## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, JULY 2009

**A Control Methodology and Characterization of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System Interfaced With a Distribution Network
**

Amirnaser Yazdani, Member, IEEE, and Prajna Paramita Dash, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage, three-phase, photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. The control is based on an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage regulator. The current-control mechanism decouples the PV system dynamics from those of the network and the loads. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables control and maximization of the real power output. Proper feedforward actions are proposed for the current-control loop to make its dynamics independent of those of the rest of the system. Further, a feedforward compensation mechanism is proposed for the dc-link voltage-control loop, to make the PV system dynamics immune to the PV array nonlinear characteristic. This, in turn, permits the design and optimization of the PV system controllers for a wide range of operating conditions. A modal/sensitivity analysis is also conducted on a linearized model of the overall system, to characterize dynamic properties of the system, to evaluate robustness of the controllers, and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. The results of the modal analysis conﬁrm that under the proposed control strategy, dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network and, therefore, the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. It is also shown that the PV system dynamics are not inﬂuenced by those of the network (i.e., the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in ratio, load type, and load distance from the line length, line the PV system). Index Terms—Control, eigenvalue analysis, feedforward, modal analysis, participation factor, photovoltaic (PV), power electronics, voltage-source converter (VSC).

VSC ac-side current. Distribution line current between the PCC and load. Distribution line current between the load and substation. Load current. PV array current. PV array power. Real power output of the PV system at PCC. Reactive power output of the PV system at PCC. Interface transformer turns ratio. Inductance of the VSC interface reactor. Resistance of the VSC interface reactor. Line inductance between the PCC and load. Line inductance between the load and substation. Line resistance between the PCC and load. Line resistance between the load and substation. Line length. Load distance from the PV system, normalized to line length. DC-link capacitance. Shunt capacitance at PCC; VSC ﬁlter capacitance. Load power-factor correction capacitance. -frame angular speed. Grid nominal frequency (e.g., 377 rad/s). -frame reference angle. Real part of. Imaginary part of. Superscript denoting small-signal perturbation of a variable. “0” Subscript denoting the steady-state value of a variable.

NOMENCLATURE VSC ac-side terminal voltage. VSC-ﬁltered voltage; PCC voltage. Load voltage. Substation (grid) bus voltage. DC-link (PV array) voltage.

Manuscript received May 16, 2008; revised December 01, 2008. First published May 12, 2009; current version published June 24, 2009. This work was supported in part by the Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE), in part by Dolway Solar Power, Inc. under Grant IA-E-90390-07, and in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Paper no. TPWRD-00365-2008. The authors are with the University of Western Ontario, London, ON NGA 5B9, Canada (e-mail: ayazdani@eng.uwo.ca; pdash@uwo.ca). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2016632

0885-8977/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

the behavior of a three-phase. The most widely addressed technical issue regarding PV systems is the so-called maximum power-point tracking (MPPT). The scope of the reported works encompasses both large-scale and distributed PV systems. Thus. with an emphasis on the impact of grid impedance on the closed-loop stability and not on the interaction between the PV system and the distribution network. therefore. Many previous works have investigated different aspects of PV systems. Reference [26] identiﬁes the control loops and the transfer functions of the PV system. a control design methodology to ensure the provision of adequate damping has been presented. In addition. investigations on the control. Moreover. and they can be conveniently incorporated into time-domain power system simulation studies. In addition to protecting the PV system against external faults. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Reference [27] has adopted a similar analysis approach as in [26]. with an emphasis on the MPPT strategy rather than on the control or stability of the PV system. transient performance. and more penetration is anticipated worldwide. distribution network parameters. through a dc-link voltage-control scheme. such that signiﬁcant penetration of the PV energy into distribution networks has already taken place in Europe. . photovoltaic (PV) solar systems have attracted considerable investment in several countries [2]. Solar irradiation level. with the model of the dc cable between the two stages considered. Dynamic stability of single-phase. Superscript denoting the complex-conjugate of a space phasor. the distribution line and loads are not modeled. This paper also proposes a feedforward compensation strategy for the dc-link voltage-control loop. INTRODUCTION N recent years. time-domain simulations as well as a comprehensive modal analysis. The majority of this body of the literature has focused on single-phase PV systems. ensures stable operation of the PV system. however. the modiﬁed current-control strategy virtually decouples the PV system from the distribution network and the loads.and three-phase systems. Reference [6] reviews 19 different MPPT methods introduced since 1968. This is. the model and the proposed controllers are based on the voltage-mode control strategy. The proposed feedforward compensation permits the design of the dc-link voltage controller irrespective of the PV system operating point. and environmental beneﬁts [1]. economical. and also renders the closed-loop eigenvalues of the PV system insensitive to solar irradiation and dc-link voltage levels. guarantees safe operation of the voltage-source converter (VSC) of the PV system. not the case for large-scale PV systems which have considerably higher capacities and more sophisticated controls. and interactions with the network/loads of large-scale distributed PV systems seem to be timely and of importance. the concept of distributed generation (DG). single-stage PV system has been studied. as analytically shown in this paper. distributed PV systems is investigated in [21] and [22]. However. stability. has gained widespread attention due to its technical.or double-digit megawatt (MW) capacities have been connected to the power system. with the consideration of PV systems as DG units.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1539 Superscript denoting the peak value of a three-phase variable. in view of the increasing market for multi-megawatt photvoltaic systems and in response to utility companies concerns about the impact of large-scale PV systems on the feeders/customers. Another widely addressed topic is that of power converter conﬁgurations and aggregation schemes for PV systems. Reference [22] has studied the impact of grid impedance variations on the closed-loop stability of a single-phase PV system. only a few previous works have investigated the control and stability aspects of PV systems. Recently. but does not report any analysis of the stability or interactions with the line/loads. to eliminate the impact of the nonlinear characteristics of the PV panels on the closed-loop stability. “ ” Superscript denoting the matrix transposition. PV systems of single. and its robustness against changes in the operating conditions. and/or the control of three-phase. Reference [25] has elegantly developed a reduced-order model for a PV system. At the distribution voltage levels. Reference [21] has conducted an eigenvalue analysis for a two-stage conﬁguration. Complex frequency I. A number of works have studied dynamic models. These PV systems are not even permitted to cause a reverse power ﬂow. on the other hand.0 kW/m . A number of works [26]–[28] have adopted the current-mode control strategy. This paper. single-stage PV systems [25]–[28]. a fair amount of the technical literature has dealt with the integration of PV systems into distribution networks. Research has also dealt with . Among DG systems. does not provide a stability analysis or controller design methodology. dynamic properties. However. however. In [28]. This paper proposes an effective control strategy for a single-stage. I transformer overload and feeder overvoltage issues. References [7]–[10] provide comprehensive surveys on different single-phase and three-phase converter circuits for PV applications. which permits installation of relatively small-scale power generators at the medium-/low-voltage distribution levels of the power system. The proposed control strategy is based on a modiﬁed version of the conventional current-mode control and is used to 1) regulate the PV system power factor and 2) to control the converter dc-link voltage and. normalized to 1. three-phase PV system which is connected to a distribution network. the PV system real-power output. and permits incorporation of an MPPT scheme. The dc-link voltage-control scheme. including the energy production and economics [3]–[5]. most PV systems mainly consist of rooftop installations with capacities of a few kilowatts which are unlikely to make an impression on the distribution networks and the loads. mainly. research works also report the integration of islanding detection schemes into single-phase PV systems [11]–[14]. at the subtransmission voltage levels. with an emphasis on their harmonic interactions with the distribution networks [15]–[17] and on their impact on the power quality (PQ) [18]–[20]. So far. and load types/parameters are demonstrated through nonlinear. through single.

is the shortcircuit current of one PV cell at the reference temperature and where tion. Sections III and IV present a mathematical model and the controllers of the PV system. the transformer steps down the network voltage to a level suitable for the PV has a winding conﬁgsystem. . line. is the ideality factor. Fig. respectively.and reactive-power output that the PV system delivers to the distribution network. 1 shows. is Boltzman’s constant. is a linear function of the solar irradiation level . 1 shows a single-line schematic diagram of a three-phase. as [29] (1) is the reverse saturation current of a juncis the unit electric charge. the breaker isolates the PV system from the distribution network. series-connected PV cells. In addition. and the load are represented by also include the leakage inductance and the winding resistance . 1 also includes a schematic diagram of the distribution network and an aggregate of loads. path for the current harmonics generated by the PV system. 1. practically. as (2) where is the cell reference temperature. a (three-phase) load is connected to the line at a location between the PCC and the substation. each string consists of a number of PV panels connected in series. repreof sent the inductance and resistance of the line segment between the load and the substation. a VSC. whereas the latter represents the load power-factor correction capacitor. The resistance and inductance of the interface reactor are represented by and . in total. In emergency conditions when the PV system must be shut down. and . It should be pointed out that. JULY 2009 Fig. STRUCTURE OF THE PV SYSTEM Fig. hereafter referred to as the PV array. for the and are considered parts purpose of analysis in this paper. a small-signal model for the overall system consisting of the PV system. However. three-phase PV system. respectively. this. function of the temperature. NO. and the shunt capacitors and . 3. and a three-phase interface reactor. respectively. Single-line schematic diagram of a single-stage photovoltaic (PV) system interfaced with a distribution network. the former is an integral component of the VSC ﬁlter. III. VOL. and prevents them from penetrating into the distribution network. The array of PV panels. and represent the real. and the load(s) is developed and veriﬁed. LARGE-SIGNAL MODEL A. Section VI concludes this paper. the distribution network is referred to as the composition of a distribution . Section II introduces the structure of the single-stage. The PV array is corresponds to connected in parallel to the dc-link capacitor and the dc-side terminals of the VSC. to ensure an adequately large dc voltage. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. respectively. is the junction temperature (in Kelvin). The main building blocks of the PV system are an array of PV panels. 24. The VSC is controlled based on the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) strategy. of the distribution network. II. and is . The interface reactor connects the ac-side terminals of the VSC to the corresponding phases of the PCC. also includes the resistance of the VSC valves. single-stage PV system interfaced with a distribution network at the point of common coupling (PCC). PV System Model The PV array is described by its current–voltage characteristic function. In Section V. Similarly. The inductance and resistance of the distribution line segment between the PCC and and . The high-voltage side of provides a low-impedance uration and is solidly grounded. is composed of the parallel connecstrings of panels to ensure adequately large power. the distribution network. the distribution network is supplied by a utility substation which is represented by the voltage source .a the short-circuit current of one string of the PV panels. In tion of turn. In this paper.1540 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. As Fig. Section V also presents the result of a modal analysis carried out on the linearized model of the overall system.

the power delivered by the PV array (i. the If . one deduces where the PV system ac-side current and the load current act as exogenous inputs to the distribution network subsystem. in turn.. The aforethis voltage. the real component of the VSC ac-side and the real terminal power. Distribution Network Model .e. Substituting for (9) in (8). it is assumed that is a balanced three-phase and . can be controlled/maxmentioned behavior suggests that imized by the control of . that is. is the summation of power absorbed by the interface reactor [30]. is the consystem in which and are the exogenous inputs. 2 illustrates the variations of as a function of . Based on ) is (1).YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1541 Equation (7) suggests that and. can be controlled by the VSC ac-side current . . . due to the nonlinear deon (see (3) and Fig. as (4) denotes the power delivered to the VSC dc side (see where can be assumed to Fig. ence of the terms The dynamics of the VSC ac-side current are described by the following space-phasor equation: (8) . balanced loads—an asyncircuit. as discussed in the next subsection. Thus (12) (13) (5) (14) where denotes the space-phasor representation of a threeand is deﬁned as [31] phase quantity (6) Substituting for from (5) in (4). Dynamics of the dc-link voltage are described. and itself is a state variable of the distribution network noted that system. based on the principle of power balance. 2 shows that for a is zero at but increases given irradiation level. 2) as well as the prespendence of Fig. and are chosen as the state variables. This is referred to as the “maximum-power-point tracking” (MPPT) in the technical literature [6]. In (14). Ignoring the VSC power loss. . It should be trol input. this trend continues only up to as reaches a peak value. and is a temperature coefﬁcient. for different levels of the solar irradiation. the VSC ac-side terminal voltage can be controlled as (3) (9) represents the space-phasor corresponding to the where PWM modulating signals which are normalized to the peak from value of the triangular carrier signal. It should also be noted that (7) represents a nonlinear dynamic system. that is. C. be equal to . beyond a certain voltage at which decreases with the increase of . thus. However. . expressed as Fig. Fig. Power-voltage characteristic curve of a PV array. and . revoltage whose amplitude and phase angle are spectively. 1). a series . Load Model (7) Three types of three-phase. one deduces (10) Equations (7) and (10) constitute a state-space model for the PV and are the state variables. following state-space model can be derived for the distribution network: (11) irradiation level. B. is increased. 2. and a thyristor-bridge chronous machine.

The limits on the dc-link voltage ensure proper and safe operation of the is delivered to a -frame VSC. This objective is fulﬁlled by is ﬁrst resolved means of the PLLs of Fig. as (17) (26) (27) (28) (29) . A. the three-phase signals vary with time at the grid frequency . The unity power-factor operation also results in a minimized magnitude for the VSC line current. which is not presented here for space limitations. one Therefore. ). The feedforward compensation counteracts the command destabilizing and nonlinear characteristic of the PV array and enhances the PV system stability. if 0. The current-control scheme also forces to track is proportional to It is also discussed in Section IV-A that . The control current-control scheme that forces to track of enables the control of and . JULY 2009 rectiﬁer are considered in this paper. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) For analysis and control purposes. and the load are projected on a -frame. VOL. Block diagram of a phase-locked loop (PLL). A space-phasor model of an asynchronous machine can be found in [31] or [32]. PV SYSTEM CONTROL For the PV system of Fig. 3. through minor algebra. 24. must include at least one integrator (i. the distribution network. Details of the aforementioned three control schemes are discussed in the following subsections. and then is processed by the compensator to determine . The space phasor to the -frame transformation is deﬁned as (18) In the system of Fig. Thus. in which into the . 1. If the two state variables and are deﬁned as (20) (21) then. In a is forced to zero while becomes equal to . 3. and the controllers process dc equivalents rather than original sinusoidally-varying signals and 2) the error between (the square of) the dc-link voltage and its corresponding reference whose output value is processed by the compensator is augmented by a feedforward signal to issue the current . faults. Therefore. as (19) where and and are the Laplace transforms of . Hence. pole at Let be a proportional-integral (PI) compensator cascaded with a ﬁrst-order. [33]. becomes zero in the steady state and the PV system exhibits a unity power factor to the distribution network. 1. A saturation block to protect the VSC against overload and external limits . This is achieved by replacing each space phasor by its -frame equivalent. 1 indicates that: 1) the VSC PWM and control are synchronized to the network voltage through a phase-locked loop (PLL) [33]. IV. low-pass transfer-function. the -frame variables become time invariant (in a steady state) if the -frame angular velocity is made to be equal to . respectively. in view of (17). The model can be expressed in the standard state-space form. The procedures to derive the state-space models of load and the rectiﬁer load are presented in detail in the Appendix A.e. steady state. the three-phase ac signals are transformed into proper -frame counterparts. the following state-space model can be formulated for the PLL: (22) (23) (24) where (25) (16) where is the -frame angular speed. Fig. for a given real-power ﬂow. NO. The dc-link voltage reference is usually obtained from an MPPT scheme and is permitted to vary from a lower limit to an upper limit.1542 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. space-phasor variables in the models of the PV system.and the -axis components. as (15) If represents a state variable. the main control objective is to regulate the dc-link voltage to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. based on (18). is calculated as Fig. 3. and 3) the command .

The current-control strategy also commands enhances protection of the VSC against overload and external and are limited.. Fig.e. is controlled to regulate the dc-link voltage and to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. compensator is the output of another compensator that Similarly. as illustrated in Fig. Thus (38) (32) (33) In (32) and (33). 4(a)]. In this section. 1. and the gating pulses for the VSC valves are sent out. and are the state variables and the outputs. processes . To decouple and linearize the dynamics. linear. Due to the factor coupled and nonlinear. the control of boils down to the control of . Similarly. If (39) (40) . and the outputs are and . Substituting where and in (32) and (33). Consequently. (b) DC-link voltage-control scheme. Let (31) Thus. a realization of (34) and (35)]. which the inputs are and . VSC Current Control and was explained in SecThe need for controlling tion IV-A. 4(a) shows that the control signal is the output of a . It should be noted that to produce and . Block diagrams of (a) dq -frame current-control scheme. As indicated in (7). decoupled. the factor is employed as a feedforward signal .. respectively. 4. B. processing the error signal . can be regulated by to adjust the power factor that the PV system exhibits to the distribution network. The to decouple the dynamics of and from those of PWM modulating signals are generated by transformation of and into . a current-control scheme is devised to ensure that and rapidly track their respective reference and . where and are the proportional and integral gains. from (34) and (35). 4(a) illustrates a block diagram of the -frame current-control scheme [i.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1543 Fig. the state variables are . and can also be identical. the expression for is simpliﬁed to and are two new control inputs [34]. . . and are the control inputs. respecand are selected as tively. and and are the distur. one deduces (36) (37) Equations (36) and (37) represent two. Fig. at zero also has the effect that the Regulation of expression for the PV system real-power output (i. provided that The current-control scheme is designed based on (32) and (33) which are the -frame equivalents to (10). the dynamics of and are bance inputs. Since the control plants of (36) and (37) are identical. and [not shown in Fig. faults. ) is simpliﬁed to and are determined based on the following control laws: (34) (35) (30) Equation (30) indicates that is proportional to and can be controlled by . ﬁrst-order systems in which and can be controlled by and .e. Equations (22)–(24) introduce the PLL as a dynamic system of and . respectively.

represent the power absorbed by the inductance and the resistance of the VSC interface reactor. an eigenvalue analysis is carried out on a linearized state-space model of the overall system. Therefore. The control plant and is a nonlinear of (43) is nonlinear since 1) . The linearized models of the aforementioned subsystems are discussed next. A. based on the model also introduces a nonlinearity. and the effective control plant becomes an integrator. It is noted that if to is composed of an inteeffective control plant from grator cascaded with the ﬁrst-order transfer-function . C. and is a gain which can be where is calculated from the product unity or zero. V. 4(b) illustrates a block diagram of the dc-link voltage1.g. signiﬁcant since practically is the output of a compensator as (46) where the error signal is . The third and fourth terms. and considis regulated at zero by the PLL. 24. the bandwidth of the closed current-control loop) is considerably (e. 3. respectively. the current-control scheme. whereas low-pass transfer function. For the purposes of modeling and analysis.1544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. the proportional and inteﬁlter. The linear model parameters are functions of the steady-state operating point of the system. Equation (46) represents a PI compensator cascaded with a ﬁrst-order low-pass and are. In (43).. A linearized model of the converter . the system of Fig. JULY 2009 then the closed-loop transfer functions of the . Linearized Model (43) Equation (43) represents a control plant whose input is . STABILITY ANALYSIS (42) In (42). In this paper. VOL. the following control law is adopted for (44) is a new control input. the impact of the PV array characteristic on the dc-link voltage control is eliminated. and . Fig. a reduced-order ering that model is obtained for the dc-link voltage dynamics as To evaluate the stability of the PV system under the proposed control strategy and to investigate the potential for interactions between the PV system and the distribution network/load. and is the output delivered to the distribution network subsystem. respectively. 2) the converter subsystem. The substitution of from (44) in (43) yields (45) Equation (45) indicates that if 1. of and . and 4) the load subsystem. is equal to 0. ten times) smaller than the VSC switching frequency (in radians per second). 3) the distribution network subsystem. . and the dc-link voltage regulator. Ignoring the third and fourth terms of (42). It is noted that the foregoing control method renders the dynamics . the control scheme described before. NO. is the output delivered to the distribution network and load subsystems. of and decoupled from those of . is the state variable as well as the output is an exogenous input (disturbance). assuming that the time-constant in (41) is so small that holds. The subsystems are: 1) the PLL subsystem. DC-Link Voltage Control The DC-link voltage is controlled by of (7) whose -frame equivalent is . the ﬁrst and second terms represent the (real) power delivered by the PV array and the PV system. its impact is inproduct is a relatively constant variable. Although the 1) Linearized Model of the PLL Subsystem: The PLL subsystem is described by (22)–(24) which are linear. To mitigate the impact of nonlinearities on : the control. the method of “symmetrical optimum” provides a systematic tool for calculating the parameters of a PI compensator [32] and is utilized in this paper.e.and -axis current controllers assume the ﬁrst-order form (41) where the time-constant should be made small for a fast current-control response. 1 is divided into four subsystems. the VSC in conjunction with the dc-link capacitor and the interface reactor. but adequately large so that (i. respectively. For such a plant. 2) Linearized Model of the Converter Subsystem: The converter subsystem is referred to as the composition of the PV array.5 ms. is the pole of the gral gains of the PI compensator. the linearized model of the PLL subsystem also preserves the forms of (22)–(24) as (47) (48) (49) where (50) Equations (47)–(49) describe the PLL as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. and 2) itself is a nonlinear function of the function of state-variable .

.0 kV and zero. Therefore. the entries of the corresponding matrix are zero for the series – load. 4) Linearized Model of the Load Subsystem: In this paper. 1) Case 1: DC-Link Voltage Step Response: Initially. (44). three types of loads are studied: a squirrel-cage asynchronous branch [Fig. a detailed switched model of the system of Fig. 1 is simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment [35]. the linearized model of a load can be expressed in the following generic form: (58) (59) have different entries and diwhere . The system parameters are given in Appendix B. while and are the outputs delivered to the distribution network subsystem. the linearized model of (60) is employed in conjunction with a sensitivity analysis to characterize the dynamics of the overall system under the proposed control strategy. respectively. . respectively. Equations (51) and (52) constitute a linearized model for the and converter subsystem. and puts delivered to the PLL and converter subsystems. does not appear in the linearized model of the rectiﬁer load. 12(a)]. The steady-state value of the phase angle (i. . Consequently. 12(b)]. ) is determined by the real. the are zero for the rectiﬁer load. On the other hand. for example . a series bridge rectiﬁer [Fig. described by (60)–(62). The process yields (60) where is the number of the load state variables. and is the input obtained from the PLL and are the outputs delivsubsystem. (54)–(57). and (61) An output of interest. On the other hand. The switched model is also used to verify the linearized model of the overall system. (42). can be calculated by (62) where is the corresponding output matrix. load subsystem. 5) Linearized Model of the Overall System: A linearized model of the system of Fig. Based on the large-signal models of the foregoing loads. and a thyristormachine. It should be noted that represents the perturbation of the phase angle of relative to that of the grid voltage . The model is derived by substituting for the output(s) of a subsystem in the relevant input(s) of another subsystem. the series – load does not have such a control input. the system of Fig. representing the mechanical torque and the ﬁring angle. Similarly. and mensions depending on the load type. and are the outdelivered to the load subsystem. and (58) and (59). which is implemented in Matlab/Simulink.e. The process yields (51) (52) where (53) In (53). and are the state variables of the compensator .YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1545 subsystem is developed based on (3). and and are the inputs obtained from the and are the outputs PLL subsystem. In Section V-C. The following subsections report the results of a number of case studies. ered to the distribution network subsystem.. and (46). However. (51)–(53). Model Validation and Performance Evaluation To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. 1 is developed based on (47)–(50). a linearized model for the distribution network assumes the form (54) (55) (56) where (57) Equations (54)–(56) describe the distribution network as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the conand are the inputs obtained from the verter subsystem. and the reference comand are set to 1. mands The feedforward compensation of the dc-link voltage controller . B. entries of Equations (58) and (59) describe the load as a subsystem for and are the inputs obtained from the distribution which network subsystem. The equations indicate that are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. is the load-free control input of the asynchronous machine load and the rectiﬁer load. . 1 is in a steady state. 3) Linearized Model of the Distribution Network Subsystem: Based on (11)–(14). (41).and reactive-power ﬂow of the system.

NO.9-Hz oscillatory mode. for example.e. 7(a) and (b) shows the oscillations of and feedforward compensation is inactive. shown in Fig. only the dominant (electrical) eigenvalues are included. For the analysis. the dc-link voltage settles at 1.e. 5 illustrate the responses obtained from the linearized and the switched models. As observed from Fig. An asynchronous machine is connected to the middle of the distribution line. This is in close agreement with the response obtained from the switched model. The ﬁndings indicated that under the proposed control strategy. Table I summarizes the essence of the system dynamic properties. when the Fig. all three types of load introduced in Section V-A4 were tested and different network/load parameters were changed. Table I shows the eight eigenvalues of the PV system. in a mode corresponding Participation of a state variable to is calculated from [36] (63) and signify the th elements of the vectors where . 6(a) shows. nature of interactions between the PV system dynamics and those of the network/loads. Modal Analysis To characterize dynamics of the PV system of Fig. to identify the Fig. the ) under solutions of the condition that the feedforward compensation is enabled.5. The machine is used as a generator with a mechanical torque of 0. Table I also includes the state variables of the overall system as well as a measure of the participation of each state variable in the eigenmodes corresponding to the eigenvalues. and and are. 6. the system operates under the same conditions as those 1. 5. erence value and settles in less than 0. Fig. and 1.6 Hz. JULY 2009 Fig. 6(a) illustrates the to the disturbance when the feedforward comresponse of tracks its refpensation is in service.1 s. Fig. It is observed that subsecompensation is disabled (i. At kV. of Case 1. The oscillations penthe same frequency as those of and etrate into the distribution network and affect the asynchronous machine speed. disturbance. as shown in Fig.. This indicates the need for the proposed feedforward compensation scheme.e. On the other hand. ). 7. 7(c) illustrates that the angular speed of the -frame (i. For the network and the load. the PV system possesses similar dynamic properties irrespective of the load type.1 kV).5. with the exception that is reduced stepwise to 1. and 1. asynchronous machine to represent a distributed generator. For this case. 6(b). 0.. only the results of the asynchronous machine case are reported in what follows. PV system oscillations due to feedforward disablement.u.. Step responses of the dc-link voltage obtained from (a) the linearized model and (b) the switched model. In order for the line (i. of about 15.7 p. a constant-speed wind s.e.1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Therefore.. 5 illustrates the response of the dc-link voltage to the 0.. Fig. Step responses of the dc-link voltage when (a) feedforward compensation is enabled and (b) feedforward compensation is disabled. ) also oscillates with . eigenvalue analysis is carried out on the linearized model of (60).e. 5. respectively .0. starts to oscillate with a frequency quent to the disturbance. when the feedforward Fig. Table I includes the eigenvalues of the overall system (i. 2) Case 2: Effectiveness of Feedforward Compensation: In this case. 6(b) illustrates the response of ). 7(d). Fig. 1.71 p. 5 demonstrates the close agreement between the linearized model and the switched model. VOL.1.1 kV in less than 0.1 turbine. is subjected to a step change to 1. 3.1 kV. its torque is set to the negative value of 0. . The eigenvalues are calculated for the case that the asynchronous machine load is connected to the middle of a 15-km distribution 0. and to determine the robustness of the proposed control against variations in various parameters. to emulate a neighboring DG unit. 24. of which the ﬁrst ﬁve correspond to the converter subsystem. C. whereas the other three are due to the PLL subsystem. respectively. which may excite the torsional modes of the mechanical load. 1 under the proposed control strategy of Section IV. At s.1 s. As Fig. an eigenvalue analysis on (60) reveals the existence of a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues of which the imaginary part corresponds to a at 15. for three irradiation levels of Columns (a) and (b) of Fig. is also enabled (i.015 kV. Fig.u.

It should be also represents the sensitivity of the eigenvalue noted that to the element of the system matrix [37]. however.e. the other eigenvalues are almost ﬁxed.e. 9 illustrates the movements of the network eigenvalues . Hence. in turn.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1547 TABLE I OVERALL SYSTEM EIGENVALUES AND STATES PARTICIPATION FACTORS. 8–11 illustrate the patterns of variation of the real parts of the system eigenvalues. Thus.e. Fig. the participation of the network and load-state variables in those eigenmodes is insigniﬁcant. and any relative participation smaller than 0. However. the line length varying from 5 to 40 km. tested. . the is reported in Table I rather than .5 respectively. d = 0. For this analysis. that correspond to the network and load subsystems of with ). 8 shows that the network eigenvalues approach the imaginary axis of the -plane as the distance between the load and the PV system increases. the right eigenvectors of and . This. a closer look at Table I further indicates that the eigenvalues of to ). is a complex number. Nonetheless. as a function of (i. X=R = 0:6.. Fig... if the eigenmodes of the PV system are stable by proper design of the controllers. and the eigenvalues with noticeable movement have been included in the plots. In general. The only exception which participates relatively actively is the network state in the eigenmode corresponding to . As Fig.001 is denoted by “ 0” in Table I.. and 2) is very far from the real part of imaginary axis of the -plane. = 1. Fig. are insensitive to those elements the PV system (i.e. 8. Pattern of variation for real part of the network eigenvalues as a function of the normalized load distance from the PV system. means that the PV system eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenmodes are weak functions of the network and load parameters. the network eigenmode becomes more stable. cannot cause any instability issues since 1) the change in the is less than 10%. the normalized load eigenvalues distance from the PV system). 8 illustrates the variation of the real part of the network . the relative participation of a state variable in an eigenmode is of prime interest here. This. Table I indicates that while the state variables of the PV system actively participate in the eigenmodes corresponding to to . Therefore. (i. Sensitivity Analysis Figs. corresponding to the eigenvalue . 9 indicates. all three types of load have been Fig. they do not become unstable as a result of variations in the network and load parameters. and the PV system eigenvalue ) as functions of (i. norm The values are rounded off to the thousandths place. whereas the PV system eigenvalue moves slightly to the right. the corresponding mode remains stable and fast. l = 15 km. D. since this mode is very far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. as functions of various parameters. signiﬁed by . in the eigenmode corresponding to The participation of cannot pose any instability complications.

Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line length. the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in the Fig. The effectiveness of the control strategy is veriﬁed through digital time-domain simulation studies conducted on a detailed switched model of the overall system. Patterns of variation for real parts of two PV system eigenvalues as functions of the irradiation level. PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line X=R Fig.1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 10 illustrates that the mode corresponding to the ratio inPV system eigenvalue becomes more stable as the creases. however. The proposed control strategy adopts an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage-control loop. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a ratio. dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network. 24. The results of the modal analysis conﬁrm that under the proposed control strategy. in turn. Moreover. to evaluate robustness of the controllers. . Schematic diagrams of (a) R–L load and (b) rectiﬁer load. Fig. In addition. Fig. JULY 2009 Fig. 9. In this case.. This paper proposes a feedforward compensation mechanism for the dc-link voltage-control loop to mitigate the impact of the nonlinear characteristic of the PV array. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables the control and/or maximization of the real-power output of the PV system. However. Thus. ) and the PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line ratio. the corresponding eigenmodes remain stable and very fast. only the PV system and are affected as changes. 11. are reldoes not destabilize the system. It is further demonstrated that the PV system dynamics are not inﬂuenced by the network dynamics. The current-control strategy permits dc-link voltage regulation and enables power-factor control. 11. Variation of the irradiation level exhibits no noticeable impact on the network and load eigenmodes. VOL. CONCLUSION This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage.e. three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. means that the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. and 2) their movement rate becomes smaller as the ratio increases. Furthermore. a modal/sensitivity analysis is conducted on a linearized model of the system to characterize the dynamic properties of the PV system. This. Fig. it is expected that the current-control strategy renders the PV system protected against external faults. 12. NO. 10. The impact of the solar irradiation level on the system eigenvalues is illustrated in Fig. VI. the current-control strategy signiﬁcantly decouples dynamics of the PV system from those of the distribution network and the loads. to permit the design and optimization of the dc-link voltage controller for a wide range of operating conditions. 10 shows the variations of the network eigenvalues (i. whereas the network modes exhibit opposite behavior. regardless of the irradiation level. the eigeneigenvalues values exhibit opposite patterns of variation. and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. The reasons are 1) atively far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. 3. The movement of the network eigenvalues to the right.

It then follows from the approximation of by its fundamental component that: (69) where is the magnitude of the space-phasor corresponding to the load (fundamental) current. The substitution of from (69) in (68). load type. Thus (64) 2) Thyristor Rectiﬁer Model: Fig. is so large that is essentially ripple free. It is now assumed that where ). and is the unit vector collinear with .e. and distance between the PV system and the loads. one ﬁnds stituting for .YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1549 TABLE II SYSTEM PARAMETERS inductor (load) current as the state variable. Sub- (67) An expression for the load current can be derived by using the principle of power balance. Thus. and simpliﬁcation of the result in view of yields line length. one can write (65) is the rectiﬁer dc-side voltage. Thus (68) The fundamental component of the phase current in a bridge rectiﬁer is delayed by the angle relative to the corresponding phase voltage [38]. line ratio. and is the magnitude of from (66) in (65). can be approximated by its averaged component. APPENDIX A MODELS OF LOADS 1) Series – Load Model: Fig.. – load. 12(a) illustrates the schematic diagram of a three-phase. Let us pick the (70) . 12(b) illustrates a schematic diagram of a thyristor-bridge rectiﬁer supplying a series. dc. as (66) where is the ﬁring angle. Picking the inductor current as the state variable. and the rectiﬁer operates in the continuous mode (i. – load.

K. A. Nov. [33] S.: Oxford Univ. Liserre.. and N. pp. 426–430..” IEEE Trans. Control of Electrical Drives. Van Thong. 1992. 3. Spain. Campen. Jun. pp. “Potential for electricity generation from emerging renewable sources in Canada. A. Transmission Distribution Conf. “Powerelectronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: A survey. G. “An analysis of the harmonics and power factor effects at a utility intertied photovoltaic system. H. pp. 431–438.” Inst. 4. Gonzalez-Espin. J. [16] J. 1994.” in Proc. Inst. pp. 21. IEEE Power Eng. Sep. L. Renew.” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. Gen. vol. Ind. Garcera. “SunSine300: Utility interactive ac module anti-islanding test results. Sep. Power Electron. pp. 2006. “Dynamic stability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems.. [27] E. Crossley. [3] J. General Meeting. Distrib. [2] M. Aalborg. 2001. Inﬁeld. vol.. vol.” presented at the IEEE/Power Eng. 2000. 1. Thomson and D. Energy Convers. 4. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf. London. 21. Norum. 2.” IEEE Trans. [11] G. E. M. 2004. Hussein.. 22.. Denmark. V. Sangswang.. “A single-stage three phase grid-connected photovoltaic system with modiﬁed MPPT method and reactive power compensation. J. 2004. Woyte. P. pp. Jan. Anwah. MB. Lopes and H. Sep. “Impact of widespread photovoltaics generation on distribution systems. vol. Jul. pp. pp. Aug. Schauder and H. Guisado. Distrib. 1989. “Performance of grid-connected photovoltaic systems on residences and commercial buildings in New England. Haeberlin.. 476–480. Z. [37] B. Bialasiewicz. I. L.. [26] S. Figueres.. R. NO. [31] P..” in Proc. Leon. 1982. Jan. C. [18] N.. I.” in Proc. Jun. and M. “A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules. J. 6 pages. [10] J. 3rd ed. 3. 322–328. 2006. Sun. 1265–1268. 2007.” IEEE Trans. Libo. 33–40.. 284–289.” in Proc. 1545–1548. pp.” Proc. 1. “Effect of pv grid-connected system location on a distribution system. A. Yoo. 19. Jan.” IEEE Trans. 6 pages. Belmans. “A phase tracking system for three phase utility interface inverters. vol. [25] O.. T. vol. Press. K. vol.” IEEE Trans. Winter Meeting. Power Gen. Kurokawa. Iravani. Gen. no. no. Conf. G. K. “The New England electric photovoltaic systems research and demonstration project. pp. vol. “Performance assessment of active frequency drifting islanding detection methods. Benhabib. Z. “Grid connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter with robust phase-locked loop (PLL). Sandia. Carrasco. Zheng. [17] M. vol. APPENDIX B SYSTEM PARAMETERS The system parameters are presented in Table II. pp. vol. and F.: Taylor & Francis. “Modeling and dynamic performance of a self-commutated photovoltaic inverter system. “Testing and islanding protection function of photovoltaic inverters. vol. 1–9. Nagasaka. “Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques. Soc. JULY 2009 Substituting for from (70) in (69). M. J. R. Bzura. 4. pp.. Eng. and J. 2006. Conf. Mar. and J. [19] A. Blaabjerg. Jun. Jeju.” presented at the Int. no. pp. [20] M. Wasynczuk and N. Jun. [7] H.” Proc. Electrical Power Quality and Utilization. Vector Control of AC Machines. Elect. [14] L. “Harmonic effects caused by large scale PV installations in LV network. M. Transm. “Modelling and control of a 100 kW photovoltaic inverter with an LCL grid ﬁlter for distributed power systems. Kjaer. pp. Abouzahr and R. 145–153. no. Wang. R. “Vector analysis and control of advanced static VAR compensators. no. “Maximum photovoltaic power tracking: An algorithm for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. pp. Circuit and Systems. A. 24. “The development of a scaled-down simulator for distribution grids and its application for veryfying interference behavior among a number of module integrated converters (MIC). Amartunga. vol. 2006. Mar. Expo. Pedersen. Oprisan and S. 1. Peng. Myrzik. no. [30] A.. and F. J. May 2002. and J. China. 2000. and D. Jan. 22. Lin. Winnipeg. pp. Duarte. Energy Convers.” in Proc. Woyte. and L. Distributed Power Generation: Planning and Evaluation.. vol. REFERENCES [1] H. 21. IEEE Asia Paciﬁc Conf. 2007. Esram and P. Power App. [15] G. Sulkowski. Hoshino. vol. Energy Convers. R. 2006. Energy Convers. 1586–1593. Dec.K. “Harmonic interaction between a large number of distributed power inverters and the distribution network. 263–272. Porter and T. Wang. J. [24] T. M. and F. Inst. vol. 1995. 1997. May 2006. Huang. Kern. 8. G. J.” IEEE Trans. 1. Soc. 3. NJ: PrenticeHall. Nijs. [5] I.” in Proc. 12. 2006. no... 2007. Korea. [28] W.” IEEE Trans. Heskes. no. Kundur. Srisaen and A. 7. Osakada. [8] S. 299–306. no. no. 4.. Galvan. 434–449. Power Electronics and Applications. L. and C. Ramakumar. 5. Noda. 2. Venezuela. J. 2006. “Evolution of inverters for grid connected PV systems from 1989 to 2000. and L. 1292–1306.. 41. Chung. IEEE Int. Eng. Conf. J. Eng. Oxford. Mar. 140. Energy Convers. pp.” IEEE Trans. pp. one deduces (71) Equations (67) and (71) constitute a state-space model for the thyristor-bridge rectiﬁer load. Technol. pp.” in Proc. 21. Chapman.” IEEE Trans. vol. vol. [34] C. 2193–2199. J. Scott. Vas. Bzura. Rodriguez and G. 1. 2006. [4] J. “Study on pwm control strategy of photovoltaic grid-connected generation system. pp. . 1990. 2001. [23] B. Aug. 881–886. no. Muta. [13] A. “Voltage ﬂuctuations on distribution level introduced by photovoltaic systems. Enslin and P.. Moreno-Alfonso.” IEEE Trans. 4. Mehta. Jianzheng. Eur. 3. Canada. C. R. 171–180. J. [35] PSCAD/EMTDC v. pp.. 1972. U. Leonhard. Wang and Y. no. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf. IEEE EIC Climate Change Technology Conf. Dec. 202–209. Zhengming.. Koizumi. Shanghai. Thorborg. Jun. T. Franquelo. G. K. Power Electron. vol. Prats. 852–855. 2. L. 157–162. L. New York: Springer. Electron. Energy Convers.. F. Mizuno. H. 79–82. Power Del. no. and K. A.” IEEE Trans. 185–193. [32] W. 2006. Syst. Transm. no. PAS 101.2 Manitoba HVDC Research Centre. W. 59–64. 1988. Teodorescue. Barcelona. [36] P. no. Mar. 1993. Ind./Oct. New York: Marcel Dekker. Nijs. 1. 1. vol. Blaabjerg. 4632–4639. [38] K. Mar.. [22] M. Power System Stability and Control. Wang. 1. P. 1002–1016. Ostrem. Dec. Energy Convers. no. [29] K.” IEEE Trans.. Energy Convers. Upper Saddle River. [12] Y. M. “Stability of photovoltaic and wind turbine grid-connected inverters for a large set of grid impedance values. Power Electronics and Motion Control. Elect. [6] T. Ge. Pneumaticos. Oct. C. pp. “An accurate model for the dc-side voltage control of the neutral point diode clamped converter. New York: McGrawHill. 1990. U. vol. B. 18. 2007. Belmans. IEEE Power Eng. 6. Appl. pp. vol. T.” presented at the Power Electronics Specialist Conf. no. J.” IEEE Trans.1550 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Modal Control: Theory and Applications. H. 5. “Survey of the power conditioning system for PV power generation.. Energy Convers.” in Proc. 53..” IEEE Trans. 2. Caracas. E. 15. Yazdani and R. 1. no. pp. vol. Power Electronics.” IEEE Trans. 2005. 1993.. [21] L. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. “An approach to assess the performance of utility-interactive photovoltaic systems. 2003. Soc. R.” in Proc. 2007. May 2000. “Dynamic stability analysis of photovoltaic array connected to a large utility grid. [9] Y.. pp. L. pp. Willis and W. 142. Aug. no. VOL. 1.

YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1551 Amirnaser Yazdani (S’02–M’05) received the Ph. Toronto. Currently. he is an Assistant Professor with the University of Western Ontario (UWO). degree in electrical engineering from the University of Toronto.E.D. distributed generation. Rourkela. ON. ON. and power systems.Sc. and microgrids. renewable energy. Canada. His research interests include modeling and control of switching power converters. London. She joined the University of Western Ontario. Rourkela. Canada. London. Prajna Paramita Dash (S’08) received the B.. in 2007. degree in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Technology. in 2005. . ON. degree. Her research interests include distributed generation. India. Mississauga. He was with Digital Predictive Systems (DPS) Inc. where she is currently pursuing the M.Sc. Canada.

- Photovoltaic System with Voltage-based - 2010aragube
- Production Modelling Grid-Tied PV Systemshimadri.banerji60
- mi2013dinukaee
- 5kante-131210zxxomairakhtar12345
- Grid Connected SystemsSantosh Ramana Kumar Joga
- 3 Design of Grid Connect PVRaja Sekhar Batchu
- lectura1.mppt_salasanilmendru
- 1361731111.5907Photovoltaic DC-DC Converter ForMuammar Zainuddin
- ICGET 16pat
- PaperHari Prasad
- test.pdfMithunM
- Brochure Pvsol EnglishShahid Siddique
- Pumping Water for Irrigation Using Solar Energyalvaro562003
- SaP1C-04Sherif M. Dabour
- Sample PvSys Design With SolutionAaditya Shah
- Proceeding With My Paper 3 PageAmar Adiya
- Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Rebate Program - Energy Services - Redding Electric Utility (REU)Genability
- ENGİN KARATEPE Presentation Afyon Winter School 2015angarali26
- 100813107_hgSyahdan Ali
- PV Value v1 1 User ManualGanesh Ayer
- fuqing-self-200908-13Abdullrahman Al-Shammaa
- Ref_Freefield_Solarpowerplant_Hungenjhpatel
- RE Incentive Application 2009sandyolkowski
- report on pv projectBrzata Ptica
- Photovoltaic (PV) System Designaceofkai
- India Solar EPC Blueprint - Preview copy.pdfpramods_8
- 3A- Solar Power.pdfTamer El
- guia de sistema fotovoltaico.pdfelectron84
- CEC Installation Guidetest123y
- A High-resolution Determination of the Technical Potential for Residential-roof-mounted Photovoltaic Systems in Germanymiguelon_1969

- Renewable RebatesGenability
- Selling Solar: Lessons From More than a Decade of IFC's Experiences (September 2007)IFC Sustainability
- UntitledGenability
- State-of-California-Incentive-Area-New-Solar-Home-PartnershipGenability
- Utah Administrative CodeGenability
- Growth of Solar Power Technologies in MalaysiaAsian Development Bank
- Utility Scale Solar Power Plants: A Guide for Developers and InvestorsIFC Sustainability
- City of Lodi - Residential Solar/Photovoltaic RebatesGenability
- Portland-General-Electric-Co-Photovoltaic-Volumetric-Incentive-Rate-Pilot-Large-Systems-(Greater-than-100-Kw-to-500-Kw)Genability
- tmp51A4.tmpFrontiers
- State-of-California-Incentive-Area-New-Solar-Home-PartnershipGenability
- Gulf Power - Solar PV RebateGenability
- Modesto-Irrigation-District-Solar-Photovoltaic-(PV)-Incentive-ProgramsGenability
- Renewable Energy IncentivesGenability
- City-of-Owatonna-Solar-Conserve-and-SaveGenability
- Austin-Energy-Residential-Solar-PV-Incetive-Program-GuidelinesGenability
- Hubble Facts the Power Control Unit (PCU)Bob Andrepont
- New-Braunfels-Utilities-Commercial-Solar-RebateGenability
- Solar Powered Borehole PumpsOxfam
- Rooftop PV Feasibility In Developing Cities In India - A Case StudyInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Tmp 9967Frontiers
- El-Paso-Electric-Co-Solar-PV-Pilot-ProgramGenability
- PG&E ELEC_SCHEDS_E-19 October 1, 2016Genability
- Recommendations for the Development of Alternative Power Generation in Rural Areas of Tyva RepublicOxfam
- Solar Powered Borehole PumpsOxfam
- City-of-Alameda-D-2-Multi-Family-Residential-ServiceGenability
- AEP-Texas-Central-Company-SMART-SourceSM-Solar-PV-ProgramGenability
- Emerald People's Utility Dist - 2016 Renewable Energy ProgramsGenability
- UntitledGenability
- Recommendations for the Development of Alternative Power Generation in Rural Areas of Tyva RepublicOxfam

- State Magazine, April 2010State Magazine
- The Landscape of EnergyPost Carbon Institute
- SENATE HEARING, 109TH CONGRESS - DEVELOPMENTS IN NANOTECHNOLOGYScribd Government Docs
- Rooftop PV Feasibility In Developing Cities In India - A Case StudyInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Shining Cities ReportMichael_Lee_Roberts
- Commercial Solar RebateGenability
- Utility Scale Solar Power Plants: A Guide for Developers and InvestorsIFC Sustainability
- Santa Fe Real Estate Guide December 2010Santa Fe New Mexican
- Portland-General-Electric-Co-Photovoltaic-Volumetric-Incentive-Rate-Pilot-Large-Systems-(Greater-than-100-Kw-to-500-Kw)Genability
- tmp51A4.tmpFrontiers
- HOUSE HEARING, 108TH CONGRESS - THE IMPACT OF FEDERAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY R&D PROGRAMSScribd Government Docs
- 09 AWEA Small Wind Global Market StudyTheBusinessInsider
- Sacramento-Municipal-Util-Dist-NM-Net-Metering-for-Qualifying-FacilitiesGenability
- tmp2C23Frontiers
- Portland-General-Electric-Co-Photovoltaic-Volumetric-Incentive-Rate-Pilot-Smaller-Systems-(100-Kw-or-Less)Genability
- As NZS 5033-2005 Installation of Photovoltaic (PV) ArraysSAI Global - APAC
- Colorado-Springs-Utilities-Commercial-Solar-Photovoltaics-RebateGenability
- Austin-Energy-Residential-Solar-PV-Incetive-Program-GuidelinesGenability
- Photovoltaic Device Review on the Evolution, Efficiency and Future GrowthInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Modesto Irrigation Distric - Solar Photovoltaic Program 2015Genability
- Electrical-Dist-No3-Pinal-Cnty-Solar-Program---Capital-Incentive---Residential-/Small-General-ServiceGenability
- Solar Powered SatellitesAviation/Space History Library
- Gulf Power - Solar PV RebateGenability
- Conserve and SaveGenability
- Solyndra CRO Report FinalFortune
- GVEC - Solar PV Electrical System RebateGenability
- Modesto-Irrigation-District-Solar-Photovoltaic-(PV)-Incentive-ProgramsGenability
- City-of-Owatonna-Solar-Conserve-and-SaveGenability
- HOUSE HEARING, 109TH CONGRESS - WINNING TEAMS AND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FROM THE 2005 SOLAR DECATHLONScribd Government Docs
- Solar Powered SatellitesAviation/Space History Library

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading