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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, JULY 2009

A Control Methodology and Characterization of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System Interfaced With a Distribution Network
Amirnaser Yazdani, Member, IEEE, and Prajna Paramita Dash, Student Member, IEEE
Abstract—This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage, three-phase, photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. The control is based on an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage regulator. The current-control mechanism decouples the PV system dynamics from those of the network and the loads. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables control and maximization of the real power output. Proper feedforward actions are proposed for the current-control loop to make its dynamics independent of those of the rest of the system. Further, a feedforward compensation mechanism is proposed for the dc-link voltage-control loop, to make the PV system dynamics immune to the PV array nonlinear characteristic. This, in turn, permits the design and optimization of the PV system controllers for a wide range of operating conditions. A modal/sensitivity analysis is also conducted on a linearized model of the overall system, to characterize dynamic properties of the system, to evaluate robustness of the controllers, and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. The results of the modal analysis confirm that under the proposed control strategy, dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network and, therefore, the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. It is also shown that the PV system dynamics are not influenced by those of the network (i.e., the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in ratio, load type, and load distance from the line length, line the PV system). Index Terms—Control, eigenvalue analysis, feedforward, modal analysis, participation factor, photovoltaic (PV), power electronics, voltage-source converter (VSC).

VSC ac-side current. Distribution line current between the PCC and load. Distribution line current between the load and substation. Load current. PV array current. PV array power. Real power output of the PV system at PCC. Reactive power output of the PV system at PCC. Interface transformer turns ratio. Inductance of the VSC interface reactor. Resistance of the VSC interface reactor. Line inductance between the PCC and load. Line inductance between the load and substation. Line resistance between the PCC and load. Line resistance between the load and substation. Line length. Load distance from the PV system, normalized to line length. DC-link capacitance. Shunt capacitance at PCC; VSC filter capacitance. Load power-factor correction capacitance. -frame angular speed. Grid nominal frequency (e.g., 377 rad/s). -frame reference angle. Real part of. Imaginary part of. Superscript denoting small-signal perturbation of a variable. “0” Subscript denoting the steady-state value of a variable.

NOMENCLATURE VSC ac-side terminal voltage. VSC-filtered voltage; PCC voltage. Load voltage. Substation (grid) bus voltage. DC-link (PV array) voltage.
Manuscript received May 16, 2008; revised December 01, 2008. First published May 12, 2009; current version published June 24, 2009. This work was supported in part by the Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE), in part by Dolway Solar Power, Inc. under Grant IA-E-90390-07, and in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Paper no. TPWRD-00365-2008. The authors are with the University of Western Ontario, London, ON NGA 5B9, Canada (e-mail: ayazdani@eng.uwo.ca; pdash@uwo.ca). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2016632

0885-8977/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

and environmental benefits [1]. . dynamic properties. the distribution line and loads are not modeled. and load types/parameters are demonstrated through nonlinear. Dynamic stability of single-phase. and also renders the closed-loop eigenvalues of the PV system insensitive to solar irradiation and dc-link voltage levels. with an emphasis on the MPPT strategy rather than on the control or stability of the PV system. Reference [22] has studied the impact of grid impedance variations on the closed-loop stability of a single-phase PV system. However. stability. and its robustness against changes in the operating conditions. to eliminate the impact of the nonlinear characteristics of the PV panels on the closed-loop stability. mainly. The proposed feedforward compensation permits the design of the dc-link voltage controller irrespective of the PV system operating point. therefore. economical. Many previous works have investigated different aspects of PV systems. the modified current-control strategy virtually decouples the PV system from the distribution network and the loads. References [7]–[10] provide comprehensive surveys on different single-phase and three-phase converter circuits for PV applications. The majority of this body of the literature has focused on single-phase PV systems. and/or the control of three-phase. These PV systems are not even permitted to cause a reverse power flow. with an emphasis on their harmonic interactions with the distribution networks [15]–[17] and on their impact on the power quality (PQ) [18]–[20].or double-digit megawatt (MW) capacities have been connected to the power system. Moreover. distributed PV systems is investigated in [21] and [22]. In [28]. Among DG systems. which permits installation of relatively small-scale power generators at the medium-/low-voltage distribution levels of the power system. Complex frequency I. single-stage PV system has been studied. including the energy production and economics [3]–[5]. photovoltaic (PV) solar systems have attracted considerable investment in several countries [2]. a control design methodology to ensure the provision of adequate damping has been presented. Reference [26] identifies the control loops and the transfer functions of the PV system. three-phase PV system which is connected to a distribution network. So far. and they can be conveniently incorporated into time-domain power system simulation studies. on the other hand. such that significant penetration of the PV energy into distribution networks has already taken place in Europe. The scope of the reported works encompasses both large-scale and distributed PV systems. The proposed control strategy is based on a modified version of the conventional current-mode control and is used to 1) regulate the PV system power factor and 2) to control the converter dc-link voltage and. guarantees safe operation of the voltage-source converter (VSC) of the PV system. however. but does not report any analysis of the stability or interactions with the line/loads. however. not the case for large-scale PV systems which have considerably higher capacities and more sophisticated controls. The most widely addressed technical issue regarding PV systems is the so-called maximum power-point tracking (MPPT). the behavior of a three-phase.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1539 Superscript denoting the peak value of a three-phase variable. in view of the increasing market for multi-megawatt photvoltaic systems and in response to utility companies concerns about the impact of large-scale PV systems on the feeders/customers. This is. I transformer overload and feeder overvoltage issues. “ ” Superscript denoting the matrix transposition. through single. However. most PV systems mainly consist of rooftop installations with capacities of a few kilowatts which are unlikely to make an impression on the distribution networks and the loads. normalized to 1. transient performance. Reference [25] has elegantly developed a reduced-order model for a PV system. the PV system real-power output. and permits incorporation of an MPPT scheme. Recently. has gained widespread attention due to its technical. Superscript denoting the complex-conjugate of a space phasor. only a few previous works have investigated the control and stability aspects of PV systems. INTRODUCTION N recent years. A number of works have studied dynamic models. PV systems of single. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. This paper proposes an effective control strategy for a single-stage. with the consideration of PV systems as DG units. Reference [6] reviews 19 different MPPT methods introduced since 1968. with an emphasis on the impact of grid impedance on the closed-loop stability and not on the interaction between the PV system and the distribution network. the concept of distributed generation (DG). as analytically shown in this paper. research works also report the integration of islanding detection schemes into single-phase PV systems [11]–[14]. This paper also proposes a feedforward compensation strategy for the dc-link voltage-control loop. Reference [21] has conducted an eigenvalue analysis for a two-stage configuration. At the distribution voltage levels. and more penetration is anticipated worldwide. In addition to protecting the PV system against external faults. ensures stable operation of the PV system. through a dc-link voltage-control scheme. The dc-link voltage-control scheme. with the model of the dc cable between the two stages considered. and interactions with the network/loads of large-scale distributed PV systems seem to be timely and of importance. Solar irradiation level. investigations on the control. the model and the proposed controllers are based on the voltage-mode control strategy. Another widely addressed topic is that of power converter configurations and aggregation schemes for PV systems. time-domain simulations as well as a comprehensive modal analysis.and three-phase systems. Research has also dealt with . This paper. A number of works [26]–[28] have adopted the current-mode control strategy. a fair amount of the technical literature has dealt with the integration of PV systems into distribution networks. single-stage PV systems [25]–[28]. Reference [27] has adopted a similar analysis approach as in [26]. at the subtransmission voltage levels. distribution network parameters. does not provide a stability analysis or controller design methodology. In addition. Thus.0 kW/m .

of the distribution network.and reactive-power output that the PV system delivers to the distribution network. the distribution network is referred to as the composition of a distribution . series-connected PV cells. Fig. NO. this. 1. and prevents them from penetrating into the distribution network. 1 also includes a schematic diagram of the distribution network and an aggregate of loads. is composed of the parallel connecstrings of panels to ensure adequately large power. The high-voltage side of provides a low-impedance uration and is solidly grounded. The inductance and resistance of the distribution line segment between the PCC and and . In Section V. Single-line schematic diagram of a single-stage photovoltaic (PV) system interfaced with a distribution network. the transformer steps down the network voltage to a level suitable for the PV has a winding configsystem. As Fig. is Boltzman’s constant. a small-signal model for the overall system consisting of the PV system. In this paper. and the load are represented by also include the leakage inductance and the winding resistance . JULY 2009 Fig. and the load(s) is developed and verified. VOL. is the shortcircuit current of one PV cell at the reference temperature and where tion. practically. the breaker isolates the PV system from the distribution network. and a three-phase interface reactor. respectively. and is . the distribution network. and the shunt capacitors and .a the short-circuit current of one string of the PV panels. . single-stage PV system interfaced with a distribution network at the point of common coupling (PCC). Sections III and IV present a mathematical model and the controllers of the PV system. for the and are considered parts purpose of analysis in this paper. respectively. The VSC is controlled based on the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) strategy. respectively. The main building blocks of the PV system are an array of PV panels. the former is an integral component of the VSC filter. Section II introduces the structure of the single-stage. 3. whereas the latter represents the load power-factor correction capacitor. II. 1 shows a single-line schematic diagram of a three-phase. PV System Model The PV array is described by its current–voltage characteristic function. is the junction temperature (in Kelvin). 1 shows. function of the temperature. The resistance and inductance of the interface reactor are represented by and . a VSC. each string consists of a number of PV panels connected in series. Section VI concludes this paper. is a linear function of the solar irradiation level . The interface reactor connects the ac-side terminals of the VSC to the corresponding phases of the PCC. and represent the real. line. the distribution network is supplied by a utility substation which is represented by the voltage source . and . three-phase PV system. respectively. In tion of turn. In addition. Section V also presents the result of a modal analysis carried out on the linearized model of the overall system. It should be pointed out that. However. Similarly. also includes the resistance of the VSC valves. LARGE-SIGNAL MODEL A. as (2) where is the cell reference temperature. In emergency conditions when the PV system must be shut down. to ensure an adequately large dc voltage. The rest of this paper is organized as follows.1540 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. in total. a (three-phase) load is connected to the line at a location between the PCC and the substation. 24. path for the current harmonics generated by the PV system. The array of PV panels. as [29] (1) is the reverse saturation current of a juncis the unit electric charge. hereafter referred to as the PV array. III. STRUCTURE OF THE PV SYSTEM Fig. The PV array is corresponds to connected in parallel to the dc-link capacitor and the dc-side terminals of the VSC. repreof sent the inductance and resistance of the line segment between the load and the substation. is the ideality factor.

can be controlled/maxmentioned behavior suggests that imized by the control of . 2) as well as the prespendence of Fig. 2 illustrates the variations of as a function of . that is. This is referred to as the “maximum-power-point tracking” (MPPT) in the technical literature [6]. ence of the terms The dynamics of the VSC ac-side current are described by the following space-phasor equation: (8) . for different levels of the solar irradiation. The aforethis voltage. . is increased. B. . this trend continues only up to as reaches a peak value. 1). Thus (12) (13) (5) (14) where denotes the space-phasor representation of a threeand is defined as [31] phase quantity (6) Substituting for from (5) in (4). it is assumed that is a balanced three-phase and . in turn. as discussed in the next subsection. C. Dynamics of the dc-link voltage are described.. the VSC ac-side terminal voltage can be controlled as (3) (9) represents the space-phasor corresponding to the where PWM modulating signals which are normalized to the peak from value of the triangular carrier signal. However. Based on ) is (1). Power-voltage characteristic curve of a PV array. beyond a certain voltage at which decreases with the increase of . and itself is a state variable of the distribution network noted that system. . 2. the power delivered by the PV array (i. expressed as Fig. be equal to . and . and is a temperature coefficient. based on the principle of power balance. Fig. revoltage whose amplitude and phase angle are spectively. can be controlled by the VSC ac-side current . balanced loads—an asyncircuit. Ignoring the VSC power loss. Load Model (7) Three types of three-phase.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1541 Equation (7) suggests that and. and a thyristor-bridge chronous machine. one deduces where the PV system ac-side current and the load current act as exogenous inputs to the distribution network subsystem. and are chosen as the state variables. It should be trol input. due to the nonlinear deon (see (3) and Fig. Substituting for (9) in (8). In (14). a series . is the consystem in which and are the exogenous inputs. . one deduces (10) Equations (7) and (10) constitute a state-space model for the PV and are the state variables. following state-space model can be derived for the distribution network: (11) irradiation level. as (4) denotes the power delivered to the VSC dc side (see where can be assumed to Fig. 2 shows that for a is zero at but increases given irradiation level. is the summation of power absorbed by the interface reactor [30]. that is. the real component of the VSC ac-side and the real terminal power.e. thus. the If . Distribution Network Model . It should also be noted that (7) represents a nonlinear dynamic system.

1. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) For analysis and control purposes. space-phasor variables in the models of the PV system. A saturation block to protect the VSC against overload and external limits . and 3) the command . respectively. steady state. must include at least one integrator (i. The dc-link voltage reference is usually obtained from an MPPT scheme and is permitted to vary from a lower limit to an upper limit. Fig. NO. The model can be expressed in the standard state-space form. In a is forced to zero while becomes equal to . The procedures to derive the state-space models of load and the rectifier load are presented in detail in the Appendix A. as (19) where and and are the Laplace transforms of . 24. as (15) If represents a state variable. 1 indicates that: 1) the VSC PWM and control are synchronized to the network voltage through a phase-locked loop (PLL) [33]. IV. This objective is fulfilled by is first resolved means of the PLLs of Fig. If the two state variables and are defined as (20) (21) then. A space-phasor model of an asynchronous machine can be found in [31] or [32]. the three-phase ac signals are transformed into proper -frame counterparts. and then is processed by the compensator to determine . and the load are projected on a -frame. JULY 2009 rectifier are considered in this paper. becomes zero in the steady state and the PV system exhibits a unity power factor to the distribution network. low-pass transfer-function. ). 3.and the -axis components. for a given real-power flow. through minor algebra. Therefore. The control current-control scheme that forces to track of enables the control of and .1542 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Details of the aforementioned three control schemes are discussed in the following subsections. This is achieved by replacing each space phasor by its -frame equivalent. the main control objective is to regulate the dc-link voltage to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. as (17) (26) (27) (28) (29) . The unity power-factor operation also results in a minimized magnitude for the VSC line current. and the controllers process dc equivalents rather than original sinusoidally-varying signals and 2) the error between (the square of) the dc-link voltage and its corresponding reference whose output value is processed by the compensator is augmented by a feedforward signal to issue the current . one Therefore. pole at Let be a proportional-integral (PI) compensator cascaded with a first-order. in view of (17). based on (18). Thus. The space phasor to the -frame transformation is defined as (18) In the system of Fig. faults. [33]. is calculated as Fig. The current-control scheme also forces to track is proportional to It is also discussed in Section IV-A that . 1. A. in which into the . VOL.e. The limits on the dc-link voltage ensure proper and safe operation of the is delivered to a -frame VSC. the distribution network. the -frame variables become time invariant (in a steady state) if the -frame angular velocity is made to be equal to . Block diagram of a phase-locked loop (PLL). PV SYSTEM CONTROL For the PV system of Fig. which is not presented here for space limitations. 3. Hence. 3. if 0. the three-phase signals vary with time at the grid frequency . the following state-space model can be formulated for the PLL: (22) (23) (24) where (25) (16) where is the -frame angular speed. The feedforward compensation counteracts the command destabilizing and nonlinear characteristic of the PV array and enhances the PV system stability.

As indicated in (7). Fig.e. and are the state variables and the outputs.e. The current-control strategy also commands enhances protection of the VSC against overload and external and are limited. Due to the factor coupled and nonlinear. It should be noted that to produce and . Since the control plants of (36) and (37) are identical. VSC Current Control and was explained in SecThe need for controlling tion IV-A. To decouple and linearize the dynamics. the factor is employed as a feedforward signal . a realization of (34) and (35)]. provided that The current-control scheme is designed based on (32) and (33) which are the -frame equivalents to (10). and the outputs are and . compensator is the output of another compensator that Similarly. as illustrated in Fig. Thus (38) (32) (33) In (32) and (33). a current-control scheme is devised to ensure that and rapidly track their respective reference and . can be regulated by to adjust the power factor that the PV system exhibits to the distribution network. the state variables are . the dynamics of and are bance inputs. . 4(a) illustrates a block diagram of the -frame current-control scheme [i. and the gating pulses for the VSC valves are sent out. and are the control inputs. the control of boils down to the control of . Fig. and [not shown in Fig. the expression for is simplified to and are two new control inputs [34]. In this section. Consequently. B. and and are the distur. first-order systems in which and can be controlled by and . 4(a)]. ) is simplified to and are determined based on the following control laws: (34) (35) (30) Equation (30) indicates that is proportional to and can be controlled by . which the inputs are and . decoupled. is controlled to regulate the dc-link voltage and to control/maximize the power extracted from the PV array. from (34) and (35).YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1543 Fig.. and can also be identical. 4(a) shows that the control signal is the output of a . one deduces (36) (37) Equations (36) and (37) represent two. processes . 4. The to decouple the dynamics of and from those of PWM modulating signals are generated by transformation of and into . faults. If (39) (40) . Let (31) Thus. linear. Substituting where and in (32) and (33). respectively. Similarly. . where and are the proportional and integral gains.. Block diagrams of (a) dq -frame current-control scheme. 1. at zero also has the effect that the Regulation of expression for the PV system real-power output (i. processing the error signal . (b) DC-link voltage-control scheme. respectively. respecand are selected as tively. Equations (22)–(24) introduce the PLL as a dynamic system of and .

and the effective control plant becomes an integrator. and is the output delivered to the distribution network subsystem. represent the power absorbed by the inductance and the resistance of the VSC interface reactor. the method of “symmetrical optimum” provides a systematic tool for calculating the parameters of a PI compensator [32] and is utilized in this paper. the system of Fig. based on the model also introduces a nonlinearity. the following control law is adopted for (44) is a new control input. 2) Linearized Model of the Converter Subsystem: The converter subsystem is referred to as the composition of the PV array. and 4) the load subsystem. and considis regulated at zero by the PLL. The linear model parameters are functions of the steady-state operating point of the system. In this paper. but adequately large so that (i. and . Equation (46) represents a PI compensator cascaded with a first-order low-pass and are.5 ms. A. the linearized model of the PLL subsystem also preserves the forms of (22)–(24) as (47) (48) (49) where (50) Equations (47)–(49) describe the PLL as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. respectively. 1 is divided into four subsystems. Ignoring the third and fourth terms of (42). Fig. The linearized models of the aforementioned subsystems are discussed next. whereas low-pass transfer function. For such a plant. and the dc-link voltage regulator. is the pole of the gral gains of the PI compensator. is equal to 0. The third and fourth terms. NO. . JULY 2009 then the closed-loop transfer functions of the . For the purposes of modeling and analysis. It is noted that if to is composed of an inteeffective control plant from grator cascaded with the first-order transfer-function . of and decoupled from those of . C. A linearized model of the converter . Therefore. 24. In (43). VOL. Linearized Model (43) Equation (43) represents a control plant whose input is . its impact is inproduct is a relatively constant variable. The subsystems are: 1) the PLL subsystem. the first and second terms represent the (real) power delivered by the PV array and the PV system. assuming that the time-constant in (41) is so small that holds. the VSC in conjunction with the dc-link capacitor and the interface reactor.1544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. V. 2) the converter subsystem. the control scheme described before.. is the output delivered to the distribution network and load subsystems. The control plant and is a nonlinear of (43) is nonlinear since 1) . 3. is the state variable as well as the output is an exogenous input (disturbance). 4(b) illustrates a block diagram of the dc-link voltage1. significant since practically is the output of a compensator as (46) where the error signal is . The substitution of from (44) in (43) yields (45) Equation (45) indicates that if 1.g. the impact of the PV array characteristic on the dc-link voltage control is eliminated. a reduced-order ering that model is obtained for the dc-link voltage dynamics as To evaluate the stability of the PV system under the proposed control strategy and to investigate the potential for interactions between the PV system and the distribution network/load. DC-Link Voltage Control The DC-link voltage is controlled by of (7) whose -frame equivalent is . the current-control scheme. It is noted that the foregoing control method renders the dynamics . and is a gain which can be where is calculated from the product unity or zero.and -axis current controllers assume the first-order form (41) where the time-constant should be made small for a fast current-control response. the proportional and intefilter.e. and 2) itself is a nonlinear function of the function of state-variable . Although the 1) Linearized Model of the PLL Subsystem: The PLL subsystem is described by (22)–(24) which are linear. respectively. respectively. ten times) smaller than the VSC switching frequency (in radians per second). STABILITY ANALYSIS (42) In (42). 3) the distribution network subsystem. To mitigate the impact of nonlinearities on : the control. of and . the bandwidth of the closed current-control loop) is considerably (e. an eigenvalue analysis is carried out on a linearized state-space model of the overall system.

. and puts delivered to the PLL and converter subsystems. B.0 kV and zero. The process yields (60) where is the number of the load state variables. is the load-free control input of the asynchronous machine load and the rectifier load. 3) Linearized Model of the Distribution Network Subsystem: Based on (11)–(14).YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1545 subsystem is developed based on (3). the linearized model of a load can be expressed in the following generic form: (58) (59) have different entries and diwhere . a detailed switched model of the system of Fig. ered to the distribution network subsystem. 12(b)]. respectively. Based on the large-signal models of the foregoing loads. However. entries of Equations (58) and (59) describe the load as a subsystem for and are the inputs obtained from the distribution which network subsystem. Similarly. The equations indicate that are the inputs obtained from the distribution network subsystem. Model Validation and Performance Evaluation To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. It should be noted that represents the perturbation of the phase angle of relative to that of the grid voltage . and and are the inputs obtained from the and are the outputs PLL subsystem. (54)–(57). while and are the outputs delivered to the distribution network subsystem. The process yields (51) (52) where (53) In (53). . and (58) and (59). representing the mechanical torque and the firing angle. for example . Consequently. 1 is simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment [35]. The system parameters are given in Appendix B. described by (60)–(62). 1 is developed based on (47)–(50). which is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. three types of loads are studied: a squirrel-cage asynchronous branch [Fig. the linearized model of (60) is employed in conjunction with a sensitivity analysis to characterize the dynamics of the overall system under the proposed control strategy. The following subsections report the results of a number of case studies.e. and (61) An output of interest. 1) Case 1: DC-Link Voltage Step Response: Initially. 4) Linearized Model of the Load Subsystem: In this paper. mands The feedforward compensation of the dc-link voltage controller . and are the outdelivered to the load subsystem. and the reference comand are set to 1. ) is determined by the real. .. 1 is in a steady state. the series – load does not have such a control input. and (46). the system of Fig. and a thyristormachine. the entries of the corresponding matrix are zero for the series – load. respectively. In Section V-C. The model is derived by substituting for the output(s) of a subsystem in the relevant input(s) of another subsystem. The steady-state value of the phase angle (i. a linearized model for the distribution network assumes the form (54) (55) (56) where (57) Equations (54)–(56) describe the distribution network as a subsystem for which and are the inputs obtained from the conand are the inputs obtained from the verter subsystem.and reactive-power flow of the system. On the other hand. The switched model is also used to verify the linearized model of the overall system. Equations (51) and (52) constitute a linearized model for the and converter subsystem. . the are zero for the rectifier load. and is the input obtained from the PLL and are the outputs delivsubsystem. (41). does not appear in the linearized model of the rectifier load. 12(a)]. (42). a series bridge rectifier [Fig. 5) Linearized Model of the Overall System: A linearized model of the system of Fig. On the other hand. can be calculated by (62) where is the corresponding output matrix. (44). (51)–(53). and are the state variables of the compensator . and mensions depending on the load type. Therefore. load subsystem.

is subjected to a step change to 1. only the dominant (electrical) eigenvalues are included. 7(d). shown in Fig. 7(c) illustrates that the angular speed of the -frame (i. The eigenvalues are calculated for the case that the asynchronous machine load is connected to the middle of a 15-km distribution 0.71 p.6 Hz. an eigenvalue analysis on (60) reveals the existence of a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues of which the imaginary part corresponds to a at 15. to emulate a neighboring DG unit. Step responses of the dc-link voltage obtained from (a) the linearized model and (b) the switched model. The oscillations penthe same frequency as those of and etrate into the distribution network and affect the asynchronous machine speed.e. This is in close agreement with the response obtained from the switched model.e. and 1. for three irradiation levels of Columns (a) and (b) of Fig. 3. As Fig.1 s.. asynchronous machine to represent a distributed generator. when the feedforward Fig. and and are. which may excite the torsional modes of the mechanical load. 6. 7.9-Hz oscillatory mode. . the ) under solutions of the condition that the feedforward compensation is enabled.. all three types of load introduced in Section V-A4 were tested and different network/load parameters were changed. of about 15. The machine is used as a generator with a mechanical torque of 0. 6(a) shows.e.u. 5 demonstrates the close agreement between the linearized model and the switched model. 6(b) illustrates the response of ). 5. 5. For the network and the load. only the results of the asynchronous machine case are reported in what follows. The findings indicated that under the proposed control strategy. ). a constant-speed wind s.1 kV in less than 0. 24.e. It is observed that subsecompensation is disabled (i. VOL. Fig..1 s. As observed from Fig. Table I shows the eight eigenvalues of the PV system. JULY 2009 Fig. Table I includes the eigenvalues of the overall system (i. For this case.7 p. to identify the Fig. its torque is set to the negative value of 0. Modal Analysis To characterize dynamics of the PV system of Fig. 2) Case 2: Effectiveness of Feedforward Compensation: In this case. for example.1 turbine. of which the first five correspond to the converter subsystem. is also enabled (i. disturbance. whereas the other three are due to the PLL subsystem. For the analysis. the dc-link voltage settles at 1. respectively. Therefore. C. with the exception that is reduced stepwise to 1..1 kV). respectively . At kV. 6(a) illustrates the to the disturbance when the feedforward comresponse of tracks its refpensation is in service.1. and to determine the robustness of the proposed control against variations in various parameters. PV system oscillations due to feedforward disablement. Fig. as shown in Fig. 5 illustrate the responses obtained from the linearized and the switched models.015 kV. nature of interactions between the PV system dynamics and those of the network/loads. Fig. the PV system possesses similar dynamic properties irrespective of the load type. Fig. eigenvalue analysis is carried out on the linearized model of (60). ) also oscillates with . 5 illustrates the response of the dc-link voltage to the 0. of Case 1. starts to oscillate with a frequency quent to the disturbance.5. in a mode corresponding Participation of a state variable to is calculated from [36] (63) and signify the th elements of the vectors where .1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. On the other hand. the system operates under the same conditions as those 1. 1 under the proposed control strategy of Section IV. An asynchronous machine is connected to the middle of the distribution line. Table I summarizes the essence of the system dynamic properties.e.1 kV. Table I also includes the state variables of the overall system as well as a measure of the participation of each state variable in the eigenmodes corresponding to the eigenvalues. and 1..u. NO. 0. This indicates the need for the proposed feedforward compensation scheme. Fig. erence value and settles in less than 0. 7(a) and (b) shows the oscillations of and feedforward compensation is inactive.0. when the Fig. At s. 1.5. In order for the line (i. Step responses of the dc-link voltage when (a) feedforward compensation is enabled and (b) feedforward compensation is disabled. 6(b).

001 is denoted by “ 0” in Table I. as functions of various parameters. and the PV system eigenvalue ) as functions of (i. in the eigenmode corresponding to The participation of cannot pose any instability complications. the is reported in Table I rather than . the other eigenvalues are almost fixed. are insensitive to those elements the PV system (i. Hence. however. Fig.e. 8. Thus. all three types of load have been Fig. and the eigenvalues with noticeable movement have been included in the plots. corresponding to the eigenvalue . It should be also represents the sensitivity of the eigenvalue noted that to the element of the system matrix [37]. (i. since this mode is very far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. Fig. that correspond to the network and load subsystems of with ). a closer look at Table I further indicates that the eigenvalues of to ). 8–11 illustrate the patterns of variation of the real parts of the system eigenvalues.e. d = 0. Pattern of variation for real part of the network eigenvalues as a function of the normalized load distance from the PV system. l = 15 km. and 2) is very far from the real part of imaginary axis of the -plane.5 respectively. The only exception which participates relatively actively is the network state in the eigenmode corresponding to . D. signified by . means that the PV system eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenmodes are weak functions of the network and load parameters. However.. the network eigenmode becomes more stable. norm The values are rounded off to the thousandths place. = 1.. the corresponding mode remains stable and fast. the relative participation of a state variable in an eigenmode is of prime interest here. This. tested. Nonetheless. 9 illustrates the movements of the network eigenvalues . as a function of (i. and any relative participation smaller than 0. In general. Table I indicates that while the state variables of the PV system actively participate in the eigenmodes corresponding to to . Fig. Therefore. X=R = 0:6. the participation of the network and load-state variables in those eigenmodes is insignificant.e.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1547 TABLE I OVERALL SYSTEM EIGENVALUES AND STATES PARTICIPATION FACTORS. 8 shows that the network eigenvalues approach the imaginary axis of the -plane as the distance between the load and the PV system increases. This. they do not become unstable as a result of variations in the network and load parameters.. if the eigenmodes of the PV system are stable by proper design of the controllers.e. 8 illustrates the variation of the real part of the network . . the line length varying from 5 to 40 km. For this analysis. 9 indicates. cannot cause any instability issues since 1) the change in the is less than 10%. whereas the PV system eigenvalue moves slightly to the right. the normalized load eigenvalues distance from the PV system).. the right eigenvectors of and . As Fig. is a complex number. Sensitivity Analysis Figs. in turn.

the corresponding eigenmodes remain stable and very fast. it is expected that the current-control strategy renders the PV system protected against external faults. however. In addition. 12. 9. ) and the PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line ratio. 24. 10 illustrates that the mode corresponding to the ratio inPV system eigenvalue becomes more stable as the creases. 10 shows the variations of the network eigenvalues (i. The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified through digital time-domain simulation studies conducted on a detailed switched model of the overall system. are reldoes not destabilize the system. Fig. Thus. The impact of the solar irradiation level on the system eigenvalues is illustrated in Fig. to permit the design and optimization of the dc-link voltage controller for a wide range of operating conditions. in turn. The movement of the network eigenvalues to the right. and to identify the nature of interactions between the PV system and the network/loads. means that the PV system does not destabilize the distribution network. VI. In this case.1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. The results of the modal analysis confirm that under the proposed control strategy. the PV system maintains its stability and dynamic properties despite major variations in the Fig. the current-control strategy significantly decouples dynamics of the PV system from those of the distribution network and the loads. This paper proposes a feedforward compensation mechanism for the dc-link voltage-control loop to mitigate the impact of the nonlinear characteristic of the PV array. The proposed control strategy adopts an inner current-control loop and an outer dc-link voltage-control loop. whereas the network modes exhibit opposite behavior. 11. CONCLUSION This paper proposes a control strategy for a single-stage. 10. JULY 2009 Fig. Schematic diagrams of (a) R–L load and (b) rectifier load. Fig. Patterns of variation for real parts of two PV system eigenvalues as functions of the irradiation level. three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system that is connected to a distribution network. Fig. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line length. However. The current-control strategy permits dc-link voltage regulation and enables power-factor control. a modal/sensitivity analysis is conducted on a linearized model of the system to characterize the dynamic properties of the PV system. Patterns of variation for real parts of two network eigenvalues and a ratio. to evaluate robustness of the controllers. Moreover.. Furthermore. and 2) their movement rate becomes smaller as the ratio increases. It is further demonstrated that the PV system dynamics are not influenced by the network dynamics.e. The dc-link voltage-control scheme enables the control and/or maximization of the real-power output of the PV system. Variation of the irradiation level exhibits no noticeable impact on the network and load eigenmodes. VOL. NO. . 11. The reasons are 1) atively far from the imaginary axis of the -plane. regardless of the irradiation level. This. 3. the eigeneigenvalues values exhibit opposite patterns of variation. dynamics of the PV system are decoupled from those of the distribution network. PV system eigenvalue as functions of the line X=R Fig. only the PV system and are affected as changes.

dc. – load. can be approximated by its averaged component. It is now assumed that where ). APPENDIX A MODELS OF LOADS 1) Series – Load Model: Fig. Thus (68) The fundamental component of the phase current in a bridge rectifier is delayed by the angle relative to the corresponding phase voltage [38]. as (66) where is the firing angle. Thus. 12(b) illustrates a schematic diagram of a thyristor-bridge rectifier supplying a series. load type. one finds stituting for . Let us pick the (70) .YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1549 TABLE II SYSTEM PARAMETERS inductor (load) current as the state variable. Thus (64) 2) Thyristor Rectifier Model: Fig. – load. line ratio. and is the magnitude of from (66) in (65). Picking the inductor current as the state variable.e. The substitution of from (69) in (68). Sub- (67) An expression for the load current can be derived by using the principle of power balance. and is the unit vector collinear with . and simplification of the result in view of yields line length. It then follows from the approximation of by its fundamental component that: (69) where is the magnitude of the space-phasor corresponding to the load (fundamental) current.. one can write (65) is the rectifier dc-side voltage. 12(a) illustrates the schematic diagram of a three-phase. and the rectifier operates in the continuous mode (i. is so large that is essentially ripple free. and distance between the PV system and the loads.

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His research interests include modeling and control of switching power converters. ON.D. Rourkela. renewable energy. London. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Toronto. India. ON.E. Mississauga..Sc. in 2007. London. Rourkela.YAZDANI AND DASH: CONTROL METHODOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DYNAMICS 1551 Amirnaser Yazdani (S’02–M’05) received the Ph. Canada. and power systems. he is an Assistant Professor with the University of Western Ontario (UWO). and microgrids. ON. distributed generation. Prajna Paramita Dash (S’08) received the B. where she is currently pursuing the M. Toronto. Currently. degree in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Technology. . Canada. degree. He was with Digital Predictive Systems (DPS) Inc. Canada. in 2005. Her research interests include distributed generation.Sc. She joined the University of Western Ontario.