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STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONS OF HARMONY By ARNOLD SCHOENBERG Revised Edition with Corrections Edited by Lroxani Saber and faber ' First published in 1954 by Williams and Norgate Limited. ‘Second (revised) edition 1969 published by Emnest Bern Limited First published in Faber Paperbacks in 1983 by Faber and Faber Limited 3 Queen Square London WCIN 3AU Printed in Great Britain by Whitstable Litho Lid Whitstable All rights reseed Copyright © 1954, 1969 by Nuria Schoenberg Nono, Ronald Schoenberg, 1 cand Lawrence Schoenberg Bt This boot i sold sujet 6 the ebtion tht it shell mt, by say of \ fred of ahr Se lt, esd, ed at of shred ‘hat the plies rie oman nny fom of ining aot Str th the in whi Wis pied ant itt slr etn Inning hi condition being ined he sea arth ur Vv v British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Schoenberg, Arnold Structural functions of harmony.——2nd (rev.) ed VI 1. Harmony. vu I. Tile II. Stein, Leonard 7313 MTS0 ISBN 0-571-13000-3 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PREFACE TO THE Revise EpiTion Eprtok’s PREFACE To THE Fiast EprTtow Tue Use oF Tas BOOK FoR TEACHING AND Setr-Insteucrion SravctuRat Fuxcrions oF HARMONY Pruvciptes or Harwony (A Brig REcAPITULA- 0%) Part-Leading Dissonances and Their Treatment Root Progressions ‘The Minor Tonality Establishment of Tonality The Cadence I The §.Chord of the Cadence The Half Cadence: Other Cadences Suasrrrures and REGioNs Derivation of the Substitutes Introduction of Substitutes Regions I Introduction of Regions Chromatic Procedure Functional Limitations of Artificial Dominants ‘The Cadence IT (enriched) Reo1oNs 1 Minor, Regions II ‘TRANSFORMATIONS ‘Transformations of the Second Degree Transformations of Other Degrees in the Tonic Region Restrictions ‘Vacrant Harnontes InrercnaNcrasttty oF Major ano Minor (Tomic Miso, Svspowivant MINOR AND ¥-Mivor Recions) Regions III (Major) Tonic Minor Region ix xv oun ry 1% 15 5 8 19 a1 23 28 30. 35 35, 38 a 51 5I ‘CONTENTS Subdominant Minor Region 54 Five-Minor Region (v) 56 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VIII Inpmmect sur Cros: Revavions (Mepiant Major, Sumwepiaxr Major, Fiat MEDIANT I map been constantly dissatisfied with the knowledge of har- Major AND Minox, Fiat SUBMEDIANT MajoR ‘mony of my students of composition at the University of ‘axp Minor 7 California, Los Angeles. To remedy this shortcoming I Regions IV 3) instituted 'a new class to which the conventional. harmony Major 37 teaching should be the prerequisite: Structurat. Funcrions Minor &: oF Harwowy. At this time (1939) a young former student Remotely Related Intermediate Regions 65 of mine, Leonard Stein, had already become my assistant IX. Crassintcation oF Retationsi 6% and remained in this capacity for the next three years. Regions in 68 ‘Thus naturally when I started to write the present book I eat a 73 could not select one better to help me express my ideas. He XX Exrexpep Tonatiry (Exapres rrom Mustcat had observed the development of these ideas from the very Lrrenarure) 76 beginning and had watched me struggling with their formula XI PRocressions rox Various Composrrionat, Pur~ tion. Poses 114 Twas not wrong in this selection. While perhaps a perfec- Sentence 114 — tionist might have tortured me with corrections of my English, Period 115 upsetting the flow of ideas, he had the patience to let me pro- Codetta 118 nounce my sentences in their rudest forms if only they expressed Contrasting Middle Section 120 theideaclearly. Ofcourse the gravest grammatical errors had Sequence 125 tw be eliminated, but the polishing of the style could be post- Variation of the Sequence 134 poned. Pedal 137 In spite of the preliminary work done in classes and Mr. apace 139 Stein's collection of notes and examples at this time, the real Darchfahning (Elaboration) 145 writing and frequent rewriting of the book demanded nearly Roving Hacmony Sw 164 two years. The extreme number of examples necessary for Spee erg ne cree 165 illustrating and clarifying every problem; the application of XL Apontosian Evanariox oF « Dionysiax EPocH 192 the theories in the analysis of the examples from literature and eee a se ce Ducat 197 the inevitable work of writing and copying are indications of APPENDIX 198 Mr. Stein’s share in the production of this book. a ee 389 Tse with pleasure this opportunity to thank him for bis intelligent, careful, assiduous and discriminating assistance. ARNOLD SCHOENBERG 28 March 1948