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1. Burnout time

The average mass of the rocket during boost is

mP

(1.1) mA = mD +

2

mA = Average mass [ kg ]

mD = Rocket dry mass [ kg ]

mP = Propellant mass [ kg ]

1

(1.2) FD = k ⋅ vt2B = ⋅ ρ ⋅ CDR ⋅ AR

2

m

vtB = Burnout velocity [ ]

s

kg

ρ = Air density [ ]

m3

CDR = Drag coefficient of the rocket [-] (0.75 for average rockets)

AR = Rocket cross-sectional area [ m 2 ]

(1.3) FT = T − mA ⋅ g − k ⋅ vt2B

T = Motor thrust [ N ]

m

g = Acceleration of gravity [ ]

s2

(1.4) F = m ⋅ a

As the mass is constant the factor rule in differentiation allows the mass to move outside

the derivative operator, and the equation becomes

dv

(1.5) F = m ⋅

dt

dv

(1.6) mA ⋅ = T − mA ⋅ g − k ⋅ v 2

dt

dv

(1.7) mA ⋅ = T − mA ⋅ g − k ⋅ v 2

dt

mA ⋅ dv mA ⋅ dv

(1.8) dt = =

T − mA ⋅ g − k ⋅ v 2

T − mA ⋅ g

k⋅ − k ⋅ v2

k

T − mA ⋅ g

Substituting x 2 = yields to

k

mA ⋅ dv m dv

(1.9) dt = = A⋅ 2 2

k ⋅ x − k ⋅v

2 2

k x −v

mA 1

k ∫ x2 − v2 B

(1.10) t B = ⋅ dvt

(1.11) t B = ⋅ +C

k 2x

With the condition t B = 0 (and thus vtB = 0 ) we can determine the integration constant

C:

mA ln( x) − ln(− x)

(1.12) ⋅ +C = 0

k 2x

mA ln(− x) − ln( x)

(1.13) C = ⋅

k 2x

(1.14)

m ln( x + vtB ) − ln(vtB − x) mA ln(− x) − ln( x)

tB = A ⋅

k 2x

+

k

⋅

2x

=

mA

2⋅k ⋅ x

(

⋅ ln( x + vtB ) − ln(vtB − x) + ln(− x) − ln( x) )

(1.15)

mA ln( x + vtB ) − ln(vtB − x) mA ln(− x) − ln( x) mA x + vtB −x

tB = ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ ln + ln

k 2x k 2x 2 ⋅ k ⋅ x x v

Bt − x

mA x + vtB

(1.16) t B = ⋅ ln Burnout time equation

2 ⋅ k ⋅ x x − vtB

2. Burnout velocity

2⋅k ⋅ x x + vtB

(1.17) ⋅ t B = ln

mA x − vt

B

2⋅k ⋅ x

Substitution y =

mA

x + vtB

(1.18) y ⋅ t B = ln

x − vt

B

x + vtB

(1.19) e y ⋅tB =

x − vtB

e y⋅tB − 1

(1.21) vtB = x ⋅ Burnout velocity equation

e y⋅tB + 1

I sp ve

tB = =

T g ⋅T

I sp = Specific impulse [ s ]

m

ve = Effective exhaust velocity [ ]

s

3. Burnout altitude

To get now the burnout velocity hB we need to integrate 1.21 over the burnout time:

e y⋅t − 1 2 ⋅ x ⋅ ln ( e y⋅tB + 1) − t B ⋅ x ⋅ y

(1.22) hB = ∫ x ⋅ y⋅t dt B = +C

e +1 y

2 ⋅ x ⋅ ln ( e y⋅tB + 1) − t B ⋅ x ⋅ y

(1.23) hB = +C

y

With the condition hB = 0 (and thus t B = 0 ) we can determine the integration constant

C:

2 ⋅ x ⋅ ln ( 2 )

(1.24) +C = 0

y

2 ⋅ x ⋅ ln ( 2 )

(1.25) C = −

y

2 ⋅ x e y⋅tB + 1

(1.26) hB = ⋅ ln − tB ⋅ x

y 2

2⋅k ⋅ x

Substitution y =

mA

mA e y⋅tB + 1

(1.27) hB = ⋅ ln − tB ⋅ x Burnout altitude equation 1

k 2

Replacing e y ⋅tB by

x + vtB

(1.28) = e y⋅tB

x − vtB

yields to

mA x

(1.29) hB = ⋅ ln − t B ⋅ x

k x − vt

B

mA x + vtB

(1.30) t B = ⋅ ln

2 ⋅ k ⋅ x x − vtB

mA x mA x + vtB

(1.31) hB = ⋅ ln − ⋅ ln ⋅ x

x − vt

k B 2 ⋅ k ⋅ x x − vtB

mA x mA x + vtB

(1.32) hB = ⋅ ln − ⋅ ln

x − vt x − vt

k B 2⋅k B

2 ⋅ mA x mA x + vtB

(1.33) hB = ⋅ ln − ⋅ ln

2⋅k x − vt x − vt

B 2⋅k B

2

m x m x + vtB

(1.34) hB = A ⋅ ln − A ⋅ ln

2⋅k x − vt

B 2⋅k x − vtB

x − vtB

mA x2

(1.35) hB = ⋅ ln ⋅

2⋅k x−v

( ) x + vtB

2

tB

mA x2

(1.36) hB = ⋅ ln 2 2 Burnout altitude equation 2

2⋅k x − vt

B

4. Coasting altitude

After the rocket has reached the burnout altitude, the so called coasting phase begins. The

rocket has then the dry mass mD and the initial velocity vtB . To derive the coast altitude

hC we start again with the definition of force:

dv

(1.37) F = m ⋅ a = m ⋅ v ⋅

dh

dv

(1.38) mD ⋅ v ⋅ = −mD ⋅ g − k ⋅ v 2

dh

mD ⋅ v ⋅ dv

(1.39) dh =

−mD ⋅ g − k ⋅ v 2

mD ⋅ v ⋅ dv

(1.40) dh =

− mD ⋅ g

k⋅ − k ⋅ v2

k

−mD ⋅ g

Substitution z 2 =

k

mD v ⋅ dv

(1.41) dh = ⋅

k z2 − v2

mD v ⋅ dv

(1.42) dh = ⋅

k z2 − v2

mD v

k ∫ z 2 − v2 B

(1.43) hC = ⋅ dvt

mD vtB

(1.44) hC =

k z − vt

m

2⋅k

(

⋅ ∫ 2 2 dvtB = D ⋅ ln z 2 − vt2B + C )

B

With the condition hC = 0 (and thus vtB = 0 ) we can determine the integration constant

C:

⋅ ln ( z 2 ) + C = 0

mD

(1.45)

2⋅k

⋅ ln ( z 2 )

mD

(1.46) C = −

2⋅k

(1.47) hC =

mD

2⋅k

( )

⋅ ln z 2 − vt2B − D ⋅ ln ( z 2 )

m

2⋅k

mD z 2 − vt2B

(1.48) hC = ⋅ ln Coast altitude equation

2⋅k z2

5. Coast time

To determinate the time tC from vtB to 0 (coasting time), the starting point is again the

definition of force. The acceleration is here negative:

dv

(1.49) F = m ⋅ ( − a ) = m ⋅ −

dt

dv

(1.50) mC ⋅ − = − mC ⋅ g − k ⋅ v 2

dt

dv

(1.51) dt = mC ⋅

mC ⋅ g + k ⋅ v 2

dv

(1.52) dt = mC ⋅

m ⋅g

k ⋅ C + k ⋅ v2

k

mC ⋅ g

Substitution za 2 =

k

mC dv

(1.53) dt = ⋅ 2 2

k za + v

vt

arctan B

m 1 m za +C

(1.54) tC = C ⋅ ∫ 2 2 dvtB = C ⋅

k za + v k za

With the condition tC = 0 (and thus vtB = 0 ) we can determine the integration constant

C:

0

arctan

m

(1.55) C ⋅ za +C = 0⇒C = 0

k za

mC vt

(1.56) tC = ⋅ arctan B Coast time equation

k ⋅ za za

6. Parachute size

m

The desired maximum decent velocity for a rocket is 3-5 . Therefore the parachute size

s

needs to be accordingly calculated.

1

(1.57) F = m ⋅ a = 0 = mD ⋅ g − ⋅ CDP ⋅ ρ ⋅ AP ⋅ v 2

2

2 ⋅ mD ⋅ g

(1.58) vE =

CDP ⋅ ρ ⋅ AP

CDP = Drag coefficient of the rocket [-] (0.75 for a flat sheet used for a parachute, or 1.5

for a true dome-shaped chute).

AR = Parachute area [ m 2 ]

Solving for AP :

2 ⋅ mD ⋅ g

(1.59) AP =

vE2 ⋅ CDP ⋅ ρ

π ⋅ DP2

The chute area is AP = , so the chute diameter is

4

8 ⋅ mD ⋅ g

(1.60) DP = Parachute diameter equation

π ⋅ vE2 ⋅ CDP ⋅ ρ

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