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VOCABULARY RESOURCE

EMCParadigm Publishing Saint Paul, Minnesota


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Staff Credits

Editorial
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Managing Editor
Lori Ann Coleman
Editorial Consultant
Brenda Owens
High School Editor
Rebecca Palmer
Associate Editor
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Associate Editor
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Assistant Editor
Mary Curfman
National Language Arts Consultant
Paul Spencer
Art and Photo Researcher
Joan Freese
Educational Writer
Layout and Production by
Precision Graphics, Inc.

Cover Credits
Cover Designer: C. Vern Johnson
The Fate of Animals [Detail], 1913. Franz Marc.
Saint George and the Dragon [Detail], c.1400s. Spanish artist.
Tornado Over Kansas [Detail], 1929. John Stuart Curry.

ISBN 0-8219-2030-8
©2002 EMC Corporation

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Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Unit 7
To the Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii “The Creation” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
“The Twelve Labors of Hercules” . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Unit 1 Getting into Storytelling: Of Myths, Legends,
“The Goodness of Matt Kaizer” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 and Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
“Eleven” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 “The Singing, Springing Lark” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
“Why?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 “The Magic Mortar” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
“Ta-Na-E-Ka” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 “The Cow of No Color” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
“The All-American Slurp” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 “Don’t Step on a Crack” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Unit 2 Unit 8
“How Robin Hood Saved “All Summer in a Day” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
the Widow’s Three Sons” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 “The Woman and the Wolf” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
from Still Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 “I, Hungry Hannah Cassandra Glen” . . . . . . . . . 81
“Joyriding” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 “Raymond’s Run” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
A Woman Called Truth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 “The Boy Who Talked with Animals” . . . . . . . . . 84
“Priscilla and the Wimps” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 “Potter’s Gray” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Unit 3 Unit 9
“The Face of the Deep Is Frozen” . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Getting into Poetry:
“The Springhill Disaster” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Power of the Pen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
“The Cutoff: The Story Poetry: Imagery and Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
of the Donner Party” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Poetry: Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
“The Wreck of the Hesperus” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Poetry: Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
“Big Wind” and “Child on Top Poetry: Lyric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
of a Greenhouse” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Poetry: Translated Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Unit 4 Unit 10
“My Friend Flicka” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 “All the World’s a Stage” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
“Rikki-Tikki-Tavi” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Ugly Duckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
“Zlateh the Goat” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 In the Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
“Shelter Shock” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
“Cat on the Go” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Unit 11
from Ranch of Dreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 “Madam C. J. Walker” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
“Satchel Paige” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Unit 5 from Geronimo’s Story of His Life . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
“The Creation of Music” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 from Gorillas in the Mist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
“Forever Young” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 “The Five ‘Wanderers’ of the Ancient Skies” . . 108
“Scarborough Fair” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 “Night” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
“Nothing But Drums” “A Breath of Fresh Air?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
and “Three/Quarters Time” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
from To Be or Not to Bop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Unit 12
Getting into Media: Contests! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Unit 6 “Earth from Space” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
from The Hobbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 from Dear Ms. Demeanor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
“The Tunnel” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 “Beads & Bangles” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
“Dragon, Dragon” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 “Hearing Under Siege” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
“The Rebellion of the Magical Rabbits” . . . . . . . 60 from The Adventures of Tintin: The Black Island . 119

Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121


Index of Topics and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

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To the Teacher
Introduction
The purpose of this Vocabulary Resource is to assist teachers in providing meaningful vocabulary instruction
while studying the literature selections in THE EMC MASTERPIECE SERIES, LITERATURE AND THE LANGUAGE ARTS. The
Vocabulary Resource provides lessons and activities in vocabulary and spelling that correspond with the
selections of the textbook. The complementary Word Study Resource offers additional vocabulary and
spelling projects and assignments within a scope and sequence that highlights skills to be mastered at each
grade level. By using the Vocabulary Resource in conjunction with the Word Study Resource, you will be
able to provide a very rich base for meaningful vocabulary instruction. But what is “meaningful vocabulary
instruction”?

The study of literature has traditionally included some vocabulary study. Well-intentioned English and
reading teachers, very aware of the limits of their students’ word knowledge, often spend an extensive
amount of time selecting words from a piece of literature and having students define the words before they
read. The words may be, in the opinion of the teacher, essential to the meaning of the text or may simply
be words the teacher knows students will be least familiar with. Sometimes the decision about which words
are emphasized is based on how frequently they appear in the media or on standardized tests and college
entrance exams. Based upon the difficulty level of the literature selection and the knowledge level of
students, the list of words to be learned is sometimes quite long. Although some teachers provide
definitions or lead the class in discussions to arrive at consensus on the meanings of the words, students are
often asked to work independently to look them up in a dictionary or glossary. Teacher-made vocabulary
assessments are most often objective tests that require students to match words with definitions.

The motives behind this practice are praiseworthy. Teachers of literature want students to increase their
vocabularies so that they can comprehend what they hear and read and may speak and write effectively in
a variety of situations. However, educational research does not support the most common practices in
teaching vocabulary. According to Stahl and Fairbanks (1986), “Methods that provided only definitional
information about each to-be-learned word did not produce a reliable effect on comprehension. Also, drill-
and-practice methods, which involve repetitions of the same type of information about a target word using
only associative processing, did not appear to have reliable effects on what they read and hear or to be able
to use new words correctly in their own writing and speaking.” Allen (1999) asserts that students need
“extensive reading and direct instruction in word-learning strategies in order to become fluent,
independent readers.”

What, then, should effective vocabulary instruction include? Brain research has shown that important
factors in the retention of new information are multiple exposure and meaningful practice. Allen (1999)
states that students must encounter and use words in a meaningful context ten to fifteen times before the
words become their own. Explicit teaching using a variety of strategies and opportunities to read or hear
new words in various contexts provides students the repeated exposure they need. Therefore, the first
ingredient of effective vocabulary instruction is a word-rich environment. Students should be inundated
with words so that their incidental exposure to new vocabulary occurs as frequently as possible.

This does not mean, however, that students should be bombarded with long lists of words to memorize
every week. A limited number of select words, such as those highlighted in the Words for Everyday Use
section of the text, should be emphasized for direct instruction and assessment. Those words appear in this
book under the heading REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION. Additional vocabulary from each selection or
grouping of selections is listed in GET TO KNOW: ADDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND TERMS FROM THE
SELECTION. Words grouped by topic, spelling pattern, or root and affix construction help to provide a
contextual base for learning new vocabulary. Many of the activities in this book group words in these ways.
Depending on their developmental level, students should be held responsible for no more than ten to
twenty new words per week. The words should be reviewed and recycled throughout the school year.

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It is also essential that vocabulary instruction include a variety of strategies. Lessons in the Vocabulary
Resource provide many different ways of exploring and studying words, word parts, semantic families, and
spelling patterns and rules. Activating students’ prior knowledge of both words and the essential concepts
related to the words helps students make associations among the new terms and words they already know.
Repeated teacher and peer modeling of word attack skills is also important. Students need to see teachers
and other students applying and talking through the strategies they use to approach and demystify new
words. Vocabulary learners should be “word detectives,” encouraged to use all the structural and context
clues they can find to “solve” the mystery of a new word. They should then be able to describe it and use it,
as well as define it. Many of the activities in this book allow students to be creative and innovative in
studying words.

In a language-rich classroom, the teacher should create student-friendly contexts in which to teach new
words, so that students are able to connect them to personal experience. Talking about how words relate to
their own lives helps students discern levels and shades of meaning. A successful vocabulary program
deepens and enriches the reading experience. Moreover, finding vocabulary words in print and non-print
media and sharing them with the rest of the class helps reinforce new words and concepts. By studying
vocabulary and spelling within the context of the literature they are reading, students using this Vocabulary
Resource can connect the words they examine with the topics and themes in the reading.

Another key principle of effective vocabulary instruction is that it must be multi-sensory. Also supported by
brain research is the knowledge that retention of new information is increased when more than one of the
senses is involved in learning. Thus, direct instruction of vocabulary should include visual clues, tactile
experiences, and kinesthetic response as well as auditory input. Students can make vocabulary cards that
include color and illustrations with class-consensus definitions, correct spelling, and example sentences.
They can act out words or create mental pictures as mnemonics. They can create charts of word categories
or examples and non-examples of correct usage based upon their knowledge of target words and their
meanings. They can make jokes, play word games, and create and define their own words in the style of
E. E. Cummings or Dr. Seuss. Word play should be encouraged. Students using this Vocabulary Resource will
have the opportunity to work and play with words on many levels and use multi-sensory approaches to the
words they study.

Students must have meaningful opportunities to write and speak using new words. Other language arts
activities, such as practicing the type of timed writings students often encounter on state proficiency exams,
can integrate appropriate target vocabulary. Students can practice effective speaking techniques by giving a
brief impromptu speech comparing and contrasting two recently learned vocabulary words. Many
innovative activities in this book challenge students to use the words they are studying in their own writing
and speaking.

Even weekly vocabulary tests should involve using new words in sentences rather than matching them with
the correct definitions. In addition to having students create their own sentences, teachers should write fill-
in-the-blank tests containing context-rich sentences in which students write in the correct word. Or pairs of
students can create the sentences, and the teacher can select ones to be included on the test. An additional
advantage of this type of test is that alternative answers that can be justified help students recognize
synonyms and alternative ways of saying the same thing. The more actively students are engaged in word
study, the greater their vocabularies will become.

In short, vocabulary study must be more meaningful than mechanical. It must be tied to reading a variety of
literature selections. It must rely on the application of word knowledge and word-learning strategies. It must
actively engage students in using new words as they read, write, speak, and listen. And ideally, it should
help create word-curious students who are confident in their ability to attack, learn, and experiment with
new words. The Vocabulary Resource allows teachers and students to work with words on many levels and
encourages learners to explore with enthusiasm the meanings and spellings of words and the relationships
among words.

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REFERENCES
Allen, Janet. 1999. Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12. York, Maine: Stenhouse
Publishers.

Stahl, S., and M. Fairbanks. 1986. “The Effects of Vocabulary Instruction: A Model-Based Meta-Analysis.”
Review of Educational Research 56, 721-810.

Bear, Donald R., Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston. 1996. Words Their Way: Word
Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Beers, Kylene and Barbara G. Samuels, eds. 1998. Into Focus: Understanding and Creating Middle School
Readers. Norwood, Massachusetts: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.

Jensen, Eric. 1995. Super Teaching. San Diego, California: The Brain Store.

Laminack, Lester L. and Katie Wood. 1996. Spelling in Use: Looking Closely at Spelling in Whole Language
Classrooms. Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English.

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To The Student
Introduction
If you are like most people, you often encounter unfamiliar words when you read—whether you are reading
a story, a poem, a newspaper article, or a biography. When you write, you may have trouble thinking of the
right word to express what you want to say, or you might not remember the correct spelling of a word.
Studying words and language can help you to tackle those unfamiliar words as you read, and it can help
you to increase the number of words in your vocabulary and to remember how to spell those words.

Word study does not have to be limited to memorization of word lists and definitions. By learning how to
use specific skills to tackle unfamiliar words as you read, you will be able to make reasonable conclusions
about these words. By expanding your vocabulary and developing your knowledge of common spelling
rules and patterns, you will be a more successful writer. Working and playing with words is an important
part of making yourself a proficient reader, writer, speaker, and listener. Words surround you every day—in
print, on the radio and television, in your own work, and out in the community. Become aware of the
language around you and master it.

When you are reading, you can really make great strides in increasing your vocabulary and spelling skills.
You may notice that word meaning and spelling are interconnected and that by studying one aspect of a
word (meaning), you learn a lot about another (spelling).

Keeping a Word Study Notebook

You may want to keep a word study notebook, in which you can keep track of the new words you encounter.
Besides recording the word, you can include a brief definition, a sentence using the word in context, a picture,
a phonetic description of the pronunciation of the word, and anything else that will help you master the word.

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Spelling Memory Aids

If your focus is on the correct spelling of words, you may want to work with some memory aids for spelling.
Using a word study notebook certainly can help you with spelling words. Another technique is a series of
steps:

1) look at the word closely

2) say the word out loud

3) cover the word and picture it in your mind

4) write the word

5) check your spelling

6) rewrite the word correctly.

This technique works well with a flip folder. Cut the front of a manila folder into thirds from the top down
to the crease. Turn the folder upside down and write the following words on the left flap: LOOK, SAY,
COVER, and SEE. On the center flap, write: WRITE and CHECK. On the right flap, write: REWRITE. On blank
sheets of paper, make three columns across the page, holding it horizontally. Insert your paper into the
folder. Write words you want to practice in the left column. After doing the first three steps, use the middle
column to write the word and check it. Then rewrite the word in the third column.

Spelling comes easier for many people if they are able to memorize certain patterns that occur frequently in
English. You may want to keep a list of these patterns and common rules to refer to when you are writing.
Some students may find that creating memory aids of their own can help them to remember the correct
spellings of certain words. For example, a student who frequently misspells defense as defence, with a c
instead of an s, might remember to use s if she thinks of the word safety when writing defense, connecting
the idea of safety to defense in her mind. You can come up with memory aids of your own and keep them in
your word study notebook.

This book contains activities for each literature selection or group of selections in your textbook. REVIEW:
VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION, a list of the Words for Everyday Use from the selection or selections, is shown

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with selections that contain Words for Everyday Use. GET TO KNOW: ADDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND
TERMS FROM THE SELECTION introduces additional words that may be unfamiliar to you. Your teacher may want
you to study the terms in these lists, or you may want to add some of them to your word study notebook.
Activities that follow these lists highlight specific concepts and strategies that you can learn and then use as
you encounter new words in your reading and include them in your writing.

As you master the English language, you will find the material you read more interesting, and your own
writing and speech will become more colorful. Always keep in mind that language is a basic form of
expression, and the more you use and appreciate it, the more fun it can be!

RESOURCES
Brownstein, Samuel C. and Mitchel Weiner. 1984. Vocabulary Builder. Hauppauge, New York: Barron’s
Educational Series, Inc.

Bromberg, Murray, Julius Liebb, and Arthur Traiger. 1996. 504 Absolutely Essential Words. Hauppauge,
New York: Barron’s Educational Services, Inc.

Deptula, Edward, ed. 1998. Everything You Need to Score High on the SAT and PSAT. New York, New York:
Macmillan General Reference.

Downing, David. 1990. 303 Dumb Spelling Mistakes…and What You Can Do about Them. Lincolnwood,
Illinois: National Textbook Company.

Kensler, Chris. 2000. SAT Verbal Velocity. New York, New York: Kaplan Books.

Meyers, Judith N. 1998. Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. New York, New York:
Learning Express.

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COMMON PREFIXES
Prefix Meaning Examples
anti- against antigen, antibody
co- together cooperate, coexist
de- opposite defrost, decipher
dis- not, opposite of dislike, disguise
il-, im-, in-, ir- not illogical, impossible,
inoperable, irrational
mal- bad malformed, maligned
mis- wrongly mistake, misfire
non- not nonsense, nonsmoker
over- over overlook, oversee
pre- before prefix, premature
pro- before, forward proceed, prologue
re- again, back redo, recall, retract
semi- half semicircle
sub- under substandard, subfloor
super- above superstar, superfluous
trans- across transatlantic, transfer
un- not unethical, unhappy
under- under underweight, undersea

COMMON WORD ROOTS


Root Meaning Examples
act do actor, react, transact
ambi/amphi both ambidextrous, amphibian
aud hear auditory, audience, audition
auto self autobiography, automatic
bio life biology, biography
chron time chronic, chronological
cred believe credible, accredited, incredible
dict speak, tell dictate, predict, verdict
fig form figure, configure
form form conform, formulate
geo earth geography, geology
graph write autograph, paragraph
hydr water hydrology, hydrolic
ject throw reject, interject, eject
loc move location, relocate, allocate
man hand manual, manufacture
mot move motor, promote, automotive

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ped foot pedal, pedestrian


pop people population, popular
port carry portable, import, transport
sign mark cosign, signal, significant
spect see inspect, spectacle, respect
syn together synergy, synonym
tele from afar telephone, television
tract pull, drag tractor, retract, contract
vid/vis see evidence, visual, video
vol/volv roll revolve, involve, revolution

COMMON SUFFIXES
Suffix Meaning Examples
-able/-ible can be done attainable, possible
-age action or process marriage, voyage
-al having characteristics of personal,
governmental
-ant/-ent one who defendant, assistant
-dom state or quality of freedom, martyrdom, boredom
-ed past tense of verb walked, acted, fixed
-er comparative adjective higher, calmer, shorter
-er/-or one who lawyer, actor, debtor
-est superlative adjective lowest, craziest, tallest
-ful full of helpful, gleeful, woeful
-ic having characteristics of scientific, static
-ing present participle running, thinking, being
of verb
-ion/-tion act, process revolution, occasion
-ity/-ty state of longevity, infinity
-ive performs or tends creative, pensive
toward
-less without homeless, careless
-ly characteristic of; adverb slowly, studiously, smartly
-ment action or process; development, government;
state or quality; product amusement, amazement;
or thing ointment; fragment
-ness state of kindness, happiness
-ous possessing the qualities of generous, joyous, bilious
-s/-es plural form of noun trees, siblings
-y characterized by happy, dirty, flowery

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

“The Goodness of Matt Kaizer”


Unit 1, page 6

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


bolt ghastly reputation
convulsive imploring retreat
delirious leer sulky
flush rasping taunt

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
ate it up gross you’re chicken
baddest of the bad stank

SPEAKING SLANG
Slang is informal language used by a group of people who use new words and different meanings for old
words. The gang members in “The Goodness of Matt Kaizer” used slang when talking. Match each slang
phrase from the story with its meaning.

Slang Phrases Meanings


1. gross ___ to relax with friends

2. ate it up ___ the person with the worst behavior

3. baddest of the bad ___ to be afraid to do something

4. you’re chicken ___ disgusting

5. small straw of a sad slug ___ a person who appears to be weak

6. hanging out ___ to like something

7. sweet ___ great—a good thing or situation

What slang do you use? Create your own slang quiz for friends and classmates to solve. First, choose six
slang terms that you know. Then write a definition for each. Mix the terms and definitions in the space
provided to create a quiz. Then trade quizzes with a classmate and see how you both do.

Slang Phrases Meanings


8. __________________________________ A. __________________________________

9. __________________________________ B. __________________________________

10. __________________________________ C. __________________________________

11. __________________________________ D. __________________________________

12. __________________________________ E. __________________________________

13. __________________________________ F. __________________________________

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

“Eleven”
Unit 1, page 21

NUMBERS COUNT
Numbers Spelled Out
eight one thirty-two
eleven one hundred and two thousand
five seven three
four six two
nine ten

Numbers can be written numerically (11) or spelled out as words (eleven). How you decide to write a
number depends on how it is being used (called usage) and the manner in which the kind of writing you
are doing typically displays numbers (called style). In “Eleven,” the author wrote out all the numbers she
used. These numbers are written as words in the left column below. Translate them to numerals in the right
column.

Words Numerals
eight ____

eleven ____

five ____

four ____

nine ____

one ____

one hundred ____

seven ____

six ____

ten ____

thirty-one ____

a thousand ____

three ____

two ____

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

The numbers below are written as numerals. Translate them to words.

Numerals Words
1,000,000 _________________________________________________

29 _________________________________________________

14 _________________________________________________

16,000 _________________________________________________

99 _________________________________________________

How old are you?


A. Write your age as a word: __________________________

B. Write your age as a numeral: ____

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“Why?”
Unit 1, page 27

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


badger conscience reasonable
character pedantic

LONG VOWELS
LONG VOWELS

Sound Spelling Examples Your Word

Long a (a– ) a snake, flavor, plane

ai mail, train, faint

ei sleigh, weight, neighborhood

Long e (e– ) e me, even, recent

ea heat, teach, please

ee street, green, greed

ei seize, neither, deceive

y quickly, fishy, fairy

Long i ( –ı ) i time, bribe, mile

ie lie, vie, spied

igh high, bright, flight

y sly, my, style

Long o (o– ) o rode, odor, no

oa road, goal, loan

ow tow, grown, slow


–)
Long u (u u flute, fumes, prune

ew grew, fewer, new

oo too, boost, toot

ue blue, true, virtue

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Long vowel sounds are written by single vowels or by vowel combinations. The single vowels are often—
but not always—found in words that end with the letter e. Vowel combinations are found in words that also
have rules and patterns. Study the chart on page 4 to review some of the ways long vowel sounds are
formed. Then add your own example word for each vowel sound spelling.

Below are sentences that contain words with long vowel sounds. After each word containing an underlined
syllable, fill in the blank with the vowel sound the syllable contains.
EXAMPLE

“I’m pleased (long e ) to meet (long e ) you,” she said.

1. Mother fried (long __ ) the bacon (long __ ) on the campfire (long __ ).

2. We (long __ ) are quite busy (long __ ) these (long __ ) days.

3. Ralph brought his bow (long __ ) and arrow (long __ ) to the picnic.

4. Max fixed his boot (long __ ) with glue (long __ ).

5. I (long __ ) would like (long __ ) to go to France, but I’m afraid to fly (long __ ).

6. The baby began to drool (long __ ) and chew (long __ ) on his toy.

7. Rose (long __ ) asked the dentist to look at her tooth (long __ ).

8. “Stop it!” my sister cried (long __ ). “You (long __ ) are being rude (long __ )!”

9. The toad (long __ ) hopped along the sidewalk (long __ ).

10. My grandmother grows (long __ ) beets (long __ ), chives (long __ ), and beans (long __ ) in her
garden.

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“Ta-Na-E-Ka”
Unit 1, page 35

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


anticipate heritage shrewd
audacity hospitality skirmish
dejected hostility unsightly
equate ordeal virtue
fend sacred

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
endurance ritual gorging horrendous
dumbfounded hooey loftiest

OTHER VOWEL SOUNDS


When you were learning to read, the first vowel sounds you learned were the short vowel sounds. For
example:

vowel short sound

a hat

e get

i trim

o hot

u shut

Some vowels make a sound that is neither long, as reviewed on page 4, or short, but somewhere in
between. For example:

aw sound vowel/s examples

a hall, water, quart

o floss, cross, operate

aw claw, fawn, draw

au applause, audacity, sauce

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The aw Sound

Here are two sentences from the short story “Ta-Na-E-Ka.” Circle the correct spelling for each word with the
aw sound.

1. As my birthday drew closer, I had auful/awful nightmares about it.

2. It was bitter, and even grasshoppers were probably better tasting, although/olthough I never intended
to find out.

Word Hunt

For this exercise, you will need a magazine or a newspaper. Find three words for each aw sound letter
combination found below. Circle or highlight the words in the periodical. Then write each word in the
appropriate column below.
EXAMPLES “Soggy weather dries up.”

“The flood began when the man left the faucet running.”

“Small-cap funds were the investment stars of the second quarter...”

“Apply mulch—grass clippings, straw, or shredded leaves—to dry gardens


to hold in moisture.”

a o aw au

small soggy straw faucet

3. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

4. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

5. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

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“The All-American Slurp”


Unit 1, page 47

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


consumption ladle spectacle
disgrace mortified sultry
electronics residence systematic
etiquette retreat unison
favoritism revolting zingy
inflection

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
chow mein maneuvers relish
emigrated PTA meeting smugly
lasso

MORPHEMES
One way of figuring out an unfamiliar word is to look at its parts. The parts of a word are called
morphemes. Morphemes can be either free or bound.

Free morphemes can stand alone as words. Base words, or root words, are free morphemes.

Compound words are words made up of two free morphemes. The following compound words each
contain two free morphemes.

eyesore daybreak anybody herself jumpstart motorcycle

Bound morphemes must be attached to other morphemes to make words. Prefixes, suffixes, and word
roots are bound morphemes.

Many words are made up of word roots, prefixes, and suffixes. Word roots are word parts that cannot stand
alone. Prefixes are groups of letters that attach to the beginning of a word. Suffixes are groups of letters that
attach to the end of a word. Although they are unable to stand alone, word roots, prefixes, and suffixes all
have meaning.
EXAMPLES

prediction made up of a prefix (pre-), a word root (dict), and a suffix (-ion)

transportation made up of a prefix (trans-), a word root (port), and a suffix (-ation)

If you encounter an unfamiliar word, think of it as an assembled puzzle and check to see if you understand
any of the pieces, or morphemes, that make up the word. Does the word contain a free morpheme? Does it
contain a prefix? a suffix? a word root? Do you know the meanings of any of these word parts? If so, you
are closer to understanding the word as a whole.

Learn more about morphemes by examining the following words from “The All-American Slurp.” Try
predicting the word meanings based on the parts of the word. You may want to look at the charts on pages
x-xi to review the meanings of key prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

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1. disgrace (page 48)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

2. revolting (page 48)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? _________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

3. unison (page 48)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

4. retreat (page 49)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

5. mortified (page 49)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

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6. inflection (page 50)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

7. headwaiter (page 51)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

8. consumption (page 52)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

9. wallpaper (page 52)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

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10. Frenchman (page 52)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

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“How Robin Hood Saved the Widow’s


Three Sons”
Unit 2, page 74

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


earnest
ponder

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
dare not halt ‘twas
for shame pray tell ‘tis

MORE MORPHEMES
Analyze the morphemes in these words from “How Robin Hood Saved the Widow’s Three Sons.”

1. longbows (page 74)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? its meaning? _____________________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

2. earnest (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

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3. disguise (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

4. propose (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

5. exchange (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

6. himself (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

7. pretended (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

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8. impatiently (page 76)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

9. prepared (page 76)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

10. hangman (page 76)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

A compound word is made up of two free morphemes. Do you know what these compound words mean?
Write a definition for each word. If you are unsure what a word means, estimate its definition based on its
two free morphemes.

11. thumbtack

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

12. cookbook

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

13. kickball

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

14. heartbreaker

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

15. earthworm

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

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16. troublemaker

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

17. crossroads

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

18. anytime

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

19. motorbike

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

20. whirlwind

meaning: ___________________________________________________________________________________

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from Still Me
Unit 2, page 80

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


cherish glib spontaneity
construct incapacitate sustain
cordon instinctive visceral
devastate mythical

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
amputation physical therapists tack
cyst quadriplegics turn out
MRI

SPELLING THE K SOUND


The k sound can be spelled a number of ways. Some letters that make the k sound are c, k, ch, and ck.

Spelling Word

c cold

k kids

ch chemistry

ck pick

If you study words with the k sound, you’ll soon discover some basic rules regarding when to use which
spelling. For example:

• The letters ck are never found at the beginning of a word.


EXAMPLES kick, track

• The letters ch are found at the beginning or middle of a word when making the k sound—and never at
the end.
EXAMPLES lichen, chord

• If the k sound is followed by an e, i, or y, spell it with a k.


EXAMPLES kestral, kitten, lanky

• At the end of a word, spell the k sound with a k if it comes after a consonant.
EXAMPLES drank, milk

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• After a short vowel sound, spell the k sound with a ck.


EXAMPLES bicker, track

• At the end of a word, the k sound is spelled with a k (or a ke) if it follows a long vowel sound.
EXAMPLES creek, like

Word Hunt

Find ten words with the k sound in this word search puzzle. Words are spelled with c, k, ch, and ck and
appear horizontally or vertically.

D B G M C N G K W X

G K K G X L E E H S

H T A K V F C Y U I

Y C I Y C K H B J N

K A N G A R O O I L

B S T L R T F A T G

O E B D P R T R E H

P C E P E A K D J I

Y H J H T C X H T C

A R Y Y Z K F M N O

D O R S O M B G N N

L N R I J G G G U S

O I N C A D S G A T

M C H A R A C T E R

Q T L L V E J H J U

Q S O E V P S A B C

X G D I G O Q C G T

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“Joyriding”
Unit 2, page 92

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


audible lurch quizzical
conspiratorial mediocre relentless
fluid motive throng
gaunt perpetual venture
hindrance poised

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
dug down deep taking [it] for a ride
joyriding winded

MORE VOWEL SOUNDS


These vowels are neither long nor short. Here are some others vowels that sound neither long nor short, but
somewhere in between:

oi sound vowel/s examples

oi foil, choice, toil

oy soy, loyal, ploy

oo sound vowel/s examples

oo took, crook, poor

u pull, ensure, during

ou could, would, detour

ow sound vowel/s examples

ow downtown, power, crown

ou proud, shout, hour

Circle the sound pattern that corresponds with each word.

1. about

oi / oo / ow

2. voice

oi / oo / ow

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3. plural

oi / oo / ow

4. flower

oi / oo / ow

5. crowd

oi / oo / ow

6. brook

oi / oo / ow

7. employ

oi / oo / ow

8. cure

oi / oo / ow

9. voyage

oi / oo / ow

10. mouth

oi / oo / ow

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A Woman Called Truth


Unit 2, page 105

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION

accustomed intellect reception


adjourn intensity rue
appall narrative smug
behalf podium spite
default prominent tenacity
defiance proposition warrant
disdainful ramification wary
emphatic rant wince

DOUBLE TROUBLE
Double consonants are another sticky spelling situation. Here are a few rules to help you decide on whether
to double or not to double.

• In words with long vowel sounds, one consonant is usually found after the vowel.
EXAMPLE bail

• In words with short vowels, two consonants are usually found after the vowel.
EXAMPLE ball

• In very short words, the consonants are not doubled—except for words that end in f, l, or s.
EXAMPLE fall

In practice, a good way to deal with the “to double or not to double” puzzle is to memorize the words that
you know cause you problems.

Listed below are some difficult words that contain double consonants and even two pairs of double
consonants. Circle the correct spelling for each word.

1. narrative or narative

2. apall or appall

3. occurred or occured

4. address or adress

5. accidentaly or accidentally

6. accommodate or acommodate

7. aparent or apparent

8. attendance or atendance

9. begining or beginning

10. committee or comittee

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11. embarass or embarrass

12. fulfil or fulfill

13. mispell or misspell

14. suceed or succeed

15. tomorow or tomorrow

16. parallel or paralel

17. accustomed or acustomed

18. warant or warrant

Make a list of words with double consonants that give you problems. Study the words and think of ways to
remember the correct spelling. Next to each word, write your idea for remembering the correct spelling.

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“Priscilla and the Wimps”


Unit 2, page 135

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


bar laceration slither
fate pun subtle

SPELLING THE S SOUND


The s sound can be made in several ways. It can be spelled s, c, ss, and sc.

Spelling Word

s seek

c cent

ss pass

sc scene

Write the consonant or consonants that make the s sound in each of these words from “Priscilla and the
Wimps.”

1. Priscilla (page 135) ____

2. pass (page 135) ____

3. agency (page 135) ____

4. subtle (page 136) ____

5. serpent (page 136) ____

6. laceration (page 136) ____

7. romance (page 136) ____

8. swaggers (page 136) ____

9. wittiness (page 137) ____

10. circling (page 137) ____

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Crossword Puzzle

Complete the crossword puzzle using s, c, ss, and sc words.

Across
2. The p________ lived in the castle with her parents, the king and queen.

4. The M__________ is the longest river in North America.

5. Kim’s handwriting was s______ and hard to read.

6. The waltz is a kind of d____.

10. The s____ of her perfume is nice.

Down

1. Another word for pants is t________.

3. Biology and physics are included in the field of s______.

7. The teacher told the students in the c____ to be quiet.

8. A c___ is a very large


town.
1
9. If you plant this s____, T
it will grow into a 2
flower. P
3
S

4
M

5
S
6 7
D C

8
C
9
S
10
S

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“The Face of the Deep Is Frozen”


Unit 3, page 154

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


abrupt congeal erode
atmospheric consolidate improviser
cache dense trek
compression dire

SHHHHH! SILENT LETTERS!


Some words contain silent letters, which make spelling and pronouncing them tricky business. B, g, h, k and
w are letters that sometimes are silent. Unfortunately, there are no rules to guide your spelling of these
words. Memorization is the key to learning them.

Study the chart below to review some words that contain silent letters. Add your own example for each
silent letter to the Your Word column.

Silent Letter Examples Your Word

b plumb

bomb

tomb

g sign

gnat

gnome

h rhyme

thyme

rhinoceros

k knife

know

knit

w wreath

whole

writer

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Silent Letter Search

Find these words with silent letters in the word search puzzle below. Words are written vertically,
horizontally, and diagonally.

wristwatch knuckle
gnash wrangle
why knees
wrinkle knockout
debt gnawing
rhythm rhumba

K G V M Y I Z F P M K K R T W P G R

W L E Y M J E X R X N G N A W I N G

J C M O W W Z P H J O J O U B H X E

R M S A S R W A Y Y C L J E C C U

W Y O L Z X H N T B K H K T I K U J

R R F B O S Y U H N O K A C C K L F

A I I H A G B Q M W U W C U S X X E

N U J N F M G D E B T D V U O P B Q

G H G W K R I Y S S A R S J D H T Q

L O C I M L F E I Y E I K Q J B A B

E C A T W I E R G Q M O C U R H Y G

U E K D G N W I K L O L N U G G H Q

I C Q Q K O M D F W J K L M L P K Q

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

“Pompeii”
Unit 3, page 164

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


belch gaudy project
bewilder haphazard rutted
catastrophe imposing shrewdness
critical molten shroud
engulf monopoly tranquility
excavation oblige unruly
fruitless ominous vitality

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
archaeology inscription suffice
fanfare perish unslackening

CONTRACTION ACTION
A contraction is formed when two words are combined and an apostrophe is used to replace the letter(s)
that are left out. Contractions are perfectly correct English. They are typically used in friendly, less formal
kinds of writing. When a writer wants to sound proper, he or she may not choose to use contractions.
EXAMPLES can + not = can’t

he + will = he’ll

Now you try it. Combine these word pairs to make familiar contractions.

1. does + not = __________________________

2. you + have = __________________________

3. will + not = ___________________________

4. she + will = ___________________________

5. was + not = ___________________________

6. should + not = ________________________

7. he + has = ____________________________

8. they + have = _________________________

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

Fill in the blanks below with contractions.

Dear Eloise,

Thank you for the gift of money for my twelfth birthday. ______________ very thoughtful to
You + are

always remember my special day. ______________ be using the money to buy a new bike.
I + will

______________ going camping this summer and ______________ bring our bikes along to ride
We + are we + will

on the trails. What fun!

Thanks again, Eloise.

Your friend,

Chris

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

“The Springhill Disaster”


Unit 3, page 179

RHYME TIME
In her song, “The Springhill Disaster,” songwriter Peggy Seeger uses rhyme and repetition. Two words
rhyme if they have the same ending sounds. Here are some of the words that rhyme from the song. Draw a
line that connects each pair of rhyming words.

roll stone

bread sky

team coal

alone instead

lie seam

Now it’s your turn to create rhymes. Write a word that rhymes with each of the pairs from above.

________________ rhymes with ________________ and ________________.

________________ rhymes with ________________ and ________________.

________________ rhymes with ________________ and ________________.

________________ rhymes with ________________ and ________________.

________________ rhymes with ________________ and ________________.

Do you know another song whose lyrics contain rhyming words? Write the words to a verse from the song
below. Underline the rhyming words.

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“The Cutoff: The Story


of the Donner Party”
Unit 3, page 186

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


anguish confide grim
anxious despair harbor
arrogance emigrant perpetual
banish fiery provision
betray fraud relinquish
bicker gaunt remnant

SOLVING THE ie/ei PUZZLE


When i and e are found next to each other in a word, i usually comes first. One exception is after the letter
c. Another exception is in words such as veil, that have the long a sound. The letter e comes before the
letter i in these words.

An easy way to remember these spelling rules is the rhyme:

i before e, except after c, or when sounded like a as in neighbor and weigh.

You’ll discover that some words don’t follow these rules. For special cases, such as the word seize, for
example, you must simply memorize the spelling.

Decide if the spelling of the ie/ei words in the signs below are correct or incorrect and circle your answer.
Change the spellings that are wrong, using the proofreading symbols found on page 886 in your textbook.
Then write the correct spelling in the blank below each sign.

A friend in need is Children measuring below this hieght


a friend indeed. are not allowed on the roller coaster.

correct/incorrect correct/incorrect

spelling: ______________ spelling: ______________

Recieving Dock Randall Webster,


Entrance Cheif of Police

correct/incorrect correct/incorrect

spelling: ______________ spelling: ______________

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Please do not Feed Neighborhood Garage


the Riendeer Sales Today!

correct/incorrect correct/incorrect

spelling: ______________ spelling: ______________

Museum’s Ancient Artifacts Believe in Yourself!


Collection, Walk This Way

correct/incorrect correct/incorrect

spelling: ______________ spelling: ______________

Pie for Sale—One University


Dollar per peice. Sceince Lab

correct/incorrect correct/incorrect

spelling: ______________ spelling: ______________

correct/incorrect

spelling: ______________

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“The Wreck of the Hesperus”


Unit 3, page 202

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


aghast gored schooner
brine gusts smite
gale

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
corpse frothed ope

STORMY WEATHER
“The Wreck of the Hesperus,“ by Longfellow, is a poem about a ship at sea during a hurricane. The poem
contains the words gale and gusts, terms that describe the wind. Other words—such as brine, billows, and
breakers—are used in reference to describe the ocean.

All kinds of storms and natural phenomena have their own language associated with them. Below is a list of
words that relate to natural disasters. Do you recognize what kind of disaster each word relates to? After
each term, write the term tornado, earthquake, hurricane, or volcano.

eye _____________

fault line _____________

lava _____________

aftershock _____________

tidal wave _____________

crater _____________

twister _____________

epicenter _____________

Many kinds of things have special vocabulary associated with them. Take sports, for example. Most athletic
activities have terms that players and spectators use to describe the game. Write two terms that are specific
to each sport listed below. For the last three, write in additional sports of your choice and list the related
vocabulary.

Hockey

example: hat trick

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Soccer

Skateboarding

Gymnastics

Basketball

Sport:

Sport:

Sport:

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“Big Wind” and “Child on Top


of a Greenhouse”
Unit 3, page 211

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


flail
veer

POSSESSIVES
You’ve already reviewed contractions, which use apostrophes in place of letters when two words are
combined. Apostrophes also are used to show ownership. Here are a few guidelines for creating possessive
nouns:

• Use ‘s to make a singular noun possessive.


EXAMPLE Ralph’s telephone

• Use an apostrophe alone to make a plural noun possessive.


EXAMPLE the cheerleaders’ uniforms

• Pronouns do not require apostrophes to show ownership. These include: his, hers, its, hers, theirs, yours,
and ours. The contraction it’s means “it is.”

Choose the correct possessive nouns to complete the paragraph below. Circle your answers.

Special thanks to the student’s/students’ parents. Our/Our’ annual carnival was a great success because
of your’/your excellent volunteer work. The groups’/group’s efforts raised over one thousand dollars for
the gymnasium’s/gymnasiums’ new equipment. Thanks also to Rachel’s/Rachels’ mother, Jackie
Washington, who donated the painting for the silent auction. Its/It’s frame was beautiful, too!

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“My Friend Flicka”


Unit 4, page 231

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


abate fanatical prosperous
auspicious groom range
calculation guffaw rebellious
chagrined impulse saunter
coax inimitable stoical
despair monotonous tress
disinfectant personage triumphant
enclose pore vivid
entranced pressure waver
envision prestige winsome

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
coax gullies ravines
demerits lax spurs
fidgety leverage wince
gallant

HONING YOUR WORD STUDY SKILLS


All readers encounter words they don’t know. When reading, what do you do if you see an unfamiliar word?
It’s easy to want to skip it. But your understanding will improve if you try to learn the word.

“My Friend Flicka” is a story with many challenging words in it. Revisit the story, which starts on page 231
of your textbook, and make a list of ten words. Choose some words you know and some words you don’t.
Write the words on the lines below.

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Now rate your knowledge of each word below by placing an X in the appropriate column:

Your Words I don’t know I think I know I really know this


this word. the basic meaning word and can use it
of this word. in a sentence.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Try to learn the words you don’t know from your list. Here are some things to try:

1) Read the word aloud. Hearing it may help you.

2) Read the entire paragraph the word appears in. Reading the word in context may give you a better
understanding of the word.

3) Perform a structural analysis of the word.

4) Look up the word in the book’s glossary.

5) Look up the word in a dictionary.

6) Ask your teacher or a parent what the word means.

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“Rikki-Tikki-Tavi”
Unit 4, page 250

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


cower providence
cultivate sluice

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
cobra snakeling
mongoose tailor bird
muskrat

WORD STUDY SKILLS—PICTURE THIS


At the start of “Rikki-Tikki-Tavi,” author Rudyard Kipling offers a description of the story’s title character:

He was a mongoose, rather like a little cat in his fur and his tail, but quite like a weasel in his head and his
habits. His eyes and the end of his restless nose were pink; he could scratch himself anywhere he pleased, with
any leg, front or back, that he chose to use; he could fluff up his tail till it looked like a bottle brush, and his war
cry as he scuttled through the long grass, was: “Rikk-tikk-tikki-tikki-tchk!”

By reading the text that follows the word “mongoose,” you could get a pretty good idea of what a
mongoose is—even if you’ve never seen one.

Now if you still want to know more about the creature (or about another element in a particular passage),
you might look for any pictures (or diagrams and charts) that accompany the story. On page 250, for
example, is an illustration of a mongoose and two cobras. Combined with Kipling’s description, this image
will provide you with an even better understanding of what a mongoose is.

Some of the other animals in “Rikki-tikki-tavi”—the muskrat, tailor bird, and snakeling—do not appear in
this story’s illustrations. Look these animals up in an encyclopedia.

Does knowing what the characters look like help you to better understand the story? How so?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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Now it’s your turn to provide context. Choose an animal from the list below. Write a description of the
animal in the space provided below. In other words, provide context for a reader.

dolphin snake
cat parrot
dog pig
horse animal of your choice

Next, look in a magazine or on the Internet to find an image of the animal. Read your description once with
the image in sight and once with the image out of sight.

Do you think having a picture would help a reader to better understand the animal you’ve described? Why,
or why not?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“Zlateh the Goat”


Unit 4, page 264

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


cleft
eddy

THE F SOUND
The f sound is usually spelled with the letter f, but sometimes it is spelled with the letters ph. For example,
the word photograph has the f sound at both the beginning and ending. Both are spelled with ph. Even
more uncommon still are f sounds spelled with the letters gh. The word tough is an example.

Unscramble the letters to make a word that completes the sentence. Fill in the blanks to complete the
sentence, circling the letters that make the f sound in each word.

1. houneg

Do you have _______________ money for the bus?

2. eerrf

To find out what time the bus leaves, _______________ to the transit schedule.

3. tlnaehpe

The _______________ is the largest land mammal.

4. aghlu

The clown made us _______________.

5. fndulo

_______________ the blanket and place it on the bed.

6. tbphaeal

Twenty-six letters make up the _______________.

7. ehopn

Why don’t you _______________ your parents to see about a ride home?

8. cpayihls

Today I went to the doctor for my yearly _______________.

9. grouh

The road was bumpy and incredibly _______________.

10. ystfana

Zach reads science fiction and _______________ novels.

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“Shelter Shock”
Unit 4, page 272

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


affable dilapidated impassive
albeit discretion inordinate
allegiance diverse ironically
beguiling docile prevalent
bereft ethical prim
cavort euphemism skeptical
commodity exuberant temperament
conciliatory fluke transient
cynical gregarious unrelenting
decipher immune vintage

UH . . . SPELLING THE SCHWA SOUND


The soft “uh” sound (technically called the schwa sound) is often found with the letter l at the end of words.
It can be spelled a number of ways:

Spelling Word

al petal

el channel

il pencil

le trouble

Word Hunt

Find two words for each letter combination below in “Shelter Shock,” found on page 273 in your textbook.

al el il le

1.

2.

Word Scramble

3. plrAi

Olivia’s birthday is in ______________

4. ecalm

A ______________ can live in the hot desert.

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5. uzpezl

My grandmother likes to do the crossword ______________ everyday.

6. laepn

The ______________ of judges decided who would perform in the talent contest.

7. alnge

My mother calls me her little ______________.

8. iararvl

We waited for the ______________ of the airplane.

9. pcklei

I ordered by hamburger with mustard and a ______________.

10. endlee

Missy sewed on the button with a ______________ and thread.

11. uppil

An eye’s ______________ gets smaller in bright light.

12. tlmea

Gold is a ______________ and so is silver.

13. lmoar

The ______________ of the story is that it’s better to give than to receive.

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“Cat on the Go”


Unit 4, page 293

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


articulate emaciated lugubrious surreptitious
comrade grotesque manipulate unfathomable
distraught intrigue semblance unmerciful

PLURAL NOUN ENDINGS


Many words simply require an s to make them plural. But others take an es ending. Here are some word
endings that require es to become plural:

ending singular plural

ch ranch ranches

sh dish dishes

ss glass glasses

x fox foxes

zz buzz buzzes

To make a word that ends in y plural, drop the y and add ies to the end of the word. But if the letter before
the y is a vowel, simply add an s to the word to make a plural. For example:

ending singular plural

y puppy puppies

y tray trays

Words that end in a long o sometimes are made plural by adding an es. Other times, you simply add an s.

ending singular plural

o tomato tomatoes

o poncho ponchos

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Words that end in f or fe become plural by dropping these letters and adding a ves. Some exceptions exist.
See the examples below.

ending singular plural

f calf calves

fe life lives

f chief chiefs
(this is an exception)

Some words are totally irregular. In these cases, you simply have to learn the plural forms, because there are
no rules to help you.

singular plural

man men

tooth teeth

child children

foot feet

Use the rules you reviewed above to make these words plural.

Singular Plural

1. loaf __________________

2. box __________________

3. knife __________________

4. potato __________________

5. boy __________________

6. mouse __________________

7. fly __________________

8. donkey __________________

9. radio __________________

10. ox __________________

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Now make these plural nouns singular.

Plural Singular

11. libraries __________________

12. echoes __________________

13. roofs __________________

14. reflexes __________________

15. porches __________________

16. ideas __________________

17. armies __________________

18. thieves __________________

19. geese __________________

20. wishes __________________

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from Ranch of Dreams


Unit 4, page 308

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


adamant incidental nominal
converse indelible prominent
detest infuriate prospective
finite ingenious solemn
galvanize literally virtue

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
charity obstacle strained
correspondent outright saga
objective pursuit terrain

MORPHEME REVIEW
Learning to identify words based on their parts is a handy skill that you can use forever—even when you are
an adult, reading grown-up literature. Take some time to review your morpheme-busting skills by analyzing
the words below from Ranch of Dreams. Once you’ve predicted the word meanings, look each word up in a
dictionary to see how close your predictions are to the definitions.

1. correspondent (page 308)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

2. dislike (page 309)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

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3. converse (page 309)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

4. objective (page 309)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

5. galvanize (page 311)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

6. infuriate (page 311)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

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7. prospective (page 311)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

8. indelible (page 312)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

9. ingenious (page 312)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

10. underfeeding (page 316)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? _____________________________________________

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?______________________________________________________

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?__________________________________________________

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ______________________________________________________

Prediction of word meaning: __________________________________________________________________

Actual definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

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“The Creation of Music”


Unit 5, page 334

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


disposition raucous torrential
lash reluctant turbulent
ominous tempestuous

SYNONYMS
Synonyms are words that have the same or almost the same meaning. For example, start and begin are
synonyms. A synonym for a word can be found in a thesaurus, a synonym dictionary, or often a regular
dictionary. Synonyms are helpful when writing because they expand a writer’s vocabulary and help describe
something with more variety and precision.

Write a synonym for each of these words, which are found in “The Creation of Music.” Check your work
with a thesaurus or dictionary.

1. rise (p. 335) __________________________

2. quickly (p. 335) __________________________

3. beautiful (p. 335) __________________________

4. dawn (p. 335) __________________________

5. mighty (p. 335) __________________________

6. turbulent (p. 335) __________________________

7. silent (p. 335) __________________________

8. replied (p. 336) __________________________

9. crush (p. 336) __________________________

10. small (p. 336) __________________________

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“Forever Young”
Unit 5, page 343

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


courageous
righteous
swift

ANTONYMS
Antonyms are words that have opposite or almost opposite meanings. For example, bright and dark are
antonyms. Antonyms can be helpful to readers because they give insight into what something is by
describing what it is not.

Write an antonym for each of these words, some of which appear in Bob Dylan’s song, “Forever Young,”
on page 343 of your textbook.

1. young __________________________

2. always __________________________

3. true __________________________

4. courageous __________________________

5. swift __________________________

6. joyful __________________________

7. stay __________________________

8. high __________________________

9. loud __________________________

10. question __________________________

Write five antonym pairs of your own.

11. __________________________________________________________________________________________

12. __________________________________________________________________________________________

13. __________________________________________________________________________________________

14. __________________________________________________________________________________________

15. __________________________________________________________________________________________

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“Scarborough Fair”
Unit 5, page 351

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


acre parsley sage
bonny peppercorn thyme
lass rosemary

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
cambric tom-tit’s
sickle yonder

CAPITALIZATION
If you look on page 351 of your text, you’ll notice that the words “Scarborough Fair,” the name of a trade
fair once held in England, are capitalized. That’s because it’s appropriate to capitalize the names of places
(planets, continents, countries, cities, and specific geographic locations, such as Mount Rushmore),
buildings, days, months, holidays, and languages. For more information, refer to sections 3.84–3.89 in the
Language Arts Survey in your textbook.

Edit the capitalization in the following sentences. Circle the letter that is incorrectly capitalized or
lowercased. Use the following proofreading symbols:

• cap means capitalize this letter

• /l c/ means lowercase this letter


EXAMPLE hudson river
M
/yM
/ other

1. The mississippi river is the longest river in North america.

2. Maya’s birthday is in july.

3. We’re going Bowling on friday or Saturday.

4. We saw the white house when we were in washington, D.C.

5. The Fourth of July is also known as independence day.

6. She speaks french and spanish.

7. Ralph thinks that People will live on mars in the future.

8. In August, we’re going to see the grand canyon.

9. Jorge’s Family is from venezuela.

10. In October, many kids celebrate halloween by going to trick or treat.

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“Nothing But Drums” and


“Three/Quarters Time”
Unit 5, page 357

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


battery
spell

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
bougaloo descarga philly Squeeze
Cakewalk do-si-do tango
cha-cha jamming out two step
charleston peppermint twist waltz
conga drums

EASILY CONFUSED PAIRS


Homophones are words that sound alike, but are spelled differently.
EXAMPLE way and weigh

Homophones can be a problem in written English. Writers need to be very careful to choose the correct
spelling for the word they are using. Proofreading your work is a good way to confirm that homophones
are spelled correctly.

Choose five sets of homophones from the list below. Write a sentence for each word. Underline the
homophones in the sentences.
EXAMPLE Do you know the way to the zoo?
How much does the elephant weigh?

1. hole / whole

2. piece / peace

3. to / two / too

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4. their / there / they’re

5. hair / hare

6. cent / sent / scent

7. through / threw

8. flower / flour

9. vein / vane / vain

10. its / it’s

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In addition to homophones, it’s easy to confuse:

• Words that are spelled the same, but have different meanings and, often, different pronunciations. For
example, wind (air that moves) and wind (to wrap in a circle).

• Words that are pronounced almost the same. For example, consider conscious (able to see, feel, hear and
know what is happening) and conscience (a feeling that tells a person right and wrong).

Words like these can be confusing to read and write. Sometimes the context in which a word appears will
help you to know its meaning.

Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with words from this list of easily confused pairs.

desert / dessert

than / then

affect / effect

lose / loose

except / accept

advice / advise

breath / breathe

alter / altar

coarse / course

principal / principle

11. After dinner, we had pie for ___________________.

12. It is colder this morning ___________________ it was last night.

13. I had a big problem, so I asked my mother for ___________________.

14. The ___________________ of the school announced the pep rally.

15. Jerry took a deep ___________________ and dove into the water.

16. The Wildcats were sad to ___________________ the baseball game.

17. The teacher can’t ___________________ gifts of money from students.

18. I go to school everyday ___________________ Saturday and Sunday.

19. The ___________________ wool of the old sweater felt rough and scratchy.

20. The ___________________ sun is incredibly hot.

Think about it! Write five additional pairs of easily confused words below.

21. ______________________________________

22. ______________________________________

23. ______________________________________

24. ______________________________________

25. ______________________________________

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from To Be or Not to Bop


Unit 5, page 363

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


barnstorm execution octave
chord harmony profound
cultivate incorporate theory

SYLLABICATION NATION
A syllable is a part of a word that contains a single vowel sound. Some words have only one syllable. But
many have more than one. Learning how to read a new word, based on the syllables it contains, is one
strategy for expanding your vocabulary.

Syllabication involves analyzing a word to figure out where it breaks into syllables. This process may sound
difficult, but, in fact, you probably have learned this in class previously and know how to do it. Here are
some common syllable patterns. In the patterns below, v stands for vowel and c stands for consonant.

Pattern How to divide Example Notes


pattern into
syllables

vccv vc/cv for ⋅ get The exception to this rule is when the
two consonant are a digraph (two
letters pronounced as one). For
example, the word fashion splits into
two syllables as such: fash · ion.

vcv v/cv pe ⋅ can When a single consonant appears


vc/v lin ⋅ en between two vowels, divide the word
before or after the consonant. (Note
that v/cv is more common than vc/v.)

vcccv vc/ccv up ⋅ stairs Words that have three consonants in


the middle usually divide after the first
consonant, because the second two
consonants are often digraphs and
pronounced together. An exception is
when the first two consonants are a
digraph, such as in bath · tub.

vccccv vc/cccv en ⋅ shrine Words that have four consonants in


the middle usually divide after the first
consonant, because the following
three consonants are often digraphs
and pronounced together.

vv v/v cli ⋅ ent When two vowels, which make two


sounds, are side by side, the vowels
are divided.

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Match each word with the example of how to divide its vowel-consonant pattern into syllables.

1. pedal v/v

2. dial vc/cccv

3. unknown vc/cv

4. embrace vc/v

5. upstream vc/ccv

6. minor vc/ccv

7. octave v/cv

Now draw a line between the syllables in the words.

8. d i a l

9. e m b r a c e

10. m i n o r

11. o c t a v e

12. p e d a l

13. o c t a v e

14. u n k n o w n

15. u p s t r e a m

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from The Hobbit


Unit 6, page 385

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


antiquity gall shamble
blunder haste sheathe
devour menacing subterranean
flummox morsel venture
fund oddments

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
a big to-do seeking in vain
at the end of his wits took a fancy

MORE SYLLABICATION
If dividing words into syllables reminds you of the morpheme exercises you worked on earlier, you’re right!
Syllables often divide between morphemes.

Once you can recognize prefixes and suffixes and divide the base word into syllables, you’re well on your
way to becoming a syllabication whiz. This process can help with word identification and pronunciation.
Here are a few guidelines for analyzing the syllables in a word:

1) Look for a prefix and/or suffix.

2) Use your knowledge of syllable division patterns to study the base word.

3) Try to pronounce the word by blending these parts together. This pronunciation should be close
enough for you to approximate the word.

4) Look for context clues or use a dictionary, if you still need help with the word.

Analyze these words, some of which are found in The Hobbit, using the process described above. Divide
each word into syllables.

1. z e r o

2. s a d n e s s

3. g r a v y

4. d e v o u r

5. i t c h y

6. o d d m e n t s

7. l i z a r d

8. b l u n d e r

9. d i s a g r e e

10. s h a m b l e

Now say each word aloud. As you pronounce a word, can you hear its syllable division?
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“The Tunnel”
Unit 6, page 401

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eternity hover initiative
hallucinate impersonate scorn

SPELLING BY SYLLABLES
The same rules you studied for dividing words into syllables that helped with word identification and
pronunciation can help with spelling.

For example, when you hear a word for the first time, and then attempt to write the word, do a quick
analysis:

1. Does the word have a prefix or suffix that you recognize? How is it spelled?

2. Are you familiar with the base word? How many syllables does it contain? What are its consonant
sounds? Are the vowel sounds short, long, or in between?

3. Now attempt to write the word.

4. Review the spelling using your spelling knowledge. Do any letters or letter combinations look wrong?

5. Confirm the spelling in the dictionary.

Word Sort

Sort these words from “The Tunnel” into categories based on their prefixes and suffixes. Some words may
fit into more than one category.

dusty unblinking irregular


hovering trapped extremely
pretend deadly initiative
scruffy dangerously prepared
echoing stretchy impersonating
imagined originated inhale
evidently previously

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CATEGORIES

Prefixes
in-/im-/il-/ir- un- pre-

Suffixes
-ed -ing -ly -y

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“Dragon, Dragon”
Unit 6, page 412

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


crane plague
lunge ravage

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
cobbler lair slain
flabbergasted out-fox wizard
in a jiffy

WORD ROOTS
Roots are the basic building blocks of words. Listed below are some common Latin and Greek word roots.
(Many more word roots exist.) Most of these roots appear in words with other roots, prefixes, and suffixes
because they can’t stand alone as words.

Six Latin Word Roots

Root Meaning Example

extra outside extraordinary

man hand manufacture

ped foot pedal

port carry transport

spect look spectator

vid/vis see video/envision

Six Greek Word Roots

Root Meaning Example

auto self automobile

bio life biography

geo earth geography

ist one who zoologist

micro small microbe

tele from afar telegraph

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Time for a word root brainstorm! Choose two roots from the tables on the previous page. Now, fill in the
following charts. Start by brainstorming words that contain these roots. Next, write the root in the center
circle, with its definition. In each exterior circle, write a word that contains the root, along with its definition.

Here’s an example:

chronic chronological
meaning: meaning:
marked by arranged
long duration according
to time
chron
meaning:
time

synchronize
chronicle
meaning:
meaning:
happening at
historical
the same time
account

Do the best you can with this exercise. If you


can’t think of six words for each word root,
list as many as you can.

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“The Rebellion of the Magical


Rabbits”
Unit 6, page 425

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


ascend homage paralyze
audacious insist saucy
defiance loll

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
agile frolicked posterity
colossal innumerable sabotaging
epidemic jubilant subversive
ethics multitude twitter
exterminate plague

ACCENTED SYLLABLES
When you say a word with more than one syllable, one syllable is stressed. This means the syllable sounds
louder than the others. In a dictionary pronunciation, an accent mark (‘) is placed after the stressed syllable.

Try placing the accent mark on the correct syllable in these words from “The Rebellion of the Magical
Rabbits.” Say each word aloud. Try to hear which syllable you naturally stress. Mark this syllable with an
accent mark. Check your work with a dictionary.
EXAMPLE re bell’ ion

1. in sist

2. de fi ance

3. ag ile

4. sub ver sive

5. sauc y

6. par a lyze

7. ju bi lant

8. eth ics

9. twit ter

10. as cend

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“The Creation”
Unit 7, page 455

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


clutch

VERB TENSES
Many of the verbs in “The Creation” are past tense. The verbs listed below, some of which are from the
story, are irregular in their past tense forms. Write each of these irregular past tense verbs in their present
tense form.
EXAMPLE

irregular past tense present tense

came come

irregular past tense present tense

1. grew ____________________

2. was ____________________

3. made ____________________

4. fell ____________________

5. were ____________________

6. swam ____________________

7. dove ____________________

8. caught ____________________

9. became ____________________

10. flew ____________________

11. brought ____________________

12. began ____________________

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Write the past tense form of these verbs. Some past tense forms are regular, and others are irregular.

present tense past tense

13. walk ____________________

14. think ____________________

15. skate ____________________

16. climb ____________________

17. wiggle ____________________

18. jog ____________________

19. skip ____________________

20. race ____________________

21. stretch ____________________

22. bend ____________________

23. jump ____________________

24. ski ____________________

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“The Twelve Labors of Hercules”


Unit 7, page 460

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


assent expiate protrude
composure foliage remorse
dank iridescent semblance
derange lair serene
divert

MORE ACCENTED SYLLABLES


Try placing the accent mark on the correct syllable in these vocabulary words. Check your work with a
dictionary.
EXAMPLE Her’ cu les

1. com po sure

2. de range

3. di vert

4. pro trude

5. se rene

Some words have two stressed syllables. In the dictionary, these words have two accent marks in their
entries. The larger mark shows the primary accent. The smaller mark shows the secondary accent.

Place the accent marks on the correct syllables in these words from “The Twelve Labors of Hercules.” Use a
larger mark for the primary accent. Say each word aloud and try to hear the syllables you naturally stress.
Check your work with a dictionary.
EXAMPLE dis in’ te grat’ ed

6. o ver whelm ed

7. de ter mi na tion

8. pri ma ry

9. con grat u late

10. a pol o gize

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Getting into Storytelling: On the


Telling of Myths, Legends, and Stories
Unit 7, page 466

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
cherished
fabric of the universe
fantastical
intricate
reanimate

CREATING LANGUAGE
When you are inventing stories to tell other people, you will have to come up with names for your
characters and settings. You may also include in your stories other things that need names. For example, if
you are creating a futuristic story, you may develop a space-age vehicle and call it a Viritocopter. Or your
characters may live in houses called heliodomes. If you are creating a story in which your characters are
animals that can speak, you may create language that they would use to name the things in their lives—
Mole Hill, Carrot Corner, Big Water Place, and so forth.

Think about a story you would like to invent. Create names for the characters, settings, and other elements
of the story and write them below. Some of the categories listed may not apply to your story.

Character or characters:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Setting(s):

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Where do the characters live?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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What do the characters use for transportation?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

What do the characters eat?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

What pastimes do the characters have?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

What tools or machines do the characters use?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“The Singing, Springing Lark”


Unit 7, page 471

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compel oblige ploy
console penetrate procession
forsake plight splendor

SPELLING: SELF-CORRECTION
One way to decrease the number of spelling errors you make is to catch the mistakes yourself and fix them
before you share your writing with others.

Self-correction is possible if you proofread your work. It’s also helpful to be aware of the kinds of mistakes
you tend to make. We all have words that are difficult for us to spell. Some people have trouble with
homophones, for example, writing “there” instead of “their” or vice versa. If you know you’re prone to a
problem, it’s easier to catch. In general, spelling errors occur in a few ways:

• Errors in the ways a word is pronounced. If you mispronounce the word temperature as “temprature,”
you are likely to misspell it as well.

• Errors because letters are out of order. Is it i before e or e before i?

• Errors because there are numerous ways a sound can be spelled. Would that be ph or f?

• Errors because you just aren’t familiar with a particular spelling rule.

On page 910 in the textbook is a list of words that are commonly misspelled in English. Read through the
list and note below any words that you regularly misspell.

My Problem Words

1. __________________________

2. __________________________

3. __________________________

4. __________________________

5. __________________________

Here’s a simple study strategy for these, and other, words you’re trying to learn to spell.

• Look at the word.

• Say the word.

• Cover the word and think about its spelling.

• Write the word.

• Check the word.

• Rewrite the word—correctly, of course!


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“The Magic Mortar”


Unit 7, page 480

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commotion
nestle

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
hibachi lotus root
kimonos tatami

BORROWING FOREIGN WORDS


Some English words are borrowed from other languages. These words are commonly spoken, appear in
literature, and can be found in the English dictionary. In fact, you may be so familiar with a word, you don’t
even realize it’s borrowed. For example, the word hibachi, which appears in “The Magic Mortar,” is a small
charcoal stove in Japanese. In English, the word refers to a small charcoal grill. Of course, English words are
also borrowed and can be heard in other languages.

Here are some words that are borrowed from languages spoken in other places around the world.
Africa Germany Scandinavia
zero kindergarten egg
voodoo waltz ski
sky
Australia Italy
boomerang fiasco South America
kangaroo opera jaguar
violin poncho
Caribbean
barbecue Middle East Spain
canoe bazaar hammock
potato caravan guitar

China Pacific Islands/Polynesia


kung fu taboo
tea tattoo

Choose six words from the list above. Use each in a sentence, underlining the borrowed word. If you know
additional words that are borrowed from other languages, incorporate them into your sentences.

1. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“The Cow of No Color”


Unit 7, page 489

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ponder

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
executed
twilight

PAVE
A good way to help yourself remember the meaning of an unfamiliar word you encounter while reading is
using PAVE. PAVE stands for Prediction, Association, Verification, and Evaluation.

Prediction When you encounter an unfamiliar word, first try to predict the word’s meaning based on
the context and on your prior knowledge of the word or its parts.

Association Then, write a new sentence using the word.

Verification Next, verify the word’s meaning by using a dictionary or glossary or by asking your teacher.
A dictionary may offer multiple meanings for the same word. If you use a dictionary, select
and write down the most appropriate definition.

Evaluation Evaluate the sentence you wrote using the word. If necessary, rewrite the sentence to
reflect the meaning you found. If you wish, draw an image that will help you remember
the meaning of the word.

You may want to create a Word Study Notebook to use when trying PAVE. You can also use the Word Study
Notebook to write down new words you encounter in the news, in stores, on the street, or in other subject
areas.

Look for the following words in the short story “The Cow of No Color.” Try PAVE for each word.

1. advice (page 489)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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2. fame (page 489)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

3. spokesman (page 489)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

4. executed (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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5. jealousy (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

6. justice (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

7. stool (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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8. twilight (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

9. speechless (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

10. ponder (page 490)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“Don’t Step on a Crack”


Unit 7, page 494

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
crockery
omen
orphan
superstition

MORE PAVE
Look for the following words in “Don’t Step on a Crack.” Try PAVE for each word.

1. paving (page 495)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

2. interpreted (page 495)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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3. innocent (page 495)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

4. venture (page 495)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

5. lurking (page 495)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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6. hazards (page 496)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

7. obvious (page 496)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

8. haggard (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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9. infancy (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

10. counteract (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

11. misfortune (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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12. mourners (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

13. haggard (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

14. infancy (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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15. properties (page 497)

Prediction __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Association _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Verification _________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“All Summer in a Day”


Unit 8, page 515

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


apparatus immense slacken
bear resilient surge
concussion savor tumultuous

CONTEXT CLUES—INTRODUCTION
Sometimes the meaning of an unfamiliar word can be learned by studying the words, sentences, and
paragraphs surrounding the term. Learning from context is an excellent way to develop your vocabulary.

Definitions, restatements, comparisons, contrasts, synonyms, and antonyms are all context clues you’ll learn
about in the coming lessons. But first, concentrate on what you already know. Often your own experience
can help you define an unfamiliar word.

Read Ray Bradbury’s “All Summer in a Day,” which begins on page 516 in your textbook. Make a list of
three words you don’t know. You can take the words from the Words for Everyday Use vocabulary list or
choose your own words from the story.

Begin with one of the words you’ve selected to study. Read the sentence it is found in. Now, reread the
sentence. If you still can’t figure out the meaning of the word, read the sentences before and after the
sentence that contains the unknown word. If you discover a clue in the context surrounding the word,
replace the unknown word with your “best guess” synonym, based on the clues. Does the original sentence
make sense? If so, you may have solved the word puzzle. Confirm your work in a dictionary.

Keep track of word detective work below.

1. Word:

Best Guess: _________________________________________________________________________________

Actual Definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

2. Word:

Best Guess: _________________________________________________________________________________

Actual Definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

3. Word:

Best Guess: _________________________________________________________________________________

Actual Definition: ____________________________________________________________________________

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“The Woman and the Wolf”


Unit 8, page 525

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


abhorrent foreboding perception
aloof forsake pervade
ardent furtive proprietary
complacent indomitable rebuff
convulsive lithe strident
crescendo obscurity throng
envisage onslaught vagrant
erratic pallid void

CONTEXT CLUES: DEFINITIONS AND RESTATEMENTS


Sometimes writers provide clues that may help you figure out the meaning of a word you don’t know. They
may give the word’s definition or restate the word in language that is easier to comprehend, so you can
grasp the definition of the word.

Definitions give the meaning of the word. Words like is or means can signal that a definition follows.
Restatements use different words to say the same thing. Restatements often use words and phrases like or,
that is, and in other words to announce that a restatement follows.
EXAMPLES

Definition:

Jackie redoubled her efforts, spending twice as much time studying for her spelling tests.

Restatement:

Her grades improved dramatically, that is, the change was striking to her teachers.

Using what you know from the example, go back to the first paragraph of this exercise. Can you find more
examples of definition and restatement? Underline them.

Read the following sentences, which include vocabulary words from “The Woman and the Wolf.” Underline
the definitions and restatements you find in the text. Determine whether the context clue is a definition or a
restatement and circle the correct answer. Then write a definition for the underlined word.

1. To be aloof is to be unfriendly.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of aloof: _____________________________________________________________

2. My grandmother is an ardent admirer of Elvis—that is, she’s crazy about him!

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of ardent: ___________________________________________________________

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3. Randy was complacent, or satisfied, with a second place finish at the science fair.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of complacent: _______________________________________________________

4. The rock star greeted the throng, or a large group, of admirers with a big smile.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of throng: ___________________________________________________________

5. The pioneers decided to leave, forsaking their farmstead.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of forsaking: _________________________________________________________

Write a sentence that contains a definition context clue. Underline the word you are defining. Circle the
definition context clue.

6. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Write a sentence that contains a restatement context clue. Underline the word you are restating. Circle the
restatement context clue.

7. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“I, Hungry Hannah Cassandra Glen”


Unit 8, page 538

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


botch fluted pasty
bureau hereby upstanding
charity passable

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


In “I, Hungry Hannah Cassandra Glen,” the author uses the abbreviation AKA, which means “also know as.”
An abbreviation is a short way of writing a word or group of words. Many abbreviations use periods. Others
do not. You can look in a dictionary to confirm your spelling. An acronym is a word made from the first
letters of a group of words.
EXAMPLES abbreviations Dec. (December), rte. (route)
acronyms CD (compact disk), MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)

Fill in the blanks with common abbreviations or acronyms.

1. Write the abbreviation for the state you live in _______.

2. Some months can be abbreviated (January, February, August, September, October, November, and
December). If your birthday falls in a month that has an abbreviation, write it here _________.

3. If an event is happening in the morning, it will occur at 10:00 ____. If an event is happening in the
afternoon, it will occur at 2:00 ____.

Write what each abbreviation or acronym means below.

4. Dr. ________________________________________________

5. Tues. ________________________________________________

6. lbs. ________________________________________________

7. U.S.A. ________________________________________________

8. TV ________________________________________________

9. UFO ________________________________________________

10. St. ________________________________________________

11. SOS ________________________________________________

12. NEA ________________________________________________

13. Assoc. ________________________________________________

14. Co. ________________________________________________

15. Inc. ________________________________________________

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“Raymond’s Run”
Unit 8, page 550

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


corsage liable prodigy
fantasy organdy psych

CONTEXT CLUES: COMPARE AND CONTRAST


Writers may use comparison and contrasting clues to help readers understand difficult words.

Comparison clues compare similar words. Like and as often announce comparison clues. Contrast clues
suggest the difference between words. Words like although, however, yet, on the other hand, and but suggest
that a comparison clue is being used.
EXAMPLE

Comparison
Mimi’s mother said her messy room looked like a catastrophe had occurred.

Contrast
The trainer muzzled the dog, but it broke the restraint and bit the delivery person.

Read the following sentences, which include vocabulary words from “Raymond’s Run.” Underline the
definitions and restatements you find in the text. Determine whether the context clue is a definition or a
restatement and circle the correct answer. Then write a definition for the underlined word.

1. The story was a fantasy, like an unreal dream.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of fantasy: ___________________________________________________________

2. For her graduation party, Cecile received a corsage that looked like a small copy of the flower
arrangement on the table.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of corsage: __________________________________________________________

3. The campers are liable to catch a cold, as the weather was unfavorable and all their clothing and
equipment got wet.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of liable: ____________________________________________________________

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4. The child was a piano prodigy, unlike his brother, who had no musical talent at all.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of prodigy: __________________________________________________________

5. The color of the room was ridiculous, like the hot pink of cotton candy.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of ridiculous: _________________________________________________________

6. Write a sentence that contains a comparison context clue. Underline the word you are defining. Circle
the comparison context clue.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Write a sentence that contains a contrast context clue. Underline the word you are restating. Circle the
contrast context clue.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“The Boy Who Talked with Animals”


Unit 8, page 563

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


bilious intercept restrain
commotion intimate sedate
consumption lethal stricken
deem patronizing subdued
extraordinary paunchy veranda
impassive

CONTEXT CLUES: SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS


In addition to definitions, restatements, comparisons, and contrasts, writers may use synonym and antonym
context clues to help readers understand unknown words.

Synonym clues are words that have the same or nearly the same meanings. Antonym clues are words that
have the opposite or nearly the opposite meanings.
EXAMPLES

Synonym
Her purse was so cramped there was no room for anything else in the pocketbook.

Antonym
The librarian was so grumpy he made everyone else look like they were in great moods.

Read the following sentences, which include vocabulary words from “The Boy Who Talked with Animals.”
Underline the synonyms and antonyms you find in the text. Determine whether the context clue is a
synonym or an antonym. Circle the correct answer. Then write a definition for the underlined word.

1. Once the commotion ended, a complete sense of quiet filled the room.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of commotion: _______________________________________________________

2. The consumption of gasoline decreased because people use less gas when its price increases.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of consumption: ______________________________________________________

3. The review said the movie was extraordinary and truly remarkable.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of extraordinary: ______________________________________________________

4. The party was gigantic and not the least bit intimate.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of intimate: __________________________________________________________

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5. The lethal poison killed the rodents.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of lethal: ____________________________________________________________

Write a sentence that contains a synonym context clue. Underline the word you are defining. Circle the
synonym context clue.

6. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Write a sentence that contains an antonym context clue. Underline the word you are restating. Circle the
antonym context clue.

7. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

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“Potter’s Gray”
Unit 8, page 583

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


anguish essence plight
condemn gabble prophesy
contrary inconspicuous rove
disclose minute wayward
dogged parcel

CONTEXT CLUES: PREDICTION


The more you read, the more opportunities you’ll have to practice using context clues to help you
understand the meaning of new words. You may also discover that how you approach texts in general can
make a difference in your understanding.

When reading, use your prior knowledge to predict what’s to come. Here are some ideas:

• Title—Does it provide any insights into what the text will be about?

• Author—Have you ever read anything by this writer before? What do you know about her/his work? The
author’s biography may give you some insights into the work.

• Genre—Have you read this kind of writing before? What do you think the experience will be like?

• Subject—Is the subject new to you? What do you think it will be about?

• Opening artwork—What does the opening illustration tell you about the work that follows?

• Photo or illustration captions—Does reading the captions offer any clues about the work’s content?

• Pull quotes—Pull quotes are the display text that enhances the layout of a story. This larger text calls
attention to important text from the story.

• Cover copy—Sometimes the story synopsis and press quotes that are found on the cover of a book can
offer insights about the story inside.

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Try practicing the techniques described on the previous page. Choose a selection from the textbook that
you’ve never read. Use the notes on the previous page to guide you as you take notes about your
predictions. When you’ve finished, read the work. Were your predictions on target? Would you use this
method in the future to help you with your understanding? What did the following items tell you about the
selection or about a passage in the selection?

1. Title _______________________________________________________________________________________

2. Author _____________________________________________________________________________________

3. Genre _____________________________________________________________________________________

4. Subject ____________________________________________________________________________________

5. Opening artwork ____________________________________________________________________________

6. Photo or illustration captions _________________________________________________________________

7. Pull quotes _________________________________________________________________________________

8. Cover copy _________________________________________________________________________________

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Getting into Poetry: Power of the Pen


Unit 9, page 611

RHYMING AND SPELLING


Many words that rhyme with one another actually are spelled quite differently. For example, in the poem
“Power of the Pen,” seas rhymes with sneeze. That can make it difficult to remember the correct spellings of
those words. A good way to help yourself remember the correct spellings is to visualize the word as a
picture. Another way is to create an association between a word and its spelling. For example, if you
commonly misspell the word attendance as attendence, you might remember to link the word to the correct
spelling by thinking of the attendance at the dance.

For each of the following commonly misspelled words, determine which letters people may have trouble
remembering. Then create a memory aid to help remember the correct spelling.

1. separate ____________________________________________________________________________________

2. embarrass __________________________________________________________________________________

3. fascinate____________________________________________________________________________________

4. weird ______________________________________________________________________________________

5. mysterious __________________________________________________________________________________

6. license _____________________________________________________________________________________

7. surprise_____________________________________________________________________________________

8. parallel _____________________________________________________________________________________

9. breathe_____________________________________________________________________________________

10. beggar _____________________________________________________________________________________

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Poetry: Imagery and Shape


Unit 9, pages 615–625

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTIONS


asphalt skim whirring

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
bettyandisbel perhaps queer
eddie and bill piracies to and fro
mud-luscious

DICTIONARY
A dictionary is an important resource for spelling and vocabulary development. In fact, you probably
already use a dictionary to help you with your schoolwork. If so, this review will remind you about the great
information a dictionary provides.

You can use a dictionary to find:

• How a word is spelled.

• What the word means.

• How to pronounce the word.

• What part of speech the word is.

• Examples of how to use the word.

Different dictionaries use slightly different styles for their entries. In general, though, you will find the
information you require, no matter the publisher.

Here’s an entry from Webster’s New Collegiate dictionary for the word asphalt, which is found in the poem
“The Sidewalk Racer, or On the Skateboard,” by Lillian Morrison.

as • phalt \’as-,folt\ n [ME aspalt, fr. LL aspaltus, fr. Gk asphaltos]


1: a brown to black bituminous substance that is found in natural beds
and is also obtained as a residue in petroleum refining and that consists
chiefly of hydrocarbons 2: an asphaltic composition used for pavements
and as a waterproof cement—as • phalt • ic \’as-,folt-tik\ adj

Label the following parts of the asphalt dictionary entry:

A. spelling
B. pronunciation
C. word origin
D. syllable division
E. part of speech
F. definition

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Poetry: Sound
Unit 9, pages 630–657

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


airs incessant shun
askance seek supple
downy

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
‘twas gimble slithy
azure glance snicker-snack
Bandersnatch gyre thou
beamish hast thy
borogoves Jabberwock toves
brillig Jubjub bird tramp
burbled manxome tulgey
chortled mimsy Tumtum tree
crag mome raths uffish
frabjous outgrabe vorpal
frumious sedately wabe
galumphing shudder whiffling

MORE ON PRONUNCIATION
At the front of a dictionary is a pronunciation key. This chart explains how the symbols in the phonetic
spelling of a word, which is given as part of each entry, should sound.

For example, long vowel sounds are represented with straight lines over the vowels.

Long Vowel Symbol Example Word

a ā gāt gate

e ē fēt feet

i ¯ ¯ s ice

o ō gōl goal

u u —d
roo rude

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Here are some dictionary pronunciations for words found in the poem “You are Old, Father William.” Use
the pronunciation key to figure out what words they are.

Pronunciation Word
–o
1. yo–

2. hwı– t

3. bäks

4. jä

5. –ı
e
6. ev ‘ r

7. kik

8. hav

9. oint ‘ ment
e
10. gen’

Your turn! Try writing the phonetic spellings (pronunciation) for words from the poem. Consult a dictionary
if you are stuck.

Word Pronunciation

11. youth

12. pray

13. law

14. life

15. clever

16. case

17. brain

18. most

19. manage

20. hair

CONTEXT CLUES
Although the language in “Jabberwocky” is unusual and, at first glance, a little baffling, you can understand
it best if you use context clues. For example, even though you don’t know what a Jabberwock is, the
description of it gives you a good idea: it has jaws that bite, claws, and eyes of flame. From the context, you
can surmise that the Jabberwock is a scary beast. If you look at other parts of the page, you see an
illustration of what is likely a Jabberwock.

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Many of the words used in “Jabberwocky” can be understood using context clues. Try to define the
following words from the poem. Then, for each word, write a sentence of your own using the word.

21. frumious ___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

22. uffish ______________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

23. manxome __________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

24. whiffling ___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

25. tulgey _____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

26. burbled ____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

27. vorpal _____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

28. beamish ___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

29. frabjous ____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

MORE ON DEFINITIONS
One of the most common reasons for using a dictionary is to look up what a word means. Some words
have more than one meaning. The definitions for these words are numbered within the dictionary entry.

Use your dictionary savvy to answer these questions about words from the poem “Two Girls...” by Charles
Rezhikoff.

30. What is an automat?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

31. How many definitions does your dictionary have for the word sedate? What part of speech is the word
sedately?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

32. ______________ is a synonym for the word tattered.

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33. How many definitions does your dictionary have for the word askance?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

34. Write how the word amused is used in an example in your dictionary.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

35. Does the term human being appear in your dictionary as a single entry? If not, how would you suggest
finding out the meaning of the phrase?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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Poetry: Narrative
Unit 9, pages 662–666

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTIONS
flaxseed hooped sheared
forge portion yoke
harness

DICTIONARY REVIEW: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER


Put your knowledge of dictionaries to use by writing a dictionary entry. Choose from the list below a word
that appears in the poem “Ox Cart Man.” Write a dictionary entry for the word.

barn honey salt


cart leather seed
cold ox tax
fire potato wool

Your entry should include the following items in this order:

1. word written with syllable division __________________________________

2. phonetic spelling (pronunciation) __________________________________

3. definition ________________________________________________________________________________

4. part of speech ____________________________________________________________________________

5. example of word in use

Compare your entry to an actual dictionary entry for the word. How do they compare?

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Poetry: Lyric
Unit 9, pages 671-672

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


dote magnanimous
indulgence suffuse

SEMANTIC FAMILY MAPPING: CITY TALK


The following words all have to do with cities. The words can be organized into groups. Use the cluster
chart to divide the words into groups. Then use the lines below to organize and label each subgroup. Meet
with a partner or small group to compare papers. Discuss the differences between the different items within
each group you created.

avenue
block
boulevard
city
community
district
downtown
metropolis
neighborhood
park
plaza
square
street
thoroughfare cities
town
trail
village

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Poetry: Translated Verse


Unit 9, pages 677–678

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


dash

WORD CHOICE
Writer Mark Twain, who wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, once said:

The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and
the lightning bug.

What Twain was saying is that the words we choose are important. When selecting a word, you’ll want to
consider its connotation. Connotation is the positive or negative feelings a reader associates with a word.
Connotations do not align with the dictionary definitions of a word. For example, both mad and furious are
synonyms for the word angry. But it seems more extreme to be furious than to be mad.

Perhaps in no kind of writing is choosing the exactly right word more important than in poetry. Poets are
good at expressing ideas with very few words, so the ones they choose to use carry a lot of weight.

Poet Sandra Cisneros wrote “Good Hot Dogs” in English and later translated it to Spanish. Here are several
lines as she wrote them. Beside these phrases are the same lines rewritten with synonyms in place of some
words. What do you notice about the change in language? Is the difference like that between lightning and
lightning bug?

Original Poem Rewritten with Synonyms

Fifty cents apiece Fifty cents each


To eat our lunch To eat our meal
We’d run We’d race
Straight from school Directly from school
Instead of home Not going home
Two blocks A couple blocks
Then the store Then the shop
That smelled like steam That smelled like hot air
You ordered You chose
Because you had the money Because you had the cash
Two hot dogs and two pops for here Two wieners and two sodas for here

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Try rewriting the rest of Cisneros’ poem. Write the original line if you can’t think of replacement synonyms
for the words in the phrase.

Original Poem Rewritten with Synonyms

Everything on the hot dogs


Except pickle lily
Dash those hot dogs
Into buns and splash on
All that good stuff
Yellow mustard and onions
And french fries piled on top all
Rolled up in a piece of wax
Paper for us to hold hot
In our hands
Quarters on the counter
Sit down
Good hot dogs
We’d eat
Fast till there was nothing left
But salt and poppy seeds even
The little burnt tips
of french fries
We’d eat
You humming
And me swinging my legs

Review your work. Was it difficult to find “just the right word?” How do you think changing Cisneros’
language changed the poem?

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“All the World’s a Stage”


Unit 10, page 695

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
capon oaths pard satchel
mewling pantaloon reputation treble

USING A THESAURUS
Sometimes when writing, you might find it difficult to find the exact word you need to convey an idea.
Consulting a thesaurus is one way of finding “just the right word.” A thesaurus is organized alphabetically,
just like a dictionary. Both books can be found in the reference sections of libraries.

Entries from different thesauri may contain slightly different kinds of information. In general, though, an
entry will include:

• a short definition for the word;


• its part of speech;
• synonyms for the word;
• the word used in an example;
• and, sometimes, antonyms for the word.

Use a thesaurus to find synonyms for these words from Shakespeare’s “All the World’s a Stage,” which is
from his play, As You Like It.

Words Synonyms

players ________________________

exit ________________________

entrances ________________________

time ________________________

parts ________________________

quarrel ________________________

modern ________________________

spectacles ________________________

Review the list of Shakespeare’s words and your own. Which do you think you would be more likely to use
when writing? Why?

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The Ugly Duckling


Unit 10, page 697

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


abandonment grudge precautionary
affirm homage propound
alter imperious retire
ardently inappropriate ruse
assume inevitable staple
attribute invariable strenuous
condemn meditation suitor
cryptic nonchalantly surreptitiously
dignified omen swoon
doggedness ordeal tactful
elusive pluck vain
exaggerate posterity waft

WORD ORIGINS
In addition to foreign words “borrowed” from other languages, the English language gains words from
other sources.

Names of People and Places


Sometimes words are named for people or places.
EXAMPLES
lindy—name of a popular dance whose name is taken from Charles A. Lindbergh
hamburger—named after the city of Hamburg, Germany

Acronyms
Acronyms are formed from the initial letters of a compound term
EXAMPLES
FDA—Food and Drug Administration
FBI—Federal Bureau of Investigation

Shortening Words
Words are sometimes shortened to make them easier to say.
EXAMPLES
ad—from the word advertisement
lab—from the word laboratory

Brand Names
Sometimes brand names for an object are used generically to describe the object—even when it’s a
different brand.
EXAMPLES
Xerox—for photocopies
Scotch tape—for tape

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Categorize these words as: people/place, acronym, shortened word, or brand name.

Word Category Word Category

Auto _________________________ Kleenex _________________________

NBA _________________________ Band-Aid _________________________

Rollerblade _________________________ phone _________________________

UFO _________________________ Laundromat _________________________

Walkman _________________________ PC _________________________

bike _________________________ CD _________________________

NASA _________________________ John Hancock _________________________

Teddy bear _________________________

Find the above words in this word search. Words are listed horizontally, vertically, diagonally, and in reverse.

A F T C X O G Y H E I U Z R W N

Z W C R C Q Y D O N F T S A B K

J E L R G A K Q G O D W F E O R

M O D F I N H T F W F Q W B C O

E E I A T F O I A I C G U Y E T

K W Y Z L I W A D A N N L D G L

M P O K B B E I G H I D Z D P K

K Q J L P N R O L C D R U E G J

K C X Z O A C E T W B U V T E K

M M O H D M X L L A R Q A V D C

V F P C U K N D H L N M V U T K

Z P E X N L B I K E O S C T T N

C H D E X A G A C R R R X F U O

N D M A L W H D D T U Z D C K M

S N A K L E E N E X A T H A H N

K L Y O N I U A H S O B Q Z M N

D J M N M A N B A O A P I F Y L

R E R E L T E N U K J M E X O H

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In the Fog
Unit 10, page 717

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


arrogant grizzled ironic
dismissal grotesque scrutinize
enchantment indignant

WORD STUDY: PARTS OF SPEECH CLASSIFICATION


The following Word Study exercises are suggestions to help you study new words. Try them all. You may
find that some kinds of exercises work better for you than others. In addition, some work best for certain
types of words, so you may prefer to use different exercises at different times. Use your dictionary as a
resource for these exercises.

When learning new words, it can be helpful to classify them based on parts of speech. Thinking about them
in this manner encourages you to consider how you might use the words in sentences. Once you are
familiar with how words could be used, you are more likely to actually employ them in your everyday
vocabulary.

Fill in the table below. Classify these words based on their part of speech.

arrogant fastened indecision


dangerously fumbling moonshiner
drifting gauze scrutinize

Word people, actions describes describes Use the word in a sentence


place, thing (verbs) people, place, action
(noun) thing (adjective) (adverb)

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“Madam C. J. Walker”
Unit 11, page 740

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


affection bequest provision reveal
ambition hygiene recruit segregate
astute lavish renovate shortcoming

WORD STUDY: VOCABULARY CARDS


Do you have a spelling test or vocabulary test coming up? Vocabulary Cards are great study aids. Here is
the information a card should contain:

write a write a definition in


synonym here your own words here

Vocabulary Word
phonetic spelling/pronunciation

write a sentence that write an antonym here


uses the word

Use index cards and colored pens to create your Vocabulary Cards. Writing each corner in a different color
pen will help you remember what you’re studying. Follow the design above. Make a card for each of the
twelve vocabulary words listed above from “Madam C. J. Walker.”
EXAMPLE

synonym: definition:
bountiful to spend
extravagantly/to have
in abundance

lavish
lav´ • ish

sentence: antonym:
The wedding banquet was lavish. meager

Once you’ve created them, Vocabulary Cards are handy and portable, so you can study anywhere—even
in a car or on the bus!

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“Satchel Paige”
Unit 11, page 749

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


confrontation flamboyant taunt
dismay prosper waning
exploit rutted

WORD STUDY: DEFINITION MAP


A Definition Map is another handy study tool. It includes some of the elements found on a Vocabulary Card,
and some other items as well.

Picture/Graphic Category/Definition
What does it look like? What is it?

Word:
Phonetic spelling/Pronunciation

Comparisons Description
Antonym/Synonym What is it like?

Examples

EXAMPLE

What does it look like? What is it?


Game played with bat
and ball. The ball
used in this game.
baseball
bas-bal
Antonym: not applicable What is it like?
Synonym: kind of like softball fun to play and watch
national pastime
a summertime sport
Examples
Professional Little League

Sometimes, as in the example above, it may not be possible to fill in the entire Definition Map. When this
occurs, just write “not applicable” in the portion of the map that can’t be completed.

Make Definition Maps for two words from “Satchel Paige,” which is found on page 749 of your textbook.

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from Geronimo’s Story of His Life


Unit 11, page 759

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abound banish secluded
administer loiter suspend
ascertain profane toil
assemble prostrate

WORD STUDY: WORD WHEEL


A Word Wheel is another kind of study aid. Word Wheels analyze a word from different angles or points of
view. Here’s a Word Wheel for the word toil, which is found in the selection from Geronimo’s Story of His Life.

Compare It
Toil suggests putting forth
extreme effort

Use It
Describe It
As a young man,
To work long and
Geronimo toiled
hard as opposed to
toil growing crops
simply working.
with his father
and mother.

Associate It
A steelworker in a hot factory.
A laborer in a dusty field.

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Choose another word from Geronimo’s Story of His Life, found on page 760 in your textbook. Make a Word
Wheel for this word.

Compare It

Use It
Describe It

Associate It

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from Gorillas in the Mist


Unit 11, page 768

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


foliage meander
intangible unfathomable

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
barrier intently shallow ravine
compelled jubilant sighing
doctorate latticework spellbound
feeding outstanding terrain
herbaceous vegetation resume

WORD STUDY: WORD MEANING FEATURE ANALYSIS


In this exercise, you will analyze words for their features. For example, here is a feature analysis for five types
of animals.

Animal Primate Lives in Africa Mammal Has Feathers

human X X X

giraffe X X

gorilla X X X

orangutan X X

ostrich X X

Give it a try—fill out this Word Meaning Feature Analysis chart for sports.

Sports Uses Ball Individual Equipment Involves


Sport Includes Net Running

soccer

baseball

hockey

marathon running

karate

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Create a Word Meaning Feature Analysis chart. Here’s how:

1. Pick a topic.

2. In the first column, write some words that relate to the category.

3. In the first row, list some features that the words may, or may not, share.

4. Complete the chart by placing x’s in the squares as you did above in the sports table.

5. Look over the completed chart to see how each word is unique.

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“The Five ‘Wanderers’


of the Ancient Skies”
Unit 11, page 777

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


associate intrigue retrograde
celestial reign ridicule
concoct relic

BLENDS
Blends are formed when two words are fused to make a new word.
EXAMPLES
motor + hotel = motel

breakfast + lunch = brunch

smoke + fog = smog

Blends are not very common in the English language. Just for fun, create some blends of your own. Be
creative! Your blends do not have to be real words.
EXAMPLES smart + funny = smunny

cold + grumpy = crumpy

1. ______________ + ______________ = ______________

2. ______________ + ______________ = ______________

3. ______________ + ______________ = ______________

4. ______________ + ______________ = ______________

5. ______________ + ______________ = ______________

6. ______________ + ______________ = ______________

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“Night”
Unit 11, page 787

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


conspire ironic teeming
grope persuade trough

EXCUSE ME, DO YOU HAVE THE TIME?


Time Related Words

Some words suggest the time of day without mentioning the exact time.
sunrise dusk nightfall
sunset dawn midday
morning twilight midnight
noon evening daytime
night daybreak nighttime

Some words suggest the time of year without mentioning a specific date.
spring harvest July
summer January August
autumn February September
fall March October
winter April November
solstice May December
equinox June

Some words suggest the time of the week.


weekday Tuesday Friday
weekend Wednesday Saturday
Monday Thursday Sunday

Unscramble the letters to make a time-related word. Write the word on the line.

1. ipAlr

__________________ showers bring May flowers.

2. saryhdTu

The day after Wednesday is __________________.

3. usiners

Jack got up before __________________ to deliver newspapers.

4. uamnut

The season before winter is __________________.

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5. htiidgmn

Tina stayed up past __________________ on New Year’s Eve.

6. mbterpeeS

The first day of school is usually in August or __________________.

7. wedkene

During the __________________ we do not go to school and our parents do not go to work.

8. nwda

Leslie woke up at __________________ to watch the sun rise.

9. itwern

__________________ is the coldest of the seasons.

10. tinhmgie

After dinner, during the __________________, our family watches TV together.

11. Saduyn

Saturday and __________________ are weekend days.

12. itliwtgh

__________________ is the light of the sky between sunset and night and between night and sunrise.

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“A Breath of Fresh Air?”


Unit 11, page 794

REVIEW: VOCABULARY FROM THE SELECTION


aggravation emissions provisions

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
fine particulates ground-level ozone sulfates

CREATE A WORD STUDY NOTEBOOK


Word Study Notebooks are collections of words you’ve studied and want to continue to work with in the
future. Here’s what you need to make a Word Study Notebook:

• an empty notebook

• two envelopes

• several sheets of paper cut into small squares

• glue or tape

Tape or glue one envelope to the front inside cover of your notebook. Tape or glue the other to the back
inside cover of the book. One envelope is for blank word squares. The other is for word squares with words
on them.

Now when you run across new words—spelling lists, reading assignments, or while reading for fun—you
can create a word square for the word. Then write an entry in your book for the word.

Your entries can be organized in a variety of ways:

• alphabetically

• by spelling rules

• by spelling themes

• by spelling lists

• by parts of speech

Or you can organize your word notes in a combination of ways. Use the word squares to play games or to
practice writing sentences.

Game Ideas

1. Take a word square at random from the envelope. See how many new words you can make by
changing only one letter of the word. Make a list. Next, see how many new words you can make by
changing two letters. Make a list.

2. Write sentences and paragraphs or short stories using your favorite words.

3. Go on a word hunt. Take squares at random from the envelope. Try finding these words in print—in
magazines, newspapers, online, or in a book. Time yourself, or play against other students.

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Getting into Media: Contests!


Unit 12, page 819

SPELLING BEE FUN


Each year Scripps Howard National Spelling Bee final is held in Washington, D.C. Students with amazing
spelling ability from around the country meet to compete. The winner is declared the best speller in the land!

You can organize your own spelling bee as a fun way to study. Gather your friends and classmates and use
your weekly spelling list or words from your Word Study Notebook. One person serves as judge. This person
will read the words that are to be spelled and check the spellings the participants give.

Spellers can ask the judge about the word’s definition, part of speech, use in a sentence, and history/source.
Spellers can start over, once they’ve spoken part of the spelling of a word, but they can’t change the order
of letters they’ve already said aloud.

The competition goes in rounds, with each speller getting one word per round. Spellers stay in the
competition until they miss a spelling. The last speller standing wins.

Good luck!

Here are some of the words given in the first round of a recent national spelling bee.

prolegomenon oppidan solmizate

mahout litotes gobemouche

tularemia phyllophorous phaeochrous

saponin scintillation deracinated

exiguous archivalia ratafia

laloplegia mostaccioli veneniferous

cappelletti wunderkind mistigris

escamotage cytolysis entente

pahoehoe edulcorate funipendulous

Aesculapian austausch involucre

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“Earth from Space”


Unit 12, page 824

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
atmosphere hurricanes tidal waves
earthquakes ozone

IDIOMS
Idioms are word phrases whose meanings are not literal. Idioms are found in English (and other languages)
and can be confusing if you’re unfamiliar with their meanings.

EXAMPLE

Summer vacation is just around the corner.

If you walk down the block and turn the corner, do you think you’ll find summer? Of course not! The saying
really means that summer will be here soon.

Studying idioms (what they mean and their origins) is fascinating and fun. As you learn more about idioms,
you may want to keep a section in your Word Study Notebook to record interesting idiomatic phrases.

Match each idiomatic expression with its meaning. Write the number of the idiom in front of the correct
definition.

Idiom Meaning

1. top dog ____ hurry up

2. gift of gab ____ not difficult

3. chill out ____ a boss or leader

4. rings a bell ____ face up to the truth

5. shake a leg ____ relax

6. dime a dozen ____ to be fond of talking

7. small potatoes ____ to sound familiar

8. see eye to eye ____ something that is inexpensive and/or easy to find

9. easy as pie ____ agree

10. get real ____ something that is not important

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Do you know any other idioms? Write five, with their definitions, here:

11. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

12. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

13. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

14. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

15. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Do you know what the following expressions mean? Write their definitions below.

16. Matt was cool as a cucumber while playing his trumpet solo at the concert.

meaning: __________________________________________________________________________________

17. Jennifer is on the ball. She always finishes her homework before dinner.

meaning: __________________________________________________________________________________

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from Dear Ms. Demeanor


Unit 12, page 830

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
bad rap poor guy steer clear
oops! sharp

MIND YOUR MANNERS!


In the excerpts from the “Dear Ms. Demeanor” column, Ms. Demeanor gives kids etiquette advice. On
page 831, for example, she instructs readers on how to address an envelope. Here are her directions:

Write your name, street address, city and state with zip code at the top left corner on the front of the
envelope.

Your neighbor’s full name, such as Mr. John Smith, goes in the center of the front with street address,
city, and state. Don’t abbreviate the state name.

Never omit honorifics—Mr., Mrs., or Miss—from an envelope. The only word that can be abbreviated
on an address is Dr. for Doctor. Write everything else in full.

Using Ms. Demeanor’s guidelines, proofread the following envelopes. Correct any mistakes using
proofreader marks.

Jack Smith
421 Fifth Ave.
Anywhere, OH 34011

Sally Miller
24 Jackson Blvd.
Millertown, PA
25781

Tanya Blue
16 Tool Lane
Lennox, Tennessee

Dr. Joan Griggs


14 Noble St.
Bluehill, KY

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Honorifics are social titles that convey respect. Other kinds of titles include military and those for elected
officials. Do you know what these titles mean?

Title: Refers to:

Reverend ______________________

Senator ______________________

Professor ______________________

Honorable ______________________

Captain ______________________

Ms. Demeanor suggests an all-purpose closing a letter is Sincerely, followed by your name. Other common
closings are Yours truly, and Best regards. Can you think of other closings you might use when signing
letters?

Invitations have a language of their own. Do you know what the following phrases mean?

Phrase: Meaning:

RSVP ______________________

Regrets only ______________________

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“Beads & Bangles”


Unit 12, page 838

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
assortment in-stock spool
bobbins mass strand
doz

CLICHÉS
Clichés are phrases that are overused and thus boring to hear or read. Although the use of clichés is
common, try to avoid them in your own writing.
EXAMPLE Gina’s hair is neat as a pin.

Do you know any clichés? Write three with their meanings below.

1. cliché: _____________________________________________________________________________________

meaning: __________________________________________________________________________________

2. cliché: _____________________________________________________________________________________

meaning: __________________________________________________________________________________

3. cliché: _____________________________________________________________________________________

meaning: __________________________________________________________________________________

Rewrite these sentences so they don’t include the underlined clichés.

4. The team put up a good fight, but lost in the final minutes of the game.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

5. That morning radio announcer is full of hot air.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

6. My grades are falling, so I’d better hit the books.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

7. The substitute teacher was off the wall.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

8. Dana insists on going bowling and skating for her birthday. She really wants to have her cake and eat
it too.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

9. My uncle said I could have his fancy convertible car when I turn sixteen. Of course, he was just pulling
my leg.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

“Hearing Under Siege”


Unit 12, page 843

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
cranked permanent
irreversible precautions

WORDS THAT REALLY MEASURE UP


Different kinds of measurement units have different names. Match these units with the thing they measure
by writing the number of the measurement unit in front of the correct definition. Use a dictionary if you do
not know what some of the units are.

Unit Measures

1. decibels ____ depth of water

2. knots ____ distance

3. pounds ____ power

4. degrees ____ sound

5. watts ____ weight

6. fathom ____ boat speed

7. meters ____ temperature

Can you think of any other measurement units? Write three below.

8. ____________ measures _____________

9. ____________ measures _____________

10. ____________ measures _____________

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Name________________________________________ Class_____________________ Date ____________________

from The Adventures of Tintin:


The Black Island
Unit 12, page 850

GET TO KNOW: EXPRESSIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASES, AND OTHER TERMS FROM THE SELECTION
cosh-stick robbery
evidence swear

COMIC BOOK CHATTER


Comic strips often use words that wouldn’t make a lot of sense in other contexts. These words can suggest
what a character is saying, an emotion, or a movement. In the excerpt from The Adventures of Tintin: The
Black Island, for example, the artist uses:

• ?

• Eek

• Aha!

• zzzzz

In the context of a comic strip story line, and with the help of clever illustrations, readers understand what
these blips and shrieks mean.

Listed below are some common words found in the funnies. Translate the comic book chatter below:

As seen in the Comics Translation

Yikes! ______________________

blah, blah, blah... ______________________

Zap! ______________________

drats! ______________________

oops! ______________________

grrrr ______________________

aieee! ______________________

aigh! ______________________

Look in the comic section of a newspaper. Highlight any comic book chatter you find. Translate what these
words mean in the context of the strip. Now replace the words in the strip with your translations. Which
words do you prefer—the original or the translations?

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Answer Key
“The Goodness of Matt Kaizer”
UNIT 1, PAGE 6
Speaking Slang
Slang Phrases Meanings
1. gross 6. to relax with friends
2. ate it up 3. the person with the worst behavior
3. baddest of the bad 4. to be afraid to do something
4. you’re chicken 1. disgusting
5. small straw of a sad slug 5. a person who appears to be weak
6. hanging out 2. to like something
7. sweet 7. great—a good thing or situation
8.–13. Responses will vary.

“Eleven”
UNIT 1, PAGE 21
Numbers Count
Words Numerals
eight 8

eleven 11

five 5

four 4

nine 9

one 1

one hundred 100

seven 7

six 6

ten 10

thirty-one 31

a thousand 1,000

three 3

two 2
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Numerals Words

1,000,000 one million

29 twenty-nine

14 fourteen

16,000 sixteen thousand

99 ninety-nine

A.–B. Responses will vary.

“Why”
UNIT 1, PAGE 27
Long Vowels
1. Mother fried (long i ) the bacon (long a ) on the campfire (long i ).

2. We (long e ) are quite busy (long e ) these (long e ) days.

3. Ralph brought his bow (long o ) and arrow (long o ) to the picnic.

4. Max fixed his boot (long u ) with glue (long u ).

5. I (long i ) would like (long i ) to go to France, but I’m afraid to fly (long i ).

6. The baby began to drool (long u ) and chew (long u ) on his toy.

7. Rose (long o ) asked the dentist to look at her tooth (long u ).

8. “Stop it!” my sister cried (long i ). “You (long u ) are being rude (long u )!”

9. The toad (long o ) hopped along the sidewalk (long i ).

10. My grandmother grows (long o ) beets (long e ), chives (long i ), and beans (long e ) in her
garden.

“Ta-Na-E-Ka”
UNIT 1, PAGE 35
Other Vowel Sounds
1. As my birthday drew closer, I had auful/awful nightmares about it.

2. It was bitter, and even grasshoppers were probably better tasting, although/olthough I never intended
to find out.

3.–5. Responses will vary.

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“The All-American Slurp”


UNIT 1, PAGE 56
Morphemes
1. disgrace (page 48)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? grace = manners, kindness to others

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? dis = opposite

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

2. revolting (page 48)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? revolt = disgust or shock

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ing = forms adjective

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

3. unison (page 48)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? uni = one

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? son = sound

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

4. retreat (page 49)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? retreat = draw back

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? re = back or again (possible answer)

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

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5. mortified (page 49)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? mort = death

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? fied (fy) = forms a verb

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

6. inflection (page 50)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? inflect = curve or bend

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? in = not (possible answer)

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? tion = forms a noun

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

7. headwaiter (page 51)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? head = person in charge

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? waiter = one who serves food.

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

8. consumption (page 52)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? consume/consump = take or use up

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -tion = forms a noun

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

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9. wallpaper (page 52)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? wall = side of building or room

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? paper = material used for writing or
covering things

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

10. Frenchman (page 52)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? French = of or relating to France

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? man = male human

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

“How Robin Hood Saved the Widow’s Three Sons”


UNIT 2, PAGE 74
More Morphemes
1. longbows (page 74)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? long = having great length

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? bow = weapon for shooting arrows

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

2. earnest (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? earnest = serious

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

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3. disguise (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? guise = costume or style of dress

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? dis = opposite

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

4. propose (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? pose = to put in place or to present for
consideration

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? pro = in favor

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

5. exchange (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? change = to make different

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? ex = from out

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

6. himself (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? him = male pronoun

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? self = one’s own person

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

7. pretended (page 75)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? pretend = give false appearance

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ed = forms past tense of verb

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

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8. impatiently (page 76)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? patient = having or showing patience

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? im= not

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? ly = forms adverb

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

9. prepared (page 76)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? pare = to cut down or make less

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? pre = before

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ed = forms past tense of verb

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

10. hangman (page 76)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? hang = to put person to death with rope around
the neck

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? man = male human being

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

11. thumbtack: thumb = the short, thick finger on a hand / tack = small nail

meaning: Responses will vary.

12. cookbook: cook = to make food / book = paper fastened together, pages have writing on them

meaning: Responses will vary.

13. kickball: kick = to strike with the foot / ball = round object used in games

meaning: Responses will vary.

14. heartbreaker: heart = center of person’s feelings / breaker = one who damages

meaning: Responses will vary.

15. earthworm: earth = ground / worm = thin animal with no legs

meaning: Responses will vary.

16. troublemaker: trouble = difficult situation / maker = one who causes something to become

meaning: Responses will vary.

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17. crossroads: cross = anything shaped like a cross / roads = paths for traveling on

meaning: Responses will vary.

18. anytime: any = one or some of a kind / time = period during which events occur

meaning: Responses will vary.

19. motorbike: motor = engine / bike = vehicle to ride on

meaning: Responses will vary.

20. whirlwind: whirl = to turn quickly in a circle / wind = moving air

meaning: Responses will vary.

from Still Me
UNIT 2, PAGE 80
Spelling the k Sound
D B G M C N G K W X

G K K G X L E E H S

H T A K V F C Y U I

Y C I Y C K H B J N

K A N G A R O O I L

B S T L R T F A T G

O E B D P R T R E H

P C E P E A K D J I

Y H J H T C X H T C

A R Y Y Z K F M N O

D O R S O M B G N N

L N R I J G G G U S

O I N C A D S G A T

M C H A R A C T E R

Q T L L V E J H J U

Q S O E V P S A B C

X G D I G O Q C G T

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“Joyriding”
UNIT 2, PAGE 92
More Vowel Sounds
1. about

oi / oo / ow

2. voice

oi / oo / ow

3. plural

oi / oo / ow

4. flower

oi / oo / ow

5. crowd

oi / oo / ow

6. brook

oi / oo / ow

7. employ

oi / oo / ow

8. cure

oi / oo / ow

9. voyage

oi / oo / ow

10. mouth

oi / oo / ow

A Woman Called Truth


UNIT 2, PAGE 105
Double Trouble
1. narrative or narative

2. apall or appall

3. occurred or occured

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4. address or adress

5. accidentaly or accidentally

6. accommodate or acommodate

7. aparent or apparent

8. attendance or atendance

9. begining or beginning

10. committee or comittee

11. embarass or embarrass

12. fulfil or fulfill

13. mispell or misspell

14. suceed or succeed

15. tomorow or tomorrow

16. parallel or paralel

17. accustomed or acustomed

18. warant or warrant

“Priscilla and the Wimps”


UNIT 2, PAGE 135
Spelling the s Sound
1. Priscilla (page 135) sc

2. pass (page 135) ss

3. agency (page 135) c

4. subtle (page 136) s

5. serpent (page 136) s

6. laceration (page 136) c

7. romance (page 136) c

8. swaggers (page 136) s

9. wittiness (page 137) ss

10. circling (page 137) c

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1
T
2
P R I N C E S S
3
S O
C U
4
M I S S I S S I P P I
E E
N R
5
C S L O P P Y
6 7
D A N C E
L
8
A C
9
S S I
10
S C E N T
E Y
D

Across

2. The princess lived in the castle with her parents, the king and queen.

4. The Mississippi is the longest river in North America.

5. Kim’s handwriting was sloppy and hard to read.

6. The waltz is a kind of dance.

10. The scent of her perfume is nice.

Down

1. Another word for pants is trousers.

3. Biology and physics are included in the field of science.

7. The teacher told the students in the class to be quiet.

8. A city is a very large town.

9. If you plant this seed, it will grow into a flower.

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“The Face of the Deep Is Frozen”


UNIT 3, PAGE 154
Shhhhh! Silent Letters!

Silent Letter Examples Your Word

b plumb answers will vary

bomb

tomb

g sign answers will vary

gnat

gnome

h rhyme answers will vary

thyme

rhinoceros

k knife answers will vary

know

knit

w wreath answers will vary

whole

writer

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Silent Letter Search


K G V M Y I Z F P M K K R T W P G R

W L E Y M J E X R X N G N A W I N G

J C M O W W Z P H J O J O U B H X E

R M S A S R W A Y Y C L J E C C I U

W Y O L Z X H N T B K H K T I K U J

R R F B O S Y U H N O K A C C K L F

A I I H A G B Q M W U W C U S X X E

N U J N F M G D E B T D V U O P B Q

G H G W K R I Y S S A R S J D H T Q

L O C I M L F E I Y E I K Q J B A B

E C A T W I E R G Q M O C U R H Y G

U E K D G N W I K L O L N U G G H Q

I C Q Q K O M D F W J K L M L P K Q

“Pompeii”
UNIT 3, PAGE 164
Contraction Action
1. does + not = doesn’t

2. you + have = you’ve

3. will + not = won’t

4. she + will = she’ll

5. was + not = wasn’t

6. should + not = shouldn’t

7. he + has = he’s

8. they + have = they’ve

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Dear Eloise,

Thank you for the gift of money for my twelfth birthday. You’re very thoughtful to always remember
You + are

my special day. I’ll be using the money to buy a new bike. We’re going camping this summer and
I + will We+ are

we’ll bring our bikes along to ride on the trails. What fun!
we + will

Thanks again, Eloise.

Your friend,

Chris

“The Springhill Disaster”


UNIT 3, PAGE 179
Rhyme Time
roll stone

bread sky

team coal

alone instead

lie seam

Rhyme responses will vary.

“The Cutoff: The Story of the Donner Party”


UNIT 3, PAGE 186
Solving the ie/ei Puzzle
A friend in need is a friend indeed.

correct/incorrect

spelling: friend

Children measuring below this hieght are not allowed on the roller coaster.

correct/incorrect

spelling: height

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Recieving Dock Entrance

correct/incorrect

spelling: Receiving

Randall Webster, Cheif of Police

correct/incorrect

spelling: Chief

Please do not feed the Riendeer

correct/incorrect

spelling: Reindeer

Neighborhood Garage Sales Today!

correct/incorrect

spelling: Neighborhood

Museum’s Ancient Artifacts Collection, Walk This Way

correct/incorrect

spelling: Ancient

Believe in Yourself!

correct/incorrect

spelling: Believe

Pie for Sale—One dollar per peice.

correct/incorrect correct/incorrect

spelling: pie spelling: piece

University Sceince Lab

correct/incorrect

spelling: Science

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“The Wreck of the Hesperus”


UNIT 3, PAGE 202
Stormy Weather
eye hurricane

fault line earthquake

lava volcano

aftershock earthquake

tidal wave hurricane

crater earthquake

twister tornado

epicenter earthquake

Hockey

Responses will vary.

Soccer

Responses will vary.

Skateboarding

Responses will vary.

Gymnastics

Responses will vary.

Basketball

Responses will vary.

Other sport responses will vary.

“Big Wind” and “Child on Top of a Greenhouse”


UNIT 3, PAGE 211
Possessives
Special thanks to the student’s/students’ parents. Our/Our’ annual carnival was a great success because of
your’/your excellent volunteer work. The groups’/group’s efforts raised over one thousand dollars for the
gymnasium’s/gymnasiums’ new equipment. Thanks also to Rachel’s/Rachels’ mother, Jackie Washington,
who donated the painting for the silent auction. Its/It’s frame was beautiful, too!

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“My Friend Flicka”


UNIT 4, PAGE 231
Honing Your Word Study Skills
Responses will vary.

“Rikki-Tikki-Tavi”
UNIT 4, PAGE 250
Word Study Skills—Picture This
Responses will vary.

“Zlateh the Goat”


UNIT 4, PAGE 264
The f Sound
1. houneg

Do you have enough money for the bus?

2. eerrf

To find out what time the bus leaves, refer to the transit schedule.

3. tlnaehpe

The elephant is the largest land mammal.

4. aghlu

The clown made us laugh .

5. fndulo

Unfold the blanket and place it on the bed.

6. tbphaeal

Twenty-six letters make up the alphabet .

7. ehopn

Why don’t you phone your parents to see about a ride home?

8. cpayihls

Today I went to the doctor for my yearly physical .

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9. grouh

The road was bumpy and incredibly rough .

10. ystfana

Zach reads science fiction and fantasy novels.

“Shelter Shock”
UNIT 4, PAGE 272
Uh...Spelling the schwa Sound
Word Hunt
Find two words for each letter combination below in “Shelter Shock,” found on page 273 in your textbook.

al el il le

1. answers will vary answers will vary answers will vary answers will vary

2. answers will vary answers will vary answers will vary answers will vary

Word Scramble
3. plrAi

Olivia’s birthday is in April .

4. ecalm

A camel can live in the hot desert.

5. uzpezl

My grandmother likes to do the crossword puzzle everyday.

6. laepn

The panel of judges decided who would perform in the talent contest.

7. alnge

My mother calls me her little angel .

8. iararvl

We waited for the arrival of the airplane.

9. pcklei

I ordered by hamburger with mustard and a pickle .

10. endlee

Missy sewed on the button with a needle and thread.

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11. uppil

An eye’s pupil gets smaller in bright light.

12. tlmea

Gold is a metal and so is silver.

13. lmoar

The moral of the story is that it’s better to give than to receive.

“Cat on the Go”


UNIT 4, PAGE 292
Plural Noun Endings
Singular Plural

1. loaf loaves

2. box boxes

3. knife knives

4. potato potatoes

5. boy boys

6. mouse mice

7. fly flies

8. donkey donkeys

9. radio radios

10. ox oxen

Plural Singular

11. libraries library

12. echoes echo

13. roofs roof

14. reflexes reflex

15. porches porch

16. ideas idea

17. armies army

18. thieves thief

19. geese goose

20. wishes wish

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from Ranch of Dreams


UNIT 4, PAGE 308
Morpheme Review
1. correspondent (page 308)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? correspond = to write letters to one another

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ent = one that performs (a specific action)

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: news reporter

2. dislike (page 309)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? like = to be fond of something

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? dis = opposite

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: to regard with disapproval or aversion (to not like)

3. converse (page 309)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? verse = words written in a pattern

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? con = with

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning?

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: reversed in order or action

4. objective (page 309)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? object = thing that is wanted, goal

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ive= adjective form of a noun

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: aim or goal

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5. galvanize (page 311)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? galvanism = direct current of electricity
(from Luigi Galvani)

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ize = to make

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: to stimulate or excite

6. infuriate (page 311)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? in = in

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? fury = rage

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ate = act on

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: to make furious, angry

7. prospective (page 311)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? pro = in favor; forward

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? spect = to look

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ive = that performs or does

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: expected; would be

8. indelible (page 312)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? in = not

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning? del = delete

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ible = capable of

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition: that cannot be erased

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9. incredibly (page 313)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? credible = believable

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning? in = not

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -y = forms adverb

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition:

10. underfeeding (page 316)

Is there a free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? under = less than

Is there a second free morpheme? If so, what is its meaning? feed = to give food to

Is there a prefix? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a word root? If so, what is its meaning?

Is there a suffix? If so, what is its meaning? -ing = forms gerund (noun)

Prediction of word meaning: Responses will vary.

Actual Definition:

“The Creation of Music”


UNIT 5, PAGE 334
Synonyms
1. rise (p. 335) Responses will vary.

2. quickly (p. 335) Responses will vary.

3. beautiful (p. 335) Responses will vary.

4. dawn (p. 335) Responses will vary.

5. mighty (p. 335) Responses will vary.

6. turbulent (p. 335) Responses will vary.

7. silent (p. 335) Responses will vary.

8. replied (p. 336) Responses will vary.

9. crush (p. 336) Responses will vary.

10. small (p. 336) Responses will vary.

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“Forever Young”
UNIT 5, PAGE 343
Antonyms
1. young: Responses will vary. Possible answers include old, ancient, mature.

2. always: Responses will vary. Possible answers include never, seldom, rarely.

3. true: Responses will vary. Possible answers include false, untrue.

4. courageous: Responses will vary. Possible answers include cowardly, wimpy.

5. swift: Responses will vary. Possible answers include slow, sluggish.

6. joyful: Responses will vary. Possible answers include sad, depressed.

7. stay: Responses will vary. Possible answers include go, leave.

8. high: Responses will vary. Possible answers include low.

9. loud: Responses will vary. Possible answers include soft, quiet.

10. question: Responses will vary. Possible answers include answer, response.

11.–15. Responses will vary.

“Scarborough Fair”
UNIT 5, PAGE 351
Capitalization
1. The mississippi river is the longest river in North america.

2. Maya’s birthday is in july.

/owling on friday or Saturday.


3. We’re going B

4. We saw the white house when we were in washington, D.C.

5. The Fourth of July is also known as independence day.

6. She speaks french and spanish.

/eople will live on mars in the future.


7. Ralph thinks that P

8. In August, we’re going to see the grand canyon.

9. Jorge’s /
Family is from venezuela.

10. In October, many kids celebrate halloween by going to trick or treat.

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“Nothing But Drums” and “Three/Quarters Time”


UNIT 5, PAGE 357
Easily Confused Pairs
1.–10. Responses will vary.

11. After dinner, we had pie for dessert .

12. It is colder this morning than it was last night.

13. I had a big problem, so I asked my mother for advice .

14. The principal of the school announced the pep rally.

15. Jerry took a deep breath and dove into the water.

16. The Wildcats were sad to lose the baseball game.

17. The teacher can’t accept gifts of money from students.

18. I go to school everyday except Saturday and Sunday.

19. The coarse wool of the old sweater felt rough and scratchy.

20. The desert sun is incredibly hot.

21.–25. Responses will vary.

from To Be or Not to Bop


UNIT 5, PAGE 363
Syllabication Nation
Match each word with the example of how to divide its vowel-consonant pattern into syllables.

1. pedal v/v

2. dial vc/cccv

3. unknown vc/cv

4. embrace vc/v

5. upstream vc/ccv

6. minor vc/ccv

7. octave v/cv

Now draw a line between the syllables in the words.

8. d i / a l

9. e m / b r a c e

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10. m i / n o r

11. o c / t a v e

12. p e d / a l

13. o c / t a v e

14. u n / k n o w n

15. u p / s t r e a m

from The Hobbit


UNIT 6, PAGE 385
More Syllabication
Analyze these words, some of which are found in “The Hobbit,” using the process described above. Divide
each word into syllables.

1. z e / r o

2. s a d / n e s s

3. g r a / v y

4. d e / v o u r

5. i t / c h y

6. o d d / m e n t s

7. l i z / a r d

8. b l u n / d e r

9. d i s / a / g r e e

10. s h a m / b l e

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“The Tunnel”
UNIT 6, PAGE 401
Spelling by Syllables
Word Sort
categories:

Prefixes

in-/im-/il-/ir- un- pre-

imagined unblinking pretend

irregular prepared

initiative

impersonating

inhale

Suffixes

-ed -ing -ly -y

imagined hovering evidently dusty

trapped echoing deadly scruffy

originated unblinking dangerously stretchy

prepared impersonating extremely

“Dragon, Dragon”
UNIT 6, PAGE 412
Word Roots
Responses will vary.

“The Rebellion of the Magical Rabbits”


UNIT 6, PAGE 425
Accented Syllables
1. in sist’

2. de fi’ ance

3. ag’ ile

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4. sub ver’ sive

5. sauc’ y

6. par’ a lyze

7. ju’ bi lant

8. eth’ ics

9. twit’ ter

10. as cend’

“The Creation”
UNIT 7, PAGE 455
Verb Tenses
irregular past tense present tense

1. grew grow

2. was be

3. made make

4. fell fall

5. were be

6. swam swim

7. dove dive

8. caught catch

9. became become

10. flew fly

11. brought bring

12. began begin

present tense past tense

13. walk walked

14. think thought

15. skate skated

16. climb climbed

17. wiggle wiggled

18. jog jogged

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19. skip skipped

20. race raced

21. stretch stretched

22. bend bent

23. jump jumped

24. ski skied

“The Twelve Labors of Hercules”


UNIT 7, PAGE 460
More Accented Syllables
1. com po’ sure

2. de range’

3. di vert’

4. pro trude’

5. se rene’

Some words have two stressed syllables. In the dictionary, these words have two accent marks in their
entries. The larger mark shows the primary accent.

Place the accent marks on the correct syllables in these words from “The Twelve Labors of Hercules.” Use a
larger mark for the primary accent. Say each word aloud and try to hear the syllables you naturally stress.
Check your work in a dictionary.

6. o’ ver whelmed’

7. de ter’ mi na’ tion

8. pri’ ma’ ry

9. con grat’ u late’

10. a pol’ o gize’

Getting into Storytelling: On the Telling of Myths, Legends,


and Stories
UNIT 7, PAGE 466
Creating Language
Responses will vary.

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“The Singing, Springing Lark”


UNIT 7, PAGE 471
Spelling: Self-Correction
1.–5. Responses will vary.

“The Magic Mortar”


UNIT 7, PAGE 480
Borrowing Foreign Words
1.–6. Responses will vary.

“The Cow of No Color”


UNIT 7, PAGE 489
PAVE
1.–10. Responses will vary.

“Don’t Step on a Crack”


UNIT 7, PAGE 494
More PAVE
1.–15. Responses will vary.

“All Summer in a Day”


UNIT 8, PAGE 515
Context Clues—Introduction
1.–3. Responses will vary.

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“The Woman and the Wolf”


UNIT 8, PAGE 525
Context Clues: Definitions and Restatements
1. To be aloof is to be unfriendly.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of aloof: Responses will vary.

2. My grandmother is an ardent admirer of Elvis—that is, she’s crazy about him!

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of ardent: Responses will vary.

3. Randy was complacent, or satisfied, with a second place finish at the science fair.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of complacent: Responses will vary.

4. The rock star greeted the throng, or large group, of admirers with a big smile.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of throng: Responses will vary.

5. The pioneers decided to leave, forsaking their farmstead.

definition / restatement

Write your own definition of forsaking: Responses will vary.

6.–7. Responses will vary.

“I, Hungry Hannah Cassandra Glen”


UNIT 8, PAGE 538
Abbreviations
1. Write the abbreviation for the state you live in Responses will vary. .

2. Some months can be abbreviated (January, February, August, September, October, November, and
December). If your birthday falls in a month that has an abbreviation, write it here Responses will vary.

3. If an event is happening in the morning, it will occur at 10:00 a.m. If an event is happening in the
afternoon, it will occur at 2:00 p.m.

4. Dr. Doctor

5. Tues. Tuesday

6. lbs. pounds

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7. U.S.A. United States of America

8. TV television

9. UFO unidentified flying object

10. St. Street or Saint

11. SOS Save Our Ship

12. NEA National Education Association

13. Assoc. Association

14. Co. Company

15. Inc. Incorporated

“Raymond’s Run”
UNIT 8, PAGE 550
Context Clues: Compare and Contrast
1. The story was a fantasy, like an unreal dream.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of fantasy:

Responses will vary.

2. For her graduation party, Cecile received a corsage that looked like a small copy of the flower
arrangement on the table.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of corsage:

Responses will vary.

3. The campers are liable to catch a cold, as the weather was unfavorable and all their clothing and
equipment got wet.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of liable:

Responses will vary.

4. The child was a piano prodigy, unlike his brother, who had no musical talent at all.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of prodigy:

Responses will vary.

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5. The color of the room was ridiculous, like the hot pink of cotton candy.

compare / contrast

Write your own definition of ridiculous:

Responses will vary.

6.–7. Responses will vary.

“The Boy Who Talked with Animals”


UNIT 8, PAGE 563
Context Clues: Synonyms and Antonyms
1. Once the commotion ended, a complete sense of quiet filled the room.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of commotion:

Responses will vary.

2. The consumption of gasoline decreased because people use less gas when its price increases.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of consumption:

Responses will vary.

3. The review said the movie was extraordinary and truly remarkable.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of extraordinary:

Responses will vary.

4. The party was gigantic and not the least bit intimate.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of intimate:

Responses will vary.

5. The lethal poison killed the rodents.

synonym / antonym

Write your own definition of lethal:

Responses will vary.

6.–7. Responses will vary.

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“Potter’s Gray”
UNIT 8, PAGE 583
Context Clues—Prediction
1.–8. Responses will vary.

Getting into Poetry: Power of the Pen


UNIT 9, PAGE 611
Rhyming and Spelling
Responses will vary. Possible responses are given for the commonly misspelled parts of the words.

1. separate

2. embarrass

3. fascinate

4. weird

5. mysterious

6. license

7. surprise

8. parallel

9. breathe

10. beggar

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Poetry: Imagery and Shape


UNIT 9, PAGES 615-625
Dictionary
A and D B E C

as • phalt \’as-,folt\ n [ME aspalt, fr. LL aspaltus, fr. Gk asphaltos]

1: a brown to black bituminous substance that is found in natuarl beds and is also obtained as a residue in
F petroleum refining and that consists chiefly of hdrocarbons 2: an asphaltic composition used for pavements
and as a waterproof cement — as • phalt • ic \’as-,folt-tik\ adj

A. spelling

B. pronunciation

C. word origin

D. syllable division

E. part of speech

F. definition

Poetry: Sound
UNIT 9, PAGES 630–657
More on Pronunciation
Pronunciation Word

1. yoo you

2. hw¯t white

3. bäks box

4. jä jaw

5. ¯ I

6. ev ‘ər ever

7. kik kick

8. hav have

9. oint ‘ ment ointment

10. ə gen’ again

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Word Pronunciation

11. youth —th


yoo

12. pray prā

13. law lä

14. life l¯f

15. clever klev ər

16. case kās

17. brain brān

18. most most

19. manage man əj

20. hair hā r

21. – 29. Responses will vary.

More on Definitions
30. What is an automat?

An automat is a coin-operated cafeteria. Food is stored in little compartments until a person makes a
purchase.

31. How many definitions does your dictionary have for the word sedate? What part of speech is the word
sedately?

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary gives two definitions for the words sedate. Sedately is an adverb.

32. _________ is a synonym for the word tattered.

Ragged is a synonym for the word tattered.

33. How many definitions does your dictionary have for the word askance?

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary gives two definitions for the word askance.

34. Write how the word amused is used in an example in your dictionary.

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary gives the following example for amused:

Amuse the child with a story.

The joke doesn’t amuse me.

35. Does the term human being appear in your dictionary as a single entry? If not, how would you suggest
finding out the meaning of the phrase?

Human being is not an entry in Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. Look up each word separately.

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Poetry: Narrative
UNIT 9, PAGES 662-666
Dictionary Review: Putting it All Together
Responses will vary.

Poetry: Lyric
UNIT 9, PAGES 671–672
Semantic Family Mapping: City Talk
Responses will vary. Possible responses are given.

Routes

avenue

boulevard

street

thoroughfare

trail

Types of city (sizes)

city

town

village

metropolis

community

Sections/parts of a city

block

district

downtown

plaza

park

square

neighborhood

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Poetry: Translated Verse


UNIT 9, PAGES 677–678
Word Choice
Responses will vary.

“All the World’s a Stage”


UNIT 10, PAGE 695
Using a Thesaurus
Responses will vary. Possible responses are given.

Words Synonyms

players musician, musico, performer, actor, bettor

exit depart, leave

entrances entry, ingress, admission

time hitch, stretch, period, season, schedule, clock

parts piece, role, share

quarrel argue, argument

modern current, latter-day, modern-day, contemporary

spectacles display

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The Ugly Duckling


UNIT 10, PAGE 697
Word Origins
A F T C X O G Y H E I U Z R W N

Z W C R C Q Y D O N F T S A B K

J E L R G A K Q G O D W F E O R

M O D F I N H T F W F Q W B C O

E E I A T F O I A I C G U Y E T

K W Y Z L I W A D A N N L D G L

M P O K B B E I G H I D Z D P K

K Q J L P N R O L C D R U E G J

K C X Z O A C E T W B U V T E K

M M O H D M X L L A R Q A V D C

V F P C U K N D H L N M V U T K

Z P E X N L B I K E O S C T T N

C H D E X A G A C R R R X F U O

N D M A L W H D D T U Z D C K M

S N A K L E E N E X A T H A H N

K L Y O N I U A H S O B Q Z M N

D J M N M A N B A O A P I F Y L

R E R E L T E N U K J M E X O H

Auto: shortened word Kleenex: brand name

NBA: acronym Band-Aid: brand name

Rollerblade: brand name phone: shortened word

UFO: acronym Laundromat: brand name

Walkman: brand name PC: acronym

bike: shortened word CD: actonym

NASA: acronym John Hancock: people/place

Teddy bear: people/place

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In the Fog
UNIT 10, PAGE 717
Word Study: Parts of Speech Classification
Word people, actions describes describes Use the word in a sentence
place, thing (verbs) people, place, action
(noun) thing (adjective) (adverb)

drifting X Responses will vary.

arrogant X Responses will vary.

scrutinize X Responses will vary.

indecision X Responses will vary.

moonshiner X Responses will vary.

gauze X Responses will vary.

dangerously X Responses will vary.

fumbling X Responses will vary.

fastened X Responses will vary.

“Madam C. J. Walker”
UNIT 11, PAGE 740
Word Study: Vocabulary Cards
Responses will vary.

“Satchel Paige”
UNIT 11, PAGE 749
Word Study: Definition Map
Responses will vary.

from Geronimo’s Story of His Life


UNIT 11, PAGE 759
Word Study: Word Wheel
Responses will vary.

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from Gorillas in the Mist


UNIT 11, PAGE 768
Word Study: Word Meaning Feature Analysis
Sports Uses Ball Individual Equipment Involves
Sport Includes Net Running

soccer X X X

baseball X X

hockey X

marathon running X

karate X

“The Five ‘Wanderers’ of the Ancient Skies”


UNIT 11, PAGE 777
Blends
Responses will vary.

“Night”
UNIT 11, PAGE 787
Excuse Me, Do You Have the Time?
1. ipAlr

April showers bring May flowers.

2. saryhdTu

The day after Wednesday is Thursday .

3. usiners

Jack got up before sunrise to deliver newspapers.

4. uamnut

The season before winter is autumn .

5. htiidgmn

Tina stayed up past midnight on New Year’s Eve.

6. mbterpeeS

The first day of school is usually in August or September .

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7. wedkene

During the weekend we do not go to school and our parents do not go to work.

8. nwda

Leslie woke up at dawn to watch the sun rise.

9. itwern

Winter is the coldest of the seasons.

10. tinhmgie

After dinner, during the nightime , our family watches TV together.

11. Saduyn

Saturday and Sunday are weekend days.

12. itliwtgh

Twilight is the light of the sky between sunset and night and between night and sunrise.

“A Breath of Fresh Air?”


UNIT 11, PAGE 794
Create a Word Study Notebook
Responses will vary.

Getting into Media: Contests!


UNIT 12, PAGE 819
Spelling Bee Fun
Responses will vary.

“Earth from Space”


UNIT 12, PAGE 824
Idioms
Idiom Meaning

1. top dog 5. hurry up

2. gift of gab 9. not difficult

3. chill out 1. a boss or leader

4. rings a bell 10. face up to the truth

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5. shake a leg 3. relax

6. dime a dozen 2. to be fond of talking

7. small potatoes 4. to sound familiar

8. see eye to eye 6. something that is inexpensive and/or easy to find

9. easy as pie 8. agree

10. get real 7. something that is not important

11.–15. Responses will vary.

16. Matt was cool as a cucumber while playing his trumpet solo at the concert.

meaning: not nervous, relaxed.

17. Jennifer is on the ball. She always finishes her homework before dinner.

meaning: organized, in control, does things in timely fashion

from Dear Ms. Demeanor


UNIT 12, PAGE 830
Mind Your Manners!
Jack Smith
421 Fifth Ave. Avenue
Anywhere, OH 34011
Ohio Ms. Sally Miller
24 Jackson Blvd. Boulevard
Millertown, PA Pennsylvania
25781

Tanya Blue
16 Tool Lane
Lennox, Tennessee
need zip code
Dr. Joan Griggs
14 Noble St. Street
Bluehill, KY Kentucky
need zip code

Title: Refers to:


Reverend A religious leader.
Senator An elected official.
Professor A teacher at a college or university.
Honorable A judge.
Captain An armed services title or the person in charge of a ship or airplane.

Phrase: Meaning:
RSVP Please let the person hosting the event know if you will attend or not.
Regrets only Please let the person hosting the event know if you will not be attending.
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“Beads & Bangles”


UNIT 12, PAGE 838
Clichés
1.–3. Responses will vary.

4. The team put up a good fight, but lost in the final minutes of the game.

The team tried really hard, but lost in the final minutes of the game.

5. That morning radio announcer is full of hot air.

That morning radio announcer talks a lot of nonsense.

6. My grades are falling, so I’d better hit the books.

My grades are falling, so I’d better study.

7. The substitute teacher was off-the-wall.

The substitute teacher was a little odd.

8. Dana insists on going bowling and skating for her birthday. She really wants to have her cake and eat it
too.

Dana insists on going bowling and skating for her birthday. She really wants to have it all.

9. My uncle said I could have his fancy convertible car when I turn sixteen. Of course, he was just pulling
my leg.

My uncle said I could have his fancy convertible car when I turn sixteen. Of course, he was just teasing me.

“Hearing Under Siege”


UNIT 12, PAGE 843
Words that Really Measure Up
Unit Measures

1. decibels 6. depth of water

2. knots 7. distance

3. pounds 5. power

4. degrees 1. sound

5. watts 3. weight

6. fathom 2. boat speed/wind

7. meters 4. temperature

Can you think of any other measurement units? Write two below.

8. – 10. Responses will vary.


© EMC D I S C O V E R I N G L I T E R AT U R E ANSWER KEY 163
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CONTENTS

from The Adventures of Tintin: The Black Island


UNIT 12, PAGE 850
Comic Book Chatter
As seen in the Comics Translation

Yikes! A statement of surprise—like “gee whiz!”

blah, blah, blah . . . Suggests that someone is talking on and on.

Zap! Used to suggest something physical—like a shock

drats! “Shoot” or “darn it”

oops! Used if something goes awry

grrrr Can suggest physical effort or disappointment

aieee! A general shriek.

aigh! Another general shriek.

Index of Vocabulary Topics and Activities


Abbreviations and Acronyms, 81 Mind Your Manners, 115 The f Sound, 38
Accented Syllables, 60 More Accented Syllables, 63 Uh…Spelling the schwa Sound, 39
Antonyms, 48 More Morphemes, 12 Using a Thesaurus, 98
Blends, 108 More on Definitions, 92 Verb Tenses, 61
Borrowing Foreign Words, 67 More on Pronunciation, 90 Word Choice, 96
Capitalization, 49 More PAVE, 72 Word Origins, 99
Clichés, 117 More Syllabication, 55 Word Roots, 58
Comic Book Chatter, 119 More Vowel Sounds, 18 Word Study Skills—Picture This, 36
Context Clues, 91 Morpheme Review, 44 Word Study: Definition Map, 103
Context Clues: Compare and Morphemes, 8 Word Study: Parts of Speech
Contrast, 82 Numbers Count, 2 Classification, 101
Context Clues: Definitions and Other Vowel Sounds, 6 Word Study: Vocabulary Cards, 102
Restatements, 79 PAVE, 68 Word Study: Word Meaning Feature
Context Clues: Prediction, 86 Plural Noun Endings, 41 Analysis, 106
Context Clues: Synonyms and Possessives, 33 Word Study: Word Wheel, 104
Antonyms, 84 Rhyme Time, 28 Words that Really Measure Up, 118
Context Clues—Introduction, 78 Rhyming and Spelling, 88
Contraction Action, 26 Semantic Family Mapping: City
Create a Word Study Notebook, 111 Talk, 95
Creating Language, 64 Shhhhh! Silent Letters, 24
Dictionary Review: Putting it All Solving the ie/ei Puzzle, 29
Together, 94 Speaking Slang, 1
Dictionary, 89 Spelling Bee Fun, 112
Double Trouble, 20 Spelling by Syllables, 56
Easily Confused Pairs, 50 Spelling the k Sound, 16
Excuse Me, Do You Have the Spelling the s Sound, 22
Time?, 109 Spelling: Self-Correction, 66
Honing Your Word Study Skills, 34 Stormy Weather, 31
Idioms, 113 Syllabication Nation, 53
Long Vowels, 4 Synonyms, 47

164 ANSWER KEY D I S C O V E R I N G L I T E R AT U R E © EMC