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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, JULY 2009

**A Control Methodology and Characterization of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System Interfaced With a Distribution Network
**

Amirnaser Yazdani, Member, IEEE, and Prajna Paramita Dash, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage, three-phase, photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. The control is based on an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage regulator. The current-control mechanism decouples the PV system dynamics from those of the network and the loads. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables control and maximization of the real power output. Proper feedforward actions are proposed for the current-control loop to make its dynamics independent of those of the rest of the system. Further, a feedforward compensation mechanism is proposed for the dc-link voltage-control loop, to make the PV system dynamics immune to the PV array nonlinear characteristic. This, in turn, permits the design and optimization of the PV system controllers for a wide range of operating conditions. A modal/sensitivity analysis is also conducted on a linearized model of the overall system, to characterize dynamic properties of the system, to evaluate robustness of the controllers, and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. The results of the modal analysis conﬁrm that under the proposed control strategy, dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network and, therefore, the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. It is also shown that the PV system dynamics are not inﬂuenced by those of the network (i.e., the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in ratio, load type, and load distance from the line length, line the PV system). Index Terms—Control, eigenvalue analysis, feedforward, modal analysis, participation factor, photovoltaic (PV), power electronics, voltage-source converter (VSC).

VSC ac-side current. Distribution line current between the PCC and load. Distribution line current between the load and substation. Load current. PV array current. PV array power. Real power output of the PV system at PCC. Reactive power output of the PV system at PCC. Interface transformer turns ratio. Inductance of the VSC interface reactor. Resistance of the VSC interface reactor. Line inductance between the PCC and load. Line inductance between the load and substation. Line resistance between the PCC and load. Line resistance between the load and substation. Line length. Load distance from the PV system, normalized to line length. DC-link capacitance. Shunt capacitance at PCC; VSC ﬁlter capacitance. Load power-factor correction capacitance. -frame angular speed. Grid nominal frequency (e.g., 377 rad/s). -frame reference angle. Real part of. Imaginary part of. Superscript denoting small-signal perturbation of a variable. “0” Subscript denoting the steady-state value of a variable.

NOMENCLATURE VSC ac-side terminal voltage. VSC-ﬁltered voltage; PCC voltage. Load voltage. Substation (grid) bus voltage. DC-link (PV array) voltage.

Manuscript received May 16, 2008; revised December 01, 2008. First published May 12, 2009; current version published June 24, 2009. This work was supported in part by the Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE), in part by Dolway Solar Power, Inc. under Grant IA-E-90390-07, and in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Paper no. TPWRD-00365-2008. The authors are with the University of Western Ontario, London, ON NGA 5B9, Canada (e-mail: ayazdani@eng.uwo.ca; pdash@uwo.ca). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2016632

0885-8977/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

has gained widespread attention due to its technical. Reference [21] has conducted an eigenvalue analysis for a two-stage conﬁguration. The proposed control strategy is based on a modiﬁed version of the conventional current-mode control and is used to 1) regulate the PV system power factor and 2) to control the converter dc-link voltage and. and load types/parameters are demonstrated through nonlinear. Dynamic stability of single-phase. This paper proposes an effective control strategy for a single-stage. However. but does not report any analysis of the stability or interactions with the line/loads. with the consideration of PV systems as DG units. economical. Reference [22] has studied the impact of grid impedance variations on the closed-loop stability of a single-phase PV system. time-domain simulations as well as a comprehensive modal analysis. Among DG systems. with an emphasis on their harmonic interactions with the distribution networks [15]–[17] and on their impact on the power quality (PQ) [18]–[20]. to eliminate the impact of the nonlinear characteristics of the PV panels on the closed-loop stability. Reference [26] identiﬁes the control loops and the transfer functions of the PV system.0 kW/m . only a few previous works have investigated the control and stability aspects of PV systems. investigations on the control. including the energy production and economics [3]–[5]. These PV systems are not even permitted to cause a reverse power ﬂow. transient performance. on the other hand. distributed PV systems is investigated in [21] and [22]. . however. as analytically shown in this paper. This paper also proposes a feedforward compensation strategy for the dc-link voltage-control loop. therefore. The scope of the reported works encompasses both large-scale and distributed PV systems. The proposed feedforward compensation permits the design of the dc-link voltage controller irrespective of the PV system operating point. This is. Many previous works have investigated different aspects of PV systems. Reference [27] has adopted a similar analysis approach as in [26]. Solar irradiation level. most PV systems mainly consist of rooftop installations with capacities of a few kilowatts which are unlikely to make an impression on the distribution networks and the loads. does not provide a stability analysis or controller design methodology. Reference [6] reviews 19 different MPPT methods introduced since 1968. through a dc-link voltage-control scheme. The dc-link voltage-control scheme. and permits incorporation of an MPPT scheme. and they can be conveniently incorporated into time-domain power system simulation studies. and also renders the closed-loop eigenvalues of the PV system insensitive to solar irradiation and dc-link voltage levels. and more penetration is anticipated worldwide. Complex frequency I. This paper. normalized to 1. So far. distribution network parameters. References [7]–[10] provide comprehensive surveys on different single-phase and three-phase converter circuits for PV applications. the distribution line and loads are not modeled. however. mainly. with an emphasis on the MPPT strategy rather than on the control or stability of the PV system. “ ” Superscript denoting the matrix transposition. Thus. I transformer overload and feeder overvoltage issues. A number of works [26]–[28] have adopted the current-mode control strategy. Reference [25] has elegantly developed a reduced-order model for a PV system. with an emphasis on the impact of grid impedance on the closed-loop stability and not on the interaction between the PV system and the distribution network. in view of the increasing market for multi-megawatt photvoltaic systems and in response to utility companies concerns about the impact of large-scale PV systems on the feeders/customers. not the case for large-scale PV systems which have considerably higher capacities and more sophisticated controls. which permits installation of relatively small-scale power generators at the medium-/low-voltage distribution levels of the power system. the behavior of a three-phase. a fair amount of the technical literature has dealt with the integration of PV systems into distribution networks. the PV system real-power output. and interactions with the network/loads of large-scale distributed PV systems seem to be timely and of importance. and its robustness against changes in the operating conditions. at the subtransmission voltage levels. single-stage PV systems [25]–[28]. three-phase PV system which is connected to a distribution network.or double-digit megawatt (MW) capacities have been connected to the power system. A number of works have studied dynamic models. Superscript denoting the complex-conjugate of a space phasor. a control design methodology to ensure the provision of adequate damping has been presented.and three-phase systems. ensures stable operation of the PV system. However. the model and the proposed controllers are based on the voltage-mode control strategy. such that signiﬁcant penetration of the PV energy into distribution networks has already taken place in Europe. and/or the control of three-phase. stability. INTRODUCTION N recent years. dynamic properties. At the distribution voltage levels. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. In addition.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1539 Superscript denoting the peak value of a three-phase variable. Research has also dealt with . photovoltaic (PV) solar systems have attracted considerable investment in several countries [2]. In addition to protecting the PV system against external faults. Recently. guarantees safe operation of the voltage-source converter (VSC) of the PV system. single-stage PV system has been studied. and environmental beneﬁts [1]. Moreover. with the model of the dc cable between the two stages considered. the concept of distributed generation (DG). The majority of this body of the literature has focused on single-phase PV systems. The most widely addressed technical issue regarding PV systems is the so-called maximum power-point tracking (MPPT). the modiﬁed current-control strategy virtually decouples the PV system from the distribution network and the loads. research works also report the integration of islanding detection schemes into single-phase PV systems [11]–[14]. through single. PV systems of single. In [28]. Another widely addressed topic is that of power converter conﬁgurations and aggregation schemes for PV systems.

to ensure an adequately large dc voltage. repreof sent the inductance and resistance of the line segment between the load and the substation. in total. Section VI concludes this paper. and is .and reactive-power output that the PV system delivers to the distribution network. is composed of the parallel connecstrings of panels to ensure adequately large power. Sections III and IV present a mathematical model and the controllers of the PV system. and the load(s) is developed and veriﬁed. The high-voltage side of provides a low-impedance uration and is solidly grounded. series-connected PV cells. respectively. PV System Model The PV array is described by its current–voltage characteristic function. practically. the distribution network is referred to as the composition of a distribution . III. It should be pointed out that. and prevents them from penetrating into the distribution network. The resistance and inductance of the interface reactor are represented by and . In this paper. Single-line schematic diagram of a single-stage photovoltaic (PV) system interfaced with a distribution network.a the short-circuit current of one string of the PV panels. As Fig. each string consists of a number of PV panels connected in series. Section V also presents the result of a modal analysis carried out on the linearized model of the overall system. the distribution network. The array of PV panels. In emergency conditions when the PV system must be shut down. In Section V.1540 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. is the ideality factor. respectively. this. also includes the resistance of the VSC valves. However. is Boltzman’s constant. and . STRUCTURE OF THE PV SYSTEM Fig. VOL. Fig. Section II introduces the structure of the single-stage. path for the current harmonics generated by the PV system. as [29] (1) is the reverse saturation current of a juncis the unit electric charge. the transformer steps down the network voltage to a level suitable for the PV has a winding conﬁgsystem. the distribution network is supplied by a utility substation which is represented by the voltage source . is a linear function of the solar irradiation level . a (three-phase) load is connected to the line at a location between the PCC and the substation. The inductance and resistance of the distribution line segment between the PCC and and . whereas the latter represents the load power-factor correction capacitor. JULY 2009 Fig. a small-signal model for the overall system consisting of the PV system. The main building blocks of the PV system are an array of PV panels. In tion of turn. respectively. The interface reactor connects the ac-side terminals of the VSC to the corresponding phases of the PCC. as (2) where is the cell reference temperature. and a three-phase interface reactor. 1 shows a single-line schematic diagram of a three-phase. 1 also includes a schematic diagram of the distribution network and an aggregate of loads. is the shortcircuit current of one PV cell at the reference temperature and where tion. Similarly. line. The VSC is controlled based on the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) strategy. the former is an integral component of the VSC ﬁlter. a VSC. hereafter referred to as the PV array. for the and are considered parts purpose of analysis in this paper. 3. is the junction temperature (in Kelvin). The PV array is corresponds to connected in parallel to the dc-link capacitor and the dc-side terminals of the VSC. three-phase PV system. II. the breaker isolates the PV system from the distribution network. 1. . single-stage PV system interfaced with a distribution network at the point of common coupling (PCC). and the shunt capacitors and . In addition. and represent the real. respectively. NO. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. LARGE-SIGNAL MODEL A. function of the temperature. and the load are represented by also include the leakage inductance and the winding resistance . of the distribution network. 24. 1 shows.

based on the principle of power balance. is the consystem in which and are the exogenous inputs. the real component of the VSC ac-side and the real terminal power. . the If . Based on ) is (1).YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1541 Equation (7) suggests that and. 2) as well as the prespendence of Fig. 2 illustrates the variations of as a function of . 2 shows that for a is zero at but increases given irradiation level. Thus (12) (13) (5) (14) where denotes the space-phasor representation of a threeand is deﬁned as [31] phase quantity (6) Substituting for from (5) in (4). is increased. and is a temperature coefﬁcient. In (14). as discussed in the next subsection. 2. a series . that is. . ence of the terms The dynamics of the VSC ac-side current are described by the following space-phasor equation: (8) . Power-voltage characteristic curve of a PV array. The aforethis voltage. the VSC ac-side terminal voltage can be controlled as (3) (9) represents the space-phasor corresponding to the where PWM modulating signals which are normalized to the peak from value of the triangular carrier signal. beyond a certain voltage at which decreases with the increase of . 1). . balanced loads—an asyncircuit. one deduces where the PV system ac-side current and the load current act as exogenous inputs to the distribution network subsystem. Substituting for (9) in (8). revoltage whose amplitude and phase angle are spectively. It should also be noted that (7) represents a nonlinear dynamic system. due to the nonlinear deon (see (3) and Fig. that is. Ignoring the VSC power loss. This is referred to as the “maximum-power-point tracking” (MPPT) in the technical literature [6]. B. and . Dynamics of the dc-link voltage are described. Distribution Network Model . Fig. and itself is a state variable of the distribution network noted that system. it is assumed that is a balanced three-phase and . can be controlled/maxmentioned behavior suggests that imized by the control of . However. expressed as Fig. in turn. and are chosen as the state variables. for different levels of the solar irradiation. this trend continues only up to as reaches a peak value. and a thyristor-bridge chronous machine.e. C. the power delivered by the PV array (i. thus. following state-space model can be derived for the distribution network: (11) irradiation level. It should be trol input.. . one deduces (10) Equations (7) and (10) constitute a state-space model for the PV and are the state variables. as (4) denotes the power delivered to the VSC dc side (see where can be assumed to Fig. Load Model (7) Three types of three-phase. is the summation of power absorbed by the interface reactor [30]. be equal to . can be controlled by the VSC ac-side current .

VOL. the -frame variables become time invariant (in a steady state) if the -frame angular velocity is made to be equal to . space-phasor variables in the models of the PV system. the three-phase signals vary with time at the grid frequency . In a is forced to zero while becomes equal to . if 0. NO. The procedures to derive the state-space models of load and the rectiﬁer load are presented in detail in the Appendix A. is calculated as Fig. If the two state variables and are deﬁned as (20) (21) then. A.and the -axis components. as (19) where and and are the Laplace transforms of . respectively. steady state. ). pole at Let be a proportional-integral (PI) compensator cascaded with a ﬁrst-order. in view of (17). The feedforward compensation counteracts the command destabilizing and nonlinear characteristic of the PV array and enhances the PV system stability. 24. the main control objective is to regulate the dc-link voltage to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array.e. The model can be expressed in the standard state-space form. The control current-control scheme that forces to track of enables the control of and . The limits on the dc-link voltage ensure proper and safe operation of the is delivered to a -frame VSC. 1 indicates that: 1) the VSC PWM and control are synchronized to the network voltage through a phase-locked loop (PLL) [33]. and then is processed by the compensator to determine . the following state-space model can be formulated for the PLL: (22) (23) (24) where (25) (16) where is the -frame angular speed. and 3) the command . The current-control scheme also forces to track is proportional to It is also discussed in Section IV-A that . The unity power-factor operation also results in a minimized magnitude for the VSC line current. must include at least one integrator (i. low-pass transfer-function. The space phasor to the -frame transformation is deﬁned as (18) In the system of Fig. and the controllers process dc equivalents rather than original sinusoidally-varying signals and 2) the error between (the square of) the dc-link voltage and its corresponding reference whose output value is processed by the compensator is augmented by a feedforward signal to issue the current . Block diagram of a phase-locked loop (PLL). 3. becomes zero in the steady state and the PV system exhibits a unity power factor to the distribution network. Therefore. the three-phase ac signals are transformed into proper -frame counterparts. for a given real-power ﬂow. A saturation block to protect the VSC against overload and external limits . Details of the aforementioned three control schemes are discussed in the following subsections. This objective is fulﬁlled by is ﬁrst resolved means of the PLLs of Fig. [33]. 3. Thus. JULY 2009 rectiﬁer are considered in this paper. based on (18). A space-phasor model of an asynchronous machine can be found in [31] or [32]. as (15) If represents a state variable. Hence. as (17) (26) (27) (28) (29) .1542 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Fig. PV SYSTEM CONTROL For the PV system of Fig. and the load are projected on a -frame. which is not presented here for space limitations. one Therefore. This is achieved by replacing each space phasor by its -frame equivalent. 1. faults. IV. in which into the . the distribution network. The dc-link voltage reference is usually obtained from an MPPT scheme and is permitted to vary from a lower limit to an upper limit. through minor algebra. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) For analysis and control purposes. 1. 3.

It should be noted that to produce and . a current-control scheme is devised to ensure that and rapidly track their respective reference and . the control of boils down to the control of . and the gating pulses for the VSC valves are sent out. The to decouple the dynamics of and from those of PWM modulating signals are generated by transformation of and into . To decouple and linearize the dynamics. . is controlled to regulate the dc-link voltage and to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. Due to the factor coupled and nonlinear. processing the error signal . at zero also has the effect that the Regulation of expression for the PV system real-power output (i. Fig. Thus (38) (32) (33) In (32) and (33). respectively. where and are the proportional and integral gains. 4(a) illustrates a block diagram of the -frame current-control scheme [i. a realization of (34) and (35)]. Block diagrams of (a) dq -frame current-control scheme. and are the control inputs. . Let (31) Thus. and can also be identical. processes . the factor is employed as a feedforward signal . linear. Since the control plants of (36) and (37) are identical. and [not shown in Fig. the expression for is simpliﬁed to and are two new control inputs [34]. The current-control strategy also commands enhances protection of the VSC against overload and external and are limited. Consequently. Equations (22)–(24) introduce the PLL as a dynamic system of and . Substituting where and in (32) and (33). respectively.. compensator is the output of another compensator that Similarly. B. the state variables are . In this section.. VSC Current Control and was explained in SecThe need for controlling tion IV-A. ﬁrst-order systems in which and can be controlled by and . from (34) and (35). faults. and the outputs are and . and are the state variables and the outputs.e. (b) DC-link voltage-control scheme. ) is simpliﬁed to and are determined based on the following control laws: (34) (35) (30) Equation (30) indicates that is proportional to and can be controlled by . respecand are selected as tively. Fig. 4. which the inputs are and . If (39) (40) . as illustrated in Fig. decoupled. and and are the distur. one deduces (36) (37) Equations (36) and (37) represent two. As indicated in (7). Similarly. 1. 4(a) shows that the control signal is the output of a . the dynamics of and are bance inputs.e. can be regulated by to adjust the power factor that the PV system exhibits to the distribution network. provided that The current-control scheme is designed based on (32) and (33) which are the -frame equivalents to (10).YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1543 Fig. 4(a)].

. signiﬁcant since practically is the output of a compensator as (46) where the error signal is . the current-control scheme. the method of “symmetrical optimum” provides a systematic tool for calculating the parameters of a PI compensator [32] and is utilized in this paper. DC-Link Voltage Control The DC-link voltage is controlled by of (7) whose -frame equivalent is . the linearized model of the PLL subsystem also preserves the forms of (22)–(24) as (47) (48) (49) where (50) Equations (47)–(49) describe the PLL as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. NO. It is noted that if to is composed of an inteeffective control plant from grator cascaded with the ﬁrst-order transfer-function . In this paper. Fig. and the dc-link voltage regulator. is the output delivered to the distribution network and load subsystems. represent the power absorbed by the inductance and the resistance of the VSC interface reactor. 2) Linearized Model of the Converter Subsystem: The converter subsystem is referred to as the composition of the PV array. assuming that the time-constant in (41) is so small that holds. the ﬁrst and second terms represent the (real) power delivered by the PV array and the PV system. 4(b) illustrates a block diagram of the dc-link voltage1. the bandwidth of the closed current-control loop) is considerably (e. The subsystems are: 1) the PLL subsystem. is the state variable as well as the output is an exogenous input (disturbance). based on the model also introduces a nonlinearity. and considis regulated at zero by the PLL. The substitution of from (44) in (43) yields (45) Equation (45) indicates that if 1. The linearized models of the aforementioned subsystems are discussed next. its impact is inproduct is a relatively constant variable. the impact of the PV array characteristic on the dc-link voltage control is eliminated. The control plant and is a nonlinear of (43) is nonlinear since 1) . whereas low-pass transfer function. V. The third and fourth terms. respectively.and -axis current controllers assume the ﬁrst-order form (41) where the time-constant should be made small for a fast current-control response. the VSC in conjunction with the dc-link capacitor and the interface reactor. To mitigate the impact of nonlinearities on : the control. and 2) itself is a nonlinear function of the function of state-variable . and is the output delivered to the distribution network subsystem. 3. VOL. A linearized model of the converter . Although the 1) Linearized Model of the PLL Subsystem: The PLL subsystem is described by (22)–(24) which are linear. but adequately large so that (i. a reduced-order ering that model is obtained for the dc-link voltage dynamics as To evaluate the stability of the PV system under the proposed control strategy and to investigate the potential for interactions between the PV system and the distribution network/load. It is noted that the foregoing control method renders the dynamics . the following control law is adopted for (44) is a new control input. Equation (46) represents a PI compensator cascaded with a ﬁrst-order low-pass and are. JULY 2009 then the closed-loop transfer functions of the . is the pole of the gral gains of the PI compensator. is equal to 0. the proportional and inteﬁlter. STABILITY ANALYSIS (42) In (42). of and decoupled from those of . and . 3) the distribution network subsystem.e. an eigenvalue analysis is carried out on a linearized state-space model of the overall system. 2) the converter subsystem. and is a gain which can be where is calculated from the product unity or zero.5 ms. respectively. Linearized Model (43) Equation (43) represents a control plant whose input is . The linear model parameters are functions of the steady-state operating point of the system. Therefore. For the purposes of modeling and analysis. A. and the effective control plant becomes an integrator.g. ten times) smaller than the VSC switching frequency (in radians per second). and 4) the load subsystem. respectively. 24.1544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 1 is divided into four subsystems. For such a plant.. the system of Fig. of and . Ignoring the third and fourth terms of (42). the control scheme described before. C. In (43).

and (58) and (59). . a series bridge rectiﬁer [Fig. the system of Fig.0 kV and zero. is the load-free control input of the asynchronous machine load and the rectiﬁer load. The switched model is also used to verify the linearized model of the overall system. the are zero for the rectiﬁer load. and and are the inputs obtained from the and are the outputs PLL subsystem. . Similarly. 1 is developed based on (47)–(50). and are the state variables of the compensator . ) is determined by the real. and the reference comand are set to 1. the linearized model of a load can be expressed in the following generic form: (58) (59) have different entries and diwhere .YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1545 subsystem is developed based on (3). and mensions depending on the load type. Based on the large-signal models of the foregoing loads. . 4) Linearized Model of the Load Subsystem: In this paper. for example . and is the input obtained from the PLL and are the outputs delivsubsystem. In Section V-C. which is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. while and are the outputs delivered to the distribution network subsystem. The process yields (60) where is the number of the load state variables.. (44). The model is derived by substituting for the output(s) of a subsystem in the relevant input(s) of another subsystem. a detailed switched model of the system of Fig. the linearized model of (60) is employed in conjunction with a sensitivity analysis to characterize the dynamics of the overall system under the proposed control strategy. described by (60)–(62). It should be noted that represents the perturbation of the phase angle of relative to that of the grid voltage . The steady-state value of the phase angle (i. (41). the entries of the corresponding matrix are zero for the series – load. The equations indicate that are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. does not appear in the linearized model of the rectiﬁer load. 1) Case 1: DC-Link Voltage Step Response: Initially. The following subsections report the results of a number of case studies. Consequently. 1 is in a steady state. Equations (51) and (52) constitute a linearized model for the and converter subsystem. B. and are the outdelivered to the load subsystem. Therefore. Model Validation and Performance Evaluation To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The process yields (51) (52) where (53) In (53). 5) Linearized Model of the Overall System: A linearized model of the system of Fig.and reactive-power ﬂow of the system. respectively. mands The feedforward compensation of the dc-link voltage controller . representing the mechanical torque and the ﬁring angle. . (54)–(57). The system parameters are given in Appendix B. On the other hand. load subsystem. entries of Equations (58) and (59) describe the load as a subsystem for and are the inputs obtained from the distribution which network subsystem. 3) Linearized Model of the Distribution Network Subsystem: Based on (11)–(14). 1 is simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment [35]. a linearized model for the distribution network assumes the form (54) (55) (56) where (57) Equations (54)–(56) describe the distribution network as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the conand are the inputs obtained from the verter subsystem. 12(a)]. the series – load does not have such a control input. and a thyristormachine. However. 12(b)]. three types of loads are studied: a squirrel-cage asynchronous branch [Fig. ered to the distribution network subsystem.e. and puts delivered to the PLL and converter subsystems. and (61) An output of interest. (51)–(53). On the other hand. can be calculated by (62) where is the corresponding output matrix. and (46). respectively. (42).

) also oscillates with . the PV system possesses similar dynamic properties irrespective of the load type.e.u. 7. This indicates the need for the proposed feedforward compensation scheme. is subjected to a step change to 1. shown in Fig.6 Hz. erence value and settles in less than 0. its torque is set to the negative value of 0.1 turbine. Modal Analysis To characterize dynamics of the PV system of Fig. an eigenvalue analysis on (60) reveals the existence of a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues of which the imaginary part corresponds to a at 15. For the analysis.0. is also enabled (i.1. with the exception that is reduced stepwise to 1. and to determine the robustness of the proposed control against variations in various parameters. and 1. Step responses of the dc-link voltage when (a) feedforward compensation is enabled and (b) feedforward compensation is disabled. JULY 2009 Fig. starts to oscillate with a frequency quent to the disturbance.e. 5 demonstrates the close agreement between the linearized model and the switched model. 1 under the proposed control strategy of Section IV. ). The oscillations penthe same frequency as those of and etrate into the distribution network and affect the asynchronous machine speed. as shown in Fig.015 kV.1 kV in less than 0. to emulate a neighboring DG unit. the dc-link voltage settles at 1.. whereas the other three are due to the PLL subsystem. and and are. 3.7 p. a constant-speed wind s. Table I includes the eigenvalues of the overall system (i. Fig. nature of interactions between the PV system dynamics and those of the network/loads. 24. 5.e. 0. only the results of the asynchronous machine case are reported in what follows. in a mode corresponding Participation of a state variable to is calculated from [36] (63) and signify the th elements of the vectors where . 1.1 kV. It is observed that subsecompensation is disabled (i.. Fig. Therefore. The ﬁndings indicated that under the proposed control strategy. For the network and the load. respectively. of about 15. On the other hand.9-Hz oscillatory mode. Fig. disturbance. 5 illustrates the response of the dc-link voltage to the 0.71 p. when the feedforward Fig.1 s. 2) Case 2: Effectiveness of Feedforward Compensation: In this case.. This is in close agreement with the response obtained from the switched model. As Fig. Step responses of the dc-link voltage obtained from (a) the linearized model and (b) the switched model. 7(d). respectively . which may excite the torsional modes of the mechanical load. the ) under solutions of the condition that the feedforward compensation is enabled.1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY.5. . 6(a) shows. when the Fig. to identify the Fig. The eigenvalues are calculated for the case that the asynchronous machine load is connected to the middle of a 15-km distribution 0.e. NO. 6(b) illustrates the response of ).. and 1. 5 illustrate the responses obtained from the linearized and the switched models. Fig. The machine is used as a generator with a mechanical torque of 0. For this case. 6. 6(b). for three irradiation levels of Columns (a) and (b) of Fig.u. 5.e.1 s. As observed from Fig.. In order for the line (i. asynchronous machine to represent a distributed generator. Table I also includes the state variables of the overall system as well as a measure of the participation of each state variable in the eigenmodes corresponding to the eigenvalues. of Case 1. C. Table I shows the eight eigenvalues of the PV system. 6(a) illustrates the to the disturbance when the feedforward comresponse of tracks its refpensation is in service. of which the ﬁrst ﬁve correspond to the converter subsystem. all three types of load introduced in Section V-A4 were tested and different network/load parameters were changed.1 kV). At s. the system operates under the same conditions as those 1. for example. 7(c) illustrates that the angular speed of the -frame (i. An asynchronous machine is connected to the middle of the distribution line. Table I summarizes the essence of the system dynamic properties. PV system oscillations due to feedforward disablement. eigenvalue analysis is carried out on the linearized model of (60). only the dominant (electrical) eigenvalues are included.5. Fig. VOL. At kV. 7(a) and (b) shows the oscillations of and feedforward compensation is inactive.

the participation of the network and load-state variables in those eigenmodes is insigniﬁcant. the line length varying from 5 to 40 km. This. X=R = 0:6. Table I indicates that while the state variables of the PV system actively participate in the eigenmodes corresponding to to . tested. 8.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1547 TABLE I OVERALL SYSTEM EIGENVALUES AND STATES PARTICIPATION FACTORS. . 8 shows that the network eigenvalues approach the imaginary axis of the -plane as the distance between the load and the PV system increases.e.. As Fig. However. the right eigenvectors of and . d = 0. 9 illustrates the movements of the network eigenvalues . (i. 9 indicates. and 2) is very far from the real part of imaginary axis of the -plane. all three types of load have been Fig. Nonetheless. Fig.5 respectively. in the eigenmode corresponding to The participation of cannot pose any instability complications.. In general.e. Sensitivity Analysis Figs. and the eigenvalues with noticeable movement have been included in the plots. the network eigenmode becomes more stable. Pattern of variation for real part of the network eigenvalues as a function of the normalized load distance from the PV system. This. that correspond to the network and load subsystems of with ). For this analysis. 8–11 illustrate the patterns of variation of the real parts of the system eigenvalues. The only exception which participates relatively actively is the network state in the eigenmode corresponding to . Fig.e. the normalized load eigenvalues distance from the PV system). It should be also represents the sensitivity of the eigenvalue noted that to the element of the system matrix [37]. and any relative participation smaller than 0. Hence. however. as a function of (i. since this mode is very far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. Fig. the is reported in Table I rather than . cannot cause any instability issues since 1) the change in the is less than 10%. 8 illustrates the variation of the real part of the network . the other eigenvalues are almost ﬁxed. in turn. = 1. Therefore.. signiﬁed by . if the eigenmodes of the PV system are stable by proper design of the controllers. the corresponding mode remains stable and fast. means that the PV system eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenmodes are weak functions of the network and load parameters. whereas the PV system eigenvalue moves slightly to the right. and the PV system eigenvalue ) as functions of (i. the relative participation of a state variable in an eigenmode is of prime interest here.e. a closer look at Table I further indicates that the eigenvalues of to ). Thus. they do not become unstable as a result of variations in the network and load parameters. D. is a complex number. as functions of various parameters.001 is denoted by “ 0” in Table I. are insensitive to those elements the PV system (i.. l = 15 km. corresponding to the eigenvalue . norm The values are rounded off to the thousandths place.

. 24. This paper proposes a feedforward compensation mechanism for the dc-link voltage-control loop to mitigate the impact of the nonlinear characteristic of the PV array. Variation of the irradiation level exhibits no noticeable impact on the network and load eigenmodes. in turn. 9.. The movement of the network eigenvalues to the right. The impact of the solar irradiation level on the system eigenvalues is illustrated in Fig. dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables the control and/or maximization of the real-power output of the PV system. The reasons are 1) atively far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. The current-control strategy permits dc-link voltage regulation and enables power-factor control. the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in the Fig. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line length. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a ratio. VI. 11. to permit the design and optimization of the dc-link voltage controller for a wide range of operating conditions. regardless of the irradiation level. the corresponding eigenmodes remain stable and very fast. It is further demonstrated that the PV system dynamics are not inﬂuenced by the network dynamics. The proposed control strategy adopts an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage-control loop. However. it is expected that the current-control strategy renders the PV system protected against external faults. whereas the network modes exhibit opposite behavior. Fig. JULY 2009 Fig. and 2) their movement rate becomes smaller as the ratio increases. The effectiveness of the control strategy is veriﬁed through digital time-domain simulation studies conducted on a detailed switched model of the overall system. means that the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network.e. 11. PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line X=R Fig. three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. the current-control strategy signiﬁcantly decouples dynamics of the PV system from those of the distribution network and the loads. a modal/sensitivity analysis is conducted on a linearized model of the system to characterize the dynamic properties of the PV system. 10 illustrates that the mode corresponding to the ratio inPV system eigenvalue becomes more stable as the creases. Fig. to evaluate robustness of the controllers. In this case. the eigeneigenvalues values exhibit opposite patterns of variation. The results of the modal analysis conﬁrm that under the proposed control strategy. however. 10 shows the variations of the network eigenvalues (i. Furthermore. Schematic diagrams of (a) R–L load and (b) rectiﬁer load. NO. CONCLUSION This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage. In addition. Patterns of variation for real parts of two PV system eigenvalues as functions of the irradiation level. only the PV system and are affected as changes. Thus. VOL. ) and the PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line ratio.1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. are reldoes not destabilize the system. Fig. This. 12. Moreover. 10. 3.

e. Thus. and is the magnitude of from (66) in (65). Sub- (67) An expression for the load current can be derived by using the principle of power balance. can be approximated by its averaged component. The substitution of from (69) in (68). It then follows from the approximation of by its fundamental component that: (69) where is the magnitude of the space-phasor corresponding to the load (fundamental) current. is so large that is essentially ripple free. 12(b) illustrates a schematic diagram of a thyristor-bridge rectiﬁer supplying a series. and the rectiﬁer operates in the continuous mode (i. Picking the inductor current as the state variable. load type. as (66) where is the ﬁring angle. line ratio. and simpliﬁcation of the result in view of yields line length. It is now assumed that where ). and is the unit vector collinear with . dc. 12(a) illustrates the schematic diagram of a three-phase. APPENDIX A MODELS OF LOADS 1) Series – Load Model: Fig. Thus (64) 2) Thyristor Rectiﬁer Model: Fig.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1549 TABLE II SYSTEM PARAMETERS inductor (load) current as the state variable. – load.. Let us pick the (70) . – load. Thus (68) The fundamental component of the phase current in a bridge rectiﬁer is delayed by the angle relative to the corresponding phase voltage [38]. and distance between the PV system and the loads. one ﬁnds stituting for . one can write (65) is the rectiﬁer dc-side voltage.

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ON. ON.E. and power systems. Her research interests include distributed generation. London.Sc. He was with Digital Predictive Systems (DPS) Inc. degree. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Toronto.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1551 Amirnaser Yazdani (S’02–M’05) received the Ph. Mississauga. Currently. in 2007. Rourkela. ON. Rourkela. Prajna Paramita Dash (S’08) received the B. Canada. . Canada. London. Canada. renewable energy. he is an Assistant Professor with the University of Western Ontario (UWO). where she is currently pursuing the M. India. and microgrids.. degree in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Technology. She joined the University of Western Ontario. His research interests include modeling and control of switching power converters. distributed generation.Sc. in 2005. Toronto.D.

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