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International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering

Vol. 1, No. 1, March 2011


Copyright © Science Academy Publisher, United Kingdom
www.sciacademypublisher.com

Science Academy
Publisher

Study and Control of Wind Energy Conversion System based


Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator connected to the
Grid

Aziz Remli, Djamal Aouzellag, and Kaci Ghedamsi


Departement of Electrical Engineering, University of Bejaia, Targa Ouzemour, 06000 Bejaia, Algeria
Correspondence should be addressed to Aziz Remli, aziz_elm_r@yahoo.fr

Abstract - In this paper, we have studied the dynamic behavior of high power wind energy conversion system (WECS)
connected to the electrical grid. The system is composed by a three blade horizontal wind turbine, a permanent magnet
synchronous generator (PMSG) with high number of poles; which offers possibility to eliminate the gearbox, and finally by
an indirect frequency converter between generator and the grid. We have used an aleatory profile of wind speed in order to
illustrate the different controls realized, especially with maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT) and Pitch control
at wind turbine level. The simulation results under Matlab\Simulink® obtained and commented in order to validate the
approach.

1. Introduction decreasing power coefficient [8]-[10]. The reference angle is


The synchronous generator is currently used in WECS, calculated by a fuzzy logic algorithm.
especially in law power for battery charging, for example [1]-
[3]. But the use of PMSG in high power generation is recent. 2. Wind Turbine Modeling
It’s facilitated by the technologic progress realized in power The aerodynamic power converted by the wind turbine is
electronics and permanent magnet materials used in generator depending on the power coefficient , such as:
rotors [4], [5].
The use of PMSG allows to eliminate the gearbox and to
operate at variable and low speed; which is adequate with ( )
wind speed nature. Variable speed operation of wind energy (1)
conversion system contributes to decrease the mechanical
stress and acoustic noise and offers possibility to control of where is the air density ( ), R is the blade
active and reactive powers [6], [ 7]. length and is the wind speed.
In this work, the PMSG is connected to the grid via two The power coefficient is depending on the pitch angle and
power electronics converters with an intermediate DC link the tip speed ratio given by:
bus (Figure 1). The generator side converter is controlled via
hysteresis regulation of generator currents with zero direct (2)
current; in order to obtain a maximal torque for a minimal
current. The MPPT algorithm is used to determinate the
Where is the rotational speed of the wind turbine and
optimal rotational speed reference for any value of wind
generator.
speed under the nominal regime in order to maximizing
The power coefficient is given by the expression [11]:
power captured by the wind turbine.
The grid side converter is controlled by pulse width
modulation (PWM) obtained from proportional integral (PI) ( ) ( )
regulation of currents sanded to the electrical grid. (3)
The DC link voltage is kept at constant value with a DC/DC
converter and PI regulation of DC voltage at its reference. with:
Power limitation for high wind speed values is achieved by
varying the blade angle (Pitch control) which corresponds to
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 30

Wind turbine 𝑖dc 𝑖inv Filter 𝑖g1 Grid

Ω Ct AC DC
𝑖c AC
𝑖m2
PMSG udc
Cdc
Vw DC DC DC
DC-Bus

Figure 1. Structure of studied system

For different values of the ( ) curves are shown in


Pref λ Ω
Figure 2. β R
0.5 Pmes Vw
CP max β 0°
Cp
0.4 β 4°
Ct 1 Ω
β 8° 1 -
0.3 0 5 ρπR2 Cp Vw3 Js+f
β 12° Ω
Cref
+
cp

0.2
β 16°
0.1 Vw Ωref 1 + s Ti
λopt + Kp
R s Ti PI
0 -
0 5 10 15 20
λopt λ Vw
Ωn
Figure 2. Power coefficient
Figure 3. Control diagram of wind turbine
We note the existence of the maximal value of power
coefficient corresponding to the optimal value of the Figure 4 showed the control system of the pitch angle by fuzzy
tip speed ratio for each value of pitch angle . In this logic calculation of the reference angle.
point the power is maximal and can be expressed as:
Pmes β̇ max βmax
e βref
(4) ∆P 30
- FL 1
Control 1 + Td s
+ 0 β
The speed reference allows to maximizing the power
β̇ min βmin
captured by the wind (MPPT strategy) is given by: Pref

> 10 Logic
(5)
0 OR diagram

When the wind speed reached the nominal value, the ≥


pitch angle regulation (based on fuzzy logic algorithm) enter
in operation in order to decrease the power coefficient. Figure 4. Fuzzy logic regulation of Pitch angle
The simplified representation of wind turbine control diagram
is shown in Figure 3.
The power reference ecorresponds to the nominal
power of the wind turbine and the measured power
corresponds to the optimal aerodynamic power.
The Pitch angle mechanism is modeled as a first order
function with time constant . The speed variation of pitch
angle ̇ is limited at 10°/s.
As much as the wind speed is low than its nominal value,
the blade orientation mechanism is inactive ( ). Beyond
the nominal value, the blade angle regulation enters in action;
in this case can be varied between 0 and 35° [12].
The Pitch angle reference is generated in according to
stages shown in Figure 5.
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 31

e
The electromagnetic torque is also expressed as fellow:

Defuzzification
Inference

Fuzzification
process βref ( ) (9)
+ ∆e
M The active and reactive powers are given according to:
- Fuzzy rules

+
Figure 5. Fuzzy logic generation of Pitch angle reference
{ (10)

The fuzzification is achieved by triangular membership


function, the linguistic variables associated are: negative big 4. Converters Modeling
(NB), negative small (NS), zero (Z), positive small (PS) and
The connection functions are defined, for each switch
positive big (PB) (Figure 6).
( ), (Figure 7). They represent the ideal commutation
and take the value if the switch is close, when he is open.
𝜇
NB NS Z PS PB {
1
(11)
𝑖dc

-0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 e ∆e 𝑖m1 𝑖g1


F1
Figure 6. Fuzzification process

The inference process is based on fuzzy rules given in table 1.

udc
vm1

vinv1
Table 1. Fuzzy rules table
( )
ref ( + 1) F1
NB NS Z PS PB
NB NB NB NS NS Z
Error variation

NS NB NS NS Z PS Figure 7. Electronic converter schemes


e( )

Z NS NS Z PS PS
The first converter is controlled with a hysteresis PWM,
PS NS Z PS PS PB
obtained via machine current regulation. The second
PB Z PS PS PB PB converter is controlled with natural PWM via grid current
regulation.
Finally, the defuzzification stage is realized by center of
gravity method according to the expression given by [12]- 5. Control System
[14]:
( )
The global control diagram is shown in Figure 8.


5.1. PMSG Currents Regulation
(6)
where is the membership grade of for the i-th rule and is The hysteresis control of PMSG currents allows keeping
the coordinate corresponding to the respective output or the current wave into range defined around the reference
consequent membership function. value. When current wave reached the band limits, the
hysteresis controller generate a logic signal (0 or 1). So, for
3. PMSG Modeling ( ) we have:
The voltage equations of PMSG are expressed as [15]: ≥
{
+ (12)
{ (7)
+ +
With is the hysteresis band defined in the controller.
Figure 9 gives the regulation principle.
with is the stator winding resistance and p the number of
pole of the synchronous generator.
The direct and quadratic magnetic fluxes are given by (the imj 1
excitation flux is constant): +
Fj
0
+ - Fj
{ (8) imj
2∆i

Figure 9 : Hysteresis regulation principle


with and are, respectively, the direct and quadratic
current.
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 32

5.2. DC-Bus Regulation


The DC-Bus voltage (grid side) is keep constant at its (14)
reference value with help of DC-DC converter (controlled
with duty cycle ) through PI regulation So, the active power at DC level is expresses as follows:
The electrical equations of DC-Bus are given by this
expression:
(15)
( ) (13)

Lf f

AC DC DC
udc
PMSG
DC DC ref AC
Vw 𝑖g1 𝑖g2
[𝑖m ] Fij

Currents
Control unit α Control unit
β regulation
Ωref [vref ]3
DC-Bus voltage regulation 𝑖g1 𝑖g2

Pmes Udc udc


Pitch [vg ]3 vdg vqg
Currents
MPPT ref reference
Pref Control
1
Vw
Grid voltage P(θ) evaluation

Pgrid Qgrid
Figure 8. Global control scheme

vg1
5.3. Grid Currents Regulation 𝑖g1 PI(s)
The control of grid side converter has for objective to + 1 + Ti s vf1 + + vf1 1 𝑖g1
Kp
obtain current and voltage with acceptable wave form and to Ti s - f + Lf s
-
ensure unitary power factor operation by imposing zero - vinv1 vinv1
reactive power as reference in the system control.
The electrical equation downstream the converter can be
Figure 10. Grid current regulation
expressed as follows:

( ) 6. Results and Discussion


{ A global simulation of the system under
( )
Matlab\Simuloink® with wind speed profile shown in Figure
(16) 11 is realized.
Power coefficient, tip speed ratio, pitch angle and
The use of mathematical model of converter (with rotational speed curves are given in Figure 12.
assumption of an equilibrate voltage system) allows
expressing simple voltages reference as follows [16]: 20
Vw_nominal

15
Vw (m/s)

( ) ( )+( )
(17) 10

With PI regulation of grid currents, we obtained the 5


reference voltages et (Figure 10), so [16]: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
t (s)
Figure 11. Random of wind speed
( ) ( )( ) (a) 0.5
0.4
(18)
0.3
Cp

0.2

0.1

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 33

(b) 10 (a)
0
8
-0.2

PPMSG (MW)
6
λ

-0.4
4

2 -0.6

0 -0.8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
(c) 15 (b)
0.2

QPMSG (MVAR)
10
β (°)

0.1
5
0
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
(d) 6
(c)
-0.6
Ω (rad/s)

Power Factor
4
-0.8
2
-1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
t (s) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
t (s)
Figure 12. Simulation results: (a) Power coefficient, (b) Tip speed ratio, (c) Figure 14. (a) PMSG active power, (b) PMSG reactive power, (c) power factor
Pitch angle and (d) generator speed
When rotational speed is low than the nominal value (4.9 The active and reactive power, like that the power factor,
rad/s) (Figure 12d), the conversion system operate under of PMSG are presented in Figure 14. Active power is
MPPT control. But when the wind speed exceed the nominal optimized with MPPT strategy and keeps at his nominal
value the Pitch angle increase (Figure 12c), which have for value when the wind speed exceeds the nominal value.
consequence decreasing power coefficient (Figure 12a) with The DC voltage is maintained at constant value of 1.5 kV
keeping constants rotational speed and power generated. The as shown in Figure 15.
tip speed ratio, of course, is decreasing (Figure 12b). 2
The machine voltage and current wave form are shown in
1.5
Figure 13. The hysteresis control of machine currents allows
Udc (kV)

obtaining an acceptable wave form. 1


1.5 vm1
im1 0.5
1
im1 (kA), vm1 (kV)

0.5 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0 t (s)
-0.5 Figure 15. DC-Bus voltage
-1
-1.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
On the grid side, the voltage and current of one phase are
given by fig. 16. The frequency imposed by the grid is 50 Hz
im1 vm1
1 and the dephasing angle of 180° between current wave and
im1 (kA), vm1 (kV)

0.5
voltage is justified by system operation with unitary power
factor, imposed by control unit. For consequence the reactive
0
power is null and the active ones fellows his reference
-0.5 (Figure 17).
-1
46.01 46.015 46.02 46.025 46.03 46.035 (a)
1 vg1
t (s) ig1
ig1 (kA), vg1 (kV)

Figure 13. Generator current and voltage 0.5

-0.5

-1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 34

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