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INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

CALPAK COLLECTORS

GIGA & VACUUM

G - GS - VT - VTN
MAIN TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR CALPAK SOLAR COLLECTORS

Μodels 200G – 240G - 250G Μodels 200GS – 240GS – 250GS

Models 6 VTN up to 16 VTN Μodels 12 VT – 20 VT

MODEL DIMENSIONS WEIGHT OF WEIGHT OF MAXIMUM


ΑxBxC EMPTY FULL WORKING
(mm) COLLECTOR COLLECTOR PRESSURE
(kg) WITH THERMAL (ΜΡa)
FLUID (kg)

150 G 1070x1450x95 36 39,5 0,15


200G 1070x2070x95 50,5 55,5 0,15
240G 1070x2350x95 61 67 0,15
250G 1070x2550x95 66,5 73 0,15

200GS 2070x1070x95 33,5 35 1,3


240GS 2350x1070x95 38 40 1,3
250GS 2550x1070x95 41,5 43,5 1,3

6 VTN 1600x 670x100 18 19,5 1,3


8 VTN 1600x 890x100 24 26 1,3
10 VTN 1600x1110x100 30 32,5 1,3
12 VTN 1600x1330x100 35 38 1,3
14 VTN 1600x1550x100 41 44 1,3
16 VTN 1600x1770x100 45,5 49 1,3

12 VT 1600x 900x100 36 39 1,3


20 VTN 1600x1410x100 58 62 1,3

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INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

FOR CALPAK COLLECTORS GIGA, VT (Vacuum), VTN (CPC-Vacuum)

GENERAL

The CALPAK collectors are designed to form part of a simple thermosiphonic system or a forced circulation
central system for heating sanitary water, space heating and air conditioning.

The collectors CALPAK GIGA are flat collectors with absorber of sandwich or selective type, tempered glass,
insulation of expanded polyurethane and aluminum cover.

Our CALPAK VT vacuum collector consists of vacuum tubes of 1,5 m long with external diameter of 47 mm.
They are placed very close next to each other in order to minimize space. They can be replaced separately. The
flat corrugated reflector is made of granulated aluminium which gives better results when dust or dirt are
gathered on its surface, and snow can slip down easier due to the existing slot in the lower part.
Our CALPAK VTN vacuum collector has high reflectance reflector with CPC form to concentrate all solar rays to
the tubes so minimising the number of them.
Vacuum tube collectors have higher efficiency in diffuse radiation (cloudy weather and winter), compared to flat
plate collectors. The vacuum produced between the two glass tubes is a perfect insulating material which
protects the collector from freezing when ambient temperatures are even –18 °C (without anti-freezing liquid).

INSTALLATION OF CALPAK COLLECTORS AS PART OF A CENTRAL SOLAR SYSTEM

A. Safety information

- Use safe mounting tools and install fall protection devices, do not use damaged ladders and insure that
they are placed safely (~70°) against secure points.

- Use safety harnesses and belts.

- In case of work near electrical wires, keep them voltage free or cover them or keep a safety distance
of:

. 1 m with voltage up to 1000 V


. more than 5 m when voltage is not known.

- Wear protective goggles, safety shoes, gloves and helmet of approved quality.

B. Selection of the installation area

The collectors CALPAK can be installed on flat roofs or on the ground where the selection of the position
appears relatively easy and on sloped roofs with defined orientation and slope.
In this second case, it is perhaps necessary to increase the surface of the collectors in order to compensate
the loss of efficiency due to the reduced possibilities to find the most efficient orientation and inclination on
the roof.

The following four criterions must be considered when selecting the installation area :

- The collectors must be oriented to face South (use compass to find South). A minor decline up to 15°
from South does not have a significant effect on the efficiency.

- The collectors must not be shaded by adjacent obstacles.

- The distance from an obstacle being at East, South or West must be :

. at least 1,5 time the height of the obstacle for countries with latitude 30°
. at least 2 times the height of the obstacle for countries with latitude 40°

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. at least 2,5 times the height of the obstacle for countries with latitude 50°

- The collectors must have an optimal inclination to the horizon of 45° (countries with latitude 40°). The
general rule is that inclination should be 5° bigger than the latitude of the place. Any reduction of the
above angle causes a reduction to the year around efficiency. So for roofs with reduced inclination
(~25-30°), we suggest that the collectors should not be installed in parallel to the tiles but be installed
on a metal support given as an optional accessory (see p.7). Otherwise a reduction of efficiency must
be considered.

- The collectors must be as close to the solar tank as possible.

- The area where the collectors are installed should have an easy and safe access for maintenance.

C. Assembling

All the connecting and starting work must be performed by specialized technicians homologated as necessary.

a. On flat roofs made of reinforced concrete

Installation of one collector (supports for two or more collectors are not available)

1. Take one of the supports B45, B45 200GS8V, B45 240GS8V, B45 VT or B45 VTN, which fits to the
type of collector to be installed, and screw the angles to form two triangles.
The vertical angle is marked 45Y2, the horizontal one 45L2 and the sloped one 45K2.
Next screw on the two vertical angles 45Y2 the two blades of X configuration and finally screw the
two blades together at the crossing point.

c c

s
x
d d

c c

d d
∼ 3/4 collector width

- Installation of Calpak solar collector on flat roof -

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2. Fasten the triangles on the concrete roof parallel to each other using special fixing bolts and check
stability.

3. Screw not tightly the fixing pads “s” on the sloped angle at points “c” and “d” by selecting one of the
three available holes in each point “c” and “d” on the sloped angles so that the collector to be
mounted will have an inclination upwards to the left as seen from the front.

4. Put the collectors on the sloped angle keeping the front cover on and try first to slide the pads “s” at
point “d” in the groove of collector’ s frame, then do the same with pads “s” at point “c” and finally
screw firmly.
It is very critical to keep the front cover on until the whole circuit is full of thermal fluid otherwise
very high temperatures may appear on the collectors which can damage them.

5. Verify again that the inclination towards the outlet on the left of about 1-2% exists. If not, unscrew
points “c” and “d”, choose new holes and repeat procedure. The inclination is imperative for the air
venting of the closed circuit through a venting valve installed at the highest point of the system.

6. If more than one is installed, connect the collectors with appropriate joints thermally insulated. The
distance between them must be kept at the minimum. The system of collectors should be connected
to the hot water tank (to its heat exchanger) with tubing properly insulated. When installing
collectors Giga Selective all in parallel, it is more practical to use the four outlets available for the
middle ones, connect the lower inlet of the first one on the right to the discharge of the circulating
pump and on the left close with a cap its upper inlet. Then connect the upper outlet of the last one to
the heat exchanger of the tank and close the lower outlet with a cap.
A circulation pump with appropriate automatism must be used for the circulation of the thermal liquid
in the closed circuits.
Again attention must be given so that all collectors have an interrupted slope.

7. Prepare the water brine using the thermal fluid CALPAK NOX FLUID which has anti-freezing and anti-
corrosive properties when used 33 % in volume. For better anti-freezing properties use the following
chart :

Temperature (°C) -10° -15° -20° -25° -30° -35°


Percentage in volume (%) 23 31 37 43 48 53

8. Start pouring the anti-freezing and anti-corrosive brine in the system using the venting upper point of
the system or other appropriate method. A good air venting of the system is a must for any
solar installation.

9. Check again inclination and tightness of the system.

b. On sloped roofs made of wooden skeleton and tiles

1. Check with the constructor of the building that the roof can withstand the load of the
collectors full of water and ask for a written confirmation. Check the same with the local
technical authorities if needed.

2. Lift the appropriate tiles from the roof so that the thick wooden beams (vertical) are revealed.

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- Installation of Calpak solar collectors on sloped roof (cut view) -

80-130 cm

AG AG

45H

c c
45 K2

AG AG
d d 45H

- Installation of one Calpak solar collector on sloped roof (front view) -

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80-130(cm) 80-130(cm)

AG AG AG

45H

45 K2
c c c

AG AG AG
d d d 45H

- Installation of two Calpak solar collectors on sloped roof (front view) -

3. Take the four steel plate-hooks n°AG of the supporting kit BRF 1 (or six of supporting kit BRF 2) and
screw them on the wooden beams using the self-tapping screws, so that the four (or six) steel plate-
hooks form a rectangle with horizontal edge the distance between the two adjacent beams, or if
beams are very close to each other, use two beams having a distance of about ¾ of the width of the
collector.
Form them properly so that the free end will be on the outer part of the roof when the tiles will be
replaced.
Put the lifted tiles in place and break then at the edge if needed. Then seal any holes with proper
sealing material.

4. Now there are four (or six) plate-hooks on the roof on which the bars 45K2 must be screwed. The
upper and lower plate-hooks must be in such distance as to enable the two (or three) bars 45K2 to
be screwed.
Choose any of the available holes of plate-hooks AG so that the holes “c” as well as holes “d” of
angles 45K2 are in almost parallel position between them.

5. Take the two (or three) bars 45K2 and screw them on the steel plate-hooks in vertical positioning
keeping in mind the above. Use the screws of the kit. Make sure that the bars are parallel to the roof
and to each other, and on the same level. On the bars 45K2 you can now screw the two angles 45H
in horizontal position with an upwards slope 1-2% towards the exit of the thermal fluid on the left. To
achieve that use the correct combination of the three holes of 45K2 at the points “c” and “d”.
Use any of the holes of bars 45H which bring them almost symmetrical to the center of bars 45K2.
In the remote case that no hole is convenient, drill a new one Ø 9.

6. Apply the same procedure for all the collectors you plan to install on the roof.

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7. Screw the small steel pads “s” on the bar 45H (not tightly) at any convenient hole to give almost
symmetric positioning of the collectors.

8. Put the collectors on the bars 45H by sliding them on the angles 45K2, then sliding the pads into the
groove of the collector’s frame and finally screw them firmly.
Do not take off the front cover of the collectors until the whole circuit is full of thermal fluid otherwise
high temperatures may appear in the collectors which can damage them.
Verify that each collector has a positive inclination of 1-2 % towards the outlet on the left. The same
should be kept also between the collectors if more than one. If the inclination is not correct choose a
new combination of holes (see § 5).

9. If maximum efficiency is the dominant goal, screw on the upper steel plate-hooks the bars BRF45 of
proper length and screw on them the angles 45K2 and continue as above, in this way the collector
gets the proper inclination of 45°.

BRF 45

40-50°

20-30°

- Installation of Calpak solar collector at inclination 45° on sloped roof (cut view) -

10. The collectors GIGA are delivered with threaded outlets of ½” at the back or at the sides, on the
contrary the Giga Selective, VT and VTN collectors are delivered with bare copper tubing of Ø 22 or
Ø 18 at the sides.
Use appropriate joints to connect them trying to avoid any loops for air venting reasons. Of course all
joints must be thermally insulated.
Use always a second spanner or pliers to balance torque of fixing the unions as if you fail
to do so you risk to break the collectors ’ brazings.
In case of arrays having more than 5 collectors, use expansion joints to prevent damages due to
expansion of material when heated.

11. Prepare the anti-freezing and anti-corrosive brine as mentioned before and start pouring it in the
system using the venting upper point of the system or other appropriate method. A good air
venting of the system is a must for any solar installation.

12. Check again inclination and tightness of the system.

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D. Transport and handling

- The collectors GIGA are packed in cardboard and must always be transported in vertical position with
at least 2 cm thick polystyrene pieces between them.

- During installation, keep the upper carton or plastic film in place up to the moment the circuit is filled
with thermal fluid. You protect glass better in this way from thermal or mechanical shocks.

- The collectors VT and VTN are packed in wooden or cardboard crates and must be always transported
in vertical position with big labeling warnings that tubes are made of glass (FRAGILE – GLASSTUBES).
When quantities more than one or two are transported, use palettes to place them on and tight them
firmly with strips or stretch film.
When mounting on the roof, take off the crate, if existing, to make it lighter and use appropriate belts
to handle them or use the handles of the packing.
Do not remove the plastic cover (nylon) before filling up the system with thermal fluid.

E. Lightning protection

Use a copper wire 16 mm² to connect the collectors (metal parts) with lightning protection system if existing or
earth them to an earth rod using wire of the same size. The route of this wire should be always outdoors.
Ask specialist for more information.

F. Collectors interconnecting in a field with 20m²

a) Collectors Calpak GIGA

For the collectors Calpak 200G and 240G, the optimal arrangement is in two or three arrays connected in
parallel with maximum 4 collectors in each array connected in series.

The connections are made at the back or at the sides with flexible connecting pipes and WHITWORTH
threading ½”.

b) Collectors Calpak GIGA 200(240)GS8V, Calpak VT and VTN

For the collectors Calpak 200(240)GS8V, Calpak 20VT or Calpak 14VTN, the optimal arrangement is in five
arrays connected in parallel with maximum two collectors in each array connected in series.
For Mediterranean countries, all collectors must be connected in parallel to prevent overheating as much as
possible during summer.
Use brass joints for copper tube Ø 22 or Ø 18 and copper tubing properly insulated to make all
connections.
Collectors are delivered bare copper tube Ø 22 or Ø 18 without any threading or union nuts.

G. Recommendations about the thermal fluid

The Calpak Nox Fluid is a propylene glycol based thermal fluid non toxic to the skin.
It must be used always diluted in water, otherwise it may cause corrosion.

The proposed percentage to be used is 33 % in volume. In that proportion it works as anti-freezing and anti-
corrosive fluid.

For very low environmental temperatures, increase the percentage according to the following table:

Temperature (°C) -10° -15° -20° -25° -30° -35°


Percentage in volume(%) 23 31 37 43 48 53

- Keep the bottles of Calpak Nox Fluid away from children, don’t mix it with acids, and use gloves during
the handling.

- If Calpak Nox Fluid comes in contact with eyes, rinse them with a lot of water to avoid inflection.

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- If drank, drink plenty water.

- In order to increase the anti-corrosion protection of the heat exchanger and other metallic elements of
the closed circuit, install a magnesium anode next to these metallic parts. For the exact dimensioning
and place of the magnesium anode, ask a local technician.

H. Pressure loss

For the dimensioning of the circulating pump, the following tables which show the pressure drop against flow of
thermal fluid through the collector must be taken into consideration:

CALPAK GIGA 200G / 250G

Mass flow (Kg/s) 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06


Pressure drop (Pa) 10 / 10 40 / 30 53 / 40 151 / 65 240 / 151 340 / 230

CALPAK GIGA 200GS / 250GS (Selective)

Mass flow (Kg/s) 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06


Pressure drop (Pa) - 60 / 73 250 / 305 480 / 585 820 / 1000 1250 / 1525

CALPAK 20VT

Mass flow (Kg/s) 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06


Pressure drop (Pa) 30 60 110 200 330 456

CALPAK VTN (6 – 8 – 10 – 12 – 14 – 16)

Mass flow (Kg/s) 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06


6VTN 50 105 210 330 470 640
8VTN 35 70 120 210 300 430
10VTN 30 55 80 130 200 330
Pressure drop (Pa)
12VTN 25 50 75 105 140 210
14VTN 25 40 65 90 125 175
16VTN 20 30 55 75 110 140

I. Limits of inclination angle

As mentioned previously, the angle of the collector referred to the horizon must be the latitude of the place
plus 5°. At this angle the maximum of the year around efficiency is achieved.

In case of difficulty to follow the above rule, try to keep the inclination between 30° and 50° in order to benefit
a minimum year around efficiency (for places with latitude 40°).

K. Maintenance

The Calpak collectors require the minimum maintenance and attendance such as summarized below.

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Every two years the following actions must be taken:

I. Check that all the fastening screw of the supports and the screws of the fixing pads “S”
are well tightened. If not, fix them properly or change them if necessary.

II. Clean the glass of the flat plate collectors or the vacuum tubes from dust to increase efficiency.

III.a. For the models VT and VTN, change any broken vacuum tube. To change it, loose the screws of the
angle that holds them in place at the lower part of the collector and slide out the broken tube.
Slide the new one in place and screw back the loose angle.
A broken vacuum tube does not prevent the system from running, but it will loose efficiency and will be
liable to frost.

The vacuum tube that shows a white dust inside at the lower end has lost its vacuum and must be
replaced.

III.b. For the model GIGA, change the glass if broken and take off the plastic cups for venting it if moisture
appears behind the glass.

IV. Check the level of the thermal fluid and fill the system if necessary using the upper point (venting point)
of it or use any other convenient method.

V. Check for any leakage in the collectors and joints.

VI. Check again the slope of the collectors to avoid any formation of air traps.

For more information about maintenance and troubleshooting, ask your local Calpak agent.

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