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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, JULY 2009

**A Control Methodology and Characterization of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System Interfaced With a Distribution Network
**

Amirnaser Yazdani, Member, IEEE, and Prajna Paramita Dash, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage, three-phase, photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. The control is based on an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage regulator. The current-control mechanism decouples the PV system dynamics from those of the network and the loads. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables control and maximization of the real power output. Proper feedforward actions are proposed for the current-control loop to make its dynamics independent of those of the rest of the system. Further, a feedforward compensation mechanism is proposed for the dc-link voltage-control loop, to make the PV system dynamics immune to the PV array nonlinear characteristic. This, in turn, permits the design and optimization of the PV system controllers for a wide range of operating conditions. A modal/sensitivity analysis is also conducted on a linearized model of the overall system, to characterize dynamic properties of the system, to evaluate robustness of the controllers, and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. The results of the modal analysis conﬁrm that under the proposed control strategy, dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network and, therefore, the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. It is also shown that the PV system dynamics are not inﬂuenced by those of the network (i.e., the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in ratio, load type, and load distance from the line length, line the PV system). Index Terms—Control, eigenvalue analysis, feedforward, modal analysis, participation factor, photovoltaic (PV), power electronics, voltage-source converter (VSC).

VSC ac-side current. Distribution line current between the PCC and load. Distribution line current between the load and substation. Load current. PV array current. PV array power. Real power output of the PV system at PCC. Reactive power output of the PV system at PCC. Interface transformer turns ratio. Inductance of the VSC interface reactor. Resistance of the VSC interface reactor. Line inductance between the PCC and load. Line inductance between the load and substation. Line resistance between the PCC and load. Line resistance between the load and substation. Line length. Load distance from the PV system, normalized to line length. DC-link capacitance. Shunt capacitance at PCC; VSC ﬁlter capacitance. Load power-factor correction capacitance. -frame angular speed. Grid nominal frequency (e.g., 377 rad/s). -frame reference angle. Real part of. Imaginary part of. Superscript denoting small-signal perturbation of a variable. “0” Subscript denoting the steady-state value of a variable.

NOMENCLATURE VSC ac-side terminal voltage. VSC-ﬁltered voltage; PCC voltage. Load voltage. Substation (grid) bus voltage. DC-link (PV array) voltage.

Manuscript received May 16, 2008; revised December 01, 2008. First published May 12, 2009; current version published June 24, 2009. This work was supported in part by the Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE), in part by Dolway Solar Power, Inc. under Grant IA-E-90390-07, and in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Paper no. TPWRD-00365-2008. The authors are with the University of Western Ontario, London, ON NGA 5B9, Canada (e-mail: ayazdani@eng.uwo.ca; pdash@uwo.ca). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2016632

0885-8977/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

research works also report the integration of islanding detection schemes into single-phase PV systems [11]–[14]. therefore.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1539 Superscript denoting the peak value of a three-phase variable. Superscript denoting the complex-conjugate of a space phasor. and its robustness against changes in the operating conditions. Among DG systems. a fair amount of the technical literature has dealt with the integration of PV systems into distribution networks. in view of the increasing market for multi-megawatt photvoltaic systems and in response to utility companies concerns about the impact of large-scale PV systems on the feeders/customers. The most widely addressed technical issue regarding PV systems is the so-called maximum power-point tracking (MPPT). and/or the control of three-phase. most PV systems mainly consist of rooftop installations with capacities of a few kilowatts which are unlikely to make an impression on the distribution networks and the loads. at the subtransmission voltage levels. I transformer overload and feeder overvoltage issues.0 kW/m . Research has also dealt with . to eliminate the impact of the nonlinear characteristics of the PV panels on the closed-loop stability. Reference [6] reviews 19 different MPPT methods introduced since 1968. The dc-link voltage-control scheme. the behavior of a three-phase. The proposed feedforward compensation permits the design of the dc-link voltage controller irrespective of the PV system operating point. Reference [21] has conducted an eigenvalue analysis for a two-stage conﬁguration. So far. and load types/parameters are demonstrated through nonlinear. A number of works [26]–[28] have adopted the current-mode control strategy. time-domain simulations as well as a comprehensive modal analysis. Recently. This is. These PV systems are not even permitted to cause a reverse power ﬂow. A number of works have studied dynamic models. economical. Many previous works have investigated different aspects of PV systems. with an emphasis on the impact of grid impedance on the closed-loop stability and not on the interaction between the PV system and the distribution network. not the case for large-scale PV systems which have considerably higher capacities and more sophisticated controls. distributed PV systems is investigated in [21] and [22]. The scope of the reported works encompasses both large-scale and distributed PV systems. and interactions with the network/loads of large-scale distributed PV systems seem to be timely and of importance. a control design methodology to ensure the provision of adequate damping has been presented. Reference [27] has adopted a similar analysis approach as in [26]. This paper. In addition. photovoltaic (PV) solar systems have attracted considerable investment in several countries [2]. which permits installation of relatively small-scale power generators at the medium-/low-voltage distribution levels of the power system. as analytically shown in this paper. the modiﬁed current-control strategy virtually decouples the PV system from the distribution network and the loads. At the distribution voltage levels. however. In addition to protecting the PV system against external faults. This paper proposes an effective control strategy for a single-stage. and more penetration is anticipated worldwide. investigations on the control.or double-digit megawatt (MW) capacities have been connected to the power system. Reference [26] identiﬁes the control loops and the transfer functions of the PV system. Dynamic stability of single-phase. Complex frequency I. the model and the proposed controllers are based on the voltage-mode control strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Thus. the distribution line and loads are not modeled. however. The proposed control strategy is based on a modiﬁed version of the conventional current-mode control and is used to 1) regulate the PV system power factor and 2) to control the converter dc-link voltage and. However. normalized to 1. Reference [25] has elegantly developed a reduced-order model for a PV system. three-phase PV system which is connected to a distribution network.and three-phase systems. through a dc-link voltage-control scheme. INTRODUCTION N recent years. such that signiﬁcant penetration of the PV energy into distribution networks has already taken place in Europe. including the energy production and economics [3]–[5]. the concept of distributed generation (DG). with the model of the dc cable between the two stages considered. with an emphasis on their harmonic interactions with the distribution networks [15]–[17] and on their impact on the power quality (PQ) [18]–[20]. mainly. with the consideration of PV systems as DG units. stability. on the other hand. The majority of this body of the literature has focused on single-phase PV systems. “ ” Superscript denoting the matrix transposition. This paper also proposes a feedforward compensation strategy for the dc-link voltage-control loop. . with an emphasis on the MPPT strategy rather than on the control or stability of the PV system. and environmental beneﬁts [1]. but does not report any analysis of the stability or interactions with the line/loads. Solar irradiation level. In [28]. and permits incorporation of an MPPT scheme. ensures stable operation of the PV system. single-stage PV systems [25]–[28]. single-stage PV system has been studied. the PV system real-power output. and they can be conveniently incorporated into time-domain power system simulation studies. does not provide a stability analysis or controller design methodology. Reference [22] has studied the impact of grid impedance variations on the closed-loop stability of a single-phase PV system. guarantees safe operation of the voltage-source converter (VSC) of the PV system. has gained widespread attention due to its technical. only a few previous works have investigated the control and stability aspects of PV systems. Another widely addressed topic is that of power converter conﬁgurations and aggregation schemes for PV systems. distribution network parameters. transient performance. through single. dynamic properties. Moreover. and also renders the closed-loop eigenvalues of the PV system insensitive to solar irradiation and dc-link voltage levels. However. References [7]–[10] provide comprehensive surveys on different single-phase and three-phase converter circuits for PV applications. PV systems of single.

a the short-circuit current of one string of the PV panels. is composed of the parallel connecstrings of panels to ensure adequately large power. each string consists of a number of PV panels connected in series. respectively. The array of PV panels. also includes the resistance of the VSC valves. the distribution network is referred to as the composition of a distribution . and the load(s) is developed and veriﬁed. III. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. PV System Model The PV array is described by its current–voltage characteristic function. is Boltzman’s constant. Section II introduces the structure of the single-stage. practically. Section VI concludes this paper. the distribution network. the distribution network is supplied by a utility substation which is represented by the voltage source . The interface reactor connects the ac-side terminals of the VSC to the corresponding phases of the PCC. and a three-phase interface reactor. is a linear function of the solar irradiation level . NO. and the load are represented by also include the leakage inductance and the winding resistance .1540 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. In tion of turn. and represent the real. the breaker isolates the PV system from the distribution network. Similarly. LARGE-SIGNAL MODEL A. II. whereas the latter represents the load power-factor correction capacitor. It should be pointed out that. and is . path for the current harmonics generated by the PV system. series-connected PV cells. The main building blocks of the PV system are an array of PV panels. single-stage PV system interfaced with a distribution network at the point of common coupling (PCC). Single-line schematic diagram of a single-stage photovoltaic (PV) system interfaced with a distribution network. and prevents them from penetrating into the distribution network. 24. In this paper. The inductance and resistance of the distribution line segment between the PCC and and . this. the transformer steps down the network voltage to a level suitable for the PV has a winding conﬁgsystem. in total. the former is an integral component of the VSC ﬁlter. As Fig. The resistance and inductance of the interface reactor are represented by and . hereafter referred to as the PV array. and . The PV array is corresponds to connected in parallel to the dc-link capacitor and the dc-side terminals of the VSC. JULY 2009 Fig. line. Sections III and IV present a mathematical model and the controllers of the PV system. STRUCTURE OF THE PV SYSTEM Fig. to ensure an adequately large dc voltage. a VSC. In addition.and reactive-power output that the PV system delivers to the distribution network. In Section V. The high-voltage side of provides a low-impedance uration and is solidly grounded. However. for the and are considered parts purpose of analysis in this paper. . is the shortcircuit current of one PV cell at the reference temperature and where tion. repreof sent the inductance and resistance of the line segment between the load and the substation. respectively. 1 also includes a schematic diagram of the distribution network and an aggregate of loads. In emergency conditions when the PV system must be shut down. VOL. function of the temperature. a small-signal model for the overall system consisting of the PV system. 1. of the distribution network. as [29] (1) is the reverse saturation current of a juncis the unit electric charge. three-phase PV system. respectively. is the ideality factor. Section V also presents the result of a modal analysis carried out on the linearized model of the overall system. The VSC is controlled based on the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) strategy. 3. as (2) where is the cell reference temperature. is the junction temperature (in Kelvin). and the shunt capacitors and . a (three-phase) load is connected to the line at a location between the PCC and the substation. Fig. 1 shows. 1 shows a single-line schematic diagram of a three-phase. respectively.

2 shows that for a is zero at but increases given irradiation level. It should be trol input. the If . can be controlled by the VSC ac-side current . one deduces (10) Equations (7) and (10) constitute a state-space model for the PV and are the state variables. one deduces where the PV system ac-side current and the load current act as exogenous inputs to the distribution network subsystem. and is a temperature coefﬁcient. Dynamics of the dc-link voltage are described. a series . Substituting for (9) in (8).. beyond a certain voltage at which decreases with the increase of . in turn. the power delivered by the PV array (i. it is assumed that is a balanced three-phase and . and a thyristor-bridge chronous machine. 2 illustrates the variations of as a function of . be equal to . ence of the terms The dynamics of the VSC ac-side current are described by the following space-phasor equation: (8) . the real component of the VSC ac-side and the real terminal power. Power-voltage characteristic curve of a PV array. . Distribution Network Model . C. This is referred to as the “maximum-power-point tracking” (MPPT) in the technical literature [6]. Thus (12) (13) (5) (14) where denotes the space-phasor representation of a threeand is deﬁned as [31] phase quantity (6) Substituting for from (5) in (4). Based on ) is (1). Load Model (7) Three types of three-phase.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1541 Equation (7) suggests that and. . and . However. the VSC ac-side terminal voltage can be controlled as (3) (9) represents the space-phasor corresponding to the where PWM modulating signals which are normalized to the peak from value of the triangular carrier signal. based on the principle of power balance. Fig.e. can be controlled/maxmentioned behavior suggests that imized by the control of . B. and are chosen as the state variables. this trend continues only up to as reaches a peak value. balanced loads—an asyncircuit. 2) as well as the prespendence of Fig. is the consystem in which and are the exogenous inputs. and itself is a state variable of the distribution network noted that system. 1). The aforethis voltage. expressed as Fig. revoltage whose amplitude and phase angle are spectively. for different levels of the solar irradiation. thus. is the summation of power absorbed by the interface reactor [30]. is increased. following state-space model can be derived for the distribution network: (11) irradiation level. as discussed in the next subsection. 2. In (14). that is. that is. . due to the nonlinear deon (see (3) and Fig. Ignoring the VSC power loss. It should also be noted that (7) represents a nonlinear dynamic system. . as (4) denotes the power delivered to the VSC dc side (see where can be assumed to Fig.

This is achieved by replacing each space phasor by its -frame equivalent. The control current-control scheme that forces to track of enables the control of and . A space-phasor model of an asynchronous machine can be found in [31] or [32]. space-phasor variables in the models of the PV system. The unity power-factor operation also results in a minimized magnitude for the VSC line current. as (19) where and and are the Laplace transforms of . in which into the . for a given real-power ﬂow. JULY 2009 rectiﬁer are considered in this paper. The model can be expressed in the standard state-space form. the three-phase ac signals are transformed into proper -frame counterparts. pole at Let be a proportional-integral (PI) compensator cascaded with a ﬁrst-order. one Therefore. This objective is fulﬁlled by is ﬁrst resolved means of the PLLs of Fig. is calculated as Fig. 1. 3. and 3) the command . as (15) If represents a state variable. The feedforward compensation counteracts the command destabilizing and nonlinear characteristic of the PV array and enhances the PV system stability. The limits on the dc-link voltage ensure proper and safe operation of the is delivered to a -frame VSC. If the two state variables and are deﬁned as (20) (21) then. The procedures to derive the state-space models of load and the rectiﬁer load are presented in detail in the Appendix A. and the load are projected on a -frame. 1. the -frame variables become time invariant (in a steady state) if the -frame angular velocity is made to be equal to . The dc-link voltage reference is usually obtained from an MPPT scheme and is permitted to vary from a lower limit to an upper limit. The current-control scheme also forces to track is proportional to It is also discussed in Section IV-A that . Details of the aforementioned three control schemes are discussed in the following subsections. The space phasor to the -frame transformation is deﬁned as (18) In the system of Fig. if 0. 3. Therefore. 1 indicates that: 1) the VSC PWM and control are synchronized to the network voltage through a phase-locked loop (PLL) [33]. [33]. and the controllers process dc equivalents rather than original sinusoidally-varying signals and 2) the error between (the square of) the dc-link voltage and its corresponding reference whose output value is processed by the compensator is augmented by a feedforward signal to issue the current . VOL. respectively. steady state. and then is processed by the compensator to determine . Block diagram of a phase-locked loop (PLL). A. 3. Hence. the distribution network. faults. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) For analysis and control purposes. must include at least one integrator (i. ). IV. becomes zero in the steady state and the PV system exhibits a unity power factor to the distribution network.and the -axis components. Fig. the main control objective is to regulate the dc-link voltage to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. as (17) (26) (27) (28) (29) . NO. 24. the following state-space model can be formulated for the PLL: (22) (23) (24) where (25) (16) where is the -frame angular speed. through minor algebra. which is not presented here for space limitations. Thus. the three-phase signals vary with time at the grid frequency . based on (18).e. PV SYSTEM CONTROL For the PV system of Fig. In a is forced to zero while becomes equal to .1542 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. A saturation block to protect the VSC against overload and external limits . low-pass transfer-function. in view of (17).

Due to the factor coupled and nonlinear. the dynamics of and are bance inputs. the expression for is simpliﬁed to and are two new control inputs [34]. . and the gating pulses for the VSC valves are sent out. It should be noted that to produce and . and the outputs are and . the control of boils down to the control of . and are the control inputs. a realization of (34) and (35)]. Fig.. respectively. as illustrated in Fig. is controlled to regulate the dc-link voltage and to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. at zero also has the effect that the Regulation of expression for the PV system real-power output (i. To decouple and linearize the dynamics. from (34) and (35). can be regulated by to adjust the power factor that the PV system exhibits to the distribution network. and are the state variables and the outputs. (b) DC-link voltage-control scheme. 4(a) illustrates a block diagram of the -frame current-control scheme [i.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1543 Fig. Equations (22)–(24) introduce the PLL as a dynamic system of and . ﬁrst-order systems in which and can be controlled by and . 4. B. processes . If (39) (40) . Fig. decoupled. VSC Current Control and was explained in SecThe need for controlling tion IV-A.e. The to decouple the dynamics of and from those of PWM modulating signals are generated by transformation of and into . compensator is the output of another compensator that Similarly. Consequently. one deduces (36) (37) Equations (36) and (37) represent two. Thus (38) (32) (33) In (32) and (33). faults. provided that The current-control scheme is designed based on (32) and (33) which are the -frame equivalents to (10). respecand are selected as tively.e. 4(a) shows that the control signal is the output of a . where and are the proportional and integral gains. As indicated in (7). the state variables are . Let (31) Thus. 1. In this section. Similarly. and and are the distur. Block diagrams of (a) dq -frame current-control scheme. respectively. 4(a)]. Since the control plants of (36) and (37) are identical. and [not shown in Fig. a current-control scheme is devised to ensure that and rapidly track their respective reference and . ) is simpliﬁed to and are determined based on the following control laws: (34) (35) (30) Equation (30) indicates that is proportional to and can be controlled by .. the factor is employed as a feedforward signal . and can also be identical. linear. processing the error signal . which the inputs are and . Substituting where and in (32) and (33). . The current-control strategy also commands enhances protection of the VSC against overload and external and are limited.

is the output delivered to the distribution network and load subsystems. Although the 1) Linearized Model of the PLL Subsystem: The PLL subsystem is described by (22)–(24) which are linear.5 ms. the following control law is adopted for (44) is a new control input. the linearized model of the PLL subsystem also preserves the forms of (22)–(24) as (47) (48) (49) where (50) Equations (47)–(49) describe the PLL as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. Therefore. STABILITY ANALYSIS (42) In (42). the ﬁrst and second terms represent the (real) power delivered by the PV array and the PV system. It is noted that the foregoing control method renders the dynamics . C.g. and is the output delivered to the distribution network subsystem. but adequately large so that (i. 3) the distribution network subsystem. The third and fourth terms. . of and . A. an eigenvalue analysis is carried out on a linearized state-space model of the overall system. DC-Link Voltage Control The DC-link voltage is controlled by of (7) whose -frame equivalent is . V. assuming that the time-constant in (41) is so small that holds. the current-control scheme. A linearized model of the converter . It is noted that if to is composed of an inteeffective control plant from grator cascaded with the ﬁrst-order transfer-function . Fig. is the state variable as well as the output is an exogenous input (disturbance). The substitution of from (44) in (43) yields (45) Equation (45) indicates that if 1. 2) the converter subsystem. The linear model parameters are functions of the steady-state operating point of the system.1544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. the impact of the PV array characteristic on the dc-link voltage control is eliminated.. and the effective control plant becomes an integrator. based on the model also introduces a nonlinearity. 1 is divided into four subsystems. whereas low-pass transfer function. Linearized Model (43) Equation (43) represents a control plant whose input is . and considis regulated at zero by the PLL. respectively. the system of Fig. and 2) itself is a nonlinear function of the function of state-variable . respectively. 24. 4(b) illustrates a block diagram of the dc-link voltage1. the control scheme described before. Ignoring the third and fourth terms of (42). the proportional and inteﬁlter. represent the power absorbed by the inductance and the resistance of the VSC interface reactor. the bandwidth of the closed current-control loop) is considerably (e. Equation (46) represents a PI compensator cascaded with a ﬁrst-order low-pass and are. In (43). The control plant and is a nonlinear of (43) is nonlinear since 1) . the VSC in conjunction with the dc-link capacitor and the interface reactor. To mitigate the impact of nonlinearities on : the control.and -axis current controllers assume the ﬁrst-order form (41) where the time-constant should be made small for a fast current-control response. and . The subsystems are: 1) the PLL subsystem. and the dc-link voltage regulator. 3. NO. and is a gain which can be where is calculated from the product unity or zero. signiﬁcant since practically is the output of a compensator as (46) where the error signal is . of and decoupled from those of . and 4) the load subsystem. 2) Linearized Model of the Converter Subsystem: The converter subsystem is referred to as the composition of the PV array.e. respectively. JULY 2009 then the closed-loop transfer functions of the . VOL. The linearized models of the aforementioned subsystems are discussed next. its impact is inproduct is a relatively constant variable. For such a plant. ten times) smaller than the VSC switching frequency (in radians per second). For the purposes of modeling and analysis. is equal to 0. the method of “symmetrical optimum” provides a systematic tool for calculating the parameters of a PI compensator [32] and is utilized in this paper. In this paper. a reduced-order ering that model is obtained for the dc-link voltage dynamics as To evaluate the stability of the PV system under the proposed control strategy and to investigate the potential for interactions between the PV system and the distribution network/load. is the pole of the gral gains of the PI compensator.

. the entries of the corresponding matrix are zero for the series – load. and is the input obtained from the PLL and are the outputs delivsubsystem. which is implemented in Matlab/Simulink.e. while and are the outputs delivered to the distribution network subsystem. and are the outdelivered to the load subsystem. load subsystem. respectively. 12(a)]. It should be noted that represents the perturbation of the phase angle of relative to that of the grid voltage . . (44). Therefore. can be calculated by (62) where is the corresponding output matrix. ered to the distribution network subsystem.and reactive-power ﬂow of the system. 3) Linearized Model of the Distribution Network Subsystem: Based on (11)–(14). the series – load does not have such a control input. mands The feedforward compensation of the dc-link voltage controller . and (58) and (59). ) is determined by the real. 1 is simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment [35]. the are zero for the rectiﬁer load. B. three types of loads are studied: a squirrel-cage asynchronous branch [Fig. Based on the large-signal models of the foregoing loads. (51)–(53). entries of Equations (58) and (59) describe the load as a subsystem for and are the inputs obtained from the distribution which network subsystem. 5) Linearized Model of the Overall System: A linearized model of the system of Fig. Consequently.0 kV and zero. a series bridge rectiﬁer [Fig. the system of Fig. 1 is in a steady state. and mensions depending on the load type. . The process yields (60) where is the number of the load state variables. However. On the other hand. 1 is developed based on (47)–(50). a linearized model for the distribution network assumes the form (54) (55) (56) where (57) Equations (54)–(56) describe the distribution network as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the conand are the inputs obtained from the verter subsystem. The following subsections report the results of a number of case studies. and the reference comand are set to 1. and a thyristormachine. and and are the inputs obtained from the and are the outputs PLL subsystem. respectively. On the other hand. . described by (60)–(62). representing the mechanical torque and the ﬁring angle. and puts delivered to the PLL and converter subsystems. The process yields (51) (52) where (53) In (53). 1) Case 1: DC-Link Voltage Step Response: Initially. Model Validation and Performance Evaluation To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. 4) Linearized Model of the Load Subsystem: In this paper. and (46). is the load-free control input of the asynchronous machine load and the rectiﬁer load. The equations indicate that are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. . (41). The system parameters are given in Appendix B. In Section V-C. and (61) An output of interest. and are the state variables of the compensator . Similarly. Equations (51) and (52) constitute a linearized model for the and converter subsystem. the linearized model of (60) is employed in conjunction with a sensitivity analysis to characterize the dynamics of the overall system under the proposed control strategy. 12(b)]. for example . The steady-state value of the phase angle (i. does not appear in the linearized model of the rectiﬁer load.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1545 subsystem is developed based on (3). a detailed switched model of the system of Fig. The switched model is also used to verify the linearized model of the overall system. the linearized model of a load can be expressed in the following generic form: (58) (59) have different entries and diwhere . (54)–(57). (42). The model is derived by substituting for the output(s) of a subsystem in the relevant input(s) of another subsystem.

6. for three irradiation levels of Columns (a) and (b) of Fig. Fig. asynchronous machine to represent a distributed generator. only the results of the asynchronous machine case are reported in what follows. NO. 6(a) shows. in a mode corresponding Participation of a state variable to is calculated from [36] (63) and signify the th elements of the vectors where . disturbance.e. the PV system possesses similar dynamic properties irrespective of the load type. for example. An asynchronous machine is connected to the middle of the distribution line.5.. nature of interactions between the PV system dynamics and those of the network/loads. This indicates the need for the proposed feedforward compensation scheme. Fig. shown in Fig. 3. and and are. As observed from Fig.5. of about 15. At s. For the network and the load.u. On the other hand. of Case 1. Step responses of the dc-link voltage when (a) feedforward compensation is enabled and (b) feedforward compensation is disabled. and 1. Modal Analysis To characterize dynamics of the PV system of Fig. In order for the line (i. The machine is used as a generator with a mechanical torque of 0. 7(c) illustrates that the angular speed of the -frame (i.1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. the system operates under the same conditions as those 1.1 kV in less than 0. JULY 2009 Fig. 6(a) illustrates the to the disturbance when the feedforward comresponse of tracks its refpensation is in service. Step responses of the dc-link voltage obtained from (a) the linearized model and (b) the switched model. is also enabled (i. Table I includes the eigenvalues of the overall system (i.u. of which the ﬁrst ﬁve correspond to the converter subsystem.1 s. respectively . ) also oscillates with . and 1.015 kV. This is in close agreement with the response obtained from the switched model.. when the Fig. 1. 6(b). Table I shows the eight eigenvalues of the PV system. and to determine the robustness of the proposed control against variations in various parameters.. . ).6 Hz. 7. the ) under solutions of the condition that the feedforward compensation is enabled.7 p. 5. all three types of load introduced in Section V-A4 were tested and different network/load parameters were changed. erence value and settles in less than 0. whereas the other three are due to the PLL subsystem. As Fig.1 turbine. 5 illustrates the response of the dc-link voltage to the 0.71 p.1 s. to identify the Fig. a constant-speed wind s.e. Therefore. with the exception that is reduced stepwise to 1. Table I also includes the state variables of the overall system as well as a measure of the participation of each state variable in the eigenmodes corresponding to the eigenvalues. to emulate a neighboring DG unit. 7(d). Fig. its torque is set to the negative value of 0. The eigenvalues are calculated for the case that the asynchronous machine load is connected to the middle of a 15-km distribution 0.1 kV). 5. The oscillations penthe same frequency as those of and etrate into the distribution network and affect the asynchronous machine speed. At kV. It is observed that subsecompensation is disabled (i.0. the dc-link voltage settles at 1. 2) Case 2: Effectiveness of Feedforward Compensation: In this case. VOL. The ﬁndings indicated that under the proposed control strategy. is subjected to a step change to 1. 1 under the proposed control strategy of Section IV. eigenvalue analysis is carried out on the linearized model of (60). 24.e. C. starts to oscillate with a frequency quent to the disturbance. For this case.1 kV. respectively.1. only the dominant (electrical) eigenvalues are included. 5 illustrate the responses obtained from the linearized and the switched models. 6(b) illustrates the response of ). an eigenvalue analysis on (60) reveals the existence of a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues of which the imaginary part corresponds to a at 15.. For the analysis. 0. as shown in Fig.e. when the feedforward Fig. Fig. Table I summarizes the essence of the system dynamic properties. which may excite the torsional modes of the mechanical load.e. 5 demonstrates the close agreement between the linearized model and the switched model.9-Hz oscillatory mode. 7(a) and (b) shows the oscillations of and feedforward compensation is inactive. Fig.. PV system oscillations due to feedforward disablement.

Table I indicates that while the state variables of the PV system actively participate in the eigenmodes corresponding to to .. 8–11 illustrate the patterns of variation of the real parts of the system eigenvalues. and any relative participation smaller than 0. D. d = 0. and the PV system eigenvalue ) as functions of (i. the participation of the network and load-state variables in those eigenmodes is insigniﬁcant. as a function of (i. the network eigenmode becomes more stable. that correspond to the network and load subsystems of with ). 9 illustrates the movements of the network eigenvalues .e. tested.5 respectively.e. Thus.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1547 TABLE I OVERALL SYSTEM EIGENVALUES AND STATES PARTICIPATION FACTORS. the line length varying from 5 to 40 km. all three types of load have been Fig. . the other eigenvalues are almost ﬁxed. Hence.e. is a complex number. however. norm The values are rounded off to the thousandths place. if the eigenmodes of the PV system are stable by proper design of the controllers. in the eigenmode corresponding to The participation of cannot pose any instability complications. the corresponding mode remains stable and fast. in turn. 8. the right eigenvectors of and .. For this analysis. This. a closer look at Table I further indicates that the eigenvalues of to ). Nonetheless. since this mode is very far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. l = 15 km. The only exception which participates relatively actively is the network state in the eigenmode corresponding to . = 1. Fig. the relative participation of a state variable in an eigenmode is of prime interest here. they do not become unstable as a result of variations in the network and load parameters. corresponding to the eigenvalue . Sensitivity Analysis Figs. means that the PV system eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenmodes are weak functions of the network and load parameters. It should be also represents the sensitivity of the eigenvalue noted that to the element of the system matrix [37]. 8 illustrates the variation of the real part of the network . Pattern of variation for real part of the network eigenvalues as a function of the normalized load distance from the PV system. and the eigenvalues with noticeable movement have been included in the plots. In general. the normalized load eigenvalues distance from the PV system).001 is denoted by “ 0” in Table I. whereas the PV system eigenvalue moves slightly to the right. signiﬁed by . are insensitive to those elements the PV system (i. Therefore. This. 9 indicates. However. Fig. X=R = 0:6. (i. As Fig. and 2) is very far from the real part of imaginary axis of the -plane. cannot cause any instability issues since 1) the change in the is less than 10%.. the is reported in Table I rather than . as functions of various parameters.e. Fig. 8 shows that the network eigenvalues approach the imaginary axis of the -plane as the distance between the load and the PV system increases..

Schematic diagrams of (a) R–L load and (b) rectiﬁer load. 11.1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 10. 9. The reasons are 1) atively far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. 24. in turn. are reldoes not destabilize the system. to evaluate robustness of the controllers. three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. 10 illustrates that the mode corresponding to the ratio inPV system eigenvalue becomes more stable as the creases. CONCLUSION This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage. to permit the design and optimization of the dc-link voltage controller for a wide range of operating conditions. JULY 2009 Fig. 11. and 2) their movement rate becomes smaller as the ratio increases. VOL. however. the corresponding eigenmodes remain stable and very fast. 3. PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line X=R Fig. the eigeneigenvalues values exhibit opposite patterns of variation. the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in the Fig. means that the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. whereas the network modes exhibit opposite behavior. However. Furthermore. . NO. The current-control strategy permits dc-link voltage regulation and enables power-factor control. ) and the PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line ratio. This paper proposes a feedforward compensation mechanism for the dc-link voltage-control loop to mitigate the impact of the nonlinear characteristic of the PV array.. Variation of the irradiation level exhibits no noticeable impact on the network and load eigenmodes. In addition. 10 shows the variations of the network eigenvalues (i. VI. the current-control strategy signiﬁcantly decouples dynamics of the PV system from those of the distribution network and the loads.e. it is expected that the current-control strategy renders the PV system protected against external faults. In this case. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line length. and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. Moreover. Fig. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a ratio. Patterns of variation for real parts of two PV system eigenvalues as functions of the irradiation level. regardless of the irradiation level. The impact of the solar irradiation level on the system eigenvalues is illustrated in Fig. This. only the PV system and are affected as changes. Fig. The effectiveness of the control strategy is veriﬁed through digital time-domain simulation studies conducted on a detailed switched model of the overall system. The movement of the network eigenvalues to the right. It is further demonstrated that the PV system dynamics are not inﬂuenced by the network dynamics. 12. Thus. a modal/sensitivity analysis is conducted on a linearized model of the system to characterize the dynamic properties of the PV system. The proposed control strategy adopts an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage-control loop. The results of the modal analysis conﬁrm that under the proposed control strategy. dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network. Fig. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables the control and/or maximization of the real-power output of the PV system.

12(a) illustrates the schematic diagram of a three-phase. dc. can be approximated by its averaged component. – load. and distance between the PV system and the loads. as (66) where is the ﬁring angle. and is the unit vector collinear with . Let us pick the (70) . APPENDIX A MODELS OF LOADS 1) Series – Load Model: Fig.. Picking the inductor current as the state variable. The substitution of from (69) in (68). Thus (64) 2) Thyristor Rectiﬁer Model: Fig. Sub- (67) An expression for the load current can be derived by using the principle of power balance. It is now assumed that where ). and is the magnitude of from (66) in (65). one ﬁnds stituting for . Thus (68) The fundamental component of the phase current in a bridge rectiﬁer is delayed by the angle relative to the corresponding phase voltage [38].YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1549 TABLE II SYSTEM PARAMETERS inductor (load) current as the state variable. and the rectiﬁer operates in the continuous mode (i. – load. 12(b) illustrates a schematic diagram of a thyristor-bridge rectiﬁer supplying a series. It then follows from the approximation of by its fundamental component that: (69) where is the magnitude of the space-phasor corresponding to the load (fundamental) current. Thus. one can write (65) is the rectiﬁer dc-side voltage. is so large that is essentially ripple free.e. and simpliﬁcation of the result in view of yields line length. line ratio. load type.

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Mississauga. ON. degree in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Technology. degree. London. Canada. Her research interests include distributed generation.Sc. Currently. in 2007. . renewable energy. Rourkela.D. ON. he is an Assistant Professor with the University of Western Ontario (UWO). where she is currently pursuing the M. Toronto.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1551 Amirnaser Yazdani (S’02–M’05) received the Ph. Rourkela.. and power systems. in 2005. His research interests include modeling and control of switching power converters.Sc. Prajna Paramita Dash (S’08) received the B. and microgrids. He was with Digital Predictive Systems (DPS) Inc. Canada. London. She joined the University of Western Ontario. distributed generation. India. ON. Canada.E. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Toronto.

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