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3, JULY 2009

**A Control Methodology and Characterization
**

of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System

Interfaced With a Distribution Network

Amirnaser Yazdani, Member, IEEE, and Prajna Paramita Dash, Student Member, IEEE

**Abstract—This paper proposes a control strategy for a VSC ac-side current.
**

single-stage, three-phase, photovoltaic (PV) system that is

connected to a distribution network. The control is based on an Distribution line current between the PCC and

inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage regu- load.

lator. The current-control mechanism decouples the PV system

dynamics from those of the network and the loads. The dc-link Distribution line current between the load and

voltage-control scheme enables control and maximization of the substation.

real power output. Proper feedforward actions are proposed for

the current-control loop to make its dynamics independent of Load current.

those of the rest of the system. Further, a feedforward compensa- PV array current.

tion mechanism is proposed for the dc-link voltage-control loop, to

make the PV system dynamics immune to the PV array nonlinear PV array power.

characteristic. This, in turn, permits the design and optimiza-

tion of the PV system controllers for a wide range of operating Real power output of the PV system at PCC.

conditions. A modal/sensitivity analysis is also conducted on a

Reactive power output of the PV system at

linearized model of the overall system, to characterize dynamic

properties of the system, to evaluate robustness of the controllers, PCC.

and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system Interface transformer turns ratio.

and the network/loads. The results of the modal analysis confirm

that under the proposed control strategy, dynamics of the PV Inductance of the VSC interface reactor.

system are decoupled from those of the distribution network and,

therefore, the PV system does not destabilize the distribution Resistance of the VSC interface reactor.

network. It is also shown that the PV system dynamics are not

Line inductance between the PCC and load.

influenced by those of the network (i.e., the PV system maintains

its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in Line inductance between the load and

the line length, line ratio, load type, and load distance from substation.

the PV system).

Index Terms—Control, eigenvalue analysis, feedforward, modal

Line resistance between the PCC and load.

analysis, participation factor, photovoltaic (PV), power electronics, Line resistance between the load and substation.

voltage-source converter (VSC).

Line length.

Load distance from the PV system, normalized

NOMENCLATURE

to line length.

VSC ac-side terminal voltage. DC-link capacitance.

**VSC-filtered voltage; PCC voltage. Shunt capacitance at PCC; VSC filter
**

capacitance.

Load voltage.

Load power-factor correction capacitance.

Substation (grid) bus voltage.

-frame angular speed.

DC-link (PV array) voltage.

Grid nominal frequency (e.g., 377 rad/s).

-frame reference angle.

Manuscript received May 16, 2008; revised December 01, 2008. First

published May 12, 2009; current version published June 24, 2009. This work Real part of.

was supported in part by the Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE), in part

by Dolway Solar Power, Inc. under Grant IA-E-90390-07, and in part by the Imaginary part of.

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

Paper no. TPWRD-00365-2008. Superscript denoting small-signal perturbation

The authors are with the University of Western Ontario, London, ON NGA of a variable.

5B9, Canada (e-mail: ayazdani@eng.uwo.ca; pdash@uwo.ca).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online “0” Subscript denoting the steady-state value of a

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2016632

variable.

0885-8977/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

as PV systems is the so-called maximum power-point tracking analytically shown in this paper. . including the energy production and economics faults. only a few previous works have investigated the control and stability aspects of PV systems. however. does not provide able investment in several countries [2]. and and is used to 1) regulate the PV system power factor and 2) interactions with the network/loads of large-scale distributed PV to control the converter dc-link voltage and. the PV systems seem to be timely and of importance. however. higher capacities and more sophisticated controls.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1539 Superscript denoting the peak value of a transformer overload and feeder overvoltage issues. therefore. Reference [21] has conducted “ ” Superscript denoting the matrix transposition. most PV [26].and three-phase systems. single-stage PV system has been studied. a fair also renders the closed-loop eigenvalues of the PV system amount of the technical literature has dealt with the integration insensitive to solar irradiation and dc-link voltage levels. a stability analysis or controller design methodology. PV panels on the closed-loop stability. investigations a modified version of the conventional current-mode control on the control. transient performance. with an emphasis on the impact of grid impedance on the systems mainly consist of rooftop installations with capacities of closed-loop stability and not on the interaction between the PV a few kilowatts which are unlikely to make an impression on the system and the distribution network. such that significant pen. the distribution line and loads are not modeled. INTRODUCTION damping has been presented. emphasis on the MPPT strategy rather than on the control or sta- not the case for large-scale PV systems which have considerably bility of the PV system. PV sys. and permits incorporation widely addressed topic is that of power converter configurations of an MPPT scheme. and load types/parameters are demon- the distribution networks [15]–[17] and on their impact on the strated through nonlinear. provide comprehensive surveys on different single-phase and to eliminate the impact of the nonlinear characteristics of the three-phase converter circuits for PV applications. research ward compensation permits the design of the dc-link voltage works also report the integration of islanding detection schemes controller irrespective of the PV system operating point. a control design methodology to ensure the provision of adequate I.or double-digit megawatt (MW) capacities have any analysis of the stability or interactions with the line/loads. etration of the PV energy into distribution networks has already A number of works [26]–[28] have adopted the current-mode taken place in Europe. and/or the control of three-phase. dynamic properties. The of PV systems into distribution networks. system real-power output. and environmental benefits [1]. is investigated in [21] and [22]. PV system. three-phase variable. These PV systems are not three-phase. on the other hand. three-phase PV system which is connected to a and in response to utility companies concerns about the impact of distribution network. controllers are based on the voltage-mode control strategy. Among DG they can be conveniently incorporated into time-domain power systems. So far. Moreover. This paper. has gained widespread attention due to its tech. with an even permitted to cause a reverse power flow. sta- N recent years.0 model of the dc cable between the two stages considered. Reference [6] reviews 19 different MPPT methods scheme. distributed PV systems a space phasor. and into single-phase PV systems [11]–[14]. through single. Recently. mainly. distribution systems. the concept of distributed generation (DG). but does not report tems of single. through a dc-link voltage-control Many previous works have investigated different aspects of scheme. The proposed feedfor- with the consideration of PV systems as DG units. However. Another converter (VSC) of the PV system. guarantees safe operation of the voltage-source passes both large-scale and distributed PV systems. A number of works have studied dynamic models. at the subtransmis. Reference [26] identifies the control loops and and more penetration is anticipated worldwide. The scope of the reported works encom. Reference [22] has studied the impact of grid impedance variations on the Complex frequency . ever. an eigenvalue analysis for a two-stage configuration. time-domain simulations as well as power quality (PQ) [18]–[20]. closed-loop stability of a single-phase PV system. the model and the proposed power system. economical. been connected to the power system. with an emphasis on their harmonic interactions with network parameters. the behavior of a distribution networks and the loads. normalized to 1. References [7]–[10] compensation strategy for the dc-link voltage-control loop. Superscript denoting the complex-conjugate of Dynamic stability of single-phase. the transfer functions of the PV system. Reference [25] has elegantly developed a re- duced-order model for a PV system. ensures stable operation of the introduced since 1968. control strategy. system simulation studies. and its robust- this body of the literature has focused on single-phase PV ness against changes in the operating conditions. The proposed control strategy is based on large-scale PV systems on the feeders/customers. Research has also dealt with a comprehensive modal analysis. bility. The majority of effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. with the Solar irradiation level. In [28]. The most widely addressed technical issue regarding the PV system from the distribution network and the loads. and nical. In addition to protecting the PV system against external PV systems. At the distribution voltage levels. in view This paper proposes an effective control strategy for a of the increasing market for multi-megawatt photvoltaic systems single-stage. The dc-link voltage-control (MPPT). In addition. photovoltaic (PV) solar systems have attracted consider. This paper also proposes a feedforward and aggregation schemes for PV systems. the modified current-control strategy virtually decouples [3]–[5]. Reference [27] has adopted a similar analysis approach as in sion voltage levels. single-stage PV I which permits installation of relatively small-scale power generators at the medium-/low-voltage distribution levels of the systems [25]–[28]. This is. How- kW/m . Thus.

uration and is solidly grounded. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. also presents the result of a modal analysis carried out on the In addition. a VSC. The high-voltage side of has a winding config- duces the structure of the single-stage. and is delivers to the distribution network. resistance of the distribution line segment between the PCC and the load are represented by and . respectively. The resistance and inductance of where is the reverse saturation current of a junc- the interface reactor are represented by and . . Similarly. the distribution As Fig. practically. each string con- sists of a number of PV panels connected in series. 1.and reactive-power output that the PV system tion temperature (in Kelvin). 1 also includes a schematic diagram of the distribution network and an aggregate of loads. VOL. Section V utility substation which is represented by the voltage source . also includes the resistance of the VSC valves. In this paper. is composed of the parallel connec. radiation level . and rep. tion of strings of panels to ensure adequately large power. STRUCTURE OF THE PV SYSTEM of . and are considered parts blocks of the PV system are an array of PV panels. respectively. (2) tion network is referred to as the composition of a distribution line. 3. and also include the leakage inductance and the winding resistance II.1540 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. the distribu. The array of PV panels. respectively. Single-line schematic diagram of a single-stage photovoltaic (PV) system interfaced with a distribution network. the breaker isolates function of the temperature. PV System Model corresponds to series-connected PV cells. for the at the point of common coupling (PCC). 1 shows. The main building purpose of analysis in this paper. In Section V. LARGE-SIGNAL MODEL turn. Section VI concludes cation between the PCC and the substation. is the short- steps down the network voltage to a level suitable for the PV circuit current of one PV cell at the reference temperature and . In emergency conditions the short-circuit current of one string of the PV panels. The interface (1) reactor connects the ac-side terminals of the VSC to the corre- sponding phases of the PCC. and trollers of the PV system. is the ideality factor. JULY 2009 Fig. and the load(s) is developed and verified. the distribution network is supplied by a network. respectively. is a linear function of the solar ir- the PV system from the distribution network. The inductance and this paper. resents the load power-factor correction capacitor. and a of the distribution network. the transformer . Section II intro. whereas the latter rep- referred to as the PV array. It should be pointed out that. in total. and . and the shunt capacitors and . this. NO. to ensure an adequately large dc voltage. However. is the unit electric charge. path for the current harmonics generated by the PV system. as Fig. The PV array is The PV array is described by its current–voltage character- connected in parallel to the dc-link capacitor and the dc-side istic function. as [29] terminals of the VSC. system. tion. is the junc- resent the real. In III. provides a low-impedance Sections III and IV present a mathematical model and the con. a small-signal model for prevents them from penetrating into the distribution network. repre- Fig. sent the inductance and resistance of the line segment between single-stage PV system interfaced with a distribution network the load and the substation. A. is Boltzman’s constant. where is the cell reference temperature. 1 shows a single-line schematic diagram of a three-phase. hereafter an integral component of the VSC filter. a (three-phase) load is connected to the line at a lo- linearized model of the overall system. The VSC is controlled based on the sinu- soidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) strategy. three-phase PV system. the overall system consisting of the PV system.a when the PV system must be shut down. the former is three-phase interface reactor. 24.

decreases with the increase of . This is referred to as the “max. Load Model (7) Three types of three-phase. Ignoring the VSC power loss. The dynamics of the VSC ac-side current are described by the following space-phasor equation: irradiation level. Power-voltage characteristic curve of a PV array. .e. that is. one deduces a certain voltage at which reaches a peak value. as system. 2. and a thyristor-bridge . and . (10) mentioned behavior suggests that can be controlled/max- imized by the control of . 2) as well as the pres- ence of the terms . . Distribution Network Model If . ) is expressed as . Substituting for from as is increased. it is assumed that is a balanced three-phase voltage whose amplitude and phase angle are and . 2 illustrates the variations of as a function of . It should also be noted that (7) represents a nonlinear dynamic system. can be controlled by the VSC ac-side current . the VSC ac-side terminal voltage can be controlled as (3) (9) Fig. is the con- [6]. in turn. as discussed in the next subsection. re- spectively. based on the noted that itself is a state variable of the distribution network principle of power balance. is zero at but increases value of the triangular carrier signal. Based on (8) (1). trol input. a series circuit. Fig. can be assumed to be equal to . one deduces In (14). for where represents the space-phasor corresponding to the different levels of the solar irradiation.. and is a temperature coefficient. . that is. the real component of the VSC ac-side terminal power. due to the nonlinear de- pendence of on (see (3) and Fig. Equations (7) and (10) constitute a state-space model for the PV imum-power-point tracking” (MPPT) in the technical literature system in which and are the state variables. 2 shows that for a PWM modulating signals which are normalized to the peak given irradiation level. The afore. and and are the exogenous inputs. . thus. 1). is the summation of and the real (11) power absorbed by the interface reactor [30]. Thus (12) (13) (5) (14) where denotes the space-phasor representation of a three- phase quantity and is defined as [31] (6) where the PV system ac-side current and the load current act as exogenous inputs to the distribution network subsystem. It should be Dynamics of the dc-link voltage are described. C. balanced loads—an asyn- chronous machine. Fig. However. Substituting for from (5) in (4). beyond this voltage. the power delivered by the PV array (i.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1541 Equation (7) suggests that and. (4) B. and are chosen as the state variables. this trend continues only up to (9) in (8). the following state-space model can be derived for the distribution where denotes the power delivered to the VSC dc side (see network: Fig.

the main control objective is The space phasor to the -frame transformation is defined as to regulate the dc-link voltage to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. the distribution network. Hence. as the dc-link voltage ensure proper and safe operation of the VSC. The dc-link voltage reference pole at ). the following state-space model can be cussed in the following subsections. through minor algebra. becomes zero in the steady state and the PV system exhibits a unity power factor to the distribution (20) network. 1 indicates that: 1) the VSC (18) PWM and control are synchronized to the network voltage through a phase-locked loop (PLL) [33]. This is achieved by replacing (24) each space phasor by its -frame equivalent. The procedures to derive the state-space models of the load and the rectifier load are presented in detail in Appendix A. based on (18). Details of the aforementioned three control schemes are dis. In a command . The control of enables the control of and . NO. and then is augmented by a feedforward signal to issue the current is processed by the compensator to determine .e.1542 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. VOL. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) (22) For analysis and control purposes. 3. The model can be expressed in the standard state-space form. the -frame variables be- and the controllers process dc equivalents rather than original come time invariant (in a steady state) if the -frame angular sinusoidally-varying signals and 2) the error between (the velocity is made to be equal to . IV. space-phasor variables in (23) the models of the PV system. [33]. is forced to zero while becomes equal to . in view of (17). The feedforward compensation counteracts the steady state. 24. Thus. then. PV SYSTEM CONTROL For the PV system of Fig. The current-control scheme also forces to track . Therefore. must include at least one integrator (i. The unity power-factor operation also results in a minimized magnitude for the VSC line current. in which is first resolved value is processed by the compensator whose output into the . the three-phase In the system of Fig. Block diagram of a phase-locked loop (PLL). respectively. This objective is fulfilled by square of) the dc-link voltage and its corresponding reference means of the PLLs of Fig. for a given (21) real-power flow. destabilizing and nonlinear characteristic of the PV array and Therefore. 1. A saturation block where and are the Laplace transforms of limits to protect the VSC against overload and external and . and the load are projected on a -frame. Fig. A space-phasor model of an asynchronous machine can be found in [31] or [32]. at the grid frequency . is calculated as (25) (16) (26) where is the -frame angular speed. as (27) (28) (17) (29) . 1. and are defined as It is also discussed in Section IV-A that is proportional to . The limits on caded with a first-order. which is not presented here for space limitations. formulated for the PLL: A. and 3) the command is delivered to a -frame (19) current-control scheme that forces to track . as where (15) If represents a state variable. 3.and the -axis components. If the two state variables faults. one enhances the PV system stability. is usually obtained from an MPPT scheme and is permitted Let be a proportional-integral (PI) compensator cas- to vary from a lower limit to an upper limit. Fig. if 0. 3. the three-phase signals vary with time ac signals are transformed into proper -frame counterparts. JULY 2009 rectifier are considered in this paper. low-pass transfer-function.

and and are the distur- bance inputs. (40) . Fig. provided that and are limited. processing the error signal . and . Let (33) which are the -frame equivalents to (10). (34) Regulation of at zero also has the effect that the expression for the PV system real-power output (i. 4(a)].. is controlled to regulate the dc-link voltage and to control/maximize the power extracted (36) from the PV array. and . Block diagrams of (a) dq -frame current-control scheme. respectively. The to ensure that and rapidly track their respective reference PWM modulating signals are generated by transformation of commands and . Similarly. can be regulated by to adjust the power factor that (35)]. Consequently. (35) ) is simplified to where and are two new control inputs [34]. respectively. and enhances protection of the VSC against overload and external the gating pulses for the VSC valves are sent out. the dynamics of and are coupled and nonlinear. decoupled. Substituting (30) and in (32) and (33). Fig. is the output of another compensator that processes . To decouple and linearize the dynamics.e. and the outputs are and . and [not shown in Fig. as illustrated in Fig. the expression (37) for is simplified to Equations (36) and (37) represent two. VSC Current Control Similarly. 4(a) shows that the control signal is the output of a the PV system exhibits to the distribution network. faults.e. Equations (22)–(24) introduce the PLL as a dynamic system of and are determined based on the following control laws: which the inputs are and . and are the state variables and the outputs. a realization of (34) and Thus. the state variables are . linear. The current-control strategy also and into . Thus (38) (32) where and are the proportional and integral gains. first-order systems in which and can be controlled by (31) and . the control of boils down to the control of . (39) and are the control inputs. one deduces Equation (30) indicates that is proportional to and can be controlled by .YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1543 Fig. 1. . It should be noted that to produce The need for controlling and was explained in Sec. 4. respec- (33) tively. The current-control scheme is designed based on (32) and and can also be identical. Due to the factor .. from (34) and (35). the factor is employed as a feedforward signal tion IV-A. compensator . (b) DC-link voltage-control scheme. B. . As indicated in (7). Since the control plants of (36) and (37) are identical. a current-control scheme is devised to decouple the dynamics of and from those of . In this section. If and are selected as In (32) and (33). 4(a) illustrates a block diagram of the -frame current-control scheme [i.

Therefore. the proportional and inte- radians per second). Linearized Model 1) Linearized Model of the PLL Subsystem: The PLL sub- (43) system is described by (22)–(24) which are linear. The subsystems are: 1) the PLL sub- ering that is regulated at zero by the PLL. JULY 2009 then the closed-loop transfer functions of the .g. 24. In this paper. based on the model grator cascaded with the first-order transfer-function . is calculated from the product subsystem. the first and second terms represent the (real) power de. and and the interface reactor. the system of Fig. It is gral gains of the PI compensator.5 ms. V. its impact is in- rent controllers assume the first-order form significant since practically is a relatively constant variable. 1 is di- reactor. represent the power ab. 3. 2) the converter subsystem. Fig. respectively. A. DC-Link Voltage Control effective control plant from to is composed of an inte- The DC-link voltage is controlled by . product also introduces a nonlinearity. is equal to 0. The control plant of (43) is nonlinear since 1) is a nonlinear (48) function of . the method of “symmetrical optimum” provides a systematic tool for calculating the parameters of a PI compen- sator [32] and is utilized in this paper. ten times) smaller than the VSC switching frequency (in filter. . vided into four subsystems. It is noted that if 1. the linearized model of the PLL subsystem also preserves the Equation (43) represents a control plant whose input is . respectively. the following control law is adopted for : where (44) (50) Equations (47)–(49) describe the PLL as a subsystem for which where is a new control input. The substitution of from (44) in (43) yields and load subsystems. For of (7) whose -frame equivalent is such a plant.1544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. and 2) itself is a nonlinear function of the (49) state-variable . functions of the steady-state operating point of the system. respectively. Ignoring the third and fourth terms of (42). To mitigate the impact of nonlinearities on the control. is the output of a compensator as (41) (46) where the time-constant should be made small for a fast cur- rent-control response.. (45) 2) Linearized Model of the Converter Subsystem: The converter subsystem is referred to as the composition of the Equation (45) indicates that if 1. Equation (46) rep- bandwidth of the closed current-control loop) is considerably resents a PI compensator cascaded with a first-order low-pass (e. the where the error signal is . of and decoupled from those of . and . eigenvalue analysis is carried out on a linearized state-space livered by the PV array and the PV system. NO. and is the output delivered to the distri- bution network subsystem. and 4) the load subsystem. the impact of the PV array PV array. and consid. For sorbed by the inductance and the resistance of the VSC interface the purposes of modeling and analysis. 3) the distribution network model is obtained for the dc-link voltage dynamics as subsystem. the VSC in conjunction with the dc-link capacitor characteristic on the dc-link voltage control is eliminated. . the C. STABILITY ANALYSIS (42) To evaluate the stability of the PV system under the proposed control strategy and to investigate the potential for interactions between the PV system and the distribution network/load. is the state variable as well as the output (47) and is an exogenous input (disturbance).and -axis cur. and the the effective control plant becomes an integrator. A linearized model of the converter . VOL. but adequately large so that (i. whereas is the pole of the noted that the foregoing control method renders the dynamics low-pass transfer function. an In (42). The linear model parameters are third and fourth terms. a reduced-order system. Although the dc-link voltage regulator. the current-control scheme. is the output delivered to the distribution network of and .e. The model of the overall system. In (43). 4(b) illustrates a block diagram of the dc-link voltage- control scheme described before. and are. The linearized models of the aforementioned subsystems are discussed next. forms of (22)–(24) as assuming that the time-constant in (41) is so small that holds. and is a gain which can be and are the inputs obtained from the distribution network unity or zero.

where . To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control 4) Linearized Model of the Load Subsystem: In this paper. and are the inputs obtained from the load subsystem. the entries of the corresponding matrix (52) are zero for the series – load. ) is determined by the real. are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. The equations indicate that and model of the system of Fig. a linearized model for the distribution net- work assumes the form (54) (55) (56) (60) where (57) where is the number of the load state variables. Similarly. . Equations (51) and (52) constitute a linearized model for the 5) Linearized Model of the Overall System: A linearized converter subsystem. does not appear in the linearized model of the rectifier load. and a thyristor. Model Validation and Performance Evaluation reactive-power flow of the system. .. ered to the distribution network subsystem. and are the state variables of the compensator subsystem. a detailed switched model of the system of Fig. where Equations (58) and (59) describe the load as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the distribution (53) network subsystem. and are the outputs deliv- .and B. 1 is in a steady state. In Section V-C. the entries of are zero for the rectifier load.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1545 subsystem is developed based on (3). is the load-free control input of the asynchronous machine load and the rectifier load. and is the input obtained from the PLL In (53). delivered to the load subsystem. respec- (51) tively. and are the outputs where is the corresponding output matrix. can be calculated by verter subsystem. An output of interest. On the other hand. and and are the out- the linearized model of (60) is employed in conjunction with a puts delivered to the PLL and converter subsystems. (51)–(53). 1 is three types of loads are studied: a squirrel-cage asynchronous simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment [35]. the linearized model of a load can be mented in Matlab/Simulink. which is imple- of the foregoing loads. The switched model is also used to verify the linearized model bridge rectifier [Fig. The following subsections report expressed in the following generic form: the results of a number of case studies. The model is derived while and are the outputs delivered to the distribution net. machine. respectively. (59) The feedforward compensation of the dc-link voltage controller . (58) 1) Case 1: DC-Link Voltage Step Response: Initially.0 kV and zero. The process yields 3) Linearized Model of the Distribution Network Subsystem: Based on (11)–(14). (54)–(57). (44). Consequently. and (46). representing the mechanical torque and the firing angle. relative to that of the grid voltage . and and are the inputs obtained from the (62) PLL subsystem. a series branch [Fig. . (42). 12(a)]. described by (60)–(62).e. the series – load does not have such a con- trol input. and the reference com- mands and are set to 1. The system parameters are given in Appendix B. On the other hand. . and (61) Equations (54)–(56) describe the distribution network as a sub- system for which and are the inputs obtained from the con. 12(b)]. (41). It should sensitivity analysis to characterize the dynamics of the overall be noted that represents the perturbation of the phase angle of system under the proposed control strategy. and have different entries and di- The process yields mensions depending on the load type. by substituting for the output(s) of a subsystem in the relevant work subsystem. However. input(s) of another subsystem. and (58) and (59). the system of Fig. The steady-state value of the phase angle (i. Therefore. Based on the large-signal models of the overall system. 1 is developed based on (47)–(50). for example . strategy.

24. 6(b). 6(b) illustrates the response of when the feedforward solutions of ) under compensation is disabled (i. 1.1 kV in less eigenvalue analysis is carried out on the linearized model of than 0.1. . to identify the . observed from Fig. to is calculated from [36] (63) C. an eigenvalue analysis on (60) machine load is connected to the middle of a 15-km distribution reveals the existence of a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues line (i. It is observed that subse. and to determine the robustness of from the linearized and the switched models. as shown in Fig. ). a constant-speed wind Fig. also includes the state variables of the overall system as well etrate into the distribution network and affect the asynchronous as a measure of the participation of each state variable in the machine speed.e. Table I summarizes the essence of the system dynamic pensation is in service. which may excite the tor. 3. 5 demonstrates the close agreement between the (60). to emu- late a neighboring DG unit. For this case. the dc-link voltage settles at 1. NO. respectively.9-Hz oscillatory mode.u. 6(a) shows. As the proposed control against variations in various parameters. This indicates the need for Participation of a state variable in a mode corresponding the proposed feedforward compensation scheme. 6(a) illustrates the results of the asynchronous machine case are reported in what response of to the disturbance when the feedforward com. At s. whereas the other three feedforward compensation is inactive. nature of interactions between the PV system dynamics and Columns (a) and (b) of Fig. follows. only the is reduced stepwise to 1.1 s. of which the first five Fig... For the analysis. For the network and the load. Fig. Modal Analysis To characterize dynamics of the PV system of Fig. eigenmodes corresponding to the eigenvalues. 7(d).5. At s. Fig.u.7 p. Fig.. properties.6 Hz. Fig.5. the PV system possesses similar dynamic of Case 1. Step responses of the dc-link voltage obtained from (a) the linearized model and (b) the switched model. VOL.1 kV). 1 under where and signify the th elements of the vectors and the proposed control strategy of Section IV. starts to oscillate with a frequency eigenvalues are calculated for the case that the asynchronous of about 15. An asynchronous machine is con- nected to the middle of the distribution line.015 kV. tion V-A4 were tested and different network/load parameters 2) Case 2: Effectiveness of Feedforward Compensation: In were changed. The oscillations pen. with the exception that 1. As Fig.e. 5 illustrate the responses obtained those of the network/loads.1 kV. Table I the same frequency as those of and . In order for the at of which the imaginary part corresponds to a asynchronous machine to represent a distributed generator. tracks its ref. Step responses of the dc-link voltage when (a) feedforward compensa- tion is enabled and (b) feedforward compensation is disabled. This is in close agreement with the torque is set to the negative value of 0. and are.1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY.71 p. 7(a) and (b) shows the oscillations of and when the correspond to the converter subsystem.. 7. The quent to the disturbance. 6. Fig. respectively . sional modes of the mechanical load.1 s.e. Therefore. for three irradiation levels of 0. is subjected to a step change to 1.e. The machine is used as a generator with a mechanical torque of 0.0. On the other hand. 0. JULY 2009 Fig. ). Table I includes the eigenvalues of the overall system (i. is also enabled (i. ) also oscillates with only the dominant (electrical) eigenvalues are included. the system operates under the same conditions as those control strategy.e. shown in Fig. 5 illustrates the response of the dc-link voltage to the disturbance. 7(c) illustrates that are due to the PLL subsystem. 5. and 1. properties irrespective of the load type. and 1. Table I shows response obtained from the switched model. the Fig. the eight eigenvalues of the PV system. for example. 0. turbine. the angular speed of the -frame (i. its 15.1 kV. The findings indicated that under the proposed this case. 5. all three types of load introduced in Sec- linearized model and the switched model. erence value and settles in less than 0. PV system oscillations due to feedforward disablement.. the condition that the feedforward compensation is enabled.

however. Fig. the other eigenvalues are almost fixed. .. all three types of load have been imaginary axis of the -plane. 8 illustrates the variation of the real part of the network very far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. This. 8–11 illustrate the patterns of variation of the real parts cannot cause any instability issues since 1) the change in the of the system eigenvalues. tested. 9 illustrates the movements of the network eigenvalues (i. It should be eigenvalues . is a complex number. This. the PV system (i. d = 0. Sensitivity Analysis system eigenvalue moves slightly to the right. a eigenvalues approach the imaginary axis of the -plane as closer look at Table I further indicates that the eigenvalues of the distance between the load and the PV system increases.. as functions of various real part of is less than 10%. The only exception is the network state which participates relatively actively in the eigenmode corresponding to . . 8. = 1. Table I indicates that while the state variables of the PV system actively participate in the eigenmodes corresponding to to . cannot pose any instability complications. with ). Thus. if the eigenmodes of the PV system are stable by proper design of the controllers.e. since this mode is Fig. and the eigenvalues with noticeable movement have been The participation of in the eigenmode corresponding to included in the plots. 9 indicates. In general. Hence. the normalized load noted that also represents the sensitivity of the eigenvalue distance from the PV system). X=R = 0:6.e.5 respectively. corre- sponding to the eigenvalue . and any relative participation smaller than 0. in turn. Therefore. as a function of (i. and the PV system eigenvalue ) as functions of the line length varying from 5 to 40 km. of the normalized load distance from the PV system. of that correspond to the network and load subsystems Fig. whereas the PV D. As Fig.. (i. signified by .e. For this analysis.e. the right eigenvectors of and . Fig. are insensitive to those elements Nonetheless. the norm is reported in Table I rather than . l = 15 km. 8 shows that the network to the element of the system matrix [37]. the participation of the network and load-state vari- ables in those eigenmodes is insignificant. the relative participation of a state variable in an eigenmode is of prime interest here. Pattern of variation for real part of the network eigenvalues as a function modes are weak functions of the network and load parameters. the network eigenmode becomes more stable. the corresponding mode remains stable and fast.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1547 TABLE I OVERALL SYSTEM EIGENVALUES AND STATES PARTICIPATION FACTORS. they do not become unstable as a result of variations in the network and load parameters. However. means that the PV system eigenvalues and the corresponding eigen. The values are rounded off to the thousandths place. to ).001 is denoted by “ 0” in Table I. and 2) is very far from the parameters. Figs..

the cor- responding eigenmodes remain stable and very fast. however. Patterns of variation for real parts of two PV system eigenvalues as properties of the PV system. regardless of the irradiation level. only the PV system eigenvalues and are affected as changes. stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in the . The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified through digital time-domain simulation studies conducted on a detailed switched model of the overall system. 11. Moreover. 9. In this case. The current-control strategy permits dc-link voltage regulation and enables power-factor control. NO. This paper proposes a feedforward compensation mechanism for the dc-link voltage-control loop to mitigate the impact of the nonlinear characteristic of the PV array. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables the control and/or maximization of the real-power output of the PV system. VI. 10 illustrates that the mode corresponding to the does not destabilize the distribution network. does not destabilize the system. demonstrated that the PV system dynamics are not influenced creases. Variation of the irradiation level exhibits no noticeable impact on the network and load eigenmodes. 24. Fig. atively far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. The impact of the solar irradiation level on the system eigen- values is illustrated in Fig. Fig. in turn. This. loop. 10 shows the variations of the network eigenvalues (i. The reasons are 1) are rel- Fig. The proposed control strategy adopts an Fig. 12. the current-control strategy significantly decouples dynamics of the PV system from those of the distribution network and the loads. to permit the design and optimization of the dc-link voltage controller for a wide range of operating conditions. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line length. It is further PV system eigenvalue becomes more stable as the ratio in. CONCLUSION This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage.e. and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. means that the PV system ratio. 10. by the network dynamics. three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. a modal/sensitivity analysis is conducted on a linearized model of the system to characterize the dynamic Fig. Thus. However. 11. it is expected that the current-control strategy renders the PV system protected against external faults. to evaluate robustness of the functions of the irradiation level. The results of the modal analysis confirm that under the proposed control strategy. the PV system maintains its The movement of the network eigenvalues to the right. dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the ) and the PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line distribution network. JULY 2009 Fig. and 2) their movement rate becomes smaller as the ratio increases.1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 3. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage-control PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line X=R ratio. VOL.. In addition. Schematic diagrams of (a) R–L load and (b) rectifier load. Furthermore. controllers. the eigen- values exhibit opposite patterns of variation. whereas the network modes exhibit opposite behavior.

and APPENDIX A simplification of the result in view of yields MODELS OF LOADS 1) Series – Load Model: Fig.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1549 TABLE II inductor (load) current as the state variable. It is now assumed that the rectifier operates in the continuous mode (i. and distance between the to the load (fundamental) current. and is the magnitude of . one finds (67) An expression for the load current can be derived by using the principle of power balance. line ratio. can be approximated by its averaged component. ). and is the unit vector PV system and the loads. one can write (65) where is the rectifier dc-side voltage. collinear with .. and is so large that is essentially ripple free. – load.e. Sub- stituting for from (66) in (65). 12(b) illustrates a schematic diagram of a thyristor-bridge rectifier supplying a series. Picking the inductor current as the state variable. It then follows from the approximation of by its fundamental component that: (69) where is the magnitude of the space-phasor corresponding line length. 12(a) illustrates the schematic diagram of a three-phase. Thus (68) The fundamental component of the phase current in a bridge rectifier is delayed by the angle relative to the corresponding phase voltage [38]. dc. Thus SYSTEM PARAMETERS (64) 2) Thyristor Rectifier Model: Fig. The substitution of from (69) in (68). – load. Thus. load type. as (66) where is the firing angle. Let us pick the (70) .

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de- Ph. Mississauga. Canada. Rourkela. Currently. His research interests and power systems. Rourkela. include modeling and control of switching power converters.Sc.. ON. She joined the University of Western Ontario. distributed generation. India. and microgrids. . Canada.E. Toronto. in tute of Technology.D. Her research interests Assistant Professor with the University of Western include distributed generation. where she is currently Inc.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1551 Amirnaser Yazdani (S’02–M’05) received the Prajna Paramita Dash (S’08) received the B. He was with Digital Predictive Systems (DPS) London. 2005. Ontario (UWO).Sc. he is an pursuing the M. ON. degree in electrical engineering from the gree in electrical engineering from the National Insti- University of Toronto. ON. renewable energy. London. in 2007. degree. Canada.

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