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Control Systems that Guarantees Stability Consider the nonlinear system governed by the differential equation

Li-Xin Wang

A6stract- A supervisory controller is a controller which operates x =

- (2,k , . . . , z ( ~ - ' ) )is

~ the state vector which is assumed to

only when some undesirable phenomena occur, e.g., when the state hits be measurable or computable, and f and g are unknown nonlinear

the boundary of constraint set. In this note, we develop a supervisory functions. We assume that g > 0. From nonlinear control theory

controller for nonlinear fuzzy control systems. The supervisory controller [2] we know that this system is in normal form, and many general

works in the following way: if the fuzzy control system (without the

supervisory controller) is stable in the sense that the state is inside the nonlinear systems can be transformed into this form. The main

constraint set, the supervisory control is idle; if the state hits the boundary restriction is that the control U is required to appear linearly in the

of the constraint set, the supervisory controller begins operation to force equation.

the state back to the constraint set. We prove that the fuzzy control Now suppose that we have already designed a fuzzy controller

system equipped with this supervisory controller is globally stable in

the sense that the state is guaranteed to be within the constraint set 21 =U f k ) (2)

specified by the system designer. We also propose schemes by continuously

switching between supervisory and nonsupervisory modes. Finally, we

for the system. This can be done by synthesizing fuzzy control rules

apply a fuzzy controller with the supervisory controller to the inverted

pendulum balancing problem where we require that the state variables from human experts andor by trial and error using designing tools.

must be within a fixed bound. Our task is to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and,

at the same time, without changing the existing design of the fuzzy

controller u f . More specifically, we are required to design a controller

I. INTRODUCTION whose main control action is the fuzzy control us and that the closed-

Conceptually, there are at least two different approaches to guar- loop system with this controller is globally stable in the sense that

antee the stability of a fuzzy control system. The first approach is the state g is uniformly bounded, i.e., Ig(t)l 5 M,, W > 0, where

to specify the structure and parameters of the fuzzy controller such M , is a constant given by the designer.

that the closed-loop system with this fuzzy controller is stable. An For this task, we append the fuzzy controller u f with a supervisory

example of this approach is [l]. This approach often requires the controller u3 which is nonzero only when the state 4hits the boundary

fuzzy controller to satisfy some strong sufficient conditions which of the constraint set {g: 121 5 M,}, i.e., the control now is

greatly limit the design flexibility and, therefore, the performance of

the fuzzy controller. In the second approach, the fuzzy controller U = U&) +I*U&) (3)

is designed first without any stability consideration, then another

controller is appended to the fuzzy controller to take care of the

where the indicator function I* = 1 if 2 M , and I* = 0

stability requirement. Because there is much flexibility in designing

if < M,. Therefore, the main control action is still the fuzzy

control u f . Our task now is to design the u s such that we always

the fuzzy controller in this second approach, the resulting fuzzy

have Ig(t)l 5 M , for all t > 0.

control system is expected to show high performance. In this note,

Let us first examine whether it is possible to design such a super-

we will detail the second approach.

visory controller without any additional assumption. Substituting (3)

The key is how to design the appended controller to guarantee

into (1) we have that the closed-loop system satisfies

stability. Because we want the fuzzy controller to perform the main

control action, the appended controller would be better a safeguard (4)

rather than a main controller. Therefore, we choose the appended

controller to work in the following supervisory fashion: if the fuzzy Now suppose = M , and thus I" = 1. Because we assume that

controller works well, the appended controller is idle; if the pure f(g) and g ( g ) are totally unknown and can be arbitrary nonlinear

fuzzy control system tends to be unstable, the appended controller functions, for any we can always find f(g) and g ( g ) such

begins operation to guarantee stability. Thus, we call the appended that the right-hand side of (4)is positive, and therefore we will have

controller a supervisory controller. In this note, we say a system is 1g1 > M,. Thus, we must make some additional assumptions on

stable if its state variables are uniformly bounded. f(g)and g ( g ) for such us design possible. We need the following

In Section 11, we show the details of how to construct a supervisory assumption.

controller for a nonlinear fuzzy controller system where the fuzzy Assumption: We can determine functions fU (g)and gL (g)such

controller already exists and propose modifications of the supervisory that lf(g)I 5 f'(g) and 0 < g L ( g ) 5 g ( g ) , i.e., we assume that

control which switch to the supervisory mode gradually. In Section we know the upper bound of If(g)l and the lower bound of g ( g ) .

111, we apply the supervisory controller to the inverted pendulum In practice, the bounds f U ( g )and g L ( c ) are usually not difficult

control problem. Section IV concludes this note. to find because we only require to know the loose bounds, i.e., f U ( g )

can be very large and gL(z) can be very small. Also, we require to

have state-dependent bounds, which is weaker than requiring fixed

bounds.

Before we design the supervisory controller u s , we need to write

Manuscript received June 4, 1993; revised September 15, 1993.

The author is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, the closed-loop system equation into a vector form. First, define

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong

Kong.

IEEE Log Number 9402710.

1846 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPIZMBER 1994

where & = (k,,...,k~)~E R” is such that all roots of the 111. APPLICATION

TO INVERTED PENDULUM BALANCING

polynomial S” + k1 sn-’ + +

. . . k , are in the left-half complex In this section, we apply a fuzzy controller with the supervisory

plane. Using this U * , we can rewrite (4) as controller to the inverted pendulum balancing problem. The control

34”) = -&Tg + g [ U f - + I*U,].

U*

goal is to balance the inverted pendulum and, at the same time,

guarantee that the state is bounded within a fixed interval. Let z1 = 6

Define be the.angle of the pendulum with respect to the vertical line and

1 0 0 .’’ 22 = 6, the dynamic equations of the inverted pendulum system are

- 0

0 0 1 0 ... 21 =22 (15)

A, = . . . ... ... ... .. . . .. ...

0 0 0 0 ... 0 1

--kn -knpl ... . .. ... ...

b,= [j.] of cart, m is the mass of pole, 1 is the half length of pole, and U is

the applied force (control). We chose m, = 1 kg, m = 0.1 kg, and

2 = 0.5 m in the following simulations. Clearly, (16) is in the form

then (6) can be written into the vector form of (l), thus our approach applies to this system.

Assume that the fuzzy controller u f is constructed from the

following four fuzzy IF-THEN rules

Now we design the supervisory controller u s such that 121 5 M,. IF 21 is positive and 2 2 is positive,

Define the Lyapunov function candidate THEN U is negative big (17)

v = r2 4T p 4 (10) IF z1 is positive and x2 is negative,

THEN U is zero (18)

where P is a symmetric positive definite matrix satisfying the

IF 2 1 is negative and 2 2 is positive,

Lyapunov equation

THEN U is zero (19)

A T P + P A , = -Q (1 1) IF 2 1 is negative and x2 is negative,

where Q > 0 is specified by the designer. Because A, is stable, such THEN U is positive big (20)

P always exists [2]. Using (9) and (11) and considering the case

where the fuzzy sets “positive,” “negative,” “negative big,” “zero,”

141 2 M,, we have

and “positive big” are characterized by the following membership

+

V = - $gTQg gT Pb,[uf - U* + u.] functions, respectively

1

p (21)

Our goal now is to design u s such that V 5 0, i.e., the right-hand side

of (12) is nonpositive. Observing (12) and (5), we choose the U, as

PLnegative big (U) = e-(u+5)2 (23)

pzero(U) = e-,’ (24)

Substituting (13) into (12) we see that we have V 5 0. Therefore, ppositive big(U) = e-(u-5)2. (25)

the supervisory controller u s of (13) guarantees that 141is decreasing Using center average defuzzifier and product inference [3], [4], we

if Igl 2 M,, therefore if we choose the initial Ig(0)l 5 M,, we obtain the fuzzy controller u f as

always have 121 5 M,. Because g > 0 and 4 and P are available,

sign (gTPb,) in (13) can be determined. Also, all other terms in (13)

are available, thus the U, of (13) can be implemented on-line.

Because the I* in (3) is a step function, the supervisory controller

begins operation suddenly as g hits the boundary 141 = M , and is

idle as soon as the 4 is back to the interior of the constraint set

141 5 M,, therefore the system may oscillate across the boundary

line 141 = M,. One way to overcome this “chattering” problem is to

let I* continuously change from zero to one. Specifically, we may

choose the I* as

To design the supervisory controller, we first need to determine the

0, 141 < a bounds fU and g L . For this system, we have

I* - MMz- ap a ’ a 5 141 < (14)

1, 141 2 M z

this I* in (3), the supervisory controller U, operates continuously

from zero to full strength as 4 changes from a to M,. Obviously,

9.8 +e x ;

5 2 0.05

this I” can also guarantee that 141 5 M , (using exactly the same 3 1.1

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1994 1847

I 'I

6 7 8 9 1 0

Fig. 1. The closed-loop system state ~ ( tfor) the five initial conditions Fig. 3. The same as Fig. 2 except that a white Gaussian noise with variance

using only the fuzzy controller. 3 was added to the control U .

IV. CONCLUSIONS

In this note, we developed a supervisory controller for fuzzy control

systems which can guarantee that the state of the closed-loop system

is uniformly bounded. The advantage of this approach is that we do

I5 not need to change the design of the fuzzy controller to guarantee

stability; this permits us to design high-performance fuzzy controller.

The disadvantage of this approach is that we require to know the

bounds of the nonlinear functions in the system and, if the bounds

are too loose, we may require heavy control activity. We applied

the approach to balance the inverted pendulum and showed how the

supervisory controller forced the state to be bounded and how the

: l 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

fuzzy controller balanced the inverted pendulum.

Fig. 2. The closed-loop system state z l ( t ) for the five initial conditions

using the fuzzy controller with the supervisory controller.

REFERENCES

If we require that 1x1I 5 ~ / (we

9 will specify the design parameters

systems," in Pruc. 29th IEEE Con$ Dec. Cuntr., 1990, pp. 2185-2190.

such that this requirement is satisfied), then [2] J. E. Slotine and W. Li, Applied Nonlinear Control. Englewood Cliffs,

NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.

[3] L. X. Wang, Adaptive Fuzzy Systems and Control: Design and Stability

Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

[4] -, "Stable adaptive fuzzy control of nonlinear systems," IEEE Trans.

Our control objective is to balance the inverted pendulum from Fuzzy Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 146-155, 1993.

arbitrary initial angles z1 E [-7r/9, ~ / 9 ]and at the same time [5] -, "Fuzzy systems as nonlinear dynamic system identifiers: Parts

guarantee that Il(x1, x2)112 5 7r/9 M,. I and 11," in Pruc. 31st IEEE Con$ Dec. Cuntr., 1992, pp. 897-902,

3418-3422.

The design parameters are specified as follows: a = ~ / 1 8k,l = 2, [6] L. X. Wang and J. M. Mendel, "Fuzzy basis functions, universal

k2 = 1 (so that s2 + +

L I S kg is stable) and Q = diag(10, 10). approximation, and orthogonal least squares learning," IEEE Trans.

Then, we solve (1 1 ) and obtain Neural Networks, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 807-814, 1992.

[7] -, "Generating fuzzy d e s by learning from examples," IEEE Trans.

Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 22, no. 6 , pp. 1414-1427, 1992.

p = r 5 51

5 5 '

We simulated three cases: 1) without the supervisory controller,

i.e., only use the fuzzy controller (26), 2) use the supervisory

controller together with the fuzzy controller, and 3) same as 2)

except that a white Gaussian noise with variance 3 was added to

the control U which may represent some wind-gusts disturbance.

For each case, we simulated the closed-loop system for five initial

conditions: (xl(O),~ ( 0 ) = ) (4", 0), (8", 0), (lZo, 0), (16", 0),

(20", 0). The simulation results for cases I), 2), and 3) are shown

in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, respectively, where we show the angle z l ( t )

as a function of t for the five initial conditions. We see from these

results that: 1) the pure fuzzy controller could balance the inverted

pendulum for smaller initial angles 4", 8", 12", but the system

became unstable for larger initial angles 16" and 20", 2) by appending

the supervisory controller to the fuzzy controller, we successfully

balanced the inverted pendulum for all the five initial angles and

guaranteed that the angle is within [-20", 2O"], and 3) the fuzzy

controller was robust to random disturbance.

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