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A SECOND LOOK AT

BRIMSTOWAD

S. D. CHAWATHE
Hon. Director (Technical)
IWWA
BRIMSTOWAD SAYS
CHAWATHE ET AL : RAINFALL ANALYSIS FOR THE DESIGN OF STORM
SEWERS IN BOMBAY -1977

Chawathe has provided the most comprehensive analysis yet for storm
durations of 5 to 60 minutes, and twice per year to once in ten years
frequency . He used 1349 Colaba storms between 1944 and 1972 and
2708 santacruz storms between 1940 and 1972
BRIMSTOWAD SAYS

NEW ANALYSIS

We have analysed the hourly data available in digital form ( for


the period 1969-1979) seperately for Colaba and Santacruz to
produce Intensity- Durations- Frequency (IDF) relationships for
durations of 1 to 48 hrs and for a range of frequencies between 1
and 50 years. We have also analysed the daily data for the period
1959-1989 for durations of 1 to 8 days.

The analyses have been carried out by determining the extreme


probability distribution on the annual maxima.
BRIMSTOWAD SAYS

RAINFALL ANALYSIS

• CHAWATHE ,1977, 5-60 min (observed) , 1940-72

• CWPRS PUNE FOR CIDCO, ( Mahim creek), 1954-76

• NEDECO (Mahim creek), 1 to 12 hrs , 80 years

• WH + AIC, 1 to 48 hrs, 1969-1979


BRIMSTOWAD SAYS
STORM INTENSITIES FOR USE IN WALRUS MODEL
Intensity in mms/hr

PERIOD DURATION(hrs)
DURATION(hrs)
1 2 4 8 12

1 in 10 yrs 109 89 61.5 35.5 28

1 in 5 yrs 91.4 70.3 51 27.6 24

1 in 2 yrs 74 53.3 38 22.5 19.4

1 in 1 yr 58 40.6 30.4 18.1 16.5

2 in 1 yr 25 17 12 7.6 5.9
BRIMSTOWAD USES EXTREME VALUE
PROBABILITY METHOD

THIS METHOD IS UNRELIABLE AND DOES NOT REFLECT


THE ACTUAL FREQUENCIES OF STORMS IN THE PAST
DATA.

THE METHOD OF RAINFALL ANALYSIS SUGGESTED IN THE


CELEBRATED REFERENCE BOOK “WATER SUPPLY AND
WASTE WATER DISPOSAL” BY G. M. FAIR AND J. C. GEYER
IS MORE RELIABLE.
BRIMSTOWAD SAYS

To design the drainage system for 1 in 1 year storm a


considerable increase in capacity is required and this results
in drains of substantially larger dimensions and a large
increase in the number of drains to be replaced or
augmented……………There is 37 % increase in expenditure
for catchment 129.

This clearly indicates that designing for the increased level


of service is no where justified.
BRIMSTOWAD SAYS

AS DISCUSSED THE COST OF DESIGNING FOR STORMS OF


GREATER INTENSITY THAN A 2 IN 1 YEAR EVENT IS NOT
JUSTIFIED.

IT IS THEREFORE PROPOSED TO CONSTRUCT WORKS TO A


DASIGN CAPACITY TO ONLY COPE UP WITH A 2 IN 1 YEAR
EVENT.
BRIMSTOWAD DESIGNS FOR TWICE IN A
YEAR STORM

BRIMSTOWAD JUSTIFIES TWICE IN A YEAR FREQUENCY


FOR STORMS IN DESIGN.

26/7 EXPERIENCE HAS TAUGHT US TO REVIEW THIS


ASPECT AND ADOPT FREQUENCIES SUCH AS SAY ONCE IN
TEN YEARS FOR DESIGN.
BRIMSTAWAD SAYS

CRITERIA FOR LOCAL AREA DRAINAGE SYSTEM

This Report , providing proposals to Master Plan and


Preliminary Engineering , does not cover the detailed
investigation and proposals for local drainage systems.

The proposals contained in subsequent sections are the


result of analysis of the major network and give in outline
the requirements to alleviate the major causes of flooding.

As with any analysis on this scale , not all branches were


considered.
BRIMSTOWAD SAYS

IN MANY CASES IN THE CITY AND SUBURBS,FLOODING


WILL OCCUR DUE TO LOCAL DEFFICIENCIES WITHIN THE
SYSTEM WHICH HAVE NOT BECOME EVIDENT DURING THE
COURSE OF OUR WORK.
BRIMSTOWAD DOES NOT COVER LOCAL
STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
THE STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO SUB-
SYSTEMS. LOCAL DRAINAGE SYSTEM COVERING SMALL /MEDIUM/LARGE
ROADS AND SMALL NALLAS FORM THE UP-STREAM SUB SYSTEM AND
MEDIUM / LARGE NALLAS/RIVERS FORM THE DOWNS-TREAM SUB-
SYSTEM.

MOST OF THE AREA OF MUMBAI FORMS THE CATCHMENT AREA FOR THE
LOCAL DRAINAGE SUB SYSTEM. SINCE THE UP-STREAM SUB-SYSTEM
INITIALLY COLLECTS STORM WATER RUN-OFF AND SUBSEQUENTLY
PASSES THE SAME TO THE DOWN-STREAM SUB-SYSTEM, IT IS
NECESSARY TO DESIGN IT PROPERLY AND IDENTIFY CONSTRUCTION
PROPOSALS FOR THE SAME.

BRIMSTOWAD DOES NOT COVER THESE PROPOSALS.


RECOMMENDATIONS
 DESIGN / PROPOSALS SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR INTENSITIES OF
STORMS FOR A FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF SAY ONCE IN TEN
YEARS.
 DESIGN/PROPOSALS SHOULD BE ADDED FOR LOCAL STORM WATER
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS (SMALL/MEDIUM/LARGE ROADS , SMALL NALLAS
WITH CONCENTRATION TIME 10 MIN. TO 60 MIN.)
 USE RAINFALL INTENSITY- DURATION- FREQURENCY RELATIONSHIPS
DEVLOPED BY CHAWATHE ET AL FOR DESIGNING LOCAL STORM WATER
DRAINAGE SYSTEM
 REDEVELOP RAINFALL INTENSITY-DURATION- FREQUENCY RELATION
SHIPS BASED ON HOURLY RAINFALL DATA FOR DURATION OF STORMS
OF MORE THAN ONE HOUR DURATION BY USING METHODOLOGY USED
BY CHAWATHE ET AL . EXTREME VALUE PROBABILITY METHOD SHOULD
NOT BE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE. DESIGN/ PROPOSALS SHOULD BE
FRESHLY PREPARED FOR LARGE NALLAS/ RIVERS SUCH AS MITHI USING
THESE RELATIONSHIPS.
 MODIFY BRIMSTOWAD ON ABOVE LINES AND REVISE ALL COST
ESTIMATES