ / log ቆ ቇ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨
h୧୬୤ ℎ௜௡௙ ݉

b. h1 < 10m (Annex 5, §4.2)

μܸ
‫ ܧ = ܧ‬௭௘௥௢ + 0.1ℎଵ ሺ‫ܧ‬ଵ଴ − ‫ܧ‬௭௘௥௢ ሻ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨
݉
μܸ
‫ܧ‬௭௘௥௢ = ‫ܧ‬ଵ଴ + 0.5ሺ‫ܥ‬ଵ଴ଶ଴ + ‫ܥ‬௛ଵ௡௘௚ଵ଴ ሻ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨
݉

‫ܥ‬ଵ଴ଶ଴ = ‫ܧ‬ଵ଴ − ‫ܧ‬ଶ଴ [݀‫]ܤ‬

Ch1neg10 in dB calculated using equation Ch1 = 6.03 – j(v) (function j(v) is described
in §I.1) at the required distance for h1 = -10 m, and follow parameter:

‫ܭ = ݒ‬௩ ߆௘௙௙ଶ

ℎ1
߆௘௙௙ଶ = arctan ൬− ൰ [݀݁݃]
9000

1.31 ݂‫ ݎ݋‬100‫ݖܪܯ‬
‫ܭ‬௩ ቐ 3.31 ݂‫ ݎ݋‬600‫ ݖܪܯ‬
6.00 ݂‫ ݎ݋‬2 000‫ݖܪܯ‬
Section For a sea path is not implemented
§4.3 Negative values of transmitting/base antenna height is not implemented,
used only J(v) function.

C) If f = finf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data (Annex 5, §6),
otherwise:

fଵ ݂௦௨௣ μܸ
‫ܧ = ܧ‬୧୬୤ + ൫Eୱ୳୮ − E୧୬୤ ൯ log ൬ ൰ / log ቆ ቇ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨
f୧୬୤ ݂௜௡௙ ݉

D) If t = tinf than read value of field strength E directly from tabulation data (Annex 5, §7),
otherwise

ܳ௜௡௙ − Q ୲ ܳ௧ − ܳ௦௨௣ μܸ
‫ܧ = ܧ‬ୱ୳୮ + E୧୬୤ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨
Q ୧୬୤ − Q ୱ୳୮ ܳ௜௡௙ − ܳ௦௨௣ ݉

‫ݐ‬ ‫ݐ‬௜௡௙ ‫ݐ‬௦௨௣


ܳ௧ = ܳ௜ ൬ ൰ ; ܳ௜௡௙ = ܳ௜ ൬ ൰ ; ܳ௦௨௣ = ܳ௜ ൬ ൰;
100 100 100

Function Qi is described in §I.2

Figure 1 shows algorithm for computing field strength value, E.


Figure 1: Algorithm of computing field the strength value
2.2 Computing field strength E for distance less than 1km. (Annex 5, §14)

μܸ
‫ܧ ۓ‬୫ୟ୶ ௡௙ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨ ݂‫݀ ≤ ݀ ݎ݋‬௡௙
ۖ ݉
μܸ
‫=ܧ‬ ‫ܧ‬୫ୟ୶ ௗ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨ ݂‫݀ ݎ݋‬௡௙ < ݀ ≤ 0.1݇݉ 
‫۔‬ ݉
ۖ ݀ μܸ
‫ܧ‬ + ሺ‫ܧ‬ଵ௞௠ − ‫ܧ‬଴.ଵ௞௠ ሻ log ൬ ൰ ൤ܾ݀ ൬ ൰൨ ݂‫ ݎ݋‬0.1݇݉ < ݀ < 1.0݇݉
‫ ە‬଴.ଵ ௞௠ 0.1 ݉

where:
Emax nf: maximum field strength at a distance of dnf given by equations in §I.3
Emax d: maximum field strength at required distance given by equations in §I.3
E0.1km: maximum field strength at a distance of 0.1km given by equations in §I.3
E1 km: field strength at a distance of 1km (used function from §2.1)

dnf = 0.01 km

10଴.ଵீ
Equation

݀௡௙ =
10݂
is not used
3.1) Correction for receiving antenna height (Annex 5, §9)

The field-strength values given by the land curves and associated tabulations in P.1546-3
Recommendation are for a reference receiving antenna at a height, R (m), representative of
the height of the ground cover surrounding the receiving antenna, subject to a minimum
height value of 10 m.

If R is not given by user, default value of assumed height of local clutter will be set:

R = 10 m, for SUBURBAN areas, or R = 20 m, for URBAN areas

1 000ܴ݀ − 15ℎଵ
Representative clutter height R’(m) for urban and suburban areas:

ܴᇱ = [݉]
1 000݀ − 15
If R’ is less than 1m than R’ = 1 m

6.03 − ݆ሺ‫ݒ‬ሻ [݀‫]ܤ‬ ݂‫ ݎ݋‬ℎଶ < ܴ′


For urban and suburban environment the correction is then given by:

‫ = ݊݋݅ݐܿ݁ݎݎ݋ܥ‬ቐ ℎଶ 
‫ܭ‬௛ଶ log ൬ ᇱ ൰ [݀‫]ܤ‬ ݂‫ ݎ݋‬ℎଶ > ܴ′
ܴ
where:

‫ܭ = ݒ‬௡௨ ටℎௗ௜௙ ߆௖௟௨௧

ℎௗ௜௙ = ܴ ᇱ − ℎଶ [݉]
௛೏೔೑
߆௖௟௨௧ = arctan ቀ ቁ
ଶ଻
[deg]
‫ܭ‬௛ଶ = 3.2 + 6.2log ሺ݂ሻ
‫ܭ‬௡௨ = 0.0108ඥ݂

In cases in an urban environment where R' is less than 10 m, the correction should be
reduced by Kh2 log(10/R′).

Where the receiving antenna is on land in a rural environment the correction is given by

ℎଶ
equation

‫ܭ‬௛ଶ log ൬ ᇱ ൰
ܴ
for all values of h2 with R' set to 10 m.

Sections which correspond to Sea areas are not implemented


Not included also:
The distance at which the path would just have 0.6 Fresnel clearance for the required value of h1 and
for h2 = 10 m, d10, should be calculated as D06(f, h1, 10) in § 17.

If the required distance is equal to or greater than d10, then again the correction for the required
value of h2 should be calculated using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m.
If the required distance is less than d10, then the correction to be added to the field strength E should
be calculated

3.2) Correction for short urban/suburban paths (Annex 5, §10)

If a path of length less than 15 km covers buildings of uniform height over flat terrain, a
correction representing the reduction of field strength due to building clutter should be
added to the field strength. The correction is given by:

‫ ݊݋݅ݐܿ݁ݎݎ݋ܥ‬+= −3.3[ሺlog ሺ݂ሻ][1 − 0.85log ሺ݀ሻ][1 − 0.46log ሺ1 + ℎ௔ − ܴሻ]

where ha is the antenna height above ground (m) and R is representative of the height of the
ground cover surrounding the receiving antenna, which also represents the height of ground
cover surrounding the transmitting/base antenna. This correction only applies when d is less
than 15 km and h1 − R is less than 150 m.

4.1) Equivalent basic transmission loss (Annex 5, §16)

Transmission loss equivalent to a given field strength is given by:

‫ܮ‬௕ = 139.3 − ‫ ܧ‬+ 20 logሺ݂ሻ [݀‫]ܤ‬

4.2) Location variability in land area-coverage prediction (Annex 5, §12)

Values of standard deviation are dependent on frequency and environment, and empirical
studies have shown a considerable spread. Representative values for areas of 500 m × 500 m
are given by the following expression:

ߪ௅ = ‫ ܭ‬+ 1.3 logሺ݂ሻ [݀‫]ܤ‬


Where:
K = 1.2, for receivers with antennas below clutter height, in urban and suburban environment
K = 1.0, for receivers with antennas above clutter height, in urban and suburban environment
K = 0.5, for receiver in rural areas

Not included:
(...) Thus for a land receiving/mobile antenna location the field strength, E, which will be exceeded for
q% of locations is given by:

‫ݍ‬
‫ܧ‬ሺ‫ݍ‬ሻ = ‫ܧ‬ሺ݉݁݀݅ܽ݊ሻ + ܳ௜ ቀ ቁ ߪ ሺ݂ሻ
100 ௅

I. Used functions and equations


1. J(v)
‫ܬ‬ሺ‫ݒ‬ሻ = 6.9 + 20݈‫ ݃݋‬ቀඥሺ‫ ݒ‬− 0.1ሻଶ + 1 + ‫ ݒ‬− 0.1ቁ
2. Qi() – An approximation to the inverse complementary cumulative normal
distribution function (Annex 5, §15)

ܳ௜ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ = ܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ − ߦሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݂‫ ≤ ݔ ݎ݋‬0.5


ܳ௜ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ = −ሼܶሺ1 − ‫ݔ‬ሻ − ߦሺ1 − ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ݂‫ > ݔ ݎ݋‬0.5
where:
ܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ = ඥ[−2 lnሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ]
[ሺ‫ܥ‬ଶ ܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ + ‫ܥ‬ଵ ሻܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ] + ‫ܥ‬଴
ߦሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ =
[ሺ‫ܦ‬ଷ ܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ + ‫ܦ‬ଶ ሻܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ + ‫ܦ‬ଵ ]ܶሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ + 1

C0 = 2.515517
C1 = 0.802853
C2 = 0.010328
D1 = 1.432788
D2 = 0.189269
D3 = 0.001308

3. Maximum field-strength values (Annex 5, §2)

μܸ
‫ܧ‬௠௔௫ = 106.9 − 20 logሺ݀ሻ ൤݀‫ ܤ‬൬ ൰൨
݉