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\pplications | B ie? FOURTH EDITION Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw- Hill, from sources. believed to be reliable. However, neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. INA [== Tata McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2006, 2003, 1998, 1992 by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Eighth reprint 2008 DCXCRRYXRQRDD No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise or stored in a database or retricval system without the: prior ‘written permission of the publishers. The program listings (if any) may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. ‘This edition can be exported from India only by the publishers, ‘Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited ISBN-13: 978-0-07-063546-3, ISBN-10: 0-07-063546-3 Published by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 7 West Patel Nagar, New Delhi 1 10 008, typesct in Times at Script Makers, 19, Al-B, DDA Market, Pashchim Vihar, New Delhi [10 063and printed at Pashupati Printers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi 110.095 Conventions Used in This Book ‘The following conventions have been used in this book: + Key terms are shown in a large bold font: ‘What you see above is an absolute pathname... + Commands, program names, user input in examples and system calls are shown in bold constant width font: Many commands in more including f and b use a repeat factor. ‘The shell features three types of loops—whiTe, unt and for. Enter your name: henry The forking mechanism uses the fork system call to create a process. + Apart from command output, filenames, command options, strings, expressions and symbols are shown in constant width font: Most commands are located in /bin and /usr/bin. ‘Try doing that with the name jai sharma There's adequate scope of using the -e and -f options. The shell looks for the characters >, < and << in the command line. + Machine and domain names, email addresses and URLs are displayed in italics: This copies a file from the remote machine saiurn. User kumar on this host can be addressed as humar@cales.heavens.com. Google offers comprehensive News services at hitp://groups google.com. « Placeholders for filenames, terms, menu options and explanatory comments within examples are displayed in italics: ‘When compiled with c¢ filename, it produces a file named a.out. sas to develop a set of standard rules (protocols) Use Edit> Preferences to configure Netscape. $d ./.. Moves two levels up + The following abbreviations, shortcuts and symbols have been used: SVR4—System V Release 4 sh—Bourne shell csh—C shell ksh—Korn shell SHOME /fIname—The file flname in the home directory ~/flname—The file finame in the home directory foo and bar—Generic file and directory names as used on USENET