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..

-- J. peerY David
J.J.Azar

'Tli{~'" iii lfWihU:0tiOO'k :COVof9 funda .. t".tl~.~tI:'~\(,I,l.li:if}Jt'".1 t,' tho l1 n atyrds a nd diiJg'h '1i.li:.'fOIPIlO~~ tl! ru ctures, It do···
votop •.• rlDtVU.c.ul too Is to r Ih (} prediction It n rJ half.hUHt'l tl nt of n1ruct LI ru I behQv~Qr thill: ttfO hinhly uselul 1'0'
g(irdh:uJril of·dlO Iia;d in wh jch they oro bPl)Uo.d, Thu book makes readors t,lwnH, o,f"!flll}Ortunt Iuetors to eon"

\,tvorkinn knowl"{,dye o r hoth d ass!qa Inn d rn oder n ':~Of;)i'npIJt"r tech nlq ua~ LI sod in structu r,ttI tH181VBi18. lnclu ~~I is a groat ad dD,al of h~gh'y praotl~ul information,
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tho d09ig:o or utruct u ral rmn',pononrs. induti!1l0 baste clasticUy rgltltion9hlps ur:Hi rnulorial be "tlhY~r)" fJnd Holoctiorl A vorv current

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SI metric conversion factors


Quantity Area Bending moment Toconvert from square feet (ft2)

M·mIltipiy

!Dr

·8.'2,"

(pfouJJld-~on)e) (feet)
Fahrenheit (QF)

t~lS;'
Celsius

or torque
Degree (bea!t)' Force

ee)

'f" ...;..f'F - 32)

pound-force (IbQ kilogram-force (kg!)

newton (NJ

4.448

kyne
Force per unit length

pound-force per feel


foot (fl)

newtens per meeer


(N/fn)'

Length Mass Mass: density Stress


(preslur,e)

., h UlIC,

£'

\:I.Hj

'ij,

meters l(m) eentimeter (em)

013041,

U!~4
O.4Sl

pound (Ibm)

kilogram (k,.
kilogram pet ,cubic meter (lk,gJ.;3,)! paseal (Pa)

pound-mass per cubic foot (lbU1J/ft 3)

~6,021

pound ..force per inch (1bf/rnn2)


foot per second

square

Velo1city

enjs:)

meter pen' s)eQQ,nd

(m/s,)
newtens per ItleWr

Vjsoosity

pound-force per inches centipoise

O'ilm}i

p,onnd

force

second

1(P"2il • s)

per $Iqua.re foot bf . 511ft l)

Second Edition

.I.alP

P'rOfi'.f;.'WtO! A e'l'cmaUf ie'al E"lgi~tNN'i;"ij! T/~:t' P("w~;tJ·tl';(U~it;f l',af,(.' U~/it:euUy S


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To 111E:MIlMORV OF'

Dr. Om.vid Peery

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lU-17196

ISDNO.ol·1M9 L 9~1,

AAC:R2

CONT,EN'TS

Preface
Chapter 1
I..]

Static Analysis of Structures


~'nlfio'I'JIu,ction 1
]

1.2 i~3 1.4 1.5.


1.6 1.7

Structural System Load C~assi:fiGa.Ho~ Slll!ppor~sa:.nd Renctl{iIn.:S lSqW!~diOn$ofS~,~tt~c , Eqli~libri~m


S'~~ti~~dlyDeIH,;:r:mirmtc ~m;ic~'~.n~Jhll,n~e ~nd St:n.~ctlJ.!res App~ica~ion;s Pfo,bi~m;s

2
3
S
6 7

2.~

CJ1:ap,ter:2
2,.[
2.2 ~.,3

Fligbt -Veh icleImposed


Inf.mdl!lct.~on

Loads

General Co'l1ts,lde:nuions, BUlle f'ligh~ Load~ng Condi~k.i]l!i 2.4, nlght.Vehi.dc Ac;rildynamic Loads 1.5 F.light-VeJdCle~ne.rtiaLoads 1,6,LQ!1I;d F~dorsfor Tf,nns~aU'Q",a.~A~lenlH(ln
2. 7 Ve:l:oei~y-L'olndiJ."~c~QIi' tngrarro D

2.8

Gu:s~ l,o~.tdF:lJlictQIiS
E,;:3n1ip~CS

2.9'

Proh~€lm;s;

Chapter 3
3.3
3.4
]..,:$

Elasticity ef'Structures
Stress EqllbliJibr.i,'[111t1EqU:(!I~iou!i in u Nonu.nifQrnl. S:~r'ess F~eld
;Str:!l.h1:S·and St:fi'.t,' Ilt-O·jspI:accriI'en tReiaUonships

1.·~ In~mdu.ctjoll 3..2; S:t:res:ses

Co m:p!tlIdb~ .Eq:u~tio us for P'la:ne-Str~sand I:~ty

P~ne~SLn"dIi P["oble:nls
3..6 .Boundary Conditions

3.7Stress..:S:ttatn:
3",8

Rel.\1J'tiio'DShlps Tra:Mfomal]culi of Sitr'csse."l;and Strni.flSi PrO:bi1etns

11.
1.3 7.5 18 78
19

Cba,!ler 4, Behavior ,and Evaluation of VchieJ,eMaterl.al


4.1
4.2

IntroQiuctlom

Moohantea.l Plroper~ies
Eq:tJ!3:UOiil'S

4.3 4.4 4•.S 4.6, 4.7

fbr StrcC8s--S1r,a,hlCUfvel

or Matefrab

]d,eillb,at~on

Fatigue

Strenlt'n-y!eigIlll Com·llarisOf:1ls, or Mat:eria~s


8anqwWh 'COl([stfllilOtiOIlil9!2. Typieall iDeRiMa~Data Jbr M:ateriil'is
Prob~mns9'S;

82 84 89 94

Cllap'ler 5

StressAnalysis

~7
'97

5.. ~1,l1tr,oo'Uiet~on ,5,.2 fon::e ..Stress, R_dntiio:nsbjps S.3 Normal S~ in .Ik~fms 5.4 Shear :Stresses in B!eams 5.S: ,Sh,ear Flow in. Th,in Webs

97 99 UJ i

!t6
5.1 :5.8 S:.·~ 0 S.,11

8bea:rCoo,~e:r
T!Ors~(lin ,ofCh;)scd~~c;donB'o'.x,.Be31illiS Shear Flow in, Closed-Soct~oJii De~ B:ea.lins learns with Vmiiu b~cSt ril~ge:r ,Aire~l;.!ij Airy :$iEteS5 Pti:ncl~uJi),
Problems:

107 I"
112 ~[]

5.:9 SpanwiB Taper .E.ffoot

.~18 ~:22
l26
1.30 ~3gl

Ch,apter 6
tid 6.2

DeflectionAnalysis ofStructural Systerns


i1lltroducUo!Q

t19' 140 141) ~·44 ~47 ~:50 '156

Work ,:.nldCoU':I!plemenUJi,fY WO.tk: Slnl ~ln 3:f1dCmn,p~em,eJ!!.tary SII:f;iliin EJl~rgicsi 6.3, :P.rinClipEeof Viil"luul Di:!lp~arementsandRel!;:UfllTncoR:ms 6,.4 Pri:nciri!e ofVi~tMa~ .Forces and Reta,ted Theoremls 6,.5 U:nieaiJ'F..I'a;lii.~,ic S~.rll!lctlJnt] :s.~tems: 6.1(j CliIsU,gl'taoo"sSooond Theofe:1in '~mI OeAeeUon A:llal.ys~s~f S~rliilctl'!res fi;1 R::lylreilh~Ritz Med1>odi~Defl0CU!QnAnn~.ys~s of'S,trlctufes ,6.SPinite Difference Method. [n Detlection AJlaJ,'8~S;0fStrillct.ures. 6.9 Redundan'l S~:n.'lctu!res :a nd 11,l'~' Un.i:l.,load! Medilcdi 6. ~0 S!rl!!lot u['es,whh Sii Ii! !Ile Red ~uldlanc::y €I. ~ .~ Stmct~ref> ~1Ul Mltddp~e Redund.aacy C1i. ~ :2 Shear b1g

158
165
:161

I 73 18~.

ProbWems

~86

'Clljlptt'r'

Structural

Finit,e Element Stiffness Method in


Analysis
190.

1~Iln~rod!llctiof.l, 7..2M,a.themla~k1d

~ 90
Model.of .the! ,StF!:IClurc
~91

7.3 7.4

'1.m

:Blement Dis~f1etiz:atiioo Applt:ea.tiOlllsof Fin:ire .Blement M atnx. Metbod. 1,5 Cl)Oird~n:u!w..S~l<cm 1.6 POfCilS. Dis:pJ·.aoomen.t.o;.a~d Their Sign. CQ~venti(l'fil 1.1 Stiilfne5's Mc:th,od COI\lOOPll 7.S FQr.rmu!lill~~on rocedures [or E~enullll.tS·~mC!tu:ITil Re~ailio(:l:sihip5 P '~9 Efcmeli1lt Shape fU:n:CLtOlns
F.h~n'ielj'~t. Silimlicg::;. M~iiln(.~
,FI'UmBh:n1!c:nllo' :Syst,'e!ii!l. f,(Qn~I:.!!I~lili,{)!ns

192 .1.94
197

nH

~9.l

202
2107
2!09

1n .. 11.2 ..

(:;tol:!a:1SdlrnesSi MatlWa .Problems,

.rOif

Special Beam aemen:bs

:2W4 226
23.3 23,3, 233 138

.2U

Semimonoeoque
8... [ 8.. 2

Amllysi,s of Typical Members of


Structures

S.3 S.S
·B.6

8.4

In,troductJo:n Dis~ributi.o.rnl of(~olnc:elilltro~ Lo~ds ~oTbimWebs LOalids on F'1iiI~1;a,g= ulkheads B An~dysii\s Wb~gRib5 or

Shear Flow 'in 'Tuper'Qa Webs C~t'QUIts:n Se<mim,'cH:liotoqu:e ·Structl[i.iIti i


SlitearinglO.efo:rmail:i;o:gs

243
246,

1'51
.261 26'],

8.7 8.8

:l6O,

Torsion of Box Beams


BhliSUCAxis or Shear C.enter Warping of n~nn Cross Sa;~ions
R~U!nd.!ll~Gy of U(1« ~;,!U!I1Is

8.9 13.liO

8 .•'11

266
,2;(.,9

8.12
8.131

Torsion o.f M~i1ticcU loxB:e.r.Ims Beaml Staat in M U:~tiiQeli :SU'uCIU res·

It!rob~ems:

2711J 2.72
:2?S

iCh;apter 9
9J
9 .2
1

Thermal Stresses
[nttiOOlic:tion
Themlal :St~e:is,Pr.ob~em: PihihlsoiPby

2.'9
279 219

9'..3

9.4 9..5 .

.fO:imu.~adom Eguatio'ns for Therma~ ,Stress Analysis of SoJu:tio R Metbods forThermoehi'rl~tic rro'b!ems: Thenl:'l;iJj~ U',esses l~, Unr'tstmined iBlC~lm:s w~th Ten.~:pe:ra(ure S Varia tion through the D,~p;th O:rdy Thermal Stre."il~Shl Bui~t~upStructures Probl:ems,

lS4
289' 291

2S:l

29'5

CJu,pb~r' 10
HIl

or Torsion

Design

or Mlenlbers.

'in Tenslo.nj,Bending~
29'9

m.l

10,3 10.4 10.5 10.. 6


Ul."

Te:tlS~OA. ~Ulber:s M l?~hl:sdcBe:nd[ng Consta:n~lh~l~ding. Slr:ess,


CUIiV~ .iBem:rl5

2'99
300 304

3{~2 31110 3H

T:rape.~o~d,a~ isnr~bu~iQ:n(If Bending s.tre,~s D ,


l'ors~on ofCiri1u[ar :Sha.fts.

:mi'

ToroSOion f a No~clre'U~ar Shan o

10.S
10,'9

H1UO

m.H

E:flid Restrilint ofT'Of,sio'lil: Mellilbern TO.niional S:lre§esabo~ the Elastic '(j:ml·t, Com.Llined Stre.'lSes und Stress R~l,tio. .. failure Theories ,in StfUlc:lu,ml :D~~gn Problicms·

.lUi! 31'1 320

325
32:7

Chapter 11
ill, ,,:]

Buckling Design
&oonlrically LowJ~d

or Structural
CO~l!!!'n;[l!S:

Members

:'28
,3:28 330 131 ,)32 334339' 342 344 349' .3:53
3,57

~;L~ D~'t'iI1I-l!)e:f:lecf~onEqu~tiions : ~·1.2 Lo:ng Co:h!lmns

11.4
l' .~.:5 11!.6

Short Coiu!nmi!

C'Qh1:r:nn ElJldP'i:dn'
Emphril~~Po,r:!lltll:~sfor Shor~C'o~umn:s

11.7
~ 1"8: 11,.'9
~LH)

'iDiP1!e:ns~Q~le~s, FonnoifT:a:.1il genr M'od u~us


B'u'Ckl!ing

Ult:imate Comp:ress:ive
.Phls:~ie.8~ck] I!ng
C'O.t'lU1UIS

or l~o~roptC F~:!;l!.'t PI~I~,es iIDC{llnlp~sion

CIJFVeS

U.H

',Nnr-n'..jI ~'m-' - 1111;,., ,,~~II!;'" n- ,"l' ~ In ~1""lr~~'I''''(I' 'Cc-"m!'" ''!'.~ ... ."--n'~~'''''!lil'~ DI~"!.rItli.,1 ,lliIj~) . 'II;1II,11 ." _ '!I;,:I', • 'U'~
lJ

or P~a~Sl1~~t

SM'(:ngth.of

lSQtrO:Plic fl@t St\'leet

~LI:.2

i Ll3

~~.14
~L 1.S;

u.ts

.sU~j:ect Ito Lo~d Cripipnn!I,;"~:ilu.re Needllnm nnd GeraK1l Mefhods for De:t'~nnh~inl Cnpf.!Hng SU-e.lSe5 Cu I':wed Sheet hli CQruPf-eS.~~I!(l'h E~as,~icSh'l'l8rrBlu::kJlin,g of t:lla:t Plales
E~asit~c:Bud:n 'of' GIUJ wed. R_~(~.ngl!ll.~rprnates G~ Pure TensiiQ'1Il Fi:eldlBe"Zims, Angl\e of Dialomd Tensi:on jnWeb

3.:58 :l62
364·

~ Ll1 I ~.18 I Ll''9

368 J7(IJ' 373, 3"n


,3,80

Se1li1~le~skJnfie,ld Beams Pre bfreilUs

381
389'

Chapter 11
1.2.01 t2..2 112.,3

Joints and Fittings


I:ntroQltctlon Bo~ood.or 'R:~veh;:dJ(Jilfllt;; AeculI',acy or,Fitti;ng .Analys:is

3:89
396 39':5 .4!n4 408

12..4
1::2:.5

E«e;utric.u;Hy Loaned. Con nectioms 'We~df!dJoin ts ':rllb~ems

4011

nd A- P--.ee .. lixes . '.'y' __ "...:I'I_:_,~


_1i ~, _ _:_

A H,

Wii:nl1ienl~or ~~'H~r:Ua .and!Moht·s

arCl~e

409
4.3,4 446 450

Ma:trix A1g'.ebra

Refe re noes
Index

PREFACE,

'.nThIC

purpoSlC

of

(h~:!ri book

is t~!!i'u[old: <[ [J

[0

f.1Irov~dc (hI.; rCOldGr wf~ ill rUUd~ullcmal

¢onoep~s, in the ,ana]ysis: ,and de'.9ign of Right structures, an;IX]yHcal tools tro'r the :predJeti.on and a$se~m.ent gardle-ss ()ffieMappl~c-a'Uon. _

or

and I(ll to' devdop' uni6~d.


stn.i:c:tuta1
behavj,oit

re-

The ted ts wviUeo ~n a n;,no:ncrwhich ~nows~he ~ndl}rt:o d~vei:,o_pa workIng kfmwlcdg~ ~.n both the classical .~U1d U~C: ,ll1odc~r,n ,~onlpu~cfLc~hnkitl:cs elf structural. an~dysis. In ,addition~1 H~elp!S the reader d,evelop ill thoroagh nnder-

:standing Qf the impertaet factors which must beconsidered ,~f1 the design of ,iSt.rlJctura.~ eemponents, The scope co'Versn.reas that the authors feel are essential fundam.,entals fro,m which the reader .may progress to the a]l31~.ys.~sand design .of more complex and ~arg~rstfuctural ~y,s~ems. The definHIons structurel systemsa,nd its con~UihHt:rn~:s., loads, supports a.,nd reaetions, rhe concepts in statics, and the f~nda.~ mental prineipll;:S .of mechanics are ceveredln Ule first portion of~he book. The basile e~~asticityre~atl0'ns {st.n~w!ltf'all1t, stra~n d.~:$,~,acemen:ts",let~)~ and material behavlorand selectlion ·"are dJscussed". Load anair5~soffUght \!ehi,c~l.!ls,and the it.nnIY!i~:Sand desi.g,tl; (If :s~pecific mghl~vehicle s·truclural !o!omponen:tsare pmsented. F,a.tIJue anatysis~ t.hermaf stress anal:ysi:s~.and instability ~ulalys:is of structures are n180 lil1idudc-d.. Bne"rgymethods~ fin]te-dwffefe:ocemethods~ and the sUWnessmatrix. tneUiods in. tbe dtnoc:tiot1 ~tn~~~ysi~ :s1;ruc'Lure~ iprovlded ..Numerous Icxnn~:rJ(l..~ of aee are solved in levery section' of the book to dose the gap between the theoretical developments and its applieatien .~nsolving practi.cal. problems, The book iswriuen for a ,first course In structural ,analys:ls and design. n is lnteaded Ior senior-level students, The essential pl1crequ[sitm are strength o,fmate,ri~dsa.rnd,a basic course in calenlus, "h~ book also serves as an excellent reference for the: ~n',ac'tidnge1lgi.~u!er. ..

or

J. J. AZD',

,O:NE
.•. n1 STA· ·····T'-I~C·A.\N'A' : .'. L·Y·' ··8-·······1"·8.·'F . . . _... _ ..~. .... il.·_ .0.'. =ST.RUCTURES

CHA.PTER

of both (m,e lcrmfno1:ogy~rn statics and the fijndamen.~al p(rindp~es ormecnani.C5 is an ,ess:cnthd pr.t~requis:ih~ te the %ull.a~y'Sis,and design of structures. Thcrcferc, th.ischaptlCf is dO'vo:ted. 'to tho presentation and n~e,appH~ cation of these fund.a;m:en tals, The ~l1Uunderstanding

II" :I"!I!',L,

S·'T1l<U" ."··cr~U··R···-· 1 g. --V·'S'T·_ ~'M -,.' _ '_"'_' R, ," '.' ....~.. L1 HJ = 1;',_,'
,-.I

Any deform3b~e 1iN1Ud body whlch Is capable of carry.ing ~!o~d:saad tmlilsmlUing these loads to other parts of the body is referred to aSH . .su-,u,ct,rifJ>a/~~J'8,tem.The eonstjtuents or such s:ys[!cms; .a.re beams, p~.a~es~,shelts, 0'1' a ecmbination of fhe
_In ...... three Ba« ,e.leme~ufi.sl:ich as Sihown in FEg. 1. l, are ene-dimeasional
~;!I

bers wh.ich arecapable

and a.J.l:i~doads or a. com.bilnat.~on of aU four. t


Bm.rs which are caplElhle of c~rryingonly axial Ioads ar€ r,e:fcrrcdi Ito~U:; ,a,:dal rods O[ I ~)()1'()rrCemem heirS. StrU!ct ura~ sy:s:tenu 'Ci(ll.llslructoo end rely OU it or axial rods arc 'c~d~edE.r.~J's;",e;fi: and freqUCllltlyar-e used. in m.a.ny atmospheeic, sea.". and land-based structures, sitlce tliimp1,etenslon of oomp[['le~5ion members are usuaUy' thel.j.gh~est Ior ~f"-nsmi.U~ng forces, Pia.re elements,. such as shown in Fig. 1.. , are two~dimen;s\ionaJ extensiens of 2 oore~!emelilts. Plates m;ade to, carry on~y In-pl;BJ1C axi;atl loads are caned mem~
t

or earryingand

structural mem'~rangm~Uingben!Ci:ing~sbeat[n~to[s:jona.~,

Fi~lInl.1 B~r ,emcmenls.(a)Ge:n.

end
(c)

ba!r~

S'~na~rod.

V'l

.3;r;~8It

;f!OO; ~(J tQI!'-

Those wilich are c'a[1nb~eof carrying o:n1y iirl-pila.nc:!ibe:nring loads are rur~rred h) as .~lre,at p(ui€:d,s.; f[ioqlH~nl~ hese are fOLlmd ~n missi le firns,atirc.mR yt wing,.~, land taU surfaees, .. Slzel1~'i. ~ue curved plate clcment~ w;hich occupy 8. ~~prtee .. FuscJagcs" building domes. pr~su.r,e vesse1s,e.tc.t a.n~typicim:le,xamp~,es. r shells. o
l).r{l~'.f·e:.'l:.,

r.a

LOAD CLASSIFICA'TION in accordance Thosc'"vhich are produced by surface oonta.c~a.re ,ca~~cdsurface


sLructulfal.~yst.cm nll.lY be .gcncraU]t (:'lassiHcd

Loads. \:ol~h:hact on a

with !their ·caUSiOS,. .loaib. Dynnmi.cand/or SiLatl:crm't"i;uresiJ.rc Ie'x.ampl!es ,of 51Id~·u:ehJlads. ]f t11J,~ aries Of00f11llttclis ,ety s:mi!dl'l then tneioad ls said [0 be cencelliraftd;' otherw:istl'~ U .is
cnUcd adl."i;rri.b!l'ted/o,«ld. (S;ee Fig. L3~) Loads \\fhi:c1Ildepe:nd Oill hody volume am eHrr~d fmdJ"~ltul;"' .. l.ne:rti:.rd•. m.a.gndic~ und grav~tat~onal roroes are typi'Citl' e~xa.mplles. Genen.ny, th.a~6 loao.s. are

assumed

.L._. ,,,,1 . - ~l .. _, - - :,. .-·.t·· J,e, .'.' ~.jL." ··,····1' ," '. J t vU·~>lIU80 --=may c811egolliZieu as.. l!I.yn.am~c; s,a ·t·'· 'Or mermar, n'"- .'}nanlh :'r; i,' ....." O""f~:<1 arc time-dependent, wl:lJereas~'f,t,alir ,fcmO:ii am i.ndcpcndlen1to:f time, The.rnwl loMs arc created on a restralned ~tfuctu.re by a. unirorn,l and/or flornilnif,iJ,r:w temperafurc ·change. Regi~'rd~e~$. of the d3S'sifil,cH:l~{ln of ~.hc ,e:xt('lrnnJlly itnpo~cd lO'i1ds~ a ~lriUctur:al member, 1ugcn ersl, resists theseleads intf:ula.Uy in the fQrm of bendi ng, ax~a~,~ shear; and torsionalactiensor a ,eombina:tiou Qi,r the rGOf~ ln order to present deflin~tioli1s rorin~~rnalloucls,. rassa. h:yp'ClthC!U~'m1 plane so
.."q,...II·J> •. ]:.,. .... U'!!;i.
I '~'.

h)

be distribu.ted over the entire l'olumeof the b()dy ...


c .-'.-.'
I

c'

••

FiglWf\e i.1Pla,le el;em,erUlS" (a]i Gel'i~r.n:1ph!:t!l!i ~ID~fj'!i~nt~ iffJ"m~m-

ibrlln!e~,elenilll':nl; {d s!h;earpalmieit

is a force w~.dchlies .~nand is par,alltd tothe plane o,r tbe cut, whUe o:.;ri:al~Q'Ctdis ~
fOf'Oll:

that lteuts the face of a structur:aJ member perpendicular '~IOthe :member ,3ixls,as shown j n Fig, l ..4.. Thus, a bendlllB moment mJa,ybe deflnedase fori:e~whosevector .EiepresenblJ.tioD Ue:sin aDd parallel to theplane 'of the cut~Ylh]le a t'Qr,q~e is a force wbose vector fle~~lfe~entatior!lsncrmal ~@ that cut, On the other hend, she~'artoad i
,
-

which acts normal

,to the plane of


'_'J, ,I, _'. _.. _ ,I,

UliC

cut

i~, D·E" · I ... S"'U" p···P·O=R"· 'T' ~·S: A" '-N'"'~~D'·,n, 'A" cr'10"". 'NS
: ,,~. !. _: " . _" l
.~ I. .'. ,I: ~. . . .:_' ,_ I" _' : ~

,.-,' _,~,-,_.

The primary funcHon

system~p\hy.5jca~ resrralats that Hm~ltbe freedom of movement to on~y that

ot Si,lPP,(ttts Is:to :proi"ide~.aij some points ofa strucfuf,aJ

:l1l'11

r~!~n~

ru~tI~~

; :. W';!~
, J

lti;tlQill

1.3 C'OJn~lllr,~l¢d ;alld dii~lifH)mtd 100,[1,$;.(.(,l'~ AdU,ii] iIQ~.ds.:, .. ft"),ideaH7>ed!I:t,,,!M;

(.'("~liM;i!~,g~t'lM!Sur.e

load.

,iutenti,ed i:n ~ht'1cle:dgn. The types, of :~Uppoft.S [hal occur in ordinary pnlc11lce are sho'wn in FiS" t.5;. The (onxs induced ~H pohH$ 'Or!1UPflOrlare ealled rf'l(JcUmnr.. For le~x,amp~t\a hiuye ~'fl~:p:p~J"" i de.c;~gnedto ,aUow on~y rotation :attbc pQi.in~. of c()nnectiont and b

Fi~~In.' 1.4 S i'i!: m:d;d l!1.l-3d.~ib,.~j~l 11', s= shea r h}~ds~l!b. If

_t

:::

T .... mrque, lh' ln ~ M'". Mer = M;f1!lUng m.onne:I!I1;~s)~ ~b' hi!,;.V:!!,

~-

- [,1-:,

~ ....... ~~~~:;tPi~r-

1_'"= __

=-____

s ~_:::_.____ _
,iii _

""

~oll~t::t

Cd)

Fi.I~I~ ,1.5 S,~!PPDf!,~,)'JIeS.(aJ Hi:rnge~I;l,rill{J!llt: lh~ hii~g\NiDU~rr 5'tlIP~Ft,: Ie) 'h;ed :lliUlpp~rt; (d) ri!!~d~r"Oljlcr'
sUP!pOI!l,

thusreaetive f(n":~, (reac:ti(~irJJs)are deVleh)ped in the other directions whicre move .. ment:s: areno ( allowed, ~ "'I.' iL' H' n t··", h L.J:,.cew~se"lld1]Oii?-"oh',er s'~,PlJQrl ,a~~ 'WI rota t ..;11 O 111("nanua,l,ran,s~atJ:O f1 ~nonly the x d,h':ec;n,~(nll~ and hcncetbere 'exists one reactive fot,C(; (reacUon) in tIl,e, direcliom",

It fixed S'll],lp,ortnorolaJly i~desigfled :tooprov'ide restnumt's:ag~:d.n:s,trnta,Uo'['land ~dl-tra ns,hUJoms; t he:refof'e. react~ye. forces a ndmo.men ss I(reilcUons) are de¥e~.oped a1'ong the dilf,ectlofls where movements arenot permit~ied.

I~SEQUATIONS

OF' STATIC EQUILIBRIUM

'One: Qr the .first steps in the des~:gn of 3. structural 'sY$tem ls the, d£;:te:nlli~at~Qln of ill.terna~ loads: acting on eaeh system member, .Any :saUd body ~n spa.oo ,or .a:ny pan ent ou~ of the body~s saidto 00 in a state ofst€lble' stati!teq;[taibriun.~ if U.
Shllll!!~tal'leQu:s~y satisfies:

:I Pi

'0

I M~""'O

U.l)

where :t F, = 0 implies that the veeter St1im ·of a]!l fOf:'Ces:oc:tin,g on t])llC s.y,stem or on part of H must add. to Rro in :an.yone din~c~I'on .along :a chose" ~et of s.ystem, 8!X€SX .• Ji, and z; .~it.€:w.i8e~ Ali = Omea.ns tbat tbevector I. sam of all :molm,e;n~s,at

al;lY pflesclecledl pOllilt must Hdd ILo :ZJSlioafDund~u:ly


"'\

"'". ','I''fI, .",.,. .11 (i",~:!Il~


~I ;,

z.'

oncof

~hc: chosen set of axes ..

',,~

\V'lliilc Eq, OJ) appHcs rb·r ~~nera~ ,~p'falreSh'udUfCS" for the ease ofrlanar type stfuc~,uroes '. recuees to It ~,.j

......p.',i _, ~ N()~c that on~y six indc:pcndcnt

n,
Y

l:AJ~ - 0

x it);,' (1 = ,. 'J~: ,

ft2)

'~OJ1'IR.H(ms

exjst f('lr ,any ff:(!e:hodyin space and

~ rcc Independen l eq ua tiensexist h Jor ,a cop,~,an r free body," I (!' rOIn" exam p:~e~a,n a a~'lC.nilpt is made t:f) 'find f6ut unknown forces itt a (lO'phUUlf fl'\ce:body by using; the two force oqllJ~Hon.s and moment equations at two selected points, the 'our equalkm,sczlJlnlo~ be solved because t.hey are not inde,pendcnl (i,e., one (if the equations can be derived from tbe other three). T1~:efollowi.ng equations 'Ca,nIlO~ be solved ~(Jr the ntlmedca.i values ,oftbe three unknowns because theyare net independent ~

F'1

+ F2+ 2FJ .=". 4,

IF 1 + 2P 1 + 3F;] ~ 1 h~ maui x ~orm ~hese


are

as Io ~I W'S. o

The: thirdell.1lu.ath:m maybe obtalncd by ,add~ng the fiirs~ two equations,. and c:onseque:n(~y iit does not represent an independent condition, The dependence of ~heseoqu~~ti(Jln~ i:smOl't rca,d~~y established H a,na.Ueu1Ipl~, is made to find. t.he

inverse of [he 3 x J matrix of 'O(lcffidenhL ~.( can be shown !llHsilyUlat the deter .. m[nan~ of the mn~:rh: is zer'o;hen,e-eeqnaticHI dependenee doestin f:act~exist •. .40 matrixwhose determinant is, 7CIi{) is saId to be ;~i,,~y~~lar aad therefore cannot be inverted ..

IJj, S'TA'TICAl.ty DI~"ff~,R1\1INATE A.N'O INDETERMINATE, STRUCTURES!


.1\ structure is sald to be: ,del'fr'n~,'uuf :if :aU Us !e'l,terna~ Jie\UctJolUi. and the internal loads omits memberscan be obtained by unjJ,i7j~lJ only the staUc: equations of ,ecrui~fbril1m. Otherwise lhcstrl1cnure jig .said 10 be st~~~k2ilUyil'],deler~n'i~nt1le. 1n the~a tter ~ ('II rwhat is 00 rurnon tyref-ened toas .3. retiul'u:f cml :$;tructrmfle~ there are mere unknown forces than,thctlUnlncr (If :it'ldependent equcaUoml ,olr 5:£Rtk-s;whl~h can be u~ili2icd.. Tlreaddltional equatiions; reqnlred rOt the analysls lOf f,edundant structures can be obtIdIl:~d by 'con~idedn:g Om deformations (di:s:pla.oemerds) Ul fbe

· p~.

stn.iit;~ure. This ~s studied in. d,e:~aUhru later ehapters .. Ex~ernaJ r,eacti:ons;~ intemal loads •. or a, combination or bod1J may cause a, $trHctur:al sy~~e;m to be st~ticaUy redundant The number .air redund,Rnci,e::; in a. structure Is ,lover ned by the number ,o,r external reactiona and/oe the number ofm,embers thmt may be taken out without the $ta,b,ility of the structure being affected. FOiE' e?::,amph~1·i.nFlg.. ~.f memberil~3a.ndlor reaetion Jt~J: is rem,oved the;", the structure becomes staticaUl' delerfTlljna~e and maintains Its stabHily. Likewise~ tn Fig., 1.6b if members 2-4a:ndl...-6 and either reaction R2,} er R,!, are remeved, t:h.enth~ structure becomes determiaate and stable, If, on the ,oth,cr hand,addiUcma:lmcmlbcrs such as 3-Sand 1-5are~ f.f!m.oV'e(ll"the:n Ule s:tf'l:lJctur~beoo.m.ega. mechanism. 0:1' ue.5tab~e.Mecftan,ismsca,nnot resist loads: and therefore are not used as structural

~,.oa

1,

systems.

L,' APPLICATIONS
Wllile the set .of [Eqs" (1J)andi U.2)] i~, s,imp-Ie :and wel1knownl it 1:8 very important fora !StuderJitto aoqui~epr(J,ndency in the appUea:tiotl ,of these ,equa.. tions tovarious types or strucitural s:ysttem,s. ,SeV'era!.typical strlUctur.a1 s."sle,ms are, aJla.'[y~ed.asiUustral~ve: examples: . .ltx.anlple 1.,'1Find fheintcrnaJ loads: acUng on eaeh member

:o,r n.he structure

!ih own io Fi:g. L 1. Flrst~ (nstt5se:m:bletnestfllcCuf'e a'S s:hown in Fig. [.8 :a:ndm.ake a free-bodydiagr:m.m for each member. S;inoementl'Je"1'S 1-2 and ,~'6 aee tweforee mem bers (ax,ial roos)~ the forces act~ng on them are along the Ilne
SdtUll0N

joining the pin joints of these members. AU directions of forces are ehosen .a.r'b:~lfarnya,lfI.d must be re;v'ersoo ilf a.nega tlve~aJ ue is: 0 bta.ined;, that is, FJb~is assumed to act to the rigbt o'n the horiz-ontaU. member andtherelore must act to tllelefl' since ~t:s; l3g;nitude cameto be negative. m

L
..
FU~·the p uUo,},
1:1\/,
=:

1000 III

S ,,''

0 ,( +, r+ )1

'~iOO{)X 2 ~

IT

T!"" 1000 lb

r.F'-_ = 0 ~ +))." _ l' ~

, I~·.'J_I'

I(lOOib

T"""',' "',,, " ... "'.",,"" ,",', ,,' ""::r"'


~ 1

)'""fx

j;'..

_,

,,','

1000'; = v ('fI,. ,',

F ..,~_, =: 1000 Ib I.' '. ~Fy~'O(+n ,F."y - ~OOO = 0


,F.",
::=

roon

~b

.For member J,-6~ 7~. IA1.l, = 0 ( +A) 1000

x 7 - ~.4:F4

=:

·0

F ... ~. 2.9'IS lb
E1: = 0 " 1:).}
c'i:

f"3IX

+ .29L5

cos 36 ..'91:1.,...

JJ

600 =0

P'j,; ;.Lf" N' ~ 0 ('.+


F3JiT

1335 Ib
;1'\,.
:II

2915 s~n 36.9° ~ 1()OO = C)

l'~J;P~'-7:50 [b
and F 3,.), (:J;UllC lobe neg~:tiv~tbe assumed direedon m'Us~be: reversed ..•~c'Ommon practice ,hI) ocross out (rather than er.asc) t
;>.:

Since lhem~gJ1:ttudes of F3

the originafarrows, For member 2-1~4-.:5,

:EMs
PI

= 0 ( "+ ,r.)

.~ 3J5, x .5 ~ 291$x 2, cos: 36.9° .~ 4FI :=,0


c.~

:500 ~b

F . - h' ~[;'·1 ~ :5 Ji'-

.,,('1 . .J ~.,,'
.,~..l'!J'

'1'~- cos 3-:£ '9'·" .+.. .] ~11" 5- '!;Ii., . ' ''; lb

='"

'5,0'0" cos .
'_~

linn.= In to' v'

'"l'~n . '

1:Py '_'. 0

+n + 750
- 300. sin 6Cr' = ()

F:!iJ .~. 29] 5 sin 36,.Sv'


F~]= 1433 Ib

Now all internul Ieade ha \·'0 been obtained wi thouJ the 1l5C of the eneire structure as u free body, The solu tion Is:checke~ by apr.lying the three

E._ ~ .~ .F "

Ii'!, U' .

,e ~

\ .J

LF~, ~ 0 (+0
1·4.33 -~O()(l500 sin 60~ ="
()

EM s= 0'

,,+ ("\.),
,5 ()f~heco'p~anar

1000 x 9 - 1'00IJ x 1- 500>::4 -- 0


This e<iiuil:~bdum cheek should be made wherever possible Ito detect any errors t1,at miJght have oeeurred during the analysis,
iE,::a.mp;le 1.1 Find the: ~:ntefn:al1:oiad h'lrnember
Itire ~hown in Fig .. ~.'9.

truss strut-

S:OLunON Se'Vl@ind methods, are av~Ha.ble fora,na,1'y.~i,ng: truss

structU~:Si,; two

aredlscussede ~d ap,pHed in s'CI,I!ving: this exa:mpl:e. (a;) Med~od Qljo!Hts. ~n Ule ana!ys~s VIF ,s;'rU:S8 by the method of job1 ts, the IWO equations ,of stante: equJliibriu.m,I.F ~ ~ 0 and "EF 1.~ 0, are a.p!pHed, for each jointas a Iree body, Two !llElkn,CFwn foreea may be obtain ed :~Dr a-ch e john. Si:Dce ,eac'hm'emoo:f' is an. axial rod ('two--FQrce member), it exerts eq ualan d oppo.site Ioreeson th.e j!(,jnts at Hs ends. The join t:s ora truss must be ,a,naJyzed In sequenoe by ~:ta1ffingA.ta j(Jin~. which has: 'Ol"~jtwo rnembtrsmeedrng; withur:1:kilown for:oos. Then the joiflU;afieana~yzed in

the proper sequ1e:n!C€untUaH Joints 1Iiave been ceusidered, if n~a,rY. To find lbe u:nkn'(Pwn,reacUons~can:s:ider the entire structure as a free t1'Ody.
I:M4 :;: 0 (-t 2000)(10

n. )

+ 4000

x 10

+ lOGO x

30 ~ 210'R'6,;Ii' ::.-0

R.ip .~ 4500 1:0

IFx ~ 0 (±'loJ
2000
·~R.'4:c .

D' n'4x' ~ .

2'0·0·-vr'II,n ~"-' b "_'.·,,'

If)" .~.0 { +

tJ

R4iy' ~4:000 - ] 000,,*· 4500 ~. 0'

R¢y = SOO Ib Tbe dlreetiens ,~f nku.O''\o\''u :fQroe:s:in eachmember are assumed, as :in u the previous example. and vectors aee changed on the sketch wbenUlcy arefound to be lleg,a~~V'e.(Sec Fig. 1,.~O..)
Isolatingjoint 4. we have
1:..)

!.F~=0(+
{o':zc_.

200<J= 0

'.7, .... 2000 lb .E F. = :0 I .+' . 11 ..-!.If -- \


II }

500 - F:I,··-'O
F~ .~. :501] .~b

Iso~a~,iraJgoin~ ~ gives j
:IFF ~
(1

(+H

500 - F ~ sin 4j;ei .=. 0'

F;4, ~. 1!f)1 :[1;,

2000+707

'CQ~

45" ~ FJ

.... 0 '

F',l "'- 2S(lO ib


40(10

F~I·
I

21000 4 '
"""IIi

1'"l

4500

.....- .,_..-~ .... .......... ·--"iII-'-'.... - ~~~~~~

...

• ..J F',
2001) Ilh
'"!III--_._--

·4
..... ~--~~

50(l: Ib

-....

,I

il

'fi!ll~~ 1.11

:Er = '0_. + +-) ... .(., "" ~.!!'~ ~.,

F6

Arr-ows a.,c:ling lCiJlwa.rda jOlinti·ndiica.te

UUtt a member

is ~n eem-

pression, land arrows acdng a.wa,y from ajoird jndi'caLetemsj'OIn,.

(iJ,) Mt"t'hfJd of s:e,rdoU's.. As in tbis example, ofien U,~s desirableto fl:"d~he blne:rn:a~Iloads in cenaln selectedmembers ()It atruss witbout anal:yzing the enUre ~rlll". Us:uaUy the method of joints is cUlmbe,~some ~n this case, since Otle~,oiads ilm aU themembers to thle ~eftor right of any mem,b,e:r must be obtained before the: force Js found in that particula.t member.' ,A.n ,a:n:aJysls b,y tbe 'method or sectionswm y~eldthe internal ~oad in. any pn!selec{'ed, member by a :sing)e ,operati:on., witJlouf U':te11eoosrdty.of finding loads in. the ether members. Ins~eadoiF oons:iderj:n:g: the joints as, free bodies, acress section is takenthrough file trussand U\Jepart ,of Ute truss '0'0 eilbe:r side .i:s:oonsidered as a free body. The: cross secrion is chosen :~Q that it cuts tbe members fo r which the fo'rOOS' arc des:tf,ed and pI1eferably

cmlyl hree members,

In our example, mtU! i.nter[}JaJlood in member Sis desj,red;; the :free biod,r rns as shown InF~gt ~.11. The load in member 5: nJI.ay be found by

sum-ming forces in the J!' dlrection onei:tb:er part of the eat tru~:. Cons,idering, nll~1e:ftpart as a free body, wege't
E,P, = O(

+n
lb

son ~

Fs=O

r, ~soo
Sr)[J.J1"nlN Qu,il,e often. structural bu(oontj~in some m,emberswhlch

[x:an1:p:~e ~.3 ,Ana~Yl.c·~.hestructural ~,yst,el1i1: shown in lP~g.J.12 :5ys~enlS'are:

made up large~y of axial rods are loaded. ~ater.a~~y, show'[lJ ~nFig. .~.i2. as

axial rod:s;,~nd separa~e: ri;ee..body diagrams for thesemembers, as shown' i~

Tlt~~ stractures ysuaUy are! c:la:s:sifiedas trusses.si;nce: the an~dy~:is,j:!i ~hll,ili\r [0 that used fortn18ses. As shown in Fig. tJ2~ mem,bers, 1~2 and 2.-3 are not

Fi,g~1.13aa,rnd h. are required, S~nloeeaob of these members bas four unknown reactions, the. equations st,a.ti,cequUibdum are not suffi,cie'ntt,o ,fi,nd a.11~ r unknown,s. U is possible, ttu:n~ghl' to find the 'Vertical reaesions fOIJ

or

R~f =; R~J' = .R'l~~'~ R;t,:t= tOO Ib ~rnd to obtain the relatlons R~.x =:: Rl~ (lnd R:z~% = Rb from the 'cqlHui:ons, of !l3iquiUbdum. When, the: unknown reactions ,obtained from!mre:mbers 1-2a,nd 2<3 are appUled to theremaining part of the strueture as a :freehody (f~g. I. t ,3b)~it~s ,apparent, di.a,[ 't.he"est ,of lb: an~dy:sis is, siimUa.:r to that ,oru~re;previ.o!us, examples, AU mem hers except 1.. and :2...3 :may DillWbe dlssignooas simple. 2
te~nsh;nl crcompressicn members, The ho.riZioDta~:m.embe:r.;;, (~-.2and 2-3)1must be designedfer bending combined with a:xlaiand. shearloads. Find the reactions atsupports A; B'~and C ,[or the ~,and.inggear 0'( FIg. 1.14. Members OB'and OC 3.'Hl two ..fbrce snerabers, M.enilber .0.04 resists bending and ~'Ors:l,On.. ut point A ishinged :!:l:ya unlversal Jloin:t so! that b ~he member can carty ij,g.rsi.on btu no be,nding in.a.ny d,irecl1onaJ thls point
E,X3 mp~e 1-4
1

SOl )UTION

firstcons,dcr

theecatponents

o-f the to·~sionaJ roactkHl at point A.


ill

The

liesu:lf::!lU( lorsiona~ Vt.":Ctu 1":1::':.

shown

.1~'i,g..I.~5b, must be ~t.lII(.m~the

member, a"nd in has ~mp~!Jnent;s, TAx a,~dTAlf. A.l1yv~~'Orfo:rrce Q' acUna; 10 spa(le may be resolved Inro components along.~ the chosen set of axes by the method of dircrth;lIn eosiees •
n. =".£l ~;!¢ ~

eos
-

It.[ .

12, ~ Q 'COS; f3
~~

I1i _

~.

(l

cos_' "IJ ,fI'

- r"l)

.D

H)OIIb
RI.x ;;;;Rh

(bJ " 100 Ib

, 100lb I ']3.2 ~b
,l'l)t)l i~b
,
I

173.21'b

400lb

Here

f.X,

action

or the force vector

P. and

l' are the ,angJcs between the x, J'" and z' axes and the line of

Q, respectively.

TtuJs" from Fig. J.,~5h" utm:zing Eq. (1.3), we have


TA,r = TAl cos

Il' = TA (11) = O.8~


T:A (is) = to.oTA
Y = T ....(s%)

T.. : u

= TAcos ~, =
C~S

T_A.l ;;::;,'Ai

= tl

In (be free ..body diagram tor (he entire structure, shown En Fig. 1.15£1, there are slx unknown reaction forces, The six equations, 'of statle equihbrium are just sufficient to determine these unknown farcas, T,lkitl8 moments about

an axis throu,gh 'points: A and 8,gives


tAil
AB

=
-

4000 x 36, - O.:S,f'c x )0 =: 06000 Ib

F C'

004.

The' torsionat moment '7:, lllay be found by tjit,k~ng ~nom!cnts. bout a Noh~'that ~H unknown foroesac't, through this line'.

~IIII'liC

:EM IJO: Ttl

1000 ::<:4",8~ T,4= 0 4800

=:

in . lb

u
~JO~n~

The other forc·es 3![(elobta:in,ed from Ule rbi~'()lI'wing eql1]!a.tions~, hich are: w chosen so that only one unknown appear.s in each equ:at]on.

I.M

~x . "

.2880 ~. 4(hP..u = 0

F ~.z= 12 l.b

The subscript

'leo!,,,

d!es,ign~ne:sanaxis f~lroug,hpo~nt 0 in the ~'(direc:tioill.


6000 x 0.6

L.M:;:" = '1000 + 721

+ O.371F1J . .,..·0:

FB= 68:2.0 Ib :IFx ==


FAX' ~

6820 x 0.55,' = 01 0..14.3 ~ 6000 x 0.:8- .F.u= 0

F.u: == 38100 Ib
EFF ~
r;;", .!i,;llY

4000
/'i.1 ,.. !'IO' ·

+ 6!820x
)·'·b' '•

.:=;A2' 'it

'Cbeck: l':M .• == ~ U)OOx 36 u

+ 6000

x '0.6 x 30 ._ 6\f[2Q1)(~)•.551

.::<20 + .3840 :;;:::. 0


EXIU!:npl.e: i.S Find

theInternal

loads on aU members; ,O( the lam;(i.irng gear re(tr,ence a.x~ V, D.,. and S are taken as;

shown tD FiB. 1.16.

SOl.Ul1OiN For c1onvenien,oe.the

shown in Fig. !..6with tbe V axis pa.r.aUcl to thcoieo :strul Free,.body 1 di~gr,~m!li(.or the olee strut and tbe the bori:z.@n·Udm>e:rnbe:raresbown 10.Fig. ]•.~.1..Forcesperpe:ndicld.a.r to the p]!~.nof the paper are shown by a. circled . dot for forces toward tIH: observer and a. eire ted CI'DSSrOr for-ces ;away from

L__
20.,:000 ,~; lSi!! "'~9.3!OO 1b

IV

J!'!j "-hJOO n'!l


~~II!<

r; ..~r:f4l0 i~lI'

1(1[.", ,~JOO' lh ~-~ t~·u...,47·4{llb

'fll"""4L120

fn·~h

!!;i,,1(nMl ""9.tJ'JO ~b

."""""'ro.......--'. ~1.,!t!'15 ~b.JU(j Ih

n~

(ilOOlllil,'

nU .. 1·4·JI$U Ih
R~;:o;;....._,,""" .'

("I
I

tt'

1}~Hn Ih

J~Lii
I}
I

Itl' .• OO lib J

41.'jl:~U in·lib 19.79U lh

'i'""

lif""O.

W ~ijlb 7.1.

'." ""~11.13!l ~!i" I;"

4140 lit! 61'l'.l~) U~, J

Ii r ~

10'" ~,W lib.; 15

-{'b=-c =- ,i 9,.190

'I'i'l:~

4,.nO

i~'lb-T'

II ~•~- .'~ I1.' I '

n"

6300 I~

theob~erv,er. The V Icco:m.pnnClI1f 'Of ~hc 20,.QOO"I,b force is

20~OOO cos: ~S"


The' D component is

19.300 Ib

20,000 81nI5"= 5190 Ib The ~ullgh.~ the side-brnee member ('(;w~th the V axis is of
tan" ~ ll= 'lun ~.I:!
3.~_",I .,.'e> '.3.'

CG cos 33.7"'= 0.832CO


The drag-brace

co. sin

3,1.1~ .~ O.555CG

member lU;r· is; at an angle nf 43~ wit'b the V axis, and the components of the rorcein~hhs member ,3,[ong,the 'v andD axes are

Thesix

unknown forces act~ng:on the oleo strut an'! now obtained from

it hefo HowI IIIequations:

E.MEV:= 5190 x: ,8 '~ ---=

'~,:=

4],720 invlb

:tM';£s= 5.190 x 44 - :0.107811 x :20 - O.707f1H x J, = I{) 13n :;;: 14,1050 [b 0.70'7811
=

9'9'30 Ib

LA-l.ED! = O..55.5CGx . .20 CG

+ O.8.32CG

x 3 .~ ~'9,.3:00x8 = 0-

U,,3.50 tb

O.555CG ~ 6300lb
o..832CG = '9 440 ~b
1

""'1:' '" ~I.f"'·

~,

'1'0. 3·.··00·'_~-'. '7.',:.J ..:..1 ,i,:7~_ .,_' ,..L --.= :

,r'l'9··'')O''

==

'9AJlO~': ........... ,-_\,+-,,+.~_'

l? .Q,i;~-

0:' ,.::.'

1£'11 ~·I 9~,100lb

IF~ = E~.... 630:0 ~ 0


E,·~ 6300lb . J: --

:EF iI

:=-

5190

+ '99'.30 - ed' ~

E~ == 4140 lib

T'fl,ehur i7JOn,tn~ member l.l i» now considered as u free body'..The fcrees ,obt~ined abo:v,ea.res.pp:Ued to thisme:rnber.an~ shClw~~n Fig, 1.11,caod. ,d'l<nnd the f ve lUll~ nown reactionsere ,ob~aiflieda~ fo:~ lows:

EF:. :=l~= 0

1:,I"".D .~. .~ 9,'190 x 3+ 9440 x IS + (BO~) . '2 -2011,.


JL'~· 12~100 '~b

=0

Lf~. '"'" I:9,.790

'u~· 17, 13,0 Ib

+ 9440

~ ,1:2,,100- 11} :: 0

EM.w ~ 4·t, 72.0 ~. 41401 x3 +2CVd J!l=-l31'5


lib

~.

()I

IF,J = 4740 +1 J1S: .... I,JiJ = 0


Id= 61115 ~b The re~n;tiQ'l1~are noW' checked ![l:'Ieebody. as shown in f~g ..Lne.

by 'conside.ld.ng ~bleentire structure asa

EPv

= ] 9•. 00 ~ 11tlJO - l.2~J.OO + 9930 ...,. : 3 0

I:.FJ·~ ~S190

+ t3·1S ~. 6115: + 99'3,0 == 0


=

~F~ =0
1':,A1'lv' ;;;;. ..51'90. x 11 ~ 1315 x 20 ~ 9930.::<3
Ei\t'D ~19~3{:") X. ~ ~ .~ U;,~ x 20 00

'0

+ 9930,

x .3 = 0

I rW I,)
I£X9IJlp~l~

:=

5190 x 44 ~ 99.3,0 x 23= 0:


OU.

d rug-truss nl(,:n~b(rs fll'[hc cxterna~I!Jbrnecd monop!l~ilncwrli1:g. :sf1lownIn F~g.. I. IS. The H~rIO~llcl assumed ~o is be ul1:ifQ.rml,y d~s!lr~bl,l~c:dath;;:l·fllg·~hespaD or the wing. The dhJ.gQn~d d.r.ag-t.rlilSS, mem ben are wires, with Uu~ItenslO'ln diagonal cffectj¥leand the other d.hlgon.a~ ca rrying no ~ oad, 1.6, 1'IIMJ ~lb~I'oad~ (he
SOLl!I~n,ON Thc".rclilh:::al [IO~td·of 2!C~ Ib:/~nis dh;tdbutccl. to the ~spnJ\~in ~nvcrse

un und

preportion

to the d~s:l.r~fljcc between the center :orpr(l:.,~s~re andthe

spars, 'The

('

ki

load on t.he [font :spat. is therefore 16, U~/ifil, nd that on the rear spar ls 4 a lib/tn. If the fronts'p'al' lsoonsidefoed asa free body~as shown in fjg. 1"19,~ the vertieal rOf1Ce$ at .4 and G lill~,Ybe obtained. E,M", = . ~i6 x 1180x 00

-+ 1000::; ~

G .z: '~.:2 S9() lb _ _ _.


...=!..

G.

100

= .=.....:...:..

2500

600

G,:.,.~. 4320 ~.b

Foree A, ,CHnno,t be found at th~s~olli'Jt in, the ana.~ysiis.,since the drag ..truss members ,exert :f0[100s0n the rronl spar wbjch are not shown in .Fig. [.19a. Uthe rear spar is considered as ,8 fret! body" as shown In Fig., lJ9b.,lhe

ycrHcal 'forces at B' and~' ~y

be ,obtained:

:EMs = -4 x t80 x 90
l£~;::::. Ib 648,

+ U)OB:;:""". .0

E.r _ . E,__ ~48 JO= 100 '"-''00


. :"",1,

.,'",AI Ii.. I" .= ~,,~,"t ':l.l[j

It, = 10.80,10,
=

EF,::;;

4- x 180 ~ 648

B.':: = 0

8~~·121b
The loads ;n l.he plane of the drag truss can be :obblined FrI QW~ The forward load of ,s,Ib1h!1is a"ppH~d as concentrated '~o,adsat !tbe panel, Doin~st as sh,own in Fig, ,1.1:9(°. Tbe OCl'lIl,poncnt,s of the foroes at Gand ,E, wihich .lie in the plane thetruss also musrt be oorts;ideroc;l The rem~~ni,nig r-ea.cdQllS at A and ,8 and the forees iillan dra:g:-tlru5S members now can be obtalned by t.he m'ethod,s, or anaIY~"l;is~or coplanar trusses, shown in Fil. ~.t'9c.

or

PRO.BL,EMS
1 1 A .~ij,@(lIO-:lb:,i~ffll~:IlIC II> 10m i!!~Citd,Yl,;I:i~lc: .• 'W!:ttl ~hc li1Ii~h~ f1~llh=~lWin 3in~c (I hI::~(i'W ~'~iIi: bO'ri7,nif:lHII~ {~ ~':~g, ll,.Tfrlie dril;8 fur," io ~.hcdi~tl.~lU~ ,(!If the: night :path iii. "5.0, ib. Fit.ld thM:lilh rOir~:c; .1.. i!loil:':lmtl '0' E"~,

~h~m,gh~,pl1l'lh :a:ndliN a!~sWc:

I~

••,2,It.. je[-f'.mpc]~t!d a.i:rphul;(l! runs(~~dy 1ll~lhl~ ha:s:rOirce. :aciliWliS .. ~h:riUist T. ~iil1!, ,t, :a.nd ~hC:~::lIn lij)~d ,.

<IS

sffitown

~~Fi!}I)L2.

lii:r:ad

l:ltl:

jC:l

1_1 A ll\'ind-h.mn'Ct
iO"J:~

fQooel or an .utrl!li:iltu wiag L<tS'Ul.'iJjl'ClIltk.-d ~ts ~,iIiJWll ill 1·18. I)]'J :md P 1,,4. Find th.; in 11:liCmk.r.s8', C" and E ;r tbe rQ~ at Ai arc: t: =4:),.3I,b. I) ~, li41lb. ~!111 =: ~20,,6 ~;I Ih M •
WliCi'ill!llln-d

~.4 For ~k ~ofld of frob. E.!, lind ~h(ifblii~ , .. :D., ~nd M ~d :a Jm1int Ai if the ,II :=40.1. C' .;;;:4. ~6~ a,ad £ ...,3.74 Eb..

t(tr~s are

,1----20.i1'l--t

f."

8,oOOlh :1.6 Fifl,! fl'l,~ Fo~ Fiiy.. PIJ,.

.~:I POlflitS A. It a:liliu Coi the !;trllc,lu:re ,or Ihe :hr;~rudl-w'ifl~'Iil~nmi(lp~il~r(;' !ihflro,:'fl i,n

·~~~'IO

>,t.
1>1]00 lib

r ...I:::
II

~I

40Q,lb, '

1i
1

£i.
Gnl t".I,

L.""'i

'Ii:l

~ ~
'Q

,In

on N

'1,'1

1•.10' Alii m~m'~rs Fiind th=rca(:;dom:

or tl'i!!!!1 :'5~rlle~Ul'e si:.fIl!W[ID :ifllFlg., PI.:IO

aile

on nt(;!fflbc:r A!BC' and: the ImlidsiiJ'l ottuw

rembers!eXiCept EJlJeom"itH:rs. oJ the sIJut~lJr,e.


[W,(!!-i,Force

mti.·ber ABC.

1~-_.s

l,~.=_ =_:::::lC:-~-'=-~::~.=
n """"
!

CI

~j ~~
('

IJ

2.0 ]Ii'i~+-mif!

.~1 ~n~e b:nd:iA2 nlo~erdsa:bou:t du: x and z 3,x!~ i:n. pman(: pi!ip!indi~!Jil~1i 'to' '~~~ S!p~UlWtSG: ~rl'!,i:sof !iii , winSSJrc4~ :IBld l'Cl()j{l('.Q iill·~1b1M !Sl!!.l1:!lwlittn F~g.f'l.U. F~n.d the :bt:II1.(!i:ng A1Jo:menlsabO'Ilt. nil: ;:rl,~ndz~ :axes w.b~r.mnrc :rn~be saim,c p~a:n~;bu:t irOilated llQ~ 'OOildl:~crc']ockw~.

tU Th~ m:n~" be;}r.I"! of the wiil~g!>ho!!lwn ~ifll Fiig. p'L12 bas a ;s.-Wceph'llc::k ~mgle of' J.o~. fiTS!! Uq,~ :n;l01i[1,'~:Iii!ts JOOfOOOi!lulilSOJ)OOl in, • Ib ,3i1ie IJllrnplli!ii'e.dj abatM ru.h~x and y ~~s !!'il:!]cll ~fl1lp~raU~m :~ndl or pe~~dic!il]'~1!"t.o' theceliilb~:r~~~~or airplane. .Find di!~~O'ml;:n~5 about lh~.1(·ail1u:l.l a:tCl!i. ilh~

1.l3 Flnd ~,heForoc,aC"r~lg 'Olil, :aUm4111,hc"rs the III a:xJs i:s:paf,:a]~el Ull t'lleomoo S!~r,t.

,of

t:i:ie

nOS'G-wb~l structure s~o"'n in Fig. P'~"f3.A:SS'J,!lil,e

,
"

"
:

...... A-t.( ~ 3i1JD,''o·OOin· lb

~~--,e \
.. 10C'

""


.,)'

i I'

1.14 ,1\,lIl.ililiy.zc the 1:a,ndililiS,e!!!f s~:mc:t!lim'IJf'E!!:amp~~:li.:S ,ai. lS.OOO-~b~Md up :parauem to, Ihe:V' :Ixm l(nf and a :S~tb load aflpa,ra1:Ic'ltio Ute Da:ds~ lbe 100* :arc:::aiPpHed ;I~ ~1!Je!llam.ePoill~oJ nl~ i M1~!!'!:s:~~.

:i~~jln

&:lUllp1J¢i.S.
pft'lgraml
~(io 1~ICi.!lla.te '[iii¢;

1.15 Wii'.iile a.O(ilim;p:utcf'


J"

teiiC~.i!OiniS tbe beam of

:!';:In.U:tUlrt

shown iln IFlli, Po t 15.

".1:

----.-----l.tJ~·~~~~---~1

Ufi Wrirle a !oompu~" progrnm t (1 ~~tL1l~i:lItelib.:;i:ntem:ds:IftMIi' a:lrudm:!rn:d~ngIi'!i!IO:.I::~tsat ellery st:allion C\ftheGanlil~¥~r:edwitlg .showill. in Fiig. Pl.:li6. Assum:c: lilt '"'~tcr ,Il£ .I~!rressurc:is O!lIt2:S PC~llit Il)f the !~of1d lc:ngUIi mi!!!i!ll:!!g~l from lbc~'f: ax]$..

X'~ t'~Ii'C'IIl!.~Ulij;"r

~:;(:is;

J\j t:

a,

i_

~"l:It.:lall'v!i[o,1· di~lrib~!ti~!1I

un

'CHAPJIHt

TWO

1.11 NTROD U'CTJO'N


DeTore the nnnl' selection nflJ1Cmhcr St7C8 or{ f!ligb~,vc:hide;lii:;C~Ul be made, all lead condmonsi!.mp,o~d on the structure must be kn.o\~'n.,. Tbe Iead I~!ondh~on.sarll:: II hose which are eneeuntered both in night and on the ground. S~nce j~ isimpcsg~b~ctoinvesHgane every loading cQnditkmwh~c:11l a mgh:t Yeh~cle m,igM eecoumer

i:n Us service ]~fetrme!l,U binormal! praetlee to !61'cct m-dy these condliU,ons: thatwm
be cri t~c:a~ fo revery
:st.rDC{ lWra~ member of UiJ'C ~chjde. These co not UODS uS.1l1aUy

arc dietermined from :pa.s:rinves:Ugadon nndexl'er~,enceand by the licensing or procu.ri:ng, a,gl:,uldes.

are def1nH.ety specified

Althc.Hllgn the 'ca]cul]a~jons of ~o~ds ~,mposed on might~vehide structures are Om prime re.1ipon.s:ibiHty of a. ~petj81 grenp in an e~itf~eri!ri,s: ,ofgan~z:,dio.ne.aUed the loads ~:rQup, a basie general ,oveFantDoW~cdgc of the loads ,on vehicles js essent ~,a~ tost rcss a nalysts. TllcrefrOfe" i:n ~b~sch~ptc'r we prese nt the fundamen ~;a:s; ~ and tcrminolo,gy pertaining tollight-Vichlde loads.

'Every I:Hgh{,,·d"rJ.de Is designed to s:ariC~yarry ('F[I!t sredne uli:ssiom;. This resnltsin c a wide; v~lriiety of vehlcles relative to size, con.figu..atton, :and 'per~nnnullcc. Cernr merdnl transport airlCrart are 8pccificaUy designed to transport passengers fr.om nne [i[r~.)'Orl [0 ancthcr ...These types of aiircraR are l1ICVc;,r su'~ject~d 1.0 violent tnleuU,oualma:rn:euvers. M~litury aircraft" however. usediw fighter or dive-bomber optfatllons, are de~dgned to; re8~st vi,ole:nt m~UleUV1~:rs.The d.e.si,ga 'cond~Uons u-

eeceleratien wh.lch the human bcuty ean withstand,. and fhe pilot win lese conseiousaess befon!reachbtl.g the load (a.ctot (.load fac'h)f li5 rel:aled to' accele:raticm) which would cause structural faH:UR of the aircraft. To ensure s:afe:{y~ strucrural integri~y, and relbl.bility of ni,b~ vehiidcs along with the nptlimaHtyof dcs~gn. BjO,\1\errunent agencies,. both Qivi]and mnha.ry~ have esta'blished de finlb;:: speciiea, tionsand l'Ieqllt rem.lents- ,iro: ~reprdto the m.a,g,[litude at leada te be usedin structural desig;n. of~.·hevarious Hight. vehiclea Terms are defined below wh~ch are generally used. in the s:pecificd~on of loads: o,n imlh~ ve:h[c[es. The limUloads used by dvi~ agencies or IIp',JiedlO'lld's used by miUtary agencies are the maximum antlcip:,Uoo loadsin lhe entire service Hfel..!span. of the veh!~ct.e. he Hllin~ate' tl(J(J'd3:~ oommon]y referred toas taesigH' ,1,01,,,,13'1are the Urn.it T loads multiplied bys factor of sa~ety CPS):
!iuaUya.re determined from the mlilJthnum

FS

ul thn ate 10ad


::=. ~. it l .:t ~mlltieao

Gener9l~ ~y, ,3. factor of g,afet.y which 'vades rrom 1,,25 formiissHe structures to 1.5 for aircratt structures is used. in fl,rac:tic:aUyevery de.si.gn because of the luu.'lcrta~nHes,_ ~nvolviDg; ~" The simpUfying S;SSUfOpU';Hl used in the 'LheQreUca~ anal}'~es .2. Th,evadaUoltshli mab~il"i,a~pro·l'e:rHes. nd in the s:ta.nd.ards of qua,Uty eentrol a 3. Theemergency act~()iftswhich mig;b! 'have to betaken by the pIIQt~,esuUin.g in r
loads on the 'veh~de larger than the speei.fied limit loads.

The iimU leadsand ultimate lQad.s:qulte often are prescribed by spedryi:ng certain lead faetors, The .lilnit-lrJ:ad .facto.;' is a fs(;tor by which basic loads on a v.ehi.cl~earem~idpHed te obtain the ~imitl,o!ad~- Likewi:s~Uu~; tdtimateZoadlactor is a. f:actorby which b~ic:V1ehiclel()l~ds. are mnnmp'l~ed to obtaht the ultanate lOtads; in otiller words.jt Is the: p.roduc~ of the limit load factof and the factor of

sarfety.

23 BASIC FLIGIIT LOADING CONDITIONS


~an~offour ba~ic conditions: \",H~ntrob:ah~y P:("Odtl CO the higJ'JJcst load ln any part o,fthe, airpl<Llil£ £O:f.,.~U1V Bbdnc;()Ind~t~Qn. USlittU, these eondnions arc called posi .. tive hlgJia.ngle .of a.thlck:. :posrutive low: angie of .a:ttack.; negaUVlebigh angi!eo,f
I

attack, and :negative len, 3i.ngh~'o:f ,aUack.Al~ thecseconditiollS represent: .s;ymmetri .. .ca! Hig;h:t maneuvers; i.e., there is nO motion n ormal to theplane of :s.ymmetry of
the airplane ..

The ,positive highangJc

,of ~;ttac,t(PHAA:) CirHld.~tjoln is to-btaincd. in: ~ puU.out


The li~t and cir,ng fo.roos. are

at the hig:h'estposl'iib~.ean8~e of aUaC;K onthewlng,

perpendicular

hori21Dnta~in ponent with respect to the lifllaUve WiDd~ but wiU usualily 'have a fO;PN3lrd OOfll-

and p~raU~lrespecdvetJt.tQ Fi:g:. 2.l.a .. The result,a.n:t. R

the rehJidv,c wi.mo,. wMch is s,iJowm as of these :fofice:sah,ays has an an (lum ..

ponen.t C\'liJh respect to the. wIng ehord line.. bees L1se ,of Ihehigb. a.ng~e .0" auack: Ct. The maximum FOfWlllld ,oomponentC w~nbe obtained wbem G: has a. :malldmum value. ln orp.er to amoun.t for 'U.Ill.certain:ties in obtainimg the stal~ina all,lle of
.require that ~v'alue of « be usedwhichis hIgher tb~,:n tile wling st.a.lliing a.n:gJe under s~eady J~OiwcondiUon~t A.n ,angle ofaUack oorr-e5Donding to a ,eoefli'icii!m:tt O!r Uftar ~.25 times the nlaximu.m coeffident ot"lIiftrof steady now cQndidons -is .o:fle:nuse,d,..aad. .acn5cJynamic dl!ta. are eltr.armla~ed from d:ata mea.c:~red for .gl,eady -nowcondi(ions. Experim.ents show {hat these niglil ang$es of attaek and hIgh. ~fn ,coeifflieiients; may beob:ta.ined m.omerntarily ~n at s:uddmpuU-up before ~'heairflow reacbes a steady ,oondili'OfJt but it is djffiicull to ebtalnaeenrate lin measurements du.rlng the unste:ady ,cond:iitians. In j he f,l-'JnIL __, ....... l,l~,·),IFiIl~...t.."".iI'IIl~ i""D' ·rn·ft·m"'''''n·t·iI'!.ij'~~v__' ·'·h··... · nerm al I',_',~~""li ,[ljl.., DlI-:'IiAA"' d .. ni·m- : "'0' ·r·......... 1'1 "I~~ shewn tnFlg.. 2! a~ptod uce ,comlru1~.~~ive·· st:r-es.'re.~n, the upper side of' he wIng. o and the moments from the ctH;lrd,wise fo:r'ces C produce compressive stFCSSe50n the leading edge of thewiri.g .. Thesecompressive stresses wiiIlbea,dditive intbe upper naAig:e lof therrpnt Sfl'ar amd the stdng~rs a-djacenttoilt The' Pl-tAA cond~~ tio:n. ,tbe.re.for6, win be· crit~cQ:~for' ic,ompre55lvc stresses in the 'IIlpper forward
,_4,'1 _~_~
~!I!~ ..

a Ua.ck. ufJdierunstea.dy

fl!owc(l'lJ c!li Uons" mostspecifi,cationsarbiit:r.8!ri~y

'.I!\r"~'~~1

U~l~~U,

!!it.=.,

I~

"'~"I

1iii1!'

.,~_l"",

__ ,'

__ "__ '.:

t,e:gion the wing: crO'S;5 :Siec:l:~on.alld fOf ten:s~Ie: stresses ln the lower a.r'll region. of the Mn.g cross seetien, For normalwings, in.whicb tbe aerlOdyaamic p.itching .. moment 'ooefficie:n t.is :negaUve,th:c Iifileofa.c'Uion of theresul {ant forceR is .rarther forward ,CHlI, the wing: in Ul!e FHAA conditiom tba11l iin an,' oUwr possible Aigh~t attitude pr:oo'Uc1nl an uploaden the wiol. The up~oad om thehOirizontaltall in tldst:Qndidon usuaUywm be large,f tl1,aR £ara:rl:Y ether positive Hight a:td1fude" :s~ncep;.itchirn.g a.oce:lem~io'nsa.:(lerliotm:any neglected arIJd the~:o!ad om the n@r.. izo~taltai~must balance t;he moments of ,o~he[';aer-odynamic (Ofees about the, cen ter ofgravlit, ·of theairp[anc. In the positive low angle or attaclk(.PLAA) tiondi:ti'ORt the wing bas. the sm,anes:~ poaible angle air aUat'ka:t whitbthe lift ,coJirespond]n:l~othc; l.imit~hJ\ad fact()f ma.y be develeped, P'Of' I. siven l:Ut.on t.be wing, the: a:nlle ofaUack dccre-asesa.s the' i:rnd.j:,c~Ued airspeed increases, a:ndconsequent1y the PLAA condi~· Hon oo:£'fespon,ds to lbe maximnm im;ai,cated. airspeed a.'fwhich the a.irpbule wiU dive. This I:imit o·ntbepermis.s:~blt div;.ng 5:pCed depends '0·0 the type ,or .a~ft:r~ft~
but llls:upUyisspeelfiJecl. as J.2 to t.S times :themaximu.m Indicated s:peed in .Ie:y·el f1i.SE:..t~a:ocol'idli:ngto the. rllnc1:~o:n of theaircrart. Some speoi.fi.eati.ons r.equi:l:1e· that the termlnal veloc'it)' or the :aircraft-. tbe velod.ty :obta~.fu~d in a. vmical dive sustained u.:nti~ the dr~I,e.qyaJs: the :a:~.rplhule:weig,hl~-becalculated and the limit cn:l the d~vfng speedbe det,erm.ined as a. function o:f the termina.!ve:locity. E.ve:n

0'

fighter aircraft aee s:eldom .ch)s:igned for a dlving :s:peed equal to ~he te:rmimJJ v-elocity~ since the terminal ve~:oc~t)fof such airp1ianesis so .Q,reat that di:fficult aerodynamic andstructural pil'oblems: are encountered. Afr'craR 11,00: pl.3,'C'a.rded so that the pi~o!twm :no,t €:Kooed. the divlOg spG:ed limit. In the: PLAA cond.iUon, snow]l .in Fig .. 2.lb~the ehordwise forne: Cis the latrg;est forceacting ,aft on the 'wingfor a.n.:ypo'Siti~e .fllg;ht atUtude~ The wing bending momeets in this cornd:ition produce the Ini!-D:mJ.Im IQampr.e$sir~e st~sse.s en the u.pper rear spar :fiangeand. iq.jac;e,ru. strmge£s and rn,a:x.im~m tensile

stresses om: the law,er front spar nange and adeiacent stringers. In tbis condition"

load on the Dor.!2io'n.tal ta;i requited to balance the mom,ents olf other aerody· nJam:io rorce.s will. be Iarger UHUlror a.n)' posildve fUgh't condItion:. Theneg:ative h.iS;h :ang~,e ,of atta.ck (NHAA) ·co,nd~U,ont, shown in Fig .. 2.~.C',
oeeurs in intentional A.ight m·an'ot1lvers in which the air loads en the win.g are down or when the ~.irp·lanc: ~trik:es sucldern d'ownd.rafLs wllIl:ctn Icve~ mght.. The

lhe~i:n:e ,or action ·of the resu:lrhln·t wihl:i.g:foroelt :tS Cartheraftthan Fo,r any 'Olther p,o's:idve .ftight cond:iiUcnl. The: moment !orthis: foree about thccente:r 'of gruvlty :o,r the wrplaue bas themaxim·um 'negaUv¢ (p:{tch~:llg) value; 'coRsequ cndy~.the down-

load factors

[(U

intc:n~.~ona] egative fI~ght aU.wtudcsare oonsidcr.ably :s:m~dl!c:rthan n

for :positi~efUlh~aUitudesll!

bacau:seeo·nvendonal aircnlft e:nlines cannot. be loperated u nder a. 'negative lo~d faeter for very tong and because the pilot ~:sin the

uncom.f:or"8!b~,epiosi ti011 0 r bein.g suspended :fr'om the sarety bel ~ ,o,r haraesa Gust lead factorsere also sm.aUer for 11IegfltivefHg}rat attitudes., since in level n~,ght the. \V!ei..~bt·of the airpID:atneadds to the inertia forees for posltive gusts but subtracts from the inertia forees for ·Ie_gati.·w gusts. lathe NMAA condition. usually Ul],ewing. is J.a,ssu:med to beat the ncgativ!e

stamnl angJ,e ofattaek

used in the PHAA ,condition-the .mullximl[JmHft coefficien~ I1:1,omentarHy exceeds that Ior steady nOW~-bl: ;SJeldom used because it is Impf,obabl,e :that rnegnUv-e manellvre~rs:
~O{

steady rij,ow

conditwDlilJ5. Theassllmp~iol11

entered suddenly .. The wing bending m,Q,ments in ~he negat~"e .high angle ofatU.ck conditienpraduce the hi:g:best (::oOlpressiive' stresses il" ~hetowt;t fQrward region ,of the wjng 'cross section a:nd the td.ghest tensille stressesjn the upper aft. n~gi,on ,of the wing: cross seetion .. Tbe liEu: .of 1\,cHon ·of fbe resultant force R is farther aft than for aQY other 'negativefl:ight :aJdtud,e~ and ~~wHl probably prod UCl~ (hcg.re~~ h:::s~ bahlrnci ng upload Ulfl t behori1!On ltd La ill r0 r .any fH:':!a Hvc n~ ghiL
attitude ..

w~ube

The negative hJl\V :ulIg]e of ,aUa.ct (NLA.A) cn.ndi:Unn•. shown in Fig. :2.Jd~ O'OC"Ulf!'! a.'. ~hc di~i:nl~.~.pced[hni( of the airplafl,e. This condil~on .ffi:3.y occur in an h~lcnHon3il maftlcuverproauclrng .0; negative load faetor Of' 'in .3. negative gu:s;~ ciond~~ion .. The aJl load C is ,3 max~:mum for any negative fH,ght attitude, U~6
bend~n.g stresses have .a. maximum v:aJuc to the ~owe:r aftre.gion. of the wi:ng cross sectlon, and the tenslle bef!djn~, stresses have a maximJ,u:n v.;JJuein the upper fOrwa.rd reg~on of ~he w.lng: cross section, The ff!sul:tant force R is farther rorw',a:rd than :ilD any ether fU2ht attitude, and the download on the heriZ:iJnta.~~,a:ilwi]~ prebablybe larger tban ~n .Blmy other J:lcgaHvetmg;M attitude, 1:11 summary,one (l,r the four bask: sY'mmetdca~mght C:jondiHon~ is ct~Ucal. for the design of' almost every pad of the :airp~ane stmcture. In Ibe;j(ressa,nalysis Qf a ·ct'lJlYfm.dwal wi nl,. ilis necessary to in vestigate each cress section ~fQf·each ·of :U1C [our cO"illitinn& Thienea£l1 s:trin.ler or spar Han:g~:is des:igned for the maximum eompressive

tension and the: maximum 'compressi,on o,btained in. any IOf the concUti.Q·ns. The
proba.1b!e ·c:ri·ticall ,conditio,n:;. !For each. mg:~oln olf the cross secHona:re
sbown

i:n

Fig .. l2. Some s.pedflcadons; reqll~r,e the incyes;t,ipu,on of addi{iol11at'~ eonditieae o.r medhlm"big'h ,an\gleof attack and :medium-low ;a!fligte of attaek which may be C1'~tica[for slringe:rs; midwa.y between the spats" but rusua~Iy' these ,eOfu:HHons are not <considered .of sulhcie,nt~n-lpoftance to justiry the~ddiHo'na~ work requlred for the an::dysi:s,,,Tille wfng.of coarse, must be ~~nro'ng·enou.gh to resist ioads at med.ium ;an!~es, anacK, butrn.ormally the vr~inl,willh;ave adequate strength If it meets lhe:requfrem'tnts for the [rOUl' limJUo.s condi~kiulS,.

or

G~mrFCIOsiCifil PHAA: 'T~mllsion N:l,Ji\A.

('.om:l:.pli~~!l1l! :r1.AA

T,cli1~ion NN.AA

C'omflife~';"io'l'IINHAA CGmr~l:n~ NtAA li'cnsl,oni PLA A l'cllsinl'll fl~lAA

mIne the ba,bm:cing (;aU loads ,for the most fOfward and most rearward ,t.'e!ll'~er~of~ gnlvlty posit~ons at which the ,alrpfane :1ll3¥ be ,Blown,at the gross w~ight Each of t''he ItourRrgni con:&tlon,s, must be investigat,ed :for each extreme po:s1'fton of the center or !ravity. Fer smaUer ,aJrcndt, In wh~ch the us:ef~]:lpad cannot be shifted
a,ppr,ec'~ah~y., there Filla)' bet'Hdy otU~ posiUQn of the oe~ter of gravi:ly :td the gtO:Sist'we'ii'lt conditlon. To account :£:o,r g;~!~,efbaj~til,dn!taur6'!1:ds vfltlch m,ay eeeur fo'[ a:nolhe'f l'oc~UQt1J, rffie 'center ,of grav.lif9~ rt m,ay be possib~e to o .make"some conservatlve assumption and- stul. COn1!p,utebaJauC1n.g tail,loads.. for -,,'I'll ,,,,"n," locatl ...... " , ,0 ..~~Ji
'V'~'LIJ~ . v·~g;I~'V~~~I"1

For aircraftssuch as transport or cargo aircralts, in wh~ch the load may be p]a'c:edin V,B:.f~QUS, positions iD t.hegross-weig;ht. cond.iUon~ it isaeeessary to deter~

The gust ~CN3d:) falctorson. an atficraft ~fegreater when it is, J1ytng :an (be minimnm Ilying weight than the,' are at the gross-we~gMcondiUofIJ.Whntl this is seldom critical rOf'~he wings, since they have U,e8S welgh.t h). carry, wt is critical for weigM .a.t which the alrcra:ft wm be flown. Foraircraft 'equipped. with W'ingflap&~ other high Urtch:;'v~ces,or dhH~brakes, .add[t~,onaJ A,is,hrloadina eendirions must be investigated for the fiiars extended. The-se oondit~ons IJsua~n.Yare not 'cdth:if for wingoo:nding stresses, sinee the. s.pecin,ed IOla.d ,&1:ctors are not large, but may be cr.iiU~aJfor wing torslOwt. :~,hc'artil
the rear spar, or down hlil~()ads.since the neg~l~vle :pItching moments UFiiHY be quhe high. The aft fli()rtlon of the: w~ng:,which forms thefhlj7J' supportingstruetwre, win be c;riticllll rO'f ~bc ,cQndrUOfiWHh naps extended, U nsymm.e~r.ieal toad i.ng, candid 0 f:lS, andpi.~.ch.i ng-aceeleratie n eOflCU [ion,s for commercial air'cmftare seldom. of suffkie:nl importance to j'il:~;s6ir,extensiv,e analy .. sis, Conseevative simp~!fying a.ssu.mpli,cms usuaJl.y are 8'pecifi,~dby the licensing i!!llgencyfo,r 'use in the structural des!~gno:fm'embers which be critical for these conditions. TO.e additIonal structural wei.J~h~r,~qu~l[edto meet oo'tuerli'atj:v,~ desi,gn assumptiens .is not sufficient to jusU(y 1Il. more a.ccuratetuiudysJs" Some ,mmUlfY a.lrcl'aft must performviolent cYas;i.'Ioii\e"mul.neuvers such, as snapeolls, a'bru.pt.raUi,ng pullo,ut:s~and abrup~ pitc,hing motion:s. The purciha~!ing agienc'y~of such airplanes a structure such as the: engine mount which carries the same weight at a. higher load racl~or. .u is therefore necessary to calculategustlead factors at the minimum. .

wm

s,pec:ifi,egthe clonci:iti,ons 'wbich ,shou~d be in y,astipted. Such inveSitii;at~<o:ns requ.lre


theealculation ·of the mass mo'men~ or hlcrUa of tb'B ,air.pl:an.eabout the:pi.tch.ing,

rolling:. and ,y:aw~ngaxes. The ac:rodynamk: forces on, [he ;~ti:rp~an.cre calculated a
and set in cqumbdt~m hy inertiaJ ro,rco~ (Hil ~hea.irfl,lj;ilme.

Ex~en'5ive a.e:rodyn.:amic Informado'n tsreqtw.~rodto invesHI~tc t~le performan.ce, central, and st,ah~lity of a propesed a.~rti(tft. Only the ~ftIform.at~!()llI whic:h IS required rortbe s~ruct[g.ra.l analysisis considered berre,aUhough normaU,J Utis would be obtained as part .of a much moreextensive :pro'~ram,The first aerodyna.m.l.c data re~q[~dredfor tho structural ana~ys,'~s are the lift, dra,g, :3Jod

pllc:l1llng'",mom,ent force distributions for the ,complete ill,in:::fafl with the hori:z-on~;a.l tail removed" t~rollg]~therange ()rang~es; oEauack from the n:egativ,e stalling; ang~e l~' theposit~ve ,st:cdUng angie" W'h:U'e these data can be ca,l!cu~ated,a,'ccu,ra,lely f(nr a wing wUb 3!eonve:ntiDinail!a~rfoii oocnion~simj~ar data ro,r the oombhudiion ·,of the v.dng and fuselage; or the wingt fuselage, andnacene~, are more dlm:cml'! to' at,leu la teac1::1!lra"elyfro!m published [nforma: tio'n be(3UBC of the l!IllloertainelJects

of ~heaerodynamicintede:remlce of various OOimpo,",ents~ It Is therelore desirab~,e to' (l,bbtin wlrnrCitunrn,c[ data on ,I 'm,ode11,o:r ttlecQm,p],ete a,i,rpla,trl:e less horiz:o!j1Jtll talt. l~fs onen ne-ees'Sal'y~ of CQUHe"tO' ca:tC1i]~a~e these d,sta frn·rnp:ub1isbod irlfor .. mil'!,d.on~no'.rdert,IOI' ,obt:ain app:r,o.11:lU3.t!e air loads for preU,minary design purposes. Wind ttmnel te~ts of' a model of the complete ai'rplla;newith :the hori~onlaIUl~~ remcJ.'vedpn):vide, '\t,alwJe5 the Hft, drag:, Rnd pitc;hingrnoment for al~angl,es of ~iUack.Then oomponents of the lift and drag ror:'OO.s wllth f,es:pect. to a,lrpllane rcfcreu~~ a.x.es are d'e~erminecl Theaire.rufl referenoe axes ma.)' be cho~en as. :show,tlJjnFig.2.3. The f€lrce. components are C;I;.q.Sand C~ qS aJoD,gtbe!WB .a~es,. wb~re q=, ,,1/1. is the dy:nam:i,c pressu:rea,nd S is tbe .surraoew[ng,area. The uCHldime:nsi<tJnal i[oroe ooefncrc:nts C~ and ex are obtained. by ,projec~ting the Uft and dra.g coemciemts,respect,~"ei~y.tfOF tbe a~:rpl:ame 1iBSSn.oriz'ontaJ tan al,Q,ng the reference axes by the foUowing; equations :

or

c'"

=' C,. CO\!i, 8' 4' C,f)


(1 -C1•

sin 8
sin ()
1:

:(2.1',
(2.2)

C';,;- ~ C,~ O(Hi

The ,angl~c10 is measured from the AigiU pia th to the


'!i

axis, as shown in Fig.Z.]" and is:eqiua1to the difJerenoo between the angle 'Of aUa,ck Ir% an:d the artg~e of wing id ...~ In.(;]',· ,eooe I. The piitchlng moment aboultheairpl,ane's 'center of griil.v'ity hi; obtai.l1!cd from wl.nd tunnel - data a,nd is ("m...111_' .fi?l,', S:. whe:re-, C,o., ' , is the, dimefl$~an~ess f!Ji tchin.g'~ -. , ":J, --:I'" . momlfmt ,coefifici.ent of the airpb'tn,e~ess l3Ji~ and ,e iSi the mea.n3,erodynamh: chord olf the wing., The mean aerodynamic cn,ord: (MAC) iiS a wingre:rereliu:~e chord wi1i ch usu:aUyis c:a'licul]atod. from the win;: fJ[anform. If every~3idon sectionalong
""1111_. ' ,
1

...

(\.';!~'I~1r ~f

. (~,t{s

tiJ":lvUy

II~s ,I

~'

the wbli:g sp.an has the sa,mepitchlng:-mo:me:nt

cooliicie1lt c~l~tbc MAC is: dew.r-

m~noo so dud the total wingpit'ctdlll,g momtmt~s ,c""C'q.5., Fora: rectangular w,ing pl.anform the va.lue i (t,he 'MAC) is ,equ.ai, to the wing chord; fo:r a tl'3Jpel!olda[ phuiI[orm 'Qlr the semiwing, UleVfi~iJle of cis, equal to the chord at,the centro~d or Imetr,a,pez,oid. The: MAC is: actu:a,lil.y an arbitr,3;ry len.gth, and ,anyrefe:r,c',I1!Ce ]e:ngth w()uid be s~lisf~lCh)ry j:r it were used (;(')ol1:!l:i~\it(';nUy j;n,~n wind tunnal [tests; :and

or

ca.lcuJadcHls.Forir,regular

The balu~Cingadr~oOad on the bo.lTizonta~ tail, C~qS~ is obtained fromtbe assu.mpttIQ,n_ that th:cr,eis no a:ngu~a:ra;cce]era:Uon of tbe a:irpla:lle~The moments ,01.'

pl.a,nrorms~ some procu,ring or Uee;us,iug agencies require thatthe mean cl!u::n:d '(wing area, cHyjded by wingspan) be used 3:9 the reference chord.

s,hapes

,or

tbe forces shown in, Fi:g. 2.3 ,about the ,cente:r of gravity :a.re~theFefore in equilib .. num:
"

or'

(2.3)

where C, '~:S: a dimensiornles.'it,ai~ form ,coeffvci;en:texpressed In terms. of [he wl.mg area. and L, is the dii~ta,bce from the airpla..tIie"soenter o.f gra",lty ~o' thie resultant air kliadon the hor'izonta! t,aUi,u:~hown in Fji~ 2..3.. Since the pre~sure distf~b'l1!Uon on the hod1Jtuda~ tad~ varies aocord.ln :§;, h) the a11ilude of the airplane, L,.
l

on th,e a..irp~anein the .z directiQin~C~qS). Is equal to the sum t.he airI)la:ne leas laUan.dthcb,alanclIDJI, ta.U~oad C~~ qS:
enS = C.,~S ,:r.. ':I
"f; ,,",

t:heore~kaH'y varies for d.iffer·ent lo.adin,g conditions. Th~s vada,tiorll. is not great, and it is c:U.stom,ary toassume L, eontant, by using a ccmservaUve, fo·rward POlS,. idcm or the oont.e:1l' orpr-essure on tbehori2Jontal tail The tC!lifalaIB.fod;Yllarm.io [o:l:1ce

or the force C~qS

om

+ CfJIS
I ~.

(2.4)
For
p'QWCr''':QR

,n,igh't coediticns,

the moment ·of the propd~cr or j.ct thrust

c:oem,c[el11,:ts can be p10Ucd a.I~;dnst the anG,leof attack alas ET more thafiOineposiHo~olf the center (lfgrayity is considered in. the ana~y.s!s. it is nece~sa.ry to calculate the curves forC'""" C~t and C=\!.~or each cCFlb~r~of~,gr.a.,·jt.yposition, The .right~hand portions. of' ~he solid curves shown in Fig. 2..4 represent the aCl'odyna.mi:ccha:racterisdcs after st.anmg of the wing ..Since stalling reduces the air loads on the Will.S, the.,~e: portionsof the curves are not used .. Instead, the curves, are e:xtr2ltpo~;a{ed., as sh;('1wn by the dotted lines, in order ~!O'appi.rQximiat.e Uleconditions. of 3. sudden pull-up, in. whicbhigh
theaerodynemic shown in Fig. 2.4.
l~'

a.bout tbe centero.f gr,a.vlty of the' :a:~rp:~aT1l.e shouid also be QOQsidered ...T~b adds an,othert'crm. to' [he EJq. {2.ll.

Now'

Uf~·coe:fficien·ts. Il'],ay exist fora. short t~me~.For UlIif; PHAA condition, the angle of a.uack ;Dor,liespolwding. to the {·~Jorlcecoe.fficieJ1l:t · t2S: dm.es the maximum. value of C~. is used, and the curves ,3J.I:e extrapolated t!O t~bisvalue, as shown in..Fi,g..2.4.

or

!i
~ ~rUAA

I
.

\~

2,.5 Ft~GI-lT ..VEHrCLE INER,TIA LOADS


The ma.x'!'nlum 'load on 3nYl}arlOif anilht,"vchieh~ structure occurs when the Yeh~deiis being accelerated. 'The loads prodaeed by landin,g im,pact.ma:n(l1;.lveri'n,&, g,us,~s,boostand staging operations" ,la.ur[IIChes,~ and doc:k in,gsa.re: always greater than the Ioads occurring whenall the f()rces on tneve,hic~e are III eqiuiUbr.~um. ,Befot,e any structural cempenent canbe designed]! it is; necessary 'to' dererraiee the inertielaads ac'tln,g on tile 'v:e:b~cle~, [n many of the loading conditions, a" HI,;ht vehb,:~~e ma.ybe ,colisJderema,s be~ng in pure trianslation or pure rotation .. Thejnertia force om any eJemltmCof mass isequal UJ the produc:t 'Of the mass a,n.d thea;ooelell'iUdonl3lnd acts: in the .'.. . . .. I ,. Ii.. .. 'I" ...lI..:I" . .s; t; cl.. .'" . epposue to th-e aooe~,eraUom:..'I'f" t~~eapp'ile' d'~loaus SJliUi :u:u~:rna.I,D:fces ,ct trecuon . a on. an element as 3, froo body~ these fO[1ce8 are in ,equ.i:Ubrilull. For ex:ample~ a.body of mass R~under the action lor a fo'rce vecter f moves so as to sl,tisfy the ,equI.tion
F=mQ

rere.re:q~e If if .. (2..5) gives;, lIIponresolvi:ng ~nto eempenents,


:r
II':'

where

'~'I lsthe

newtonian rrarn'e.; o:r eartesi:3!,D, sys:t,e:m ()f.x,y~ and za~es is,chosen in dds fr,am~, then Bq,
d it

massand

is tbe acce~~.e:rad'Oll. relative to

r'~ my,

••

where Fxo F ;t and ,F: ave the IcompOloents: or .F along, the x, J'~ and z axes, res,pooti.ve~y",and ~Y,;1' and ,z are 'checo:mponcnts ,or aoee1e~aJt~of!Jalofll,g the x, )I, and ~.nx~. In. the p:recedin,g: di,tCllssi:om" a~~pa.:rtsoJ dn~:rigid body were movili1l,g ill s:tnlligb,t~patal~td~itte~ and 'bad equial velocities a.nd aecelerations .. In many englneering problems, i~i~s neoessary to ICOl1sidier the inertia foroes;acdn,g on a rigid body~l,fhich has, ether tyre.r;: Qr motj,()n~ ]0 many C~ when~ theelem.cnbar a, rig~d bod,y are mlQivingin Icurvedpa:th~,the:y are mOYlng in such a w;ayth.at each

e~ement movies in ouly orne planearnd all eb;men~:5 m'o,v,ein pa.:l!'aUe:Ip,I.a.nes. This ~ypc: OIr luoHon is culled fJ'./(t.Ut~ n.rmiuu. :and it OCCU~;. forcx.amph~ when a vcblch:: is •. p.i~ch~ng and yet has rno [(lUing()( yaw~ng mOUOIL. .A.11elements of the vchide , move: in planes parallel to the p.i',a.F!e symmetry, Any type or p~,a!J}emetion can of be considered as a rotation about Siome instantaneous axis perpt'.md~cular to the p]anes of m.othon,. and the :EoUowirng ~qu.a,Ho~~ ror~neni.a forces are derived on the ~s:sunlpti.otl that the rigid bodyis flota~inl about ani lnstantaneousaxis perpen ..
of symnloLry of the body The inertia. forces rOhta~ncd may 00 used for the pilchinJ:, motion of a v:ebicle!IDut. when lhe;y are ut[H~.ed for rolling or ya\ving motions, itis necessary tefirst obtain the pdndpalaxe:sandmo:ments of inerua !of the vehicJe. The. rigid .mass shown .im. Fjg.2.5 is: rotaUng about poiIlt <0 with a COmlstant
.a.

diClIJlar ito aplane

.3;ogula,r velocity (I). The' accelera.tic.Hl ofillny point a dista~ce rfl[lOlinl Ule center rnf J1otatl()f1 is wi.rand is directed toward the center of rotatien, The inertia force or C!12, dMI,and ls direeted awa.y fraln components w2x !t'MparaJlel (,.0 ~.h_,e Jt the x axis is:chesen tl~ruugh t he center resultant inertia force in the y djrcell~on
Fy
.~

acting on an element o·f mass dl"I' is the product ()f l.he mass and the acadera.ti()n~

J",'}, f }',,/
liM ~
(1)'
L.,''!i.,

the axis of ro!!tal~'on. Th~sinelrfia. fon:e has axis and W2~V lIM parallel tOI the y axis. m:r ('Jtgr.avi~y C the: forces. are s!i.m.p~ified.The :rOll' ,enti:re: bady is round as rbi]o'ws: the
1

M= (I

ts constant for ;aUc~emcnts (lir the body~aDell thehl'lc:;ra.l is zero because the .x axis was chosen throagh dle center or gra.vjty .. The inertia foroe in the x di reeuon is fou nd in the same Ellanner :.

The a.nguJalT'vci,o<CIIY

(I)

'"to" ~ '

= , I,

I-.... .

(."2",,,~.~._.f - "-., '!!Jf ,{;~~

= ~1'J1J.'...'1 ·
'!i; ~ ,

l~'1j;

...

,dA;] .= "u2:;(M'
_ •• ' _

"a -

."

(.'.2.71,'I

The ~ermi

ls the distance rrom the: axis or rotation

a to

Ule. center of gravity C~


an

as shown

jill

Fig. 2.5.
;3Ic'CGlcrati'Q'fiI Irt~ the

U the body bas an an.guhtt

element or mass d'Afhas

dM acting: perpendkula" to raf:ido,pposi,b~ to Ule direction ofaooemer,a,tion. TbJs fOlioe bas oomponents u dM in Ute 1 directkllQ and o:ydM in t~e .'t dir-eeriom, a:!;shown :in Fig.,J.6i. Thcresultant inertia :forooom the en'ti:re body in tbex direction iis

iddid,C!llnaJ inerUa forc€::

OIl"

Tihcresulltant ii,ncrdaForce in, thie)l' d~r~no~i:s

f ", F,~ f
p.""

,11M = ,0;JJldM=

oxxdM

= «JIlM - o:dM

The resultant inertia tarqne about the axis otr(dadon is found by tmt'e,g,f.a,Ung tbe h::lims rel'resclti:n,g ilhe pr,odl!lct of the t.iul,gent:ia] force O:l'!I,each el,cmlent «r IdM and ii:Ls momeatarm r:

The 'fc:nm 10' represents

the mo'men,t (illf :ine:litia, 'of the mass about 'tbea.:xis: of tot~tth.:)f1l.It ca n be shown thattbis m'Dment of Inertia can be tralillsrerred to a pa.rmne~alls Ul.r,ough thecenter of gravity by USJS of the 'Dllowing, relationship.::

(2 ..iO) where F,r its 'bemCI'11U~r!I.t f inertia ,olf fhe mass abent aD ,ax'is th~ough ~he ,center of o gra'!,i!itj. obtained as: the sum ·of t.heprodliJcts of mass elements dM and the :sq[].a~e, '10'£ th,e~rdistances ,r,~frioim the eenrerof ,gravit,:
I.~

Jr:

tiM

i,y .s:ub,st:itl!lt.~ng the; valu'cor 10 frOlm Bq.

pr,es:don [Of the; Inertia tQlrq~e is obtained:

<l.tO~ in Sq.

f2~9)l' the fbUowlmg ex-

To, ~ AI i2o:

+ 1~ rJ.

(,2..11)

~l,,'d'M
01'

,"~

The inefliafo;C6s obitalned in Eqs .. (27h (2.. )~.and (2.11.),QUII' be: represented as S forces .a'cting at the ceate:roifgr:a:vhy :a·nd Ule couple: le~' as shoWl:ilI jnFig~'2.7, The force dAl and the cou.p;l,eIrr: CI mtJisl both p.roduct: moments :abol.dpoint D' whIch
are opposj:~c Ito (h:e diioocl.iQiIl ura ..The ~tJrcc n,z.iM Ulust 3Jcl away IfraN, p!o,int

It is :s~e;nfrom. Fig- ·2.7 that tbeFo'rees .at die oontnJiid :rep.flesen,tthe prodllllct ·of U~emass of HIe bodY8Dd t.h.e Icompo:nents or a.oce]e:ralion ·ofthe. renter of gra:vit.y. In many eases, the axls of rotation isnotkno·wn~ but the eempoeents ,of acee:~er ... anon of the eenter Oif' gr,avl:fy can be ,obr,ain,ed. ~n Qt.berca.ses::, the acaderatiicm of one poi:]]t;of the body and the a.ngular vel.od~y ,and a,~u]a.r accelera.tion an, knQw:n. ]I the ploint. -0' in. F.i,g.. 2.8 has :3111a.roe~ef.adoI1Qo, an intrtia fCirceat tnt : center ,of gra~i~.yor M Cl,IJ); IQPposi:te to Ule dic'ec:Uonof ao., must be considered in a.dcHtj,on te these pf!evious:ly ita keni "to a.cco:unt

o.

whichthe vehicle has '!DIn], transliil~i'Qnalaccel .. eration ~ every p'att of tlfli8 vehic~eisacled on. 111:pa,raU,td jn:erda fO·rms wbichare: pn);port.ion.alfo the weigbt or the part. For purpesesefanabsls, it ISClO~;Plenjjen.t to, ocm,bin,e these inerUa fOlltes wiith~heroroes ofgra.'Y~ty.t bry mu.hipliylng the
illl.

ForA.~ght.0.1' la.:ndIm,g conditions

w~jgbt. of each part by

8.

load factor N".amd fhtn;. to o(msider the eombined weight

:snd .in.ert],a .for,ces:. Wn.en the Vlehi.de ·i:s being aeeeleraredupward, dlcweight and ~ nClit~aforms :ad,dd~recHy. The we~!;tirtor' waiF anypaJt and ·tbe in'e:rUa foree w·o.lg

have a

su m miV ~
lJ.iV ~,,~

+W'"

11\1

~.

or
The cembiaed

. a f'!::·=d "t-

.g

jnerU,a and gn!'vih' forces are considered

In

the ana~ysj,s: in the

s;a:me ma.nner as wejjgh Is which are :mult.iplied. byl.i1e; b;:.tad faeter n. In the easeofan airplane in tll,gmt wUh no horitmntal .ltcoderaLion, as ,shown
in Fig. 2.'9'" the engine: thnJst .is.·eq~a:l
(,01'

dle ,airpbulle drag, and tbe h(l,rj~onta~

eemponents

tho iiiH~rtil~ln~da:raviLy forces: are zcrc, Thew·cl.g.ht and. ~h.cinertia foroe on the airplane a!c~down iB.Dd wU~be 'equa~. to' the Hftlhe a.~.rphiiJ~eiiift .1. is the resl!iJtant o,e the wing and t~.H lIn forces. The Ioad ia,ero:!' is cle!l1n!edl fol!ow~s;~ as
(:If

load f~ct.Qr=: ..,_ welghl


,n_.-

- ..

tin

.W

This value [or the load factor can. be .shotV:f1. to be the same as IthnJ givtn by Eq, 1(2.'1:2~ by equating tbcl~ft IllV to the sum ofthcwc:iighl and inertia forces:

or 1 .. ·1 ''''UU:.1
:-, ~.' -:-;,-,-:-;-'_,:·::--·-,--~~_,,'·I~,'

a ."=.~ ~......
n ----~, T

t.hc~irp~:t'tJile is thus under theacdon or 'l bori7!on~ai~ ~ne:rt~.aforce equal to, the product of its mass and the horizont,al aeeeleration .• It is also CQ'riI.vetWl:nt to conslderthe ho.rizomltal1Fl:e.r~ia~oadsms equal 10 the product .of aload fact!arn~

-em. (C2]__2). _. flight vehicles frequently b.a.ve ho:ri:zu[[ItaJ iDl~t&ra6on as w~Xl! as 'Ve:rtiC3.[ acoe]enlit~(l'IiI.The a.i:rp!~.anehown in Fig, ..2..10 ls. be~ng ;3J.oc,~er,n~ed . s fb:rw~rd~ S~fIJce the e;ngine thrust T is .I~eatet ~hZlnthe airplane dra,gl),Every element ,ofmiilSs ln

cone:

d to flC1~lL.S·E
"J",

Iii

"'

r ':

'"_),

!/il' t··- ~
~ I~~'

d',

and the weights. This :h,ori7.ofllta~ load .n'!:'c~OI\ ofiJcn ,caUed the tJ'r:rlltst' lo€~(l.f(Jctor. is obtaIned fromthe equilibrium'of the horizon UIJ fa fees shown in. Fig, 1.10:,
Ud!:

W··

cc:::. ~ax

,q

W···· .__~: ..•.

''J'"

.~

.-

D."

or

f2.14)

the aJrpl,a,n:ethrust

components: of forees aJon~ x and z axes, whkhare :paralk~l.and perpendiclldar to Une, The combined w~ight and inertia lead on any element hasa ,compnne,nta]o,ng the z ,ax~s,of tho rol~,tHWing[n,ag;nitud,s ~

A more general cese of translational aecelerarlon is shown in Fig, 2J~,t ~n which :lbe a.irphtne thrust ]ine is; .n.ot ho,r[ZiO,ntal. It Is usually cQ:nv'cnllent to' obtain

(2., t ,5)

L ~ '_" ._ _....W eos (J +-"",.' .,' -_.' . 0, _


,,'
.

."

11'iI':',

')

(2.16)

L~WR
or

.11: ..... =R!

L
.3

which ,cor:lim>po:ndsw:~th the value 1LI.sed in :Sq. (2. '13} (or

~eveiJ aUHude

airpbl,ne. The thrust!oad :fa,ehl[, :for tn.econditi,ons:h.orwn i.nFig..::t 11 is also simUar to that oblajned.~or tne:airp]'i!,neifll hnre_lattitude. Siflice the thrust and drag,FQf.C;,es m1!l~tbe in eq,u~Hbr:iium whh the com:pcHlents of 'weight and hlcrU.a forces. along (,be x :axe..,~hc thnllstlo.adractor is ·obta.l,riIoo as follows:
J1.:I:

or the

== _"-.
'fJ

6:f

·~W tdn (1= T' ~

or Tbis v,a[ue a~tpbJJne.

11.x.

= -w-' .-. obudllcd ~nEq. (2.1:4) Jor a. iC'rlCl attilude.


:8S

T-D

ls the sameasthar

.0.(

the

shown in. Fig.l.~.2" the Iandingl,oad factor is d:e;llned ,as the verUcaJ ground re.acU,on dhl'id,edby the .a.irp:lane wei,ahL Tile load [ac~or in the no ri:7.ion tal direction is; ~irm~11:a den nedas tbe lu)ri~onta~ iii y ground f·eacti@!f'!divjidedby the airplane weight".:

In the case: .of the airplane I,andinl.

an d

(2018)

am.al,:~d~.His; nooe.,qsary to oM~dn t.he components or tfli(~load [.a'C~'Of a:long ares pa.rallel andperpeflldicular t:C) the pr()ipeller 'thrust line ..However, aerodynamic fon:esa re usuaU.y II) b talned nrsta:s: urt. and d~a.g foroesiperpen dieul ar and pa.rallle.1 to the direct~(),nOr :Hiig,rnl If load Iactors are ,obta.inoo first. a.Jongl:i.ft and dra.gaxe~~ Ul'C.Y 'fllay be. resolved i:nto OOmpc.Hlcnts aiiong, (),~heraxes~. in the In theairpi.ane
~H!!mle ~n"e:ra$ m forees are resolved in~IO compeneats,

The. ro'roe acU'"IOri1 iany

the fon:eis W.1irCOS Ie...The CQmpane:[It or the i:o,ad.fa.ct.ofis the,tl nc<J's O. As a..general defij.n~Uon~ the lo:ad factorn ~~,cHlg.any aXIls i is mch tnat the pnJduct of the load (ado:f and dlJeweig;bn ofanelemea tls eq;uaJ to thesum of the comp,onent:sof tn,eweight and inerUa fO,KeS ,atong th;ataxis. The' weight and Ir:H~:r'tiafOTilJcsare mJw.a.ys in equilibrium with tbe external forces a.cttng; on HIe; a,irpla:n,c. and tbeslll:m !o:f Ule components of the weight and inert,ia .forces along any axis: :most ~:eq lila] and IO:PPClsife to the sum or the com pOme!llts of (he ,exte:rn,ai for-ces: along the axis EFi• The: loud f:aoto;r is, thereCOlle defined as

weight

w is

\It.lll,

and the: ,co.mpo:IiIJent. or this foree

:aito'l1.g,any

axis

alan

ang,lle: (}, to

The vadous lo@cU:ngcOfldUiorns fcl'.I:' a!fll ,alrp~.a.ne usuaHy are repn~seilled on a gra.ph or 'the Ihni~",'.oad factor n. pi:OHedi against tbe Indiested airspetd V. This diagr.am. is of'{enc;anod a V"II d.iQg.ram~ shime tbe load [acini n is rcJa.ted to the accelc:r'at~tOn. of grav'ityg. in aU sucb diasram5,. the indlca~ed airspeed is used. since a.~t air loadsare proportional t.o-q or pY:'i2. The vahse ofq is the same for the air density p and Uie actual (J,jrspeed.at althude as; ~tis FOlithc standarid sea~lev~1 dlensi~y ,Po :and ~.be indica;h~d airspood:)s:ince ttN~~ indicated a.~rspeed!.is deftn~dJ by '~tdsrelatl onsh~p.The Y.. diagram is; thereforethe samefQE' a.U alUn hides: i:f indicated a~rnpeeds Stet ~$ed..Whe:re Qom.p,.ress:~bn.ity ,effects art eonsidered, they depend on actual airspeed rather than indicated airspeed andoonsequently
are mcreprcnoucced ,a.taU.Hude. Compres:rdbUit .. yefl"ects are not considered h'ere. Tbe: aer--odynamic fOfiCeS. on an a:irpla.nearctn !equilib:rium\:vith. the .ro.rceso.~· g;ravity8'fJd inertia. If the a~rpbinc has no angularacceleration, both tbc inc:r~i.a and. gra.vlty foroes will be diistdbute,d hI Ith.e:same manner as the we:~gh~ . .ofvarlo<us

items of theain;.;raftatnd\vrnU

of thealn:rafl. It 'is co nv~:mlentto 'oom bine the inerHa a.nd;ravUy forus as the prodtu::t ,of a load :falct.or tt and. the weight W~, asdesc:dlbe'd previ@usily. The :£ compo,.nen.tof theresuU,ant glmvity and inertia force is ~theforee n W acting; a.lt the center ,of gta:vity of the at.rphU'li~~as .s:hown ~n Fiil. 2.11. The ~oadl rildo r lr is ob~airned.from a.f;ummatio'il offo.rmi aJong the z axis:

ha,yc r,c:s;u~t3.lltsacting thrlough the center of gr,ivity

C~.,qS=
or
tJ·_·

.~w
2W
. (2.•,20)

C_:S'V.! - .. _g,P

The malinl<\un value .of the normal fQroeooreffi~ient C~ m.ay. be obtained at various alrplane speeds, For ]c!velfUg;hl ala unH~]IOlad factor, Iheva~ue{)fV cQrresponding, to C:;:1i+ wou ld 'be ~he slam ng speed 'Olf [be ai rr,~:;.u~e. aeeelerIn
1110,0

.---

.................. .......... .............IWLAAJ ...-... """"'""' F

.c'

MillCil~nll1lf1~

. div.~I1@ :$i~

ated night, the m:u.:imumcocmde]1l~ mighl be obtained ,at h~ghcr speeds .. For C i;~.m~x to. be obtaru:rl!eda;t twice the st~Ufngsl'eed,a load faceors = 4 wouJd be (j,evc]oped as s hewn by Eq..(2~2J)~ For a force coefficient of l ,.25Cli....rnil:xreprC$enting the higJte$~ ,atn.g~eof aUaa:-;'kfo'r wh~chtbe wing .isaJill.dyzed, the value of the load [a.lCh:;:l'f n is Obtli1lloo from Eq . .(2.20) and m.ay be p~otted a,gains.! thea]r'p~ane velocity :V:! asshown by 011 in. Fig .. 2. i3 T,his line 0.4 represents, a. limld:Qg condU.io'R~,51ince It is po,ssible 1.0 mailileuve:r the" a:irp]iaoe at speed:s and. load Iaetors eerresponding to points below Oil" t!o< t]1H!; r~.Iht of llneOA, but it is impossible to maneuver at speeds a,md. load fa.'ctor.:i corrc\'il,ponmng to points above or to' (he len of .~i.n!O A because llis w,ouldjj~.pire8cnt a."a:~es,of attack mUlch h:~gher than the: {) sta.mng angle,

nne

a,

Hmin on lhemaximum n~aneuv,erin3, ~oad IactorIor' whlch the ~irp~;tme is d~igi1]j!ed.This~~adractQr is: d~t@rmiflJl~d rrorn ~he spcci:ficaHo,t'lsfor' wh~cb theai.rpbt.oe is dresi:gne.d~lnd the pilot mus res;trid
maneuvers so as not to exceed this load factor. At speeds below t hal OOf.Fespon.d .. ;ng ('0 poh1.t .A,. it [5 impossib~e~olli' the pilot to exceed. the Unlit. load factor im. any :s:ymm'ctd.caJmatu:;~uver~ because t,h;e wing 'Win stan ata IlQiwe:r load factor. For airspeeds 'be'fwooD {hose corresponding to points AI and C.~it ls notpractiealtc desiig,n the airp~ane structuse se that it could not he ove,rslrtsscd by v~oJeait ma.neu¥e:n: ..Some; types of airplanes may be desi:gned so th:81t the pilot WQu~d have to-exert lar~c [0 rees on (he oon.tro~s in orifer to ex:ceed thleIImlt-~o3ld facto!f'. Line CD in Fig, 2,,]3 represents the limH om.the pennis~dbk: d~ving speed for the idrp~urne. This v:alule hj ustmUy :s,eci.fiedas 1..2 no LS, times the maximum jnd~catod airspeed in leV1eJ flight Line rOB corresponds to liae OA<t exoep,t that the w[n,g is :at, the' negativ;estalli,ng angle of attack, and the air ~,oa:dis dcnlllD on. the wing. The equation for I[ne:(J8is obta~nedby substituting the: maximum n'c:gativ,e; va~ueo,f C:t.. into EIC,lJ.• (2.20')1• .s~mU;ar:I.y'ii e SD corresponds t'll' Ilne AC~e~ce:pt. ~ha.t Hn.. the l~mit-IQad factor specified for negntive maneuvers is consIderably tess than ~()f

The line A.C in Fig. 2.13repre:scrltsthc

posi 'i, iY16rna,lle"u'vers,.

The aitc~a:rt m.ay therefore be ma neuvered Insuch a. marmer lhaty;clocitires. and load factors; corresponding to the ,coordinates (l[ points within tbc area ('j A CD'B may be; Qb'.a.ined .. The most severestrecteral load n{}' 'oo.nditi,ons win 'be represented by the Cor~efs, of the diagram, points A,. S .. C. and n. Po,ints .A and .8 represent PHAA and NHA.A condHi.ol:1s. Point C represents thePLA.A condition '.'-. -e .:·t -'-,',_' a.. J,.I,OUgWI me :·t-·', ,.,~t·'i,,"",1 UL WO!h cases, i·].tl"~...L ·t'l ,-; [l05,1 rve g:us~ ,oau ,c'.' ··d':·"'·,...:. .representee 1-:. -',." ,~ ...' , con hLOR~ .~:. . . .... ted uJPonh F'i may oc,ms](ulal1ybe more severe, The NtAA 'condition isrepresented by point n er by tbefl:e;gadve gust eQndltiQrl~po.hrt E~ de:pendlng .on wblcih eondltion produces theg,f tatestllcgative I'oao factor. The method ,of obb]l~n.i:tlgthe; gust load factor.slrepr~n~ed bJlPo~nts E .9tJ1U;$ is lexplainoo intbe CoUowing section, F,
,-'i

i'.

.i

,2.SGUST LOAD F.A.CTORS


Wlu~l1a.n H[fpllun:c is in level mght in caJm air. (he ,ang~e of attack O! ls nllcasun_;:dJ frOf.ll the wingchcrd Hoe 'til) the hodzontal., )if l.be airpil.aJliC suddet:ll,y

strikes anascendingair
attack
~.8 increased

currentwhich

h8!S ;a verticalvelocity
'1" •

h J. b "d' an d the ang~,eill1 rad· iUUlS may ne "~()nSI ere d aaequai to ns tangent
4.Ct =--

bytil,e a·flgie A~, as, shQwn~n f~g,. .•~4. The an.g~e:~irxfs small, 2
=

.K,u., theangle

or

KU
V

{2.2.IJ

The chatn.gein. the ;airplanenormal force ,coefficient C~. :r,e.suUiflg 'fr,oma cha'nge in an.,gtcof attack .6.~ may be obtained from the enrveof C=,,'1ersUis. ,~of Fig. '2.4. Thiscu.rveisapprox:ima~ely a stra.ight ~i~1:~and it hss a slepe P' which m.ay be, .'...:1 d', consit an t : CiQnS1lU;ere.

P='~'Ail!

lie..

(222)

After strik ing~hc gust~ the; ~drp.ja.rH! nonna.] f()rce (:~e;me~e11Jt iII/creases by an amount dete;rm~nooff,om Eqs!.(2.21) and (2.22)::

. ~f3KU' t\,C~!!,~, V

(2.23)

The Increase hi! the uh'piane load .raetor .An maybe obtained by substiUJting Ule value of 6C:=" from Hq..(2.. 3} into, clq. (2.20)~ 2

. 6.ft ==

aC:I!' fJ'SV~

2W· ....... ·

or where p ·~·stand,ard sea ..l,evel air de,f]s;ity.1 O~OO2318, hJg/ft3 S

,~.~IIi~~.

iM."I', ...... ··.)· '

S = w]tl!g, area, ft2


lJ=sh)pe

.of 'the ,curv,t! ,of C...,ve:rsns a., rad KU = effective :gust velocity, ft/s JI = indicated ajrspeed~, fVs W := gfos,S\Veigbt or ai,rp;lane~ lb
Fa r pUrpOHl of ca.lcu'atiCl~ U, is 'mOreOODVe:f!li!l,nll ~o determ,incthe tdope fJ per degree and 'Ule. airspeed V in miles :per nOU,f. Introducing the Ileoos-:sa:ry CClInstants j,:n Bq, (2.24) ,y.ie~ds
"'.'.' .' ,011= 0.·..

,··.1, p,KU. V' . ..


.

"'WtS

(2.25)

where jJ is the slo,1'6 ,ore::,,,, versus ,a per degree, V is the incHca!etI, ai,ts:peed in miles per heur; and ,other~enns correspond 1:0, those ilfllEq. f214~ Wh en the airphilrIJe is in h~;ve,~ fli,,gh~ the load [actor is uni t,,J' befo[1c the pli.lI1N~i strikes the gust The change inlead factor An from Sq. {2.2$Jm~,st be combined wHb Ule uTdt:-load factor.rin o,rder to 'ob~a.iRthe total gust load .factor! n=l ..
+CU ,~.....-- WlS

". ,{JK.'UV

Eqrua,Oolll (2:.26) may be' pl'ot~ed (!In the y~~ disgram, as shown by the inclined

straight

lines throu,g,h points G andlE or Fig. 2.13. TbeseUncs represent Jead fs,'ctors obtained when the airplane js in avertleal attitude and strikespositlve or ne,ga..

lines :through, ~p'IJi F andH ·of Fig,. 2.13. These; lines: mp['~semt load nts falcb)fS obtajned when the airpla,neis: ifil. a bori7J(Hlbd a~:lit,mde a:ldstrikes posiHie er ne,ga't~vegusts, Equation (2.25)15 shmUarly plotted., as shown 'bythe,~ncUned
~jv:egusts

in direodons normslte the thrust Hne. The gnsl load FadOir rep1resentod 'by poil11 Fot Fig . .2.] 3 may be more severe than thema,net:lve,r~ogkl,nd fac~·O'rf,cpn~~sentedby poInt C. III the case :s:h(?<wT:l~
bo,y(wer~ :the ttulJileuverin,s~ola;d ractor is ObVK)llslyg:rcater and wjU Ri;pr~nt the PLAA CIO tien, The neladvegus:t~!()adract)or ndi .represented by point E is: greater [han the nelltivem,aneuverimg I:oadract.orreprcscn'ted b,), :point D angwiU determine the NLAA oondition. It might seem that the gust loa.d£actors s:hou.td

be added to the Jlm.lilieuvering [oad~~d{)rS', in order topf<[)vide ~oirthe po!sslbHU.y ~

or

v,ii()~e:nt maneuver. While tbis condH,io,n isposs:ib~e'l' it i;s~mproha.ble beeause the mane[!1v,e:ri:rlg~()ad factor.s are under the pi~.ors (1ontn:,li~ and the :pii:lot wiU res;t:rict maneuvers I.ngusty weather, B,~U[lthe ,n1Ianeul;Pt,dngand gast load fa.ei~o.rsco,.rrespo:nd to the most seYlere! eC)nd'itfOUS expected d~lri[Jg the H~e of Ullc nirphule~ and ther,c is little probabili~y oiF a, cc:nlil.bhli~d:g~ls:t and, maneuver Pf10ditlc:i ng: a cOlnd~tru,on which wou:ld le'~ceOO. the limlr-load f:acto,r for the design, oondition.
Ell
i

the a:jrpku~t"s striking

a severegust

during

,.-

The! design values wUl


ever

Tbe ~~·effe.ctlve" h:a.rp-ed.gedll:U~t.nv,clocily KU i~ thev,elQcily (l,r;a, th~oretitCa,] s lu~t wl:.d:cb~tr (::[u;o1Jotertd ini:stai''l'tatleousl,y~ would ,Jive the sa~ne load factor as the aetnal gust Adua nY:I' it is im.po~:s:ib~eftl'rthe up,ward air veilodt.y to C'hange suddenl,y from zero, to its m,axjmum value, There is ,a~waYI a finite: distsnee ~n wbich the air v,elocilydutngesgraduaUy from zero~o the maximum ,gust. vel,oatYt ~l'nd SJshOl't Um.e is required 'for diu: airplane te move through. this trans:itlo:rn, rcgiom,_ M'ost ~pj$cificnnonsre~ui re that the airplane be designed [gf' ;:1 gust velocity ,U IOf 30 fils with the gu:d eJTeclivcnt'ss faetor K or O.8toL2~ de;ptlfmd]o,g on ttbc wiim,g Ilo~.tdin_g WIS., Aj;r~:d.i~nC$wil,h higher w:i:m,g ~o'i~ding.'ii smd1.ya~c f~~$h::r u and pas:s:tbr,ou,gn the transitien region from catm air toair witb the ftlaxImumgust Vie~,oci:ty;nasbQr'ter time, a:nd henoe they must be de:sig;nred. for larprv,aJu:es ,ar'K ~

flying in turbulent air and represent the maximum

or K U are

oIDt:airmdrr,om accelerometer readlngs ,servi:oe· H£e oi,f the ~irp~alle..

fOf

;alrphuu~s

cat.~ODS require ,1,11I·8tvdocitj!csof.50 n/st widl con·espo,nding, gust rcdUicUon :facton:: K of aboa t. O.6~.Since the v,a~ o(I(U in this easea re aliso a'baut]O frt/s,th.e ne:l ues e:ffec~~s eqmv:a.le;['IIl toagust ~elooty U of 30 fils with a, K of 1.0. The aetual m,axi:mu,m ~ertic:31 aiir v,e~ocilic-sprobab1:y exceed SO [tis,} but the transit~oin is, g;radu;a!l,.oorr&Spond~ng!o the values: or K. = 0,.6. Ri,gl1 ,gllst load factors: exist for

be

,effecUve lust velocities which


So,mespecifi-

eneenmered duri:ng tbe

of A second, and Ule aiFpbuwe cannot move far in lhis; n~me.. In order to unidersta.n:d the 'e:ffcc"t of gusts, it is nece$s,ary tOS'iudy the motlon of nhe ,a,irph:tne aller ~t ,en,rCCHlu~~crsa.gust. If the gus::tis ,ent,oonb:,:red iliis1:uIUafll,€'cus1Y'~the factor K is LO~ and the (,::I'rec!lvf;:gust velocity is U. The alrpla.ne, is, iu:cclera,cedJupward wl.tn an l.niHa~ .acceleradoi,ll. €I'll andattains .a vari'abIev,ertlcaJ y\e~ocily D. The gust angle of attack (Aoc of. Fig;...2. ~4) has: a maximum va~!lle of U.lV at. '(be tIme the g"fit is; eneouutered i(t = O),~ tb~slli!g1e of attack is decf(::ased to but (U ~ ,v)IV aft~r Ute a~rpl,a.f1I'eattains an upwa.rd ¥e]ocj~y,. When theup,wa.rd velocityp is: equaJ to U~the relative wind is .a:ga:~n ():r~o·n.hd~and the airplane is no h liong.eracce:J,era.ted. Thevari ablave:r-tica.:laocelera..b,on a .is~herefo.~e
a ·"""d'l· .~ a,a·
cliO

only

,3. fraction

U~·

t~

0.27)

or

Uy using the exponen [tali form. and substituUng. the v~due or ,(.frromEq. (2.21), the fCinowing.expli"e:t~s:ion fb'f the aceeleration a ar time tis obtained;

!H:;

!1~;:>:Irp~Ill~'cf" l:!:lIii'ii of 30 nj~


A:!'IStl~l'!t'd

Q.l

0.5

acoek:raHon ao ,orSg~corr,esponding to a gust ~()ad ractorof 6.0. By subsUtu,Un.g these values jnto Eq. (2.28)· and p'~oUin,g ,t) venus t, the curve of Fig, 201: .~$ S ,obtain'ed], The ,g,usl a,Qce~er,ntion Is seen to, ap:proac:h z-ero a.symptotitally in an ~nfi~i~e Ume~ but it decreases gres,Uy ~111 the first 'OJ 5., Thus,~rthe airplane ha.d a forw:ard speed of ,500 n/s {:lAO mVh):~t wnuldm,ove forward only 50 ft in O.~ s, It .50 n from any f:egion of calm air too aregio:rr In whit:b the gust,v~d(lcity is ,30 ,(tis. The act u:a~,,gust, iltccelera'tion probably is:representedmore:~c:curiil'tel y by the
seemslogical to expect, [hat a,tmospbedc conditIons are sueh that His more than

2.,~,S~ whichwQuld ind,iC3,te, an eltrectiv,eness· factor' Kor about 0.61, Howevert since aiiFpl~ne accelictoi,rne:ter readings ha.vtshowneffective gust yc~od{;es ,K V Qf .30 ft/s" the true conditj,QRS pfil)b~.bl!y are repr,eg~ntedbyg~st ve~odlies 'v" ('If more !lhan50R/s: wlth effectiveness ;factors K less than O.ti
dotted
H,I]JC

~;rFig.

Exa,mple 2..IWh,cn bmdim,g, ,on 3J ca.rri:e:r" a '~O,,()(J)..I:b,at~rphuleis gi'ven a dccc1erntiorn of .3g {96.6 A/52) by means ,or a eableeng~.pd. by an ar¢ting hook as shown in Pii;. 216.

,F.igun 2.U81

{all Find the tension In the cable, the wbe~] re:8cHoil:R.and

lile distance e

f!rum the center ef gravityto the Hne of a.ct~on ,oJ the eable, (0) Find the tension lnt he rusell,g~ ;at vedi.ca.~ secUoos A A a.nd DB lfU1C portion of Ithea:ifpl[a~erOFWa:rd section AA weighs 3000 Iband the porfi:cm afl Qfsecti:on ,BB w'eigb5~OOO ~b, (Ie) Find the: [;a,ndit.ig run ~rhe landing speed is 80 ,ft/s., t
SOLUTION

(a:~1 FjrstcQ<nsider

t:llI'C

cnt~f~ airplane a'S,,a:, free body. . -

IF;II' ~ 'T cos :10°' .~ 30~OOOg 0

T =30~500]b
Ef
1 ~:

.R.- lO~mX)- 301500 sin 10<> 0


1

:=..:

R = 1.5]'001b
_'

~-

e """·10 in (b)1 Consider the aU s~cUon of the fuselage as :n free bodYl'i1;S shown i11 Fig. 2. ~1.. Itis acted on byan .i.noerth:t force 0:£

lOoo. -fV!WIU" MQ. ~ =--- . 3g=3 wu ~6


g l

The teIlS.~O.~O~. ,e,c:&h:HlB.B:is:roundasfoHows:

:IF;re .~ 301~OOO - 3,000 .~

1i = 0

11 =2,7~OOfll~,b
:Slnce~bcn~; is no vertical acceh~:rat~on, there is :0.0 vertical inertia,Coree. Section SB has ,a shear force VI or 6.300 ~b"wh~ch IS 'equal ~!othe sum. or d1]!ew;el.gbt and fhe v!ert~ca,tcCl'mp!cm.!ent of' ~heeableforee, Consider the portionof the a~rpl~a.ne forward of section AA asu free

All

_~-ii

'. f':l.;;; 3000

fu

IUOl:!:'~aSS"'IIOWll 1:0 r

11...,

1.

o· ·0·0·0

.•. 0 ''C''.

.,.t Ci 1 II' o. o .. " Igo' L. I0:, °To·:., 0·· ncmnerHiE!. I,oroe is


·0

0·1.

bJ:e ~ouo\Vm.g.

,t'o·u

M R.= o~~o g EF:t ~

3,·= 9000 Ib .

1l0~ 9000: ~ 0

11. ::c:c 9000 tb


The :sectJ'on All ,must .a~10< resista shiearing force ~ .of 3000 lband a be"tldoinl,1 momeat obrtai:1'led 'by taking moments of the roroa: shown in Fig.
'"loli'O
L.,~,IO'li

The foroes Ti., Tz~. VII~;andV2;nlay be c1hock,ed by ·co'J;ls;ide.ring. the: lequiUbdum. offhe: center porUon of the alrplane,as sbown in Fig. 2.t9 .. Ma =
1:-:I. - F.
0 .~

16000
'-0-'

{}
-"

.3g

._ I B~OOOI Ih
- '9000 :; 0 .. 0
.o_

2'

OO!) 0...

_o 1801IV'U'U f¥1Ir"I .

:EF, =1 S~300! 3000 -6000 ..... :300 6


{c} From e~e'mentary

:=

dytl'~omio~
0.

the Jnliu;Hng run


iV!li ~o

is >ob'~:9Jjnedas foUows:

if!1 ~ ::;;;

2as 2{~·96.6)s:
33, fl

(802)

8=

issbown in Fig. 2.2Qa a.~. the time .of bU1d~n:g[mpact wben the ground reacHon on eaeh mainwheel is 4S~OOO US. (€,;) If >():ne wheeland tire 'w'c:igbs 50() fb, find. the eempression C and bending
EXiampb~:2.2 A 30~OOO-]bairplane
1,

6{DOO'01b

I .ttn ::;,6'0.000' ,Ib


I
hi ""'30,,000 lib

4S.0t:ID ~b

,I

4S.000 lib!

!,

Ai

~S.ooIl.lb
(i)J,

momenr

n,f in the 'O~Oll1strut ~fthe strut is Ycrttca,[

and is 16

eenterline of the whee~"as shown in F~g.2.20h. i(b) FInd the shear and bending mo,me:Dt a.1 s~c;tlon AA ,Cl,fUl,e wl,Dg if ~he wing {u.dboa,rd 'Q;f this section w,eiglts, 1500 lb and basi'ts center of gravhy 120 hl outbeard of 5JectionA A. (c) Find the required, shock strut de6oodoll ir the a,.irpllanc s;trikes: the ,Ifound with a verticalvelecity of 12 nls and ,rUI:S a constant verUca~ d~leratjo<n
ull~nthe ¥tJitica.] ve~odl:y is zero, This: neg~ect:sth:e energya:bsorbed

'n: ;fromlhc

bytbe

tire deHecti'()n.~ yihich may be large in seraecases. «(1, Find tbe '~merequired fOf the vertical ~e:~odty become zero, to
SOLUTION

{~d Co i:lsidctinm, the: 'etlti~e:ai,rpblne as: ;fjJ free body and takin.~a. summatio:n of vef~:iicall forces yidd
""",-=-/? ~- J'

.= 41il: 0001.1,+'. -4J,VVV (" ntVll _J",'.'

3J1"Ii, - v""

'00·' ," ,·:._ M t:~ = 0 •.•. 0' "__•

Ala =
tl'~

60.,000 ~b,
60~OOO&O.(}()(k", .'y ~ ''"I", .~ 30000 -,'.~ '", " .M_ "

_.

~.J~

.M .itl
The compressicnload

WJ ::::::::: _'

ill:

=:: ~

SOO 9

. '2(J= loao Ib

verdc:al [~);rces:

Cin the oleo strut :is~b'und :fnJim~.summationol

EF:.,.= 45,000 - 500 ~. 101)()- C = () C- 43,500 Ib The bendlng moment m is found as ~bnows:
~n= 45~OOO x 6-

1000,

.X

,6 - 500 x 6 =: 26]~OOO in . lb

(b) The inertia feree acting on the po:rti.on of the wi;l1g shown iR :Fig, 2.20c: is

M .2tl

= ~.

W2

1:500 u ~ _ ..__ 2g= 3000 lb


rfJ'

t}

The wing shear at $lecUon. AA.~$round forees.


'f.F

from a. summation

of

VIC;rHeaI

,=1' -

.3000 ~ 1.500 ""'"0

V :·4500 Ib
The w.ing bending moment is Found by :lakin,g moments .about section
AA.
i(r} The shock strut d:efiectiQ,n is: found by assumtng a ·c~~stantve:rt[cn~ aceei-

eralio'llil, ·of -2fJ~, ,or- ·644 nts I, from an ir~'i .• Ualvertlcal to. a. fi nal zero vertical v'e.locjly..
",'. : .....'VO- 2' 'H1:l' .~~1.. '- ....... ' ,~,., .. 2

ve~.od.tyor ,~,2 ftJs

O,.c
_.' ,_I

,_

','

,1! 2,2.).
"~~ __',

,.1 ~

~~,

"ljl'

u~~~'IB

£A

<1\

s~

1.12 ft

(d) The timercqunr..oo to absorb ,ementary dynamics.

[he landing shock is ,[ound based on el-

O'.~ 12 =- 64.. t 4

t= 0.1.86 Since the landings:h,ock

occurs tor such a short time, it may D,e·less j,nJuriol!]sto thestructure ,a..nd less disagreeable to tbepasse'n'g,ers, than would a. 511 stained ~Qad!. Exanlph;l 2..3, A 60,.OOO-lb nl:rphu~ewHh

tw'o-wh!ee:~landiftg in sort ground,

,50

trieyele ~an(Un.g gear makes: a hard that the verti.c.al ground reaetien is
.3

210.:000 lIDand t.he 110ri7.O'illta:lgroundr~'icUonis 90~OOOlib. The momem ,or iaertiaebout UiJlC center of gnrvwtyis .5 000,000 ~b.. 82 - jn, and the d~men:dQns are shewn in'Fiig. 2 ..211. (td 'f~nd the inertia forees on the airplane, (b} Fi:od the inertin f()rce:'l 0!11 ~l400-lhgt!.n; tUf~ct in the tail whk;h ~s500 ~~ nft of the center of grlvily. Neglect the momentef .~nerllja the turret £lbotJ~l 0,[
7

its owncenrcr of gravity .. 1ft) if the nO.5iC wheel is 40, in 'from the gnJluild when '(he ma~n wheels touch the grmJud." Hnd ~,hc a.n,gul!ar v,dociily or thcaiflllanc rmd the vcrtiG~d velocity Qf tbe [lose \fhcel when the nose wheel, reaches the grou.nd, a.ssuming no. .arpreciable chanJ,e in the moment arms,. The airplane"s center ,or gnnrity haaa vertica! ve~,o,c.~ty'0'£ 12 ftjs at the moment of impa(;t:~and t.he ground reaetions are assumed constantuneil tlU!' vertj,ca~ vtdodty reacheszero, at which time thevertical ground reaction becomes, 60,000 lb and thehori7.ontal ground re~lcliunbecomes 2(:".(nQ ~b.
SOLUTJON

'[0)

The:i:ri,crt~u

forces

un ~h>eenl~reil.irpl.aFl.€,i;'Jlay be considered as horizoetal

and vertical forees l''\.J.tlx and iW'(lJ! .[espcdive~y"a,t the center of g:ravUy and .a couple 1,1' {Z •• as shown in f~I .. 2.21. These correspond to the; inel!tia ~brccs shown on the mass of Fig, 2.7~ sti:ncetbc toroes at the ccnler of gr.tliltlty rep~~sc~t the product. of the mass .and the a,cCclcraHon components iI.~f the ,.,;JC:l:lh:::f

or g,mV'~ty..

I:F",=

9~OOO ·--M

Cl,x ~

.M«.",= 90,,000 lb

r:.Fy .~ 270~OOO~· OO?OOO~ May'= '(] t'vl ('r .;;;;;;2~ ()'.(lOO ~b


..::..~'" 'llJ
iI'
N

't" ,~" . _

= _ .L .~"IJ\JU "!!'?O, I~
....'
-'~I~ -

)( i!·tlI_ '. . "t'!iJ'

,1"iI<n. 000.··. .•••. :1'U~....!IJ.

xP"'10

~:]". Ir:.a:: ,;;;;;.0

~'t'l '-~,

10 g,OQ 010 in .. I:b ._:J', - ..' -' , '_

,1lr11<'
,

:1

~
1=0.0= .... .. ~~

21 O~OOlJ
aT ..... .

- ---'60.~

2: ]1'0 '.000

e= 3.50
... _ .
:2.

a.
(1:\1)1

. 'c
>=

Ol _
~

J,~.

19,.800,,000,

.S}OOOllOOO

= 3..9,6 rad/s

The :accel.ef.aJtlQfl 'of Ih!e ;eente:ro,r gra.viity ot the :atirpiane is newknown, and the ;aceeleration ,and lncrda forces for th.e turret can be obtained by the method $l~(),wnililfIg,. 2.8,. wbiet-e: the center ,0:£ gr,a:vity ,or the airp~a~e corresponds, t'opoint (J ,of F~g. 2.8 and the center·,ot g:ra:v'ltJ of the tur,re:1 corresponds to point C. 'These:force-save smown~n Fi,g..2.22 and have the

fClUowingvah.in~s::

Ala"" ~: .~-~ .~ .'~ ,600ib .S€!


9

.... if\i1"I!

Enltk1kuhtt.ing 'the: term a.iAI', oX is in :inches and g is! used as J,8:6inJs:1" Ifi is; in 'est r win be 3;2:.2 ftls2. The to~al fOir-ce 011 (he t.urret is 600 Ib forward and 3:8:50~b down. Tl:riistoud Coree is .see:D to be allmost U) times
l

theweight of thetu rret .. (f) The relil:ter of gr,Bvity ofthe aiirplaneis decelerated vefd.caUj at 3;.,5g~ Qr Im2.7 nJsz~ Thetime ord~lef,atlon from an Initial ve:~o:dt'J'of 12ft1s~() .3. zerovertical 'V1el;Qc'lty.~sfOlund fJ:1o!m~heronowinl.

o .~ ~l =: 112.7r
l' = O,,]()6,

[)uFlng~hi:s, time" thece:ntcr


from

of gr,iIvi~,y moves throUl,n a d~stan<:c:fQund

....... '2- ....."1, Ii 'O",c. _1 1 ,x '112.••. x ~ 1 '." ._ . I, ,x U.,~_v '1"

.,.e

0: V. ~}J

'~O.c;,l

~ OJi,36fL,or 7.6~in Th,e.ungtdar Y'CiOlCity


is fO'llndfrom

or tbe ;ai:li]J~ane at the ,end-of 0.1.06 saet,er


OJ ,_

thiebuuJing

1 :~

3~96 X
0.42

o. H)6

OJ

=;

rad/s:

The v'e:r~ic,~ll motion of the nose wheel,resul:ling in Fig. 2.23. Is


SII ,.,;;;'

rrORl

tilis rotation" ~hown

e~x = O~O222(200),~ 4.44 ~fii


7,.'64,_ 4.44= 2'1.9'2 in 27.92 ., ==. :200 ' :~ .0.1396 rad
I'

The d~stu.n(~ of the nose wheel from, the ground" :afie:t the '\fe:rnc~~, e]'oc:hy y
of the eenter olrgr'~.v~tyof the ~dcp,ia,nehas become ~ro, is

s.:.!, = 40The rema~ning angle


Qlr -

rotation 02;" sf::J.own in F~ .2.23, is


= ',x
52

i6:2
vertiicalacc.e:liem:t:ion

Slnce the ground. reaction decreases


0;[

by the ratio of ~
mro
t

the .n.irp!.ane becomes


:[lIS

at~()f~ deereases In thesamepreportiee,

after' t.he the angulara:ciOc],er.· found by equaling mom,ents

about the center ·ofgra,¥ity.~


Cf:l
-.00· .. - =., 270;;0·' · ••..;J!'.7'

,60'•.000

'1'

~'6"

'~

0.08 ra.d/s .,

.". '.

:~.

The angu1'ar v,el'oeil), the airpl'ant a~ the time the nose wheel strikes the ground Is found from the foUo'wing equation.
(1)2 -

or

co~ ~20:J O"J.


......2)(

(,,2 ~

(0.422)
W'

0.88 x 0.1396

= O.6Sradls

Since at this time the motion is rotation. with no vertieal motion of [he center ofgr,avit)'~ the vertical vdo:Gi~y of tbe OOS8 whee~ Is fo,],lnd as
follows:

~}~ 0..66 This veiocity IssmaUer


(natil

X '21~=

.~ O.8.n/:s:

the in~~hd sinki:ng velocw~)' of the airplane, Ct)fisequeriUy. the nose wbeei would strike 'he ground w~Ula higher
vie]oc:ity ,in a three-wheel level .landin,g.. It Is of interes] to find the cern~firupil force on. the turret ro"2~rM at the time the nose whee], s:trilfls the ground .. This fercewas zero when ~he ma,in wheels hit because ·the angular ,e1.oci~y'OJ waezero, For the fhi al value ofW't In,e: ro:l!o:w.~ng ya~ue is obwlned~
w2.xM ~ (0.652)!

x 500 x

~Ig-i=- 219' ~b

Th~s, force ~s much smallie.r than other ferees acting on ~'he UlIrre'[, and UStla.~~y i't isneglected ..In partc, certain :simplifying a8surnptiQns are made w'bich do not ()Ju.it.e'oo'fJ1espo,nd with actual landingcenditions, Ae,nJdy~ namicJorces are neglected, .and the .ground :reactk)l!ilsQIiI the landing g:ei.t'f are assumed constant whwle the lan.ding: ge~r is a ,com:bh'J~.nion,of t'be tirie: deUeclion" in which the IOlad is approxim,atei.y :propodio.nal.lo' the deferdudng the enti[ie deformation, as assemed, The Ute deflecdo:n 'maybe as much as: one ..third to ene-half the total d!ofl:eC'Hon.Th,s aerodynamic forces. wh!ch hatve been ne,glected, 'Wo,uld pn)bab~y reduce the maximum ltngllJ.!ar vdodty of the airplane, since the hodz.on~al taU moves upward a.~~he airpl;ane pUches" and U~e rCDmb~naUom ,of upward and fo.rw:a.r.d. motlens would glvc a,downward aerody.namic for<:f;on the tail, tending {(l redutCe tl1I!C pifchil1l.gaoceleratio[J., The aer10dynamilc effects ,of tbe lin on the w~nl and tail :surfaces are no,1 shown in F~g. 2.2.1" but they wHI nO,1 afleetthe pUchillll :aooeWera:tion approd,~lbl)'iif the ,grll.)lulldfeac(i!(~ns rema:in the same, J ust before the akpla,nc~tfikes: the ground, the un forces on the wIng and taj~ are in
rn:atioml.~~nd~be'ol·eo~lrlJt de:flecli:QrlJ1 in whi'ch UU!~io,.ad is~~mos'[ ,con_nt

equilibrium \\!i~.h '[he .~nt'V~ty rome of ,60tOOOlb. Si,ri;L'C the borizonulJ vc~odty of the 3.il'plane~nd tneangle of attaek arenet ;appreci:abty changed
Hll ..... '(U1222 r~HJ~·I ,279). the 'Iift forces continue to balance the weight of the airplane whcnt he center of !tra vity IS being d'cttlcrutcd. ~n~~.~.,c~ld ~hc of

\.ve~gM {)f 60'.000 In shown ~n Fig; 2..2~. there sho uh.:l be an additioual inertia Con:.-eof ,60',000 lb down a~ the center of gravity.. The moments about, thecenter of gf~vi(y and the pj~chtngaceclcration are not charnged~

but ll,lc \1:rt,ica! deceleration ar [til increased. At the end of the deceleration of the oenl:eF ~}f gravH.y<! the .groundreacHous are ,11mo:M zero, slncemest of the .nlrp1illl1c weightils carrjed by the lin on the w~nglS.The airplane then pi tches Ifunvnrd threugh the a ngle {);z , wh~ch a.p'pred~.bIJ changes ~hc angle 'Of ~JI.UaekW4 = OJ 396 me .~ gel The wing [iift is Hum decreased, and most 'of the weight is supported by the ground reacHonson the whe;e:~:s. For the structural design of the airplane; usu.aillyonly the loads dud ng u~:ciInH ~td imp,u'C'l tH'c:s~gn i1fh;~IDn t E.x::amp.),e 2..4 C(l'nu'iiln.lct Uu: V ~n d~ngram amid determine. the wing internal ~oud. n;s'UU1:n~n'nul ~liIJrudYl!l~u]l1Jjiil::O'ft.;'t:S for UlC a.lrp~anc {F~.fl,.2.24]' whose f wing p~alilrormis slrown.in Fig. 2.25. The foUowirng CiOfldiiltons are specified:

uv ..,..,il:irpbmc gn)ss
s = ukr~nrlC: wii!'l~
~·.f g

wciight. ~ ~OOO lb
~n::tl:= 26!0 :ft2

r..: (" ~ dTe'c~ive gust \"~lod.ty = 3,-4 n t'f;


'i.ksi!,!.n t.H,·ing :~r~~!.~d= mi 'h 400

n .~. Umlt-Ilou.d fac~,or ~ +6,0 and -.3 .. 0 The ae:fodynmllk dla:ru~'lerj$t~cs of the aitphu~ew~~h [he horizomal tail removed ha.ye been obtained from corrected wind tunnel d~la and are given in Table 2.1.. The moment coe:ffich:nl C.Mis:abcn:u.the. cemer ofgrd.vU.y 'of the airplane and is expressed in terms or the win.¥- areaarnd :the mean aerodyg namic ~bQrd fOf the wing, ,f= 86 in.. The stalling .an.~~e the W:hl.g i~20 " o,f ,oorrcspondiil11ig: tOI a maximum lift cod'fiden:~ of 1.. 1..The aerodY.l11umlc data 6

Ct!f!u:ror
~>I\1i,[~

.i _.
0'

,"" J!'I[1oi1o ",~y -~

'UJ49"i1""'~~lIJi 2Jilli'1' ~ii.u~',..l 2JO~,S:,,-1fl""'7nL ~.L" 2.05:3 "'!I i'II ."...1.; 97'2 .~1.":7Irt"'~~ ;n.MU1SI9!Cr~ {total IliOmmll _ ,_.-lUll' _.' ,~",i.uI..,j~1 _ I II L ~ . 1 Ii II ! -~ I r _l :1 rOIia ~n'cl~nU ~~ 40 60'80 1100 LlQ 140' l6t, UilD ~OOl:ltl 20m

S:t'~tiO-:"1 r

J 0.:: i:l~

r
ri*--........................................ ----240
]I~.

:1!'
, j ,

............... ~-.....,.___,.._ ~~~~_._ .-..~'l


il;'li~~----~--~~~+'I"1

, 63 •.'1.5: itIJ

J,.,

Tbe foree Cloeffi. cieniS3:CUn_g rJ:orm:aJ to the thrust line are '~41cluhded~n Table 2.2. The components Oif C~~a,nd D3,re; '~11c'Ubdedin COIUMltS 2. and 3. C The tail load ooemc'~etn C~ IS calculated in column 4 by means of 6q,. (2..3J. Thefinal ntlues of C'~.~the nermal force ooemiciient.for the enUre: alrp~a~~a,re obtalim:rcdin eelnmn Sa~s the sam of values from ,columns 2,3" and 4. The V-,ll cUagranl i~'cons(rIl1cted from OU~ealeulated data.~or C~. For the 0.11 pcrtienof theeurve of Fig. 201]1 the -vtt]ue or C_~~ is assumed tobe I:,2;,5 tiimes tbe value arthe .staJUng ,ang:le:for the wing~ or
1

'"

C... = t2S~'L6S,6) =2070 ~~ This cOlirc~pnnds"l'vi!tb d~lc'ilnldc nf attaek of 26°., w~~hill: tbe ~~C(:ur,acy,of the ,dan:~~and this angle i§ a:isLlnu,d. 'The cqliJ~ltion (0.1' lh,ec'u;rru VA. 'Of I:-·~g. ,.~] is! 2 " " e "'~iI 1_3:'~b'l-"I
.[t

C.A 26 !()
2.132 i.6:1'0 0.900

C .h' 'OX'.I400 IO~OJ51]!


O.{12F10

~S ~O . S
:0

L28~S,

i}.3J.41 0..207 lUJI 0.016


'O;tl13 '0.02'

O.S·~S :0;.130
·~(l2SS ....0.1640 ,_~ 1.025

~:u:wn
0Jl49

uorss
(11,0010' -1]).0105 ~O.()JUi,

-5
-·1:0

..... '~1

--U

-lJsn

0.002:

.....i(jii.O:S25 ~;(Ul77'0

OJ~5

-OJ1SOO

'Ta,bJe ,1.2
O. deg:
(I)

l~u!'I11il
(J:~

.,

CI'. ,L:tliS, t,

,~Jl

£1,.114]
'O.I(}j'l

una
L5'O 1()~~87 0.;51.:2 0.1310 ....0.154 -0.630

'(lOll

OJK14 O..ij~:3 CU104


0'

LMO

o.ou

~UiU2
0,008

- ~,m
-(5

-j

·.. 0.002 .
-·0.1001) -fUl;.14-·
-(tOl~

-~

:I}.OO!03

2.011: UiS6· 1'.286 O~OOI O.!j,] '9'

-11

-0.990 ~UJO

,... Oworn3 -,~Hl!22 '-(UJ~2

0,126
-0.269'
.... QJi(Q)

~U,M6

~o..{J36

-:tlOO

For point A •. U' = 6 ~.tl:d:V·:;=1:84 ::tl:1 ws :rOll nd ~,I.:l'i IJ~. :: fn )'WS

ln~/h. hccquadoIH T

fer the

C'UfVle

OBof Fig,

n =- .~ p,Sy2 ;:;;;;_OJ)OO'~ V1 .200 024 2.:W ' '--

F'~)f point B. u =: -3

~r1dV

=:

J 12 nl~/b.Poi::l:lts C and

t)

a.rep,lotted wU,h

coordinates (,400. 6)" and (-4001 -3).. The diagram is shown in Fig, 2.26. The ,s,ust load facsors arenow ebtalaed filom Elq:s. (2.25] and ~2.26).T.he slope ,P may be ,obta~~l,edfr,om theextreme ooonilna:tesoif the cu,r~e :fbr C:;o.if

we' assume a s;h'aIJlll"'lil1c variation:


II t:
,= _ 26_

.2.018+ ~.. ,00 2

, r7,

= OJJ163 'l"iIer dea :ree ' " .t"' ,C

__ ,._

(::11IQl'd
liI\l~~:@:lh
1110 •.

fo~

cn&lii~ii~!lt

Sbe,a!r

B;{!~di!l'lg mmtlcn'l

Ci 240 220 :200 11'10 Mn

C['l~
'I):

VI

lil:J; 1{]I(X1

o
.i60

I/)

:SO
fHlI'

1.859 1.90.1

rsn
~lO
1100

7~t2

.. 19.:6
:8'9.2 9:2;4

1(..4

vn,l'
2.,03$

t.:J~8n
.~t5iliO

:5

5.3,10
7.130

Ii ~

29 SJ

:8ll
:~6,U

lOS), 2Jij"7';

296
46i

9.250
Ii ,IJ'll}

2:085
lJWS

80
60

:teSt
2.06

1 :5.;R7 11

[JJ:80

~1
9111

t2U
1.:55J 1,.941
2.3'j!tJ

40
20

,0

95J'i 9BJl

I:R.2~n

1049
102

~Ol

:2il6,10 2.3,;(!i91l

From Eq,. (2.261~

A,~- 0 IPKV Ii = OJ(O~07163J(:14J I,'~ , -', _' HllS 30 .,


.....OJJOS6SV For If =400 rni,lh, A~~ =1.4(iPoints 4.46 and '-J.46" respecUv:e~y. F and Eij1epnJsent gmd londJactors of

The wfng; inte:rna~bcnd.~(lg and !lj,be,l,r~fJ\ad's are now 'c,ah;:uh.~tcdr{)lr the P11AA oondl.ti!@n~whkh i~~ repr,e;sented by point Alan the Y",N diagram. The

wing has .ana,fillg:le attack of 26~ at an ;ndiiC-a,ted ajF~peed of 1.84m~/h. The: total force cuefficien1s oo'rmaJ to Ott wing chord are .givcnifll Fig" 2.2.5. The shear and Deli!dili18, loads are ,ca'tcuhded bc'lsed on
'1,7 _,

or

fi ....

~,'}'C .

Ir~_w+

~,..!L C~ ('IIi
'11-4.,

~4,

+ ('~ I C~.~,-'-1,(.[ v. ._, .,'


,/;;,.

"t~]

-l:i)'

and

~'f~= A-l ~_ ~

i'+
"'_;..;,J

V
,""",

~ f~ _1- fi) and (Ji:s [he: d'Y~1amk'pressure lin [lJnunds

whcu .. I ·~~M.,~~C::I,I.cs S~~,ttillll'l number lh'l:";:

per sti!uure Ioot. AU re~uit,~ure SUftM11'~lrlled Table ':2.1 in

,{~

l.~ J\~ !l!i~rpl~me! ri~.hin:B 3(X!MOb st!'~~Ic..'i::~n p'\!tmu gll:S~[lifl2liliT~.!I'bi,t;ih pwdU:Q~~l '~dngliJt ~~r w ~ u 2~U}i}Ulh Ir~~.Pl:J~ WW.I~t ]Q,a{! P hi requi:fH topr'CllI\~nt at pildliln~, a~!C(ru~i(')li'! ~hed~~en~iOILt;i an: .~"

t,~n

Ir

WWl,a~ M the Yef~i(;;)I1 a eo!:ml!r2:~i~nQ[ th~ ol;lilains ~ '!If'~f1[C3:~"Wodty ,uf 2U ,rtl~\,how ,",lIeh timci~
~hown?

wm

3i~p;1~!le1 IWt.his
wqtl!~~d?

un ..rowe

;a1l:ts unililllil:e a!lqll:a:ll.e

2.2, A~ ,ilirpla!i1i~ w~~ghill,~ jli:OOQ ~h h'lsao: I!lrrW<:!'rtJ Olil-celerutiofl ·of 3# when I'anding, If Lhcdimefl~~olils ij:I'1C ~!S shown in Fip:, P2.1,\1!·h~H~'11iil: tbe; wihc~1 ~:~C(:i(Hil>'l: R:I =~tld R':z:l Wh~u timt'l ~!lf!llGlluh:~ ~o decel~r~te lbe!ll~rlPW<lineli:r~a~~Iii V.t;l:rU:~~iil VlClii;.'i'i,,'1JtYQr ~ J ft/:ff Wh~u: is lh..;v,erli,cal t;"i!i)ln~p~~i!1ui1 or (hit Itlil1di!ilg~:ar during lh~:!i:del:u'h:rmion7 V/li'l1ntI5 the she<lirandi bending, m.ome-nl oa a ¥e¥lk:~1 stCt.lOiEl. AI A if t'bil! w~i.g;l:mt :i"U(w<!!rd uf th i$~~d!~'iiTII:i~2[X'lH:l ~n'l~d h:ls:~ (i1#1li~CIr'I)f' giil;!I'!,Ilil)' 40 iltll :rfi~~iml tlris crQ~

:5C1Ctio!:i!?

J.J, lhi!; .~i:rp~"le SllgWn ~In: li".il.!. P2:.JiN makilil't;!.m :;J!:rmt.~dk!l1Jdinf1: (lin: .~ carri~r d!~k. Fin~1th~ lio",d r::J:~w,or.s :a"d~.'I' ~fpe~1di~u~wr pu:r4~IJeli~n~h~ d~l. [(IIii' ;a PO~tl'l ,~~ llfl~ o~tltcr of gmv~ly. a ru:inl, n ~f!d 2if1l)ii~.~A(,,(lillie ccnlclF 11'(' ~r;n~~:IY .. :uild ~I puihu U10~if;il fon ..am or thc~~nte:ror~l1llvity. t Fi~~ the Ir·e~~Hi~e

w'h~~ :S'tl'n,es the deCk: ,if the"l\',ed,i~t v~lQ,city of t.he: ~~Cl:' (lIf grc,I!I! ty ~s ~2 njlS :!'!l!Id '~)]e ansul:2Ir~IIQcj;ty ... ~ is 1{)':5 mdfs C(lilJJil1Je;rd~kwil5C rOlr Ul;~ posilHol'l ~bIl)W;il. Th,e radh.!!~of Sl'ira~iolil ((If t~i:mass .or tbe"drplla:llti :aoout .he 'ce:n~llirof glU \!'~ly ls (lli hli,A~!i:;t:!Qi!iI) ~o d!l11fi!g~ ~"ic;d

\\\ef,GCity withw'hiio:b '£liM n~

i!!l the

difJlill:en:'iiioillS 1)io!i Jil.mds sl!;(!IWIil..

1~ An :aiiCJllameIS Oyi("'1 a,~ 550 mj,1Jii in lc¥~J m,;,ht wlro~n it is :S:lIdde~dj :piuUed upwiittdintCI, :a ,eu:I"li'ecil p3llh of 2~.n radim;. '~.Seefig. P.~4.)Fiind ~ ~oadFiI!dor ~f 'Lbe OlIirpla,ne .. he

L
~:iI: ~,"~n :a.p:Hr:h11'1:Si:liQC@:b~r~dn~~ l,r::il ;r-,.u!lls!,. find itslt'il'ad W<lcl~lr", due ~,orlu::hliug IlH.ty be negl,eCil.OO • .2.6 A ~'ilirgc:trlllinspoit. air:crnft. iis:mil.:kin:g:a tl:;Ycl'I;[lndili1lg;. as :sh~wlII lililMg:.iP2.6.Tille g.TQ.;~~ \!ii:i,s:l1it ,or ~;:h!e: nimr.a:flis I~~~~) lib. am,d, its pi~eliiJ'lil!g!1!'lass momc:!lt ,~r~nerUia: is,:50 x .. U~m. :I'b • .in" ;s1: :noou't :I:ne center or g1i.li¥~')'.. The llalitdi:f!gfCar ..whee'1 reacliloilil js· ]50,COl' ~b at :11:0. a:t'I,sle QIf U"" 'wlllb, {h~Yerti~a!t. Detell'~ nl~ne whether passcFtl,ger A 'or B win ~ye dlu: .o~ulO:3Jd. A$sUIIICthat each :~s~p weigful5: 110 lb a.fldnqlect Ibt3iiqib1l1il1 ~iln.

25 U I!m>e ;atll'p,lm:1!1;l Prnlb. 2.4 fin

a.s:.-;!lI:~'I!!!1l.8th;Ji:l the

c:han~trtl~itI,

1~~~li~Ir"':1

{·~nlf'f!!.lr ~m~·i[y

II"

2., Assume th:~~ th~ ~iG1!~,e:r or

AtF"oI,¥ity or tbe Ui:rp~b!ne: in ,:Example 2:.4,ismo\l\~d, rorwafid8 inw'i:Lholtlt Ch3iWllgi:nog d:IiI~: e:li:t~r~~! a(!rOO.)~U!~~h-:'ooill:6g!;lm~i~l1!, he dUi(aillce 1, is :n~w 208 jil!li~,and 1h:v,a:hles of th~ l T aerOOynarnk: pitching moments ,ilb~Ul{be oonh~r gml'ity arc C'.N!' ~8CJ86t wh~reva~~, ,ofC,Ninno: gi~1ilJ! iUI 'fabre 21'~aiiC:3i~outa~e cUf\Ie5:f(liif' ('~ ;'I;l11d C:,.. ~h} C(!llllsll1"li!ct:a :J --n clhl\gJr~lu. using t!h;e oo!IJditionc~ s.pecified In Sec. :2.1. CtJI CiJk .. :Ia1e dill! YI~fll!! ~'fu.i1t:1g:-lln(Jimelllld!i!.igr~im r~1T'a:i:,. ~iDa;d~ nonnl;!i loQt:b:e w~ng !I!!~!(lird! for the U PI:[A;\ ,coOndil~.iio~. {'fn{'~lhmhul;; liiill!!t w:b~t!I"!Ii;:~~di~~,~'·~~~~~UliCijU Fur l;huifd'W~~ ill] r bJ~ldll. di2lgril~U ~,('")lesl\!':"'J~ide:lb~,~ir'-ilil,lii~d:I,~~n;~~1u~1 mllm~liitHahou:t :Lhc wing.·~ bmdlililge~p iF !b~ hwtN:IlII.:I1,~~ is s'lraig~~ afld ~r'~n!diitC~r'ar ito th¢ ,'1>1:"'1(::: symm:ctry ,cd tbeairpl:anc. Assum¢ th~ airfioi~a!t :al'l:)'~~ion c€' to, ibaVi!an a~fodrnnmic: eenter ~u :the ql:!~tl!et-cl1lllrrJ :FO·iru and to 'have a RGgngiible p~tcl:d:f:\B ;[)'lllenL m
aboullhi~:p<li~iI\Iil,.

or

:2:.BCit!Jculatc the will!!: JQ!t;lnU'a~ :iI,i:}il ch'Drd;wi.~bendi~~g-lRiI,uncr:u.d~;JlramS .r~r th~ PLA-A IcondH:iion (O'!: th~ 3j~~Hf!,~ !;!!n:l'!tY,~I!lin S~I;.,1.1. 2;9 U the Ol!ifJ!l;}lu: wrif~gl)f ,f,x;~mp'l:c Yl"ieigfl'l' 4.0 U:li/ft:l;.w~h:::h, i~:;![~iJmcdd i~tlfibtl ~~ u:!1!ifa~~y eyer l.4 tiline: i!!:rliia, c~l~ul,:lit'e: Iht wing ~ti.ding m:(}mtn's~ts:tiI~t~ng :r:rom gra,'Ylity a;md inulia fO'!loos nor.mal U) Ithe
Wir)iS.~,Q'rd: ror '~,he·£~~Irrrinmry I:POIIdliog, 6Rdliil[~~~ C

'T"'H' 'R'E' "'Ei -i


,'- -, ~!-, ; . ~':.'. :~"~

CHAPTER

ELAST~ICITY Q,F' STRUCTURES

3..IINT'RonUf:TION
This ,eha pter defiln es st resses a nd stralns and t hei r rii ndame n t j;, In,~~jat )]1,sh:i ps. The h stress behavior of structures unde'r:guing eh\stic defermation that isdue t,o the action ,ofc)j,~ierfill app~led lo,ad~sis also disclHS'ed.The term ,tltu;Uci:ty or e,Ia.o,:;fi(' ~t,("h(,w'foris used, hereto ~mply a iI"(l'CO'\iIIClrJ prollCrty IOf1,1R lori:ginaJ~d7~cunt!l ~h~tpoc. --

~.!I!'~

:t~ S-·.·· ·T,R·


_',

"'_

rssss
.,~ ~

CO~8ider the 50Hd body shewn in Fig. 3",1'\vhichis acted on by a, set off external forces, iQ!i ;8,$ in(Ucated. Ifwe aSSiume n~,at :rigid~body motion is prevenled. the soUdwm d,eform in accordance wUIl theex(ernaJ ,appliedforues,; asa. re~uU,
.

win Dcprodvu:lect ffthe solid jfi sepanltecil into' two ,,;arls: by p~,ssiif'lga h)ipotheUe.l~ pl:a.ne~a! s:hnw:n in Fig, 3.1b then there edsJ :hlleiFl:iud lorces whose resuU,ants are indica~ed by Qrand Q~~acUng,IOElp.ans ~ a,na 11~ res::~~cd.vety" Tbe forces, wh~ch h old together t he two parts or the body are mdr.maUy distributed ,OiVlcrthe entire snrfaooof tnec1.l,'lplanc.lrwe ,conside:r o.n~y i!:uinfi .. nitesimal area "iA acted an 10,), re.su1tam't feree OQ',. then an ,a\w.!ra,ge forceper unit :3 nUlY be expressedas
-

[nt,en~afl:{)~d~ be~weefr1, a,1I11larts;


1

,or th:ebody

Ii I~the ~imU.as (~, apprQalch,C'~ze'ro~ Eiq,.,O~ 'becomes A ~)


(1 =-.-

- ~~Q dA

_'.\'

where (j now is: the limiting value <of theaverage rOnj£!; per unitarea and" by de~:flntUon., thestn!s,'f ia'~that po,iitH. A~l:rlessb3, c(Io.mpJ,etely dcnncd if its ma.gfl.dllude and d~rec~~on a.nd the p~.an!l;lon which it a.ctsa.rca~:~kn'llwliI. For Instance, it is not ;np'pr'<lp.riu[c~o a~~ ~~hout ~he .st~Cc~'~iHpoirn 0 or d~lC: soUd $ho!w~ ~111 Fig. 3.2 ~ndes:s Ute p~l~ule '!.vhk;h the stress is a,cdng is gpecIHcd.. Anh'.I.Unite number of p:ltlflles, on may be passed through point O~U1US resulLiing in an in~n~te number of .cnmeilcrU

st resses.

I~ themost

general U~rcc'"'d]n'1l,en$h)n(tl; t;alC of stross, nine ~,tress ,co,mponents s

m~.yexist:
{f XJll (J OJ-)
=,,'.,-,,

0':1'

a.: I: ....

';y,;

JII,'~]-',., .

.....x.. y:•. i) are the normal stressesand (1jj ;::iii:; (fi'~'U ~ J =.'t'~ j',. :)iiJI.fit the shlc;:~:dng stresses. ·fhe 1~1'S(sub~crlpt ,p'u· "'~i (i, }=.1':, j', z] dcnotlcs; the plitAlcat ,til

where

(f~f' (l

CO[llita:nt t onw~dch the: ;stress :is actin~ and the' second subscript denotes the positive direction of the stress, Figure ].J ~1:lustr;ateg, be stress nota.tion. f ~n (,be case of t~e two~dimenS.Eonal state of st.ress. Qlrwha,{ i~'commonly referred to as thepiarnre stress :probhml, (0" ..';:'~. '~~.~ ~Ui~¥ .'.-Oh :~q. 1(,3,.3) becomes
... [.~."'....."-], ~
['-'fF. xx.' , "y:;ro

'ff

~-,'1]! .

(0'",,1'

:=.

11

jJ

0'111

3.3 STRESS EQUIIJBRIUM EQUA.TIONS IN A NO'N UNIFORM STRESS FIELD,


c):terll a I a:ppliai ~ouds,cxJlcr.iencc:s: a SUJr~l}of s~re.s:st1uuis nnt ulnir,l,}rm ~hroughou[[he body. This ,ocJilldidon gives rise [0 a~etof equa UOIl:; which are n~fcned to as the eq.uations afequmbr:~um.,
~! .~,d. f o

,In glcncnl! I, t, snll ~d\Vll.iichis aC'~'Ct~ n hy o

Oons:ider the three ... imensjooi~i' soUdsho'W'n In Pig. 3.4. d U'~:~n.S equmbrhnn eqlu!tiun:s of.~tatics yields the roJ],o;wlns;~ the

EF~ =:0 X dx fly d: "'*" (1'F,\f~. + ,(1


X!'1!. ;\,

d,x)'lIj.I' liz --

,rJu

,dJ~as
i!fu•

+ I~O'sy T U~I. J! dyldx dz


.....G~ ibr OJ'=: 0

_. 6'~!l'
I(J~,,~. ,;I!L.'!.1i

{Ix ",.: + (<<zx +


-:.i1~ 01'
B ..... ,.

liidz)dxdy
:=

_.;II;

."+(1,,,,,, "",+ (In.. _:+X ,.


,iii!

0
y =0 (3,.6) (3.7)

..~ S"unnar 'I

s.
It]~",.;¥'

+rr.'fY. Y + (f~I.;::+ T
(J "."" -';:"~.!I'

IO'~~ :.\
;!!:j'--11111 -

(1.,.£ ~_'"

'!!"I'

.~+Z = 0

_T

-r
j7.~ ,.

w,~!~crcX~,y. and 2 are body tQn::e:s.111JCco'rnma deaotes ,partial di:flierc:rUial(ion with r;cspcct tothe rou:ow~ng subseriipt::
. 1=~ l

au .
--'. ":'1.' . O}

,~.,'- •. !lo' -

ca:sHy derived From Fig. 3..5:

.In a cy~runddcal eoordinate

set ,of axes" the ,equiHbdum 'Clqua.Hons mny' be

(.3•.8.)

'u__ ,;: T ~ tj,0::.6'" ~~. , _.' ..

I r

'.

+ . "'ill."-T. .
(J'--

.U _ '. ._ ~,. +',." Z ~ 0 tdn~I':I~ry tUlle rouow~ to

where ~gHJI1 R. e., and Z are bodyrorce8,. For phU:1C stress pirtl'b lie ms, (be eql;dUbdurn cquflHons
fJ .... ,,.
'~J"
.OAij

.+

,iI'j.,,' .....
'-.,' ~

riI

+X

= ()

,q,I ';'" ·1") ,~,.

3~4 STRAINS AND STRAiIN-'DISPLACRMENT

RI3!:LATI.ONSnlPS

Strainsare no~d~mensiona~. Qua:nriHes asseciated with, the de~ormaJHons (di,sp~!Jjcemcntsl,()f a.n,~leJ,n'lnd.ina solld bedyuader the .act.i,O~l of external :applied leads,

_7

To arrive at a muthcmatlcal definHh:m: 'a,r rhc strain eompencnts, take the solid body 'shown in Fi:g. 3'.0 and consider ouly Lll:e~nnnilesimill'elemcnts .(JAil (J8.~ and OC. If,ane:r d,eforlin~lmions tuke place, the dh;pl~oements 'of PO,tl!1t Gnre: denoted by €1:Jtt q:l" and ''1= bil the .:(1< J'.• ~U1id Z dillectilo,"s;~ respectively;. then the dlsplaeemems ,o·r~ ~...ts ,.4] ,l'~ "i ,C'·' -w-'I~'lc--I" 're .,~...-rl_·"'''1',1 "'~" ...·,,·.. u ,f·-[,·nm,· --, T"I"" 'I·... ., In.,nJ··-i~ be ,fl' ""F no. a _1iIIIJ'"':Ii l:,..:;;. v" U n ,I '_-~' (Is;s ,Ix. 'lr+ (It.;f dr. and q~ +' (I:::. ,~,dz~ res peed vely., Figure 3,,7 shQwsaU rU~e dlsplaeements rc,$l:IIUug from Ute applk~tion of external .~.pp~iedl~oads;~ When these relative displacementa ocenr in a so~id bocl.y~ the body is said to roe inastate ssrai». Thestrains assceiaeed with the relativechange in lren\g~h referred to are
- _" ~' ~~~.~ .t:~"!!
')''Ii .y1l:~U.

<"i;'

'.

_ ..JlIj,,,

,~

,_- -

i~

~r'~'\ll'

L(I"l!i.U

..

g;'V¥'~'IJ'

y!ll,;,;!'I_"~~

to

J,

""~.o"(

or

~\S

fiO,·rmll .~W;.aitfs'I~~ndthose

Jle]atedito rel:aUve change in angles are called

.shiUir-

in,gst ,'aij'lS. The normal strain ls dd1ncdJ as


'E'~.

lim
i•...

oL

~L .-

wher(' At. ls the change in length ('If~n e[e;ment whose origtnat~ lC:I!l!.gthwas L.
before defermation teok place ..On the basls of Eq,. (3.1:3)" the nQrm~,~strain in the x direction, ~orinstance, is obtainedas follows:
I€'
,";',1;

=---~- .~~ OA

6rOAl

OIAjI_

01'1

.0.4

0.4·~ ds: ,0' At =

[(ar.x + (Jx.:i:' .axJl + ('1).0.• x: .(J~"();a ....

((J:•.~d~'I,;)lJ!,tl

~-".'::,~t7'Y//'

WIli:ch reduces to the following by us,ing[hebinom~al


'€",x=

ex,pans;t.on tcchrniiquG!

q.:f.,x' + 1nq~.x)1+ (l/J" ;Ill! .1- (t1':~.,llrJT . '..'

Fur ,5n1mU displacement.s, the terms irumlvi,ng the squares of deriv,alives may be :neg.l:ectedim comparison \\!1tll the d,eri.\radve in the i:rs,t term .. Ther,ero're~ (he , x-direction linear normal strain becomes

(1 ~,H:'1Jo ~,'~-',~ ~I~I·,~} (.3..·~ 4c)

The slle~lrjinlstr,aiim~ .mny he derived by nndh~i :~hercI1advc;cha:nge


,aJI~g~cbe[weernfisJvenpai:r

or the

three 1:1'iiJe segments shownin

Fig. 3.7.

in the

(3.'15)
E'..- = ,(J,~ _ ~,"~lo!l'-

+ ,q':_

.,~~,1

'''.

The

d.cri;vllthm

Thus. in

,8

Ilhliec-diimeliis,i(ln,~iI state of ~~r,tl~n the: ~~n~iii1! .. ,nerd C("l,mlHlnrn~::i fila)"

of r~q.. (3,.!5) m{!!y be found ~n ReFs. It. 12. and t 3.

be ('Olllp.:IC'C! d' •Inc,l m~lr,~x t -. r- -,-- ".onn~ f,' _


~.!' -, .. ~.:: ' \:' . --,~ .' -

I-;,~,,-

1-."

-.--~

iii

I,

wheree u .....;j.i' rOlf ,f'f. i b;; ~I :shen ri ng,,~~ ~in ~.~ Cor i ~ 1 is the norma ~~;:Irafin. € ~ nd In the case ,oiftwo-dimc:ns:i;ontals:taibc of strain. {pblnle-,st~al-n ,p,fobl,eml 'E~~ = 'E:x .~ E~y = 10, Eq, (l,., 16) reduces te [e] =

r.,,,~_.,Er~,~,].., l€~
I€,,)"

(3.11J

IncyUndricn:1 eoordlnat es,Bqs. l(l.,14J and (3,.lS)ma.,y be written as


~. ,_ q:::.a, ~, r
...~~ ~ '. "T'

'i"'~.,~
tel

'IiEtlO -

"

_ :!:1!.e ~ q" -- .. r
r

(3,.,1,8J

\!-vnetc 'll'"q'!J, ~md tiv'cly.

,'1,::;

are the drsp~a!Ccmeuts in uher~

()lland

d~rec~ioT:ls;~ re..~pec\o

,3.5 C'Oi\1P,\TU31t,lTV EQUATIONS .AND ,P,LANE-STRA,I,N :PROBLEMS


The s~r~I11! ..displacement

F'O'R PLANE-8TRESS
;~ivenby the

rclnticHlf:lbips, for pl'~nJ~itralnplr,obl.('!:m.$a:re .. '


,f.-·"....

'f(Jlilowing.
N-;c;

,a..¥-• .,. -~

Ifx;rg

'Tl.:.. 'P' + q,..l1

By examin~~g Eq. (3.1'9)" it isapparen! lhat rhereexisr three l'Qmp(}Ju.'i[]:(~ 01£ ~trnin ~yhicb areexpressed in terms of on,ly two components of dispJacem.et1'ts. Thus, .H.ma.y be concluded that not .3.nthese stra.~nCompOlllU!nt:s are ~.ndepc[1Jdent of one 3JlIO~her. Th~tlimay be easUyverHied by di.ft'erlendR~,ing twice the: firstand . lh~se{~ondeqnalion5 of ~3J'.n wi~b respect to )"and ;'(~respoctivel.y" and the last equation with re.. peet to x only. s

€' yr.

o\:';il: ~

q~.,:;:x
'C/;t. ;xy]

€,IJ~•• ;.Ji'F ;;::::::.

+q¥.~,

S u bs Ii: f OJ LinS the nrsttwo 'equa.'l ~Qlil$i n to the H~kd y;i elds
'(!.x:r •• 1:1'
:!::i:i:

€,x:c., '.F

+ E.~.r.

%111

\\~hrdlW~the lCi(1nilp~liibiIHy equation of dcJormat i011. Thus, the choice of the three s{ra~n components cannot
:nHIDS~

he arhHr.i1lJry.but

be such that tire com pa~ibnity equation ~fij 5al~sned. This c,ompa.Hbility Icqua.Hcmensaresthe existence single-valued disp,hlcemenl flmC~~Ong CJx and tflj/ fOoIl" a ~()Iid, !n fact. when Eq., .(,;t,,10)' h~cxr:r--e:s;;sed '~1111 terms! -of :stressc:s;"it ensures: the 'C'1<~stcnc,c: I unique sol;tH~nl1l for ~. $h·-e;$i$plro'hh~;m.as is, iil!!usl.r:1iltcd in later of chapters. FOil (hrec-dimens~omd state efstress, the COl~iI]latibiHt¥ equations ina)' be dcd\",cd in simUar manner to that of Eq, (1.20) and art: given by the ronowing ..

or

1~~1....

O.J '~1 .• ~ ~I

'kl"".' ,

'16"

,U'_,_.·""'.",,

1'0.· ·U·r--N··· n·A·· R··· I


1~"'."'IJ

~T

C- ,'0__ ·N·· 'D···.·· .1. _".._'..'~ .,,:_',,'"" ' ',', "" .TIO-N'S

Bound.nry condil~ons arc those c(llndU,on;!\i~or whi,en the displacements and/or the ~~ffu~!e'Iorces are prescribed at, the boundary o,r:a given solid, For Instance, ..if the
d~s:p]a.te:m.eiiits o!f,,..

referredto

at lh.e botinda:ry~. then eenditiens as {tispi",c~'"mefU .hnmu/ary ~.'mu/~U(J'n.~ maybe written as land

qy l' a.ndq:;a.reptescdbcd

are

(3,.22)

where ,ij~ elr• and ij;:i,!lrc known ,ftmctiorlis 'Of displacements at the boundary, • On fhc other hand. ir u,~,r.(1:r;r' and (1.'1:.3' ;are prescribed ~uthe bounda.:r, .• then
the conditions arc:c'aJ~&dfo"('e nmNril/l"'j'rmz(lilfons and are .normanye:x.ptcs~od as

:[''-...~.' '.'. .....i:[ ~.-.' ~] '


I

,Y

!,'_V'

:.

-.

~.:!IJ .. x tINJr

~ '."'.~' .•.. Gp;p'

'~ ,,1' .-.'. .• IT

':;l']- [.:,:s, 'l".':r~"J. . .-~.


i.

, IV ~~ :

: if.€IIt"

.r=";;:

... N =.

where the iJ,'it: (i

the surface bo(~nd;afY rnrce.q~ the IrfJ} U..J= x~ J:'.:Jian;:; the rr{'sC'r~ih10d stresses at the boundarY1 and '~"i'(' :'," J,l::. are the directioncosiaes, Fur rhe dmrlt'uHnn nf Eq.(3.2Ji set' Ret[ 14.
_"..J •.;~', o') z are

~( is ~IpproprhHe to note nl this ~)o~nt thail inorder 1:0 obtain ~.hc.cx,act,stress meld. ~n any given solid nm~cr~,heacdon of external loads, ~he equatiens 'of 11.!(,·~umibrlIl1Jti, tompidibi:IHy equalion:;" and the boutld~.uJ cenditlons must all be
sa 't i~nt,~t

:t ,JI..,., i'--_:~"~I.L

7 S"'T·R··~'S·'_' ",~-_. __. '.J/',~.:~' S- S-'T"R "" I' 'N', ,'.: .

-R··' '(ri' ~LI:~

-L~'"T'.-. O'N',,,'UI:.'I_< ~b '(;18", "-I'P'o In


I_"'_~'

Structural Dchaviofnm,ay he cliJI,ssmilicd,into Uuw b~;:silc IcaLcgoriles based un ~he rlmc~[Ol1Ja] rcladotlS,hi,p betweenstresses and strains:
~.irllebts'tk: rwn]jln~tlll ") E~~~ non Uncar S lk

1. Un.ca,r elastie

Co~~s{dera~t~adiily loaded bar as shown in Fi:g. 3,Jl Ifupon loa,ding ~he ftlme .. tional relationsh~p between the stress and its: ccrrespondiag s~rain takes 0[1 a curved !"!'ailt. 'U ...,.,11 uno ... 11·' n-'l",,",.,;I~' i,~· takes ...-rJ ',a, -"""a ,..,'I~R""'r'e·"',~ u_' ''''~u It,'·a, , e rved nath 'Ft"'" 3- ,eli", r""(' i~"U _ U,JJi,~,'wo, . y, .. _,oij,7'w" Uilen the: s~ltllJc~~uralbch~"Ii'ioris: relerred to' as imdas'tic nonill1t"ar behav!'or. U such reladonshlp foHo'ws the same curved path upon both loadIDgs.nd. unloading the bar as in Fig, 2.9h. ithcu the hehay~or 1:S said. 1.0' be e,lt1i~tic.non.t.(Ji.ea.r behavior. L;ast.
C

iii;,;.

I ... '~

J~'~'J

I(

'

.,"'VII~

'_', :' Vi{;l,U'~JII"I"C

,ljili,

g 0

.tJ~,I!j,.

"i'

gJ~

<:liP

,~II:,1j

;:,.,

',,",

;!!~i!

ir such reI11~ '(!ln~h~p takes on :~he samo straightpaU.'l as in F.ig. 2..9£\ then. .. i

'[hit':

behavior

[5 termed Unearelasli.cb~.d',avjor. t n 1he mfHM gc nc ra ~ ease fer n ~~ncarel n~~il ~~nisotif 0 p,~c :;l!c.Jlid.FJookc1'!i l,ilW'. ~c

which relates; stresses t.o stta:i ns, m,ay be wriUeltll wn .3, m,anix. for,m as foUo,ws, t,n which f = strain, ,!'] ~. stress, and au U. J :;;::: ,ll, z)a.r-e the material elastic eon ... x,

stants

(tl~J =

'~ii)'

,[~:r

f~"1i
,

e;r I:
(tz

a ] 1 a ~3,
,(111 Q.l3

tf~.t.
QZ4
G34 €i'44 US4

a'~1 ,5 Q2.5.

a ~Ii
al'~
!

I
,

t1;t,;;;
rG;li';¥

'E:l!,~
1

e::,r.::
€.!!~

(f;u
Ci¢ I.

,n.u
"42
€~':tiil
{I'61

l13a; tl'4,.l!i
llSi.)

11J.!j °45
,!ii'55
i1f,;,_§

a.a,6
,a:41~
a.:'li'(iI
1

(J'~~

Uy,~
(fx~ (1~,_
,

(3 .. 4) 2

(Jr. I
(,t(l. Ii

'f:,,,},

a63

OM

£i'6-A!

U there exi!i.{ three 'o'r~hogoJull planes


o{ dle :$'ol~d bod.y., then EO],. {3...24} becomes
(";'111
i
,

o,r elastlc
0
0
t)
044-

sy:mmetf,Y th.ro·u_gh €:ve.ry po~nt


0 00
:
1

(.' ~~

a I2:
t1J.]

,ctl, ,l
it,2 .. J

I ,

f~,.r
€':ii

€h ~ a.;u
,f~J I

0,
-0 0
t~~.:;i

(f.'{~
i

Ey:::
,~
('

a.'!,3,

-0
0 0
"(1(I
1

u11
(1,;,; (J',-::
i

.~'"i
It

n
U

'0

to

{3.25)

0
0

~i.

0 0

{}

i
I

fl';~,~ .
-.

'0

,JIi~'r.~': ~

The elaslje conSf-l.ln~:~, €r~j~n Eq .. :(J,.25) .may be deiR,ned in terms: of {he' cngi neeri n g-materla ~const a 11bas f01~ ows ~

;'
"

5tro!iJ'I'

~>

g:l;ra~~
(l"i)

8t~i!'l
~(')

(l'Z.!

= .I!:"

l
'

!I:o

Y1

(3.26)

:r.;"

G~=

\vber,e P;u~Gij, and l"u (i~.1 ~. s;

j'"

%) are the modulus of clasUciit.}',~:heaf modulus,

and Poisson 's ratio, n~!!ipecUve~)'. A body w'ldchobeys, Eq, (3.25) -i.Je.~ a1 each f'loint there 'exist three mut.uaUy perpendicubur ,~a[Jies of elasfie ~,}'mme:try is ,commonlyrefer,redto'f.i:sa;p 01'fJJ:o-"'tJ'p!k body ... P~ywood~fof 1,liIlslanlce, and mos,treirdoltced phudim rna, bedesignalcd. ~a;sclril, ()~rupi,cm:a.~ed a is. h If aU d~n::clrons iln a. sloUd are el,ast.~eaUyequivalent and any p;~~l1lew'b-i,ch pa;!l~es;n11rvtl:gh ,atny P!l)iflt o~Fthe body i:s: a plane or ,ela.sde ,sy[nmetry.~ then it is caned ill" .i~n'.lropiebody.. In this ,case. Ule e~;asdcccastanta In Sq. (3,.25) ,s,~,mpHf)tlo
(l ,~I,

'= (in = ,(I ~,'l-. E

Q44 .~

(~~,,={ji~6

'='

___

.~

wbere B =y(l:~u~}fsJ1I1{)(.hd!IJs.. _.. shear modules, G'

andv

== Poiss,on~sr.llli.Q ••

It is~mp()rtalilt to notehere (hat~n ;ana.n~s:tropic body, nermalstralas win induee not only 110r,m~dstresses bUl also, shea.rin,g ~tresses; Ukewlsct ,snel'ri'ng saraias wHI produce FIiorm:~dtresses, as may emsily beseen .from 12'1.(124,). Hows ever, J1:o:rmaJstrains: in, an, iso,tropk or o,rtbo~,ropi,lc body wUlcausc o:n~yn,ormaJ s.tf\cs:scs.. wh He s:httt ri:rllg S u"di ns '\'1 U ·e~uJsrc;s:hearitll:& stresses, This m,ay 00 ~cd fied
l1y exalmining Eq, (3,.25). For pbt~i~~t resspfohkm:s, where:
,

Mo'5~me;tahl" such as

ah;lin~llililum~stecl~ ,~.ndUtanium~:aJr¢ isot,rOpi!C mate:ri<a~s.,

1'T::::;n 'ffJ'~ ~

an:d(1~;:.a.,reZCr\(l'"
I[)I
I

if

WIC

assume

isotropic Jn~,'ttrhd, P.q. [3..25) becomes


1

- ".'
'~

0.\.,.\

II

-E

'~

_'\!

,0
1 2~'.~ ~.) 4-

uj.y

()

10

'"all

'"::tA •• ,;x

,+2a -'<J". ;\"f

(J

n.H'

=0

The h(u:ly i~t)n::c:<! ~ :ils..o,;;tnned ~ re

[0

he zero,

J~8 TUANSF"ORJ\1ATION

'OF STRESSES AND ST:RAINS

A stress field 1(I1.xx'~ (jJ"~.' ",~y). su(.·has shown ~rt Fig. 3Jft which is,known in one set ors;ySh~l:msaxes m,ay be l:r~iftsior:medtoa.T1lY other arbitrary set of axes such as 'lIt

,', J.

,I

,~

and

For instance, assume that at


u~~~) are

known in reference

given point
to

nte

x 3lnd "

so

axes, us shown in Fig. ,3d 1. The

a :$J01~d. stresses t",li;;J' the

Giyy,

uhject is to Und the set of stresses in reference to a 1:1cwset,of axes, ,'1'l1'i' which a re rota~ed throughan a.n.lre fJ as s'hown .. The str,ess17'1'f m.ay be fo'Undby considering the free-body diagram which is cut by a plane along the /I axis at an angle le[ tram the vertical, 3S shown in Fig. :3.1U". If side 013 wsassumed to have area A. then sides DC and" C B each have an area of' A cos 0 and A sin 0; respectively, Sinceequilibrium conditions prevOJU,.the summation lOf forc~s a~·ongeB,ch the "1 and P direetions must be zere, ~)r

wm

or

E,F I:il-""'-j 0 = ,
o~lj)A -

+
A cos (} cos
'fI~,~

U x;Jt
-

A sin

a cos
t:fyt
"

e~

(1:'11

5ill11

O'S1n

(J ~

(1

~y It cos 0 sin ,(}

0 = '0
= e.: ' the rOuow~n& is obtained: }il!. .
..

, '".

By· simnlify·jng'",.- and noting' that _' ".,., .' .


q~~."""U ~'if!00,S: 2
,0'

(f XI' ...

'

+
"

Sill,

u-

(1-

rr.'f.l' stn

."

2'n. ,U

"£F". = 0 ~.
Ii1jjp A

+ ~
Aoo~. Q{sin 0) 01;x.A. 'i1n

6';r...;

A. sin

[O,(COS,

,(1)[

,Q'~)'

A cos 10(008 0.)

sin OlSEn [0) ~ 0'


• 70,1 ~un.-" -~'. 20. un sm ,,'.'[ {' 2-' ,2. Oil 2 +- ,E -." cos .'JU~J' .'

tI'1P ~

tIXi

2."

+.

(3.30b)r

(3.30~:)

COS-o

sin 2{J
COS' If)
2:

~"iin2B'

-sin 2tJ sin .20'


~ .., ~ ....... .t

I,
,C

'

II
I,
I

U:-. ...
]

(1

[3..31:£'1)

s:iu ::W

sin 10
2

t.
}t'.'

cos ·2.I:~ -V

i
I

! . ,~. ;I,ll"

'where 0 is UU~, ~.mg[cof Iro~~ltiOIl1l is positive in the ch)JC;k\"'js.c diircclion. and In compact matrix form. Eq, el2S) bec-omes

where [T] is ref~!"rcd Ito as the t:ran5:form,ation matrix. In a similar manner, the strains may be transformed
E!J1i ][ : [
, I

as follows:
(3.32)

.l i llJi

"'"',

.€{J/f

i,

= [T]

-I

r
.

.~,. In,-,-

€.t, -] E.~y
I

where }'ij (tensor shearing s,tt'm,in}.; 2fiJ fCJTji,j neering s:hcariing strain) and Ihe m,3itri:<[T]is 'fhe same as that in Eq, (3.3 l).

P"R---:-'OR':"I
" __ .:_' ~

'l"i'j\.' .dlr...

l' S···1'-_
I

3,( Deri\o'c the ,c(Jmp'llihi,lil~· e'QlII,i,uion inc)'lil1iddlli~d ccordinates

for a f\\",o-dime.ns,iomd

state of J;'lf~~.

3.1 Fiti,d [he di:roction ...h,l:ng WIi1,iiCha hele '!'HI)' be d~iUed iin the iii!;l,~idhown in fig. P'.lJ: su~_b. 1'1.3;( no s 1 shea.ri:ng srresses exist ~dong [1iI,e ~ol)e' ~ dir~oUQn~

_L

~.:t. I' .~

T
J.J Find the m.n;.hIlil!In1 'md mlR~mum n,"Iirm~llj:jr~~~,lind l:h.;plon'l:~S un whicl1lhc,y :Iel fpr ~he hl(K,lk s1m\'1"1:1 i'll Fig. J"J.2. I\bn. dCll::nnil'l'C' 11~iii OllinunH m slhc;Hr s(r,C'Ss :mllthc 111~mc Oil whicb it m;ts i~~ Pmn.3.2. 1.4 Derive Eq. 'J.~J',

3.5: .Foli'a h~.f~imen~f~'n~l ~lmc ~lhl.~s~~ stU:lI~rtna,ttbe' s;tre.<;s..'Strailll F'elilll'ion..~h.i,JiI"is


.0 ],· 01 '. ,S.-I! '
I

• ,_11111 SI2---

,:Ut And (be matrix or the stiiffness (:Ons~>iUlil[5if Oil new. arbitfafJ set of clllo5e!A alltS: rus1:3ikie:nas sh~wn in I;'~~ !~lJ.,6IA~ul1llci,hiil,~,~,hc slUTn=>'''CIJIIIS~a1:ib w~th r~pc:d !to ihe,'( ,and l' ~ililllesi!iUii!5 g~v:Cln ~~
~~b. 3.:5.

......
----'
-

....... .....

<,

,.
f1
(]I",

3.7 A li'!~m)w ,c~f!'lilc""'cfbeam'h:!~fl nl:t wfdl!hll:litd ih:: h,)...d~ w'ilh a flOfCtl iQ,as:ilhuwn in Fig. P3.7.The u
dd~lrrn,l'uiol!l.'l ifil l~e x a:fl,d!J'directions are =~if.l( -- Q~'" ]/" ~~'QN~dJl Q I,?Jt), ~
"j.-

i"; it :tQrJ

~-'Q't'~1'1

q", "'" ~.EJ(~Q';~.r:! ... ~QxJ '....QL~~'l ' +-

5Q'E}

f:l;!';:ild:s ~n rllJ1C'[ ~(I), find du~pr:ind~~ !iliO!!'i!1~,ill siIJfC1i!5€\;,liiil!fld ~.be max[mlJilm .enr stress <I.t ,a fO\i:n!~,Oil ~be :~1iIfII ~"'~Ii!'bJ' X= ll2. j' = ~dl, M} Co~Mtbe frdl,o'w'ing!dr~'Ilfh':ld:s he pn~ihl~, :!iitr,~" nl!l:idis.r(~r ~'i:C: 1 gi"jl:llibeam'l'
'fI:!!it '"",,

€'I~) tf!'r fJ' ,"""0.,:i:i'lildlh~ !!Ue:sS ~\elds; Olft!hiC' bea 00, I~rjde)f ~Qr'i!\!iidiefMi!~)llin~ny poilU {Xi' )'J. f Hll :S:h(lW'lhnl the ,::ltre1iS 11e:lth;;in p.>i1fl ~~) artlbc;;!j~re,"'S! :IT!~Wd',::; ~he g:iV,i;" b~m. !for (e) U '12 ..... U.lQ(l1 Ib~ Ir'~ 2 ln, L ""', ,1100 in,gt""" lOw"il!1ld 'M ~O.\lS a~d b, ~dl!i:;d:l1!g:!I:'eSl!re.~~

Q!Lr~ + '~1"\':~ y2:U -

Gin = Q[x!

+ ~1J"~. XZ)I] ~

~ hl

(,f; ..", ~~·.....••. .'. ·.•....


iF' \. i
I.:' '

.1

r
'lIJ,iP~~':_
I~J_~ :'~-~ __

'''''.' ,== "111-'

~"(1"'1'''''.'~' '''lIi:' =»

;\;8 Vn~~ ~~:[il:~i~'en ~I 1iI~~t;ln,!!!),lliJI:rphlilte ,\,,,,hhp('!£~d\!'t' :apill~jC'd stf1':l'l~(I!1H i!lnd ""1)' WliJ'IlI~.j;J~~l~tlilt: th,e :~~'~~il~~l;Ilkf' (f ~ if! o!1lle:r. £olr ~'h~ ~-()nur.}(:tli(lin .~I!' the: .~ diliOOlioo~o be pn~\1tlJ,t~d? .Iir Ul!Lll ~~aILe o }S s:."hi"""I ..-1lJ .'" 'lii.'e-filrn~'li~~ ..II '~ne..~~ 'rI' ,11'n" •..al:ll:d' ~ lD what d~mlCti[l:n ,siho,ul.d Ul!ep~a~r; ~ drawn UI 11"""" ',,,_,_ '-~'''~ mtlll!'lr Ii) ~wcn~c i~snn~le~ d'l.irin,~,!i~re!;(~,i'!flg1
!,:_~I~I~lJ""~....,, ... 11,''1;,'
',~'Ii _
_,L_ -'_"---' -._I

of loads P,and, P#u:ni~b:rm!y d:i$lrib~~,c:d !i)'vcr lite ~!l:id~ ~;i~! ,h.~~d~v~ly. OSoefig.. P3;9.',.)Whail mu.s~ be lihe:ralijo oifr:nll!gniitoo,cs and: P, ~n 'Qrdr..:r :fOll' U~~ 'OO,!~~:~~~i,t,l:I~n!r th~ flID~lll;:n ~he iI' dif\c::elja~ 1I.o:be 'PRlII'~!iI~OO i 'I

1.9 Aplc,Ltc or uni~ lb~l7kl~,~~isS'i:!hjK~,ed i~0 asct

orr:.

CHAI'TER

FOUR
B,E,HA.VI'OR AND 'EV'ALUATION

'OF VEHICLE M.A,TERIAL

4.,) INTRO:D'UCTION
ana~)'st to havCl: a fun wnder!'itandin,8 or the behavior .gfv;ehidema,tedal:s and be :ab[e to l:ntetH;enfly eVl!Jluate an.d e ~I ., A··t_ . -.... d."1 " r sc~eet t'lit: materna' 'I ~~~t sml!cu to brei ,constraInts. :~n-' (]perau,onal.req~,;lrcme!l1.tS ():_ the !th~.sign., The .mat.eria~s: usedln various r~rts ofyeh.iic:le structnres gc:mcli'~dly SG~C~are bld by d,ii[eren~crit-.eria. The criteria are predicated on the eenstreintsand eper:ad:onal requ~r-em,e"ts of the vehideandits varices structural members, Some of these more important r~q'uiremot~rlJs Involve
L,,_,. •

Il is of utmn:n import:ance for the structural

~: !i,,,

;[7·.. "'...·_III 1...... I:·.. :.'y

fl,n···m-·-:, ... ·~,j\


V
J

!,_,

_~~~

I!.l,

2. faUgue

3. Temperature

4. Co V'foslon
S. (,'rccp

6. 7. R. '9.

Stre:ogthm;nd, stiffness W1ci,ght ii.maation Cost fhunan f~,ctor

This chapter nilmi]'j:Rril.es Ihere:adcr\'V~~,h d~6 f"CIlh,~s. thatseme 'Of these r!equ~re,. n~en~spla.,inthe fi:n,aJ sdection and evah.tadon o,f materials to be used In,v,e:lli'c~,e struetures.

Materials,

~ngcnm!:all.

Or multipbase .. A~lme·l.aIs,5uch as ,alominomt stec;lt and {ita:[I1um~are referred 10 as .t,i~!g,'q..p.hw}·!1! mute.rials. A.n composites, whitham made out or fllautents (fibers:) embedded ~na matrix (binde£)~ are ,caUed. .m:tr.l.t.ipJI~as!e· positioinassingle~phu£je
Plywond
tn(~rt(jritl.I!'i.

may be d.3"~fied aOOO['ldED,1 to their constiteent

eom-

und

rein~l)rocd

fiber gl.ass, are

cx;al.nphl'sof

1l~L1Ui,pht'l.s~

materia ls,

Alm(,Jsl :.wIl.im:l'()rt:~I\"~. slructlUra:lp",operties of s.lngle~ ormultlphase matedaJs a.rcob[aincd by three basie tes~s:tcnsjJe test, compression test, and shear test The AmedcRn Sodc'ly for TC'stingM aterials (ASTM)s;e'ts;aU the :s:pedfic8rtkn1\~ and test procedures for ma.teri.als: tes't~ng.

Figure 4..1 ,&;Ii\ows the b~,:s~c c(m~i!ur:ation of a. teru~~le~est s.pccimen. The ~oad!I) is appl i,cd grad uaHy through [he use of a ~iCnsHetestingmacbine. The normal s:train Ell usuaUy is measured either by util.i2ing. ·electrical straingage tech.niqu.es or by m.eas!urhlg t.he total ehmga.hon (j in an effective ,ga.ge length L rorvafioUlt)va~llies

of the tension load P. For sman~Oiadg" the; elongation is as~ulmed to be u.nlfQrm (nt,c!rU~e entiregage lcngth L and the~refOi1'e norma] slrnin mmy be mathemattbe
ilca.l~yc!xpn.~~~~cd form in the
iiE ..
-f,I

=L

where Q and L~·re both measured in the sarue units of .~en;glh.The correspond IUS; normal stress Un i~~also assumed to, belilnifo,rm~y dlstributed over the C[10SS~ sectiofUl~area .A of tbe 'lest spceimcnand is gbta~nQd ·as ,g'~k.tW5:,
.(1'
.. .1:1

-:-

p A.

(4.. ) 2 area A.~sm

FOfliommCHl

squareinches, and t.he stress (f Is in pounds per square hleh. The stress-straln d:i,all;f.aJm ror it, m¢!~e:r~~l~s obtained by p~otting V.aJlH~;S .of the stress a: :agatn:s:t i corn:sponding val:ue..~ the strain E.. as shown ]11 Fig. 4..2. For smaU v.a.~tI:es:of the of

en:!!inee:rtlrllJ; units,

the Ioad P is in ~;u)u~ds~tbe

"', r
~I

I,

.I
I

~.

Stm;.s ,

stress, [hie ,!Ures:s-str,aif.l Cl1rVB is a..stra.igibt lill,e" as sbown by nne GA, of Fig. 4.2. 'Tbe constant ratiO' stress to straln farlhis pOrlionQf the curve is:caU~d, the mod~d'Us 'fJ/,e,lastk;Uy .£,. as; defined in the fol'l.cJ:wing equaJ~o'n:

or

(4.3)

wne:re: Ehas units of pounds petsquere inch. A m:ateria~ such asphdn lew-carbonsteel, wtdcb is commonly used for b~:"i,d:ie
and buildin.g structures, has a str'e~sfrrajR d~asr,am .s;uch as that
t

SbOWfi

in Fig,

4.2it At poiflt 8'"the ,e[ongaU,on increases with no increa:S6 in IORcL Tld$. s.tres8 at
11:0''(111, or yie'd 5,€.1·t;.'Ui G"jl and Jsveryeas.y tiC! ,dEI'~ect whensuchmateriels are tested. . The stress at poiint .A., where the stress-strain Cluve first d6'vi~te~ froID I straight Iine, is caUed the pr,opor.f.kma,' J'hnitu~.:p and 'is, muchm.ore dimtu~t to'

this point is; called the }lie,rd

measure vihUe a test is being conducted. ..S.peci6ca't~Qn.:s.for snruc~t.lral !!lu:m:;u,su~]lj are O~;5ed 0,1'.1 the yie~d stress raJher than (,he .pn)porUonal limi;t,~ beeeuse air tl1U3 ease in obtaining, this'Va]ue.
Fli.glu-vdtjcle stmctureaare made 'of .mat.·erials .su.ch as~dli1"mi:llum aUo,ys" h.igh-ca.rbon :S:lteds~and 'comfJosib,~.s;which do .[tal have ,a.de:finilc yield poi:nt~ btd which, do exhi bit stress-strain beha vi:(,u'similar' to that ~hown in Fig., 4.2h. It is:

cCI'Fl:vrenient to specify arbUra.rUy the yieM stress forsueb m:a:Le'rials as the stressst which ,e permanentstrain of 0.002 in/in iis obtained .. PeintB ot Fig.. 4.20. rep .. resents dds yield stress· andi!')obta.ined. Imyd:ra.wi.ng nne .IJl)' para.Ue~ to OA

throughpohd l}t rcpresen ~Jng zero, stressand O,.OO:2-1nji.n stnus,. as .shown.W.hen the: ~(Jadisrem.o;ved frama test specImen which 11M pused ·thepn"Jport.io[l.allbrd t, t:he s:[)Ccimen does notlietwf:A to itsodginal lei1gtb~ but. retains a.permane,liJ!t straIn. f"or dle" materlal .re~Jilie~ent,ed by Fig. 4:.2a~ the load might be r,emov'~d graduaUy at point c. The stres5-'strain ClllniC wlClluld UI~iB Follow nne ·CD.. P<It'dUc;:1 to< IO'A~. until: at po:i,ntD a perraaaent s;train equal to ,()lJ W~[ie ·o-btalned fQr no' ~1~S: .. IJpnn it sut'll'WCiQlu.:nt.,app,iJ)cat.ioll of load~ Ihe str-e~s-Ifnlincl!lirvc w·,ould rouow Unes J)C ,and f·(~1' SiJlilnar:l,~ ~.r· sp!climcn reprcscf.d.cd by }.~~& 2b, 'Were .• ibe 4:.. unloaded a~ poinl. B.., lnestliess-s~ndn curve would follow line B'D !ilnHl a per .. mane;rlit strain 'of 0.:001 ~nlin Wfl:re obt,ained ror no stress, Itis cus~omary to use Ute initiaJ area, Aaf thetension test specim,em rat.hc[' than the aetual .a,rICaQI.r theneeked-dewn .spec~men in. oomputiJJig: the unit. stresse, While tbe tree st:rCS$-lI ca.b:l!Illaled from the-reduced ar'e:a~ ceatlnues to iaereaseuntil ri:t:iill1r-e OOCUfS (hel.Jlppnrent ~tress. caJc~la~edftom the: in:~tj;al area, dec:re~s,. as .. sho,w[I by thie doned UtJ~s G.H Fi,. 4..2.. The actual rai:iureoccU.I!"S at :point H, hut (he ffli~'ll'dmumapp~~I!'e:lfllt stress, :rcpr-es:cntcdbYPQill ( G. lsthe mloireifflp()r~~lut stress to use in dcsi'.gn ·ca.i'crulallons. This vaJue~s de:Uned. as tbe 1~~U·nlule5i,.~·tJ.yII'~ In the dcsig.'fll of ·t:ension members fOir vehiCle structures .. it is accurate to lenlrb,y ~.hei'",i~~:rlit area ,ofthe Il,lcrnbcf ~nd the app~rent uIUfi'~a1lc te~l~,ile ~.t,re~g!Lb 't1~II.In using~he S[f·c~s~s~ra~n(:UfY·6(O calculate thIS ulitimatebending strengiUl of beams, as ~bown in a later ch;npte;r., the r-esMI~sa:re $~;ghtly CQn~erv:ative because ~hc beams do not Iflc'l~k'Llown. ;nthe same m.atrlrne·r· stensien mlcnl.bcr8" a

or

ifJ"~\ljI"

Com:prfssion Test
The com:prreSisi¥e slreng.th pf m.a~e'fi~ds is more CUffiC1dtto·i,denUfy fn)ms;tressstrain curves (bun the COHespo.rnding tensile st:rcrl,gtm. CotJ:iJu~cs's:ivcfa.ih~f1~ for

instabil .. iHesw:hich are releted to yiield stress ralberthan uillimld.e stress, YiaLd ..stress values which are obtained based on. the 0.2 percent ofrslcl method llUJ02..in/in permanent .sUain) have been prov,ed to, be r,elativelysuccessflUll fo.r c@rno:].atilng 11l1SltahiHth:s in m,Dls:t. riI~etals;:howev~r,. theeerrelatienis less s,alisf-a·.ctoI1'Y for nonmetals, s[lecifiiC~ll1y ct)mpO!~.i~es:.Spectmiefl: g~ometry and means, or :SU!PIPorts seem no ha vre considernb~c: ,e.ffect oucompn:lStdoi:l ~est ron.I,~ts. The loompr~$d v,c stressstrain diagrams (o·ir most materials aresimilae to the tensile stress-srralnourves.

most structural design.s in; ,ell:lgJneering a.ppUcadons areassocietedwhh

Shear Tes,t
In-pla.ne shear Ipropcrtks are the most dI,ffictll[ to obtain .arlld. have the ~ea8n standardi7.ed l,c:£l,tingpruceduresof ~ln m.ajormccha.nicaJ pr\Opert.~es. The desIgn OJ shear-tess £iipedm't'!uha'\' ~ 1"J1g. .a testseeti tJ!l .subj:ec.~cd 'loa. u.ni fu nn.shmlrings:tress ~s impossihle .. The closest !pf,UC~~ca~appr;Ori':chis pirob31b~ya lhin-w~~Uodci.rcuhlf cyUndcf ~oa~h!d in torsion, as shown ~n Fig. 4·.3. Fer .smaU dlis;pbH~~merdsj' the

or

:sbc'ar fltn.lin

ms

,expressed

us

(4..4)

where E:jO ...... shear strain AS = c"hanie in alit h:ngU~ L = ·effective gag6 .~englh
The shearstress may 'be caicijJat,~dfrom thewell-known strength-el-matericl

torsi! 0 n:.d C'Quall on as


(1' .'i

=-.--

Tt
J

where

l(Ji~

= shear

stress

r .;;;;;;: cylinder radi us J=-, eross-seetional polar moment ·ofiinert~a


For ve:rythin-waUcd cy!!~ndrtcid test t;pcdmcnst t!,q, (4.5} may bewriUen as
Us

=_ TIl..~ _ 1m

(4..6) '

where

Rm ~

mean :rad~ruJ5: (R!;i =


8.:$

The shear modulus


.st.rain diag.ra:m

or e:[ast.~c~t.y be obrainedIrom maty

+ .R.i;J/2. and Jm, """ 2:I:tJ~,! i.

the shear stress-sbear

{4..7J

4.3 R.QUATIONSFOR
.Ii

STRESS.,STRAIN

CURVE IDEALIZATI~
-C,c- -c.

'.;'... ... u -1' , •. -If-. :.-.• .....•. " -,. g ]d' Cll,Ueprope,rn ~.IIC"eSI.:§l!;n 0·f- "lie Le°~c 1,e·s ~ruet ura J' tnem,~ee.. --·It II. IS moces:sa 'fy t'-, conSI ..,- -;-~(~,- .' .. --:., Ii'S~ . ~. -.'...... ~j;eso:Fthc: stress-strain curve at stresses higher than Ute; elastic limit In, other type.~ o.r ~tructmJral and llilflchinlC dC$i:gns., it is eustomary to consider oo!y stresses below the ,elast~c limin; butwdgh~, considerations tIre so i:m,porialilt in ·mgbt vehiele design Uuu.~t~s rJleoo!jisary tOI c:aicuIllte the I1I~inlat!e stre,ngth of each. member and to providetbe S8fmc fa,c:tm"e,f safety ag,ains:t failure lor eachpert of the entire structure. The u~Umate beading or Co.m.pfies5lve stre!ngths of many members are dlfficllmltto ealeulate.and it is 11,c:eessary to ,obtai,n infor.m:aJion fr,oim des~ruc!t~on tlesls ofco:mple~te members. In order to ap;piy the results on tests: of Incmbers of ene materia~ to :5,;m~:I::8Jr mlemli:lers of anether m,at'e:rial~ it is d.esirable to. I,L,d:'
t

obtain an iderdi7,edanaly1ica~ m aterials,

exprsssion for the stress-strain diagrams of varwo,rls

R'i!.lmhcrg and O,."goo<.P'J hav,e developed a method ,of expressing any ,d~c."iSs:~raJin curve in t~nnsfJr th,c modulus or cla:sHc~tyE~ a stress u I (wb~ch is apprexi-

mate~y equalto the: yilC~d stress}, and a material shape fact.o:r :n.. The equation for lhe stress-s {Faii n d iagra m is

·e''""::T + in" i
where land q are dimensionless terms defilned M foUows:
(4.'9) 111-' _'_,
g~
(1

The curves CC;XiH"CSSCU byEq. (4.8) areplotted in F~i.4.4~or variousvalues or n. A matcria~s.~.uch as .mild ~tect in which the stresaremaias almost coastant above the; yic~d point, is represented by thecurve for n."", G(l.,Othc'l' rliw:attr'i,al:s~

with various ~"ypesof stress-strain dingr:am~ m.a.y be represented by l,he curves for other v~aRuas; u. In o,:rd,er itO represent the stress-straln diagrams forall materials of by the SlllgJ,C eq~uat~on.t is nltlicessary ~o use thereference stress v-alue {IIf t1.ii rather i :lb~lnthu yrcl:d~:[lics~. ]'hcvn~u,c ,uf (1, i.~ ob~,a~nl]d sbow:nin Fi,g~4.5 :by dmwjn,~ ~~;s
t.hie line
f1

= O..7/'~ff ~n~m ~hc lott~ii:ii.h)

UliC

:S.~fl~,ij$9straincUi.rvcand

·ob:l.u:j ning the

stress coordlnate £Ii'~ of thlS po~n{ lOr Inte:rse<:[i.on. The stress 0"1 is appr:oxima.tel,y equalto the y~eld stress fOF'lypicaJ ~.~g,htl'ehi,cb::. materials, T.hevaTue of n m,a:y be determined so HUlt Eq, (4.8)1 fits H1Je experimental stress ..strain curve in the desired ~e!ilo'f[l.Romberg and Osgood ~how U~~t rOfnH.,~tm~tefialstbe value of J'l maybe ac"CufaJllcb determlned from the snrlessG',land a siimilar stress 6~(Hi toe line
.(J

~= . ~.o·

IfNt:' ,f.' 1.,O.;liIL,e.

JI'.

-I- -, _J

ID•.5:

I;,n
~

1'..5
'!l'- ~

.:::.0
....

I~;;
'f~!1

to note here that silmilar ,oquaH.,ons forideaIizing shlear stress-shear' strain curves may be :ronnlJla'~ed and Hued :irntQ various materi,ais' she~lIrlest data,

It is: appropriate

4..4 FATIGUE
F"IUgIU!i!li

a dyn~m,ic p:hcnClmcn(m which may be de,fin,ed as the IniiHution and

flIopn.3at~on ofmk;rocracks into macrocracks :as a re.'i:tdtof ,re;peated appHca.Uclns of stresses; It ,is a process or ~ocal~edp'ro'gressivestfiUctural rractl1~ein mate;nal under the ,aJctio:n.or dynamic ,Slll'e5sl!-s,.A stlTuctu:re wbicbma.y not ever faU under :a ,singllc :np!pt,~caHon of h)',ad ma l'iery easUyfail under thesame load if it is: ,applied repeatedly .. Thls failure under :repea,ted. nppUcation of loads is: termed /Q.l',ig.u" /t,fifut,r!,. In f'pit!c the many studic;s, and 'vast amount ,o,r e:xperimen:t:al dataaceu!mlJ~ hlledo:ver the years, flt~g\1.e is; the most common cause lof faHurein. mschincry and variousssructures as wc;U as the least understood oif all other s:truc:tura~ bc:ha.v~o'r.Thjs hlc;icof u.ndrerst3ndhlgis ,aU.r~buled to the fa,c{ that (hie initiation and the pro rmga UOIilI ,of rnic:roscopic crm;k:ilng are ~inhe:re,nUy staHsHciil in nature, In fact, '~heana~yst often is confn:>m.ted with, the ,,,ide vadations int,he statistics of what may beestbnated as ('~> type of service and cnvir,onment, (2) m.agn~tl1l.ae of servia: loads and fn~qlleJ1H::yoir occurrence~ (3) the: qua.lity 'c:onho~, durin,gthe fabricadon o'per:dio:ns. (4) the 'extent and accuracy ,of thea1il,aJY1i~s~ndetermining stresses, and (5) ~hea.pplica1J:ilHy of the maJer~al.stifeng:th data, The m,aif1o~jecUv'e Qf~,n ~t~dgueanalyses and les~ing .is theprodijcdon ralt.~,gue ure or a given structure or machine part: $l,u~jec'tfid to repeatCld[oa.di.ng. Such loadsmay haveoonslant amplitude, as indieetedie Fig. 4.0; tlowev,er. l~ n:jght vehlele structures. the: ~tlad hlisto,ry 1:5IllsuaJI:y ra,nd!,om in nature, as ,s,bown in. Fkg.4.,7 ..

or

sun

or

dcsigJ:Ior straetures have been based on frltiigue

Fatigu! ..Jife 'p:r~didiion' Most

,of the fil!'ligue'"'·~~Ic P[1c)(Uction methods

used in the

aUowRb~edata gener;.t( d by

sine

wave c:xeiUlth)n.On~y ,rcccnU, dosed.;JQOp" se:ry,[)--oomtr-o~led: bydr,auUe BUiu;:bIDres b,a'Yebecome a:vailab,~e:fot tlrutU: nlna,()m ]oadln:1 testing_ Fatigue rest datausuaUy are prele[l~,ed graphicdly (F:~g:.4.8) and the CiUfV,es are I1e ler"ed to' as the a.lh)wu.b.~e.5 ..,14 fn',~res,.The ,curves in ,eoDjunct~onwith tbe: ~I,cumu~athe damajC'" OOl:lCCillt [()If[U Ule b~;t~~is mo~,It'(lr the methods used in the :predict.:ion of filUguc fur'
l

'~:ife.

Amru1!g the~veral fheodes proposed ror .rati;g:ue-Ufe 'p1'ed~ct'i;on, the Palmgren ..Mlncr 'tbeo~Y't,~$because .of iiL5 siFnp;~icity" seems to be the most widely used. The method hyp()thes,f~es :that theUJe~u,lIUeex.pendedmay be expressedas ~,her,alio ofUle numhcr of ;Qjrp~ied cyCl;es:.'1!'~' to the ommoor ofcyc]es N, to failullt at iagiven constarit stress ]:ev'eJ at- When thesum 0[8.]1 the fracUons reaches '~.
raj,lur,e SI1011:dd OCC'lll: .. M;:JiU'U:;llUl.tic;Ji.uy t.his f~dlure c:riil1cri:OD, .i~, WrittC1l1 as

() (N ) ~......N 1.,=... "lV. ( )-.=... "


. ..

".'

. H

'i
I

+-

II _. ":z.
' ..

~1· .

~ ••• "'"lI

·c~."-

=aT"

i'l .: .. ""'..

,.

'tit

'

","",':I ,........."" j

L~,

~,tisimporn:an~ to note that in Palmgren ..Miner tbeoryn!oprovisiEorns are made

h)

efrec't. loadi,og scq:ucncc IcfftJc:t(ih,i,gh-'~ow Qr ,I,ow~high)t iano tbe: ,oODseqUeDQcs of

tate 111:10 account the various ,eff~£s, on fatigue Ufe~such as J'u)'tcih ~~lUiti\i'ity

\1:0

~ t.f.! ~
'U'

...
en

:
,

1J

...

1'~ fact. ~he U1Clory has; been shown to yield anconservative results ,in some test ease studies conducted by 'i!JasS,roi!lf,lO Kowalews tid} l~fild Certenand On ~an.21
d~frcrClllt ~,ev{';ls 'ofmeafl stress,

1rOml],s~mtc the U5,e of Eq. (4.11 oonsidc,f a hf~cket whiCh suppcrts an i),. declronic box in the air~rnncockpiL In 3, tYP:,icat mission, thebraeket encounters

a stress hi5tO~f spectrum

ideaU7Ed as shown in Fig,. 4.9'. The fatIgue allowable 0 t~,e brm.cke'tmat'B:dal is given in Fig, 4.10. Theprob~emb;, to find the number of rniiss,ionJthe ain:ra.ft may acconlp~~slilbefor~ the bracket ftliJ.S" From Figs. 4.9 and 4.10, Tab]iC'l4.1, may 00 easUy cons,trut:t:od., Tbefeifore~iin onem,is:slolll. 'O'.43.3perc@nt of the usefld,li,r:e of the bracket isexpe:nded. This means
1 '

...,

J:nt~!' v.
';::.
~

:J;i'

I I

t;t

~ ~l~ ...
'P

I:

J.
10Hz.
__

Mn~

''!;:ll

..;::

(!t--I !

. I 100 ib:
~~-L

............

1~1b:
.........

CI

!!"I

t.......... ~~~~..--

....L.-I __ (~!

---l!_~~~-~~-~~~~L.,.,.,..iL...-_.......!:.I

~~I

12

1:4

'i""ii

-~ 40
~ ~
'ill

J!

~
ci.IJ,

...
'".:;II

,~

'U

~. 201

that

the a,ircraft

m;~h:l HC'COU1,plishahout 200 missions

w!lhout bracket [aihl1,re"

basedon

Eq., {4.6}.

S-!\:~ ,c;:u:r'H:osF,atiguc tc~l$ are cOli1ductcdfof a wide v,ar~e,t,yof r~~~t):nS.Uhe tlf whj~h i,~ h':!, C;."l,;~~b]i~h aterials' m ratig~llc :aUo'!l,vubles" Of 'Wh~tl~s .commJl'nl,y referred bJ' as the S~N curves, Contrary to results .of static tests, it has been observedthat thescartee ln faU~ule test results 'can be quite 'Ia,rge. This, jllhcr,ent~callcrch~rractcrii$ticlcuve$ no ,cho~cebut to treat theresults sta.tisti,Cll,Uy. One Q,f the more widdy u~ed$latist~ca1 distribution fU(l,cU.ons is the I:o,g-norma~ (listrlbu~~ol1; whO's,'!!" mean value i'~,ia!ke:ri as l
• i·t'l,liig~1I(;' I('s:td:abl:

(4,.12) wbc're n =' tnnH~ nlunhC:f nf $:r<::drncn!\: te{l~!cdl at tl:1:e same stress level and Nj number nf c),ci:t:s h1 [a~~urefor specimen t.
1'H~~~,Q __ ,U';~ 41
'.'I!.l

.:;!.uo
141:
lOiS 200

'"I.

n
{D
fio

:~u,mKI
:'1:'.

O,OO2gZ
0;OCKJ26

:!~u
"I'l't
I.",,'Ni

25

m
.I

.~ )f

H~

0:;00125 o
O;@()433