You are on page 1of 91

“A STUDY OF POST RECESSION EFFECTS ON

THE DEMAND OF NOKIA E- SERIES “

INTRODUCTION

Meaning of recession
RECESSION

1
RECESSIONS ARE the result of reduction in the demand of
products in the global market. Recession can also be associated
with falling prices known as deflation due to lack of demand of
products. Again, it could be the result of inflation or a combination
of increasing prices and stagnant economic growth in the west.

Recession in the West, especially the United States, is a very bad


news for our country. Our companies in India have most
outsourcing deals from the US. Even our exports to US have
increased over the years. Exports for January have declined by 22
per cent. There is a decline in the employment market due to the
recession in the West. There has been a significant drop in the new
hiring which is a cause of great concern for us. Some companies
have laid off their employees and there have been cut in
promotions, compensation and perks of the employees. Companies

2
in the private sector and government sector are hesitant to take up
new projects. And they are working on existing projects only.
Projections indicate that up to one crore persons could lose their
jobs in the correct fiscal ending March. The one crore figure has
been compiled by Federation of Indian Export Organizations
(FIEO), which says that it has carried out an intensive survey. The
textile, garment and handicraft industry are worse affected.
Together, they are going to lose four million jobs by April 2009,
according to the FIEO survey. There has also been a decline in the
tourist inflow lately. The real estate has also a problem of tight
liquidity situations, where the developers are finding it hard to
raise finances.

IT industries, financial sectors, real estate owners, car industry,


investment banking and other industries as well are confronting
heavy loss due to the fall down of global economy. Federation of
Indian chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) found that
faced with the global recession, inventories industries like garment,
gems, textiles, chemicals and jewellery had cut production by 10
per cent to 50 per cent.

Meaning of recession

Recession is not to be confused with depression. Recession means


a slow down or slump or temporary collapse of a business activity.
In its early stage it can be controlled in a methodical manner.
Experience helps to avert total collapse. Unchecked, it leads to
severe depression. Depression is a dead end. It is time to close
shop completely. It is a total state of irrevocable economic failure.
When a country is doing well all round its Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) is on the rise.

3
Overall economy is bullish; it is not only the stock exchanges that
tell riches to rags stories but even small businesses. It all adds to
the national exchequer. An economist is likely to give a detailed,
comprehensive definition of recession. But for the layman who has
been affected knows it only one way-when he loses his job and has
no money to pay his credit and loans. Recession is when the
consumer faces foreclosure and the banker comes knocking for his
pound (or dollar) of flesh. Many companies and whole countries
go bankrupt for want of liquid funds and cash flow for even daily
requirements.

If you look at it from the point of view of a businessman, recession


is a transitory phase. The Business Cycle Dating Committee of the
National Bureau of Economic Research has another definition. It
profiles the businesses that have peaked with their activity in one
season and it falls naturally in the next season. It regains its
original position with new products or sales and continues to
expand. This revival makes the recession a mild phase that large
companies tolerate. As the fiscal position rises, there is no reason
to worry. Recession can last up to a year. When it happens year
after year then it is serious.
Are we facing a recession or not? Yes, for the simple reason that
not only our neighbors but our friends are unemployed. There is
less of business talk and more billing worries. Transitory
recessions are good for the economy, as it tends to stabilize the
prices. It allows run away bullish companies to slow down and
take stock. There is a saying, ‘when it’s tough the tough get going’.
The weaker companies will not survive the brief recession also.
Stronger companies will pull through its resources. So when is it
time to worry? When you are facing a foreclosure, when the chips
are down and out and creditors file cases for recovery.

Firms face closures when they go through recession and are not

4
able to recover from losses. If, at this time, they are not able to
sustain their prices and stocks then there is more trouble. Even
when the recession period gets over, they will not be able to do
well. If a business survives a recession period they should be able
to survive a depression. But how many recession proof businesses
are there? Who will eventually survive the recession?

1. Those that have been able to save their funds.


2. Those who have not invested in fly-by-night companies.
3. Those who remain clam till the storm passes.
4. Those that take stock immediately and decide to reinvest in a
recession proof business.

DEFINITION OF RECESSION

In a 1975 New York Times article, economic statistician Julius Shiskin


suggested several rules of thumb for defining a recession, one of which was
"two down quarters of GDP".[3] In time, the other rules of thumb were
forgotten,[4] and a recession is now often defined simply as a period when
GDP falls (negative real economic growth) for at least two quarters.[5][6]
Some economists prefer a definition of a 1.5% rise in unemployment within
12 months.[7]

In the United States, the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National
Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is generally seen as the authority for
dating US recessions. The NBER defines an economic recession as: "a
significant decline in [the] economic activity spread across the country,
lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP growth, real
personal income, employment (non-farm payrolls), industrial production,
and wholesale-retail sales."[8] Almost universally, academics, economists,
policy makers, and businesses defer to the determination by the NBER for
the precise dating of a recession's onset and end.

5
Recession Analysis

The recession curve is the specific part of the flood hydrograph after the
crest (and the rainfall event) where streamflow diminishes, refer Baseflow.
The slope of the recession curve flattens over time from its initial steepness
as the quickflow component passes and baseflow becomes dominant. A
recession period lasts until stream flow begins to increase again due to
subsequent rainfall. Hence, recession curves are the parts of the hydrograph
that are dominated by the release of water from natural storages, typically
assumed to be groundwater discharge. Recession segments are selected from
the hydrograph and can be individually or collectively analysed to gain an
understanding of these discharge processes that make up baseflow.
Graphical approaches have traditionally been taken but more recently
analysis has focussed on defining an analytical solution or mathematical
model that can adequately fit the recession segments.

Each recession segment is often considered as a classic exponential decay


function as applied in other fields such as heat flow, diffusion or
radioactivity, and expressed as:
t

Qt = Q0 e −αt or Qt = Q0 e Tc

The recession-curve-displacement method is based on the upward


displacement of the recession curve during the rainfall event (Rorabaugh
1964; Rutledge and Daniel, 1994; Rutledge, 1998)). The method assumes
that baseflow is entirely groundwater discharge from an unconfined aquifer
of uniform thickness and hydraulic properties, with the stream fully
penetrating the aquifer. On the basis of the algorithms developed, the total
recharge to the groundwater system during the rainfall event has been shown
to be about twice the total potential discharge to the stream at a critical time
(Tc) after the hydrographic peak. Hence, the total volume of groundwater
recharge due to the rainfall event (R) can be estimated from the stream
hydrograph by:
2(Q2 − Q1 ) K
R=
2.3026

6
(1) where Q1 is the baseflow at the critical time (Tc) extrapolated
from the pre-event recession curve, Q2 is the baseflow at the
critical time (Tc) extrapolated from the post-event recession
curve, and K is the recession index (Figure 1).

Table 1: Different storage-outflow models used in recession analysis


(Moore, 1997; Griffiths and Clausen, 1997; Dewandel et al, 2003) [Table
saved as Framework_recessionanalysis_table1]

Conce Storage- Recession Function Storage Source Comments


ptual Outflow Types
Model Relation
Linear Q = kS Q = Q0 e −kt General Boussin Linearised
reservo storage esq Depuit-
ir (1877) Boussinesq
Maillet equation.
(1905) Approximat
ion for short
time periods
Horton Q = Q0 e −α2t
m
General Horton Transformat
double storage (1933) ion of linear
expone reservoir
ntial model

7
Q = Q0 (1 + ( n −1)α0 t ) n (1−n ) Coutagn
e (1948)
Q = Q0 − Qc (1 + ( n −1)α0 t ) n (1−n ) +Karstic
Qc Padilla Qc is
aquifers et al. discharge
(1994) from low-
transmissivi
ty
components
of karst
Channe Q =αe −kt Channel Cooper Variant of
l Bank banks and linear
Storage Rorabau reservoir.
gh, Also used to
(1963) model
evapotransp
irative
losses
Expone Q= QB e −φSD Q = Q0 /(1 +φQ0 t ) Throughf hydraulic
ntial low in conductivity
reservo soil assumed to
ir exponentiall
y decrease
with depth
Power- Q =αS β Q = Q0 (1 + µt ) p Springs Hall Recessions
law p = β /(1 − β ) and (1968) modelled
reservo µ = α1 / β ( β −1)Q0( β −1) β unconfin Brutsaer using p ~
ir ed t and 1.67
aquifers Nieber (Wittenberg
(p = -2) (1977) 1994)
Soil
moisture
Depuit- Q = Q0 (1 + a3t ) −2 Shallow Boussin Special case
Boussi unconfin esq of power-
nesq ed (1904) law
aquifer aquifer reservoir for
storage Depuit-
Boussinesq
aquifer
model
Depres Q = α1 /(1 + α 2 t ) 3 Surface Griffith variant of

8
sion depressio s and power-law
Storage ns such Clausen reservoir
Detenti as lakes (1997)
on and
Storage wetlands
,
Overland
flow
Two Q = k1 S1 +k 2 S 2 Q = Q1e − k1t + Q2 e − k2t Independ Barnes
parallel ent (1939)
linear aquifers
reservo
irs
Two Q = k2 S2 k 2 Q1
Q = Q0 e −k 2t + (e −k1t − e −k 2t )
serial dS 2 k 2 − k1
= Q1e −k1t − k 2 S 2
linear dt
reservo
irs
Cavern Q = α1 −α 2 t Undergr Griffith
Storage ound s and
caverns Clausen
in karst (1997)
terraine
Hyperb Q = α1t −r + b Ice melt, Toebes
ola lakes and
reservo Strang
ir (1964)
Consta Q =α Permane Constant
nt nt snow stream flow
reservo and ice over a finite
ir pack, time period
large
groundw
ater
storages

Q - discharge
S,S1,S2 – reservoir storages
SD – catchment storage deficit
t– time since beginning of recession

9
Q0 – discharge for t = 0
QB, Q1, Q2, k, k1, k2, α ,β ,ϕ - parameters to be determined by calibration

IDENTIFYING

In a 1975 New York Times article, economic statistician Julius


Shiskin suggested several rules of thumb to identify a recession;
these included the rule of 'two successive quarterly declines in
GDP. Over time, the other rules have been largely forgotten, and a
recession is now often identified as the reduction of a country's
GDP (or negative real economic growth) for at least two quarters.
Some economists prefer a more robust definition of a 1.5% rise in
unemployment within 12 months.
In the United States the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is generally seen
as the authority for dating US recessions. The NBER defines an
economic recession as: "a significant decline in [the] economic
activity spread across the country, lasting more than a few months,
normally visible in real GDP growth, real personal income,
employment (non-farm payrolls), industrial production, and
wholesale-retail sales." Almost universally, academic economists,
policy makers, and businesses defer to the determination by the
NBER for the precise dating of a recession's onset and end.

10
ATTRIBUTES
A recession has many attributes that can occur simultaneously and
can include declines in coincident measures of activity such as
employment, investment, and corporate profits.
A severe (GDP down by 10%) or prolonged (three or four years)
recession is referred to as an economic depression, although some
argue that their causes and cures can be different.

Causes of recessions

• Currency crisis
• Energy crisis
• War
• Under consumption
• Overproduction
• Financial crisis
• Price of Fuels

Effects of recessions

• Bankruptcies
• Credit crunches
• Deflation (or disinflation)
• Foreclosures
• Unemployment

11
STOCK MARKET AND RECESSIONS

Some recessions have been anticipated by stock market declines.


In Stocks for the Long Run, Siegel mentions that since 1948, ten
recessions were preceded by a stock market decline, by a lead time
of 0 to 13 months (average 5.7 months), while ten stock market
declines of greater than 10% in the DJIA were not followed by a
recession.
The real-estate market also usually weakens before a recession.
However real-estate declines can last much longer than recessions.
Since the business cycle is very hard to predict, Siegel argues that
it is not possible to take advantage of economic cycles for timing
investments. Even the National Bureau of Economic Research
(NBER) takes a few months to determine if a peak or trough has
occurred in the US.
During an economic decline, high yield stocks such as fast moving
consumer goods, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco tend to hold up
better. However when the economy starts to recover and the
bottom of the market has passed (sometimes identified on charts as
a MACD), growth stocks tend to recover faster. There is
significant disagreement about how health care and utilities tend to
recover. Diversifying one's portfolio into international stocks may
provide some safety; however, economies that are closely
correlated with that of the U.S. may also be affected by a recession
in the U.S.
There is a view termed the halfway rule according to which
investors start discounting an economic recovery about halfway
through a recession. In the 16 U.S. recessions since 1919, the
average length has been 13 months, although the recent recessions
have been shorter. Thus if the 2008 recession followed the average,

12
the downturn in the stock market would have bottomed around
November 2008.

RECESSION AND POLITICS

Generally an administration gets credit or blame for the state of


economy during its time. This has caused disagreements about
when a recession actually started. In an economic cycle, a
downturn can be considered a consequence of an expansion
reaching an unsustainable state, and is corrected by a brief decline.
Thus it is not easy to isolate the causes of specific phases of the
cycle.
The 1981 recession is thought to have been caused by the tight-
money policy adopted by Paul Volcker, chairman of the Federal
Reserve Board, before Ronald Reagan took office. Reagan
supported that policy. Economist Walter Heller, chairman of the
Council of Economic Advisers in the 1960s, said that "I call it a
Reagan-Volcker-Carter recession. The resulting taming of inflation
did, however, set the stage for a robust growth period during
Reagan's administration.
It is generally assumed that government activity has some
influence over the presence or degree of a recession. Economists
usually teach that to some degree recession is unavoidable, and its
causes are not well understood. Consequently, modern government
administrations attempt to take steps, also not agreed upon, to
soften a recession. They are often unsuccessful, at least at
preventing a recession, and it is difficult to establish whether they
actually made it less severe or longer lasting.

13
HISTORY OF RECESSIONS

Global recessions
There is no commonly accepted definition of a global recession,
IMF regards periods when global growth is less than 3% to be
global recessions. The IMF estimates that global recessions seem
to occur over a cycle lasting between 8 and 10 years. During what
the IMF terms the past three global recessions of the last three
decades, global per capita output growth was zero or negative.
Economists at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) state that a
global recession would take a slowdown in global growth to three
percent or less. By this measure, three periods since 1985 qualify:
1990-1993, 1998 and 2001-2002.
According to economists, since 1854, the U.S. has encountered 32
cycles of expansions and contractions, with an average of 17
months of contraction and 38 months of expansion. However,
since 1980 there have been only eight periods of negative
economic growth over one fiscal quarter or more, and four periods
considered recessions:

• January-July 1980 and July 1981-November 1982: 2 years


total
• July 1990-March 1991: 8 months
• March 2001-November 2001: 8 months
• December 2007-current: 15 months as of March 2009

From 1991 to 2000, the U.S. experienced 37 quarters of economic


expansion, the longest period of expansion on record.
For the past three recessions, the NBER decision has
approximately conformed to the definition involving two
consecutive quarters of decline. However the 2001 recession did

14
not involve two consecutive quarters of decline, it was preceded by
two quarters of alternating decline and weak growth.

Since history seems to repeat itself, maybe we could learn something


about the current possible recession by studying the world recession
history.

The market’s moves in approximately 15 year cycles. The market goes up


for 15 years then seems to go sideways for the next 15 years. This growth
& then consolidation pattern happens frequently through out history.

Let's first consider the Dow Industrials index from 1930 through 1945.

This period started with the great depression. We all know the effect the
depression had on stock values. The Dow lost over 88% of its value
between 1929 and 1933. It made a nice rebound following the depression.
It increased 345% over the next 4 years. We will see there is a theme in
the recession / expansion cycle. Recessions are relatively short and can be
very violent to investors in the stock market. The expansion period
following recessions are much longer and historically quite good.

One thing you need to be extremely aware of. Numbers and percentages
can be deceiving. We just mentioned that the index lost 88 percent, but
then gained 345%. Sounds like you made up all your losses and then
some. Not quite.

15
The dirty little secret to investment losses is this: if anybody loses 50% of
his portfolio, then it needs to make 100% just to break even. This is an
ugly little fact, but let’s looks at it in real life. If someone had $100,000
and lost 50%, he would be left with only $50,000. How much do you have
to earn on your $50,000 to get back to even? You need to earn another
$50,000. This is 100% of what you currently have. You lost 50% and
must gain 100% just to break even.

Now that some of the back ground work is complete lets look at the next
15 years, from 1945 through 1960. In 1955 the Dow finally got back to
where it was before the great depression. This was a very long 25 year
wait. Imagine the poor retirees that retired before the depression and
never again regained their original portfolio value!

The last 15 years were mostly down then sideways (1930 through 1945).
The next 15 year time period (1945 thru 1960) had very mild recessions
with the worst only causing a 15% drop in the Dow. Overall, the Dow
gained 267% over these 15 years. This is very good reward for a
minimum amount of risk. This leads us to the next 15 years, 1960 to 1975.

The 15 year cycle is definitely in effect. The last 15 years were very tame
yet had a nice return. These 15 years were not for the feint of heart. Gain
was very little over the period, but volatility was killer. The period started
out with a wonderful 75% gain, but gave it all back by the end. The
recessionary periods were very violent. The reward available in this

16
market was much smaller than the risk. It would have been nearly
impossible to be a buy and hold investor and have stayed with the market.

Thus far, we had a 15 year period that was horrible (1930-1945), one that
was very nice (1945-1960), then another horrible one (1960-1975).
Without looking ahead, we might guess that the next 15 year time period
would be another nice one. The market consolidated over the last 15 years
and should be ready to move ahead again.

This period began with a 6 years of continued consolidation (going


sideways), but when it was done consolidating, it moved up very nicely. It
moved from around 800 in 1982 to 2800 by 1990. This represents a 250%
increase for the period. The volatility for the period was pretty tame, at
least if you look at the volatility caused by recession. The largest pullback
in value was the 1981 to 1982 recession which was about 18%. There was
a large pullback in August of 1987 of about 30%, but wasn't caused by
recession and didn't take that long to be regained; all in all a very fruitful
15 years.

This would lead to believe that the next 15 years (1990 thru 2005) would
be tumultuous again as the market needs to digest its gains.

The roll the market had going continued for the first half of this period. It
gained 300% in just 8 years. This was more in the first half than the others
gained in their entire 15 year period. This didn't go un-noticed however,

17
and the market promptly took back a healthy 35% through the next
recessionary period. It took until mid way through 2006 to finally get
back to even from the highs seen in 1999. Once this was achieved,
however, the Dow just kept going. It extended its gains through the
expansion period, hitting new highs once again.

This brings us to today. There is much talk about the beginning of another
recession. We're at the end of a period that should have shown
consolidation, but instead had another large run up. This run up wasn't
without sizeable volatility. We've just broken a long term support line.
I've drawn support lines through the years following recessions and had
you sold when the support line was broken, you would have been saved a
lot of grief during the next recession.

In summary, It would be said that the recession history points to


our next recession causing havoc on the Dow and the global stock
markets. When will the next recession be or are we already in it?

CURRENT RECESSION IN SOME COUNTRIES

18
Official economic data shows that a substantial number of nations
are in recession as of early 2009. The US entered a recession
at the end of 2007, and 2008 saw many other nations follow
suit. United States
The United States housing market correction (a consequence of
United States housing bubbles) and sub prime mortgage crisis has
significantly contributed to a recession.
The 2008/2009 recession is seeing private consumption fall for the
first time in nearly 20 years. This indicates the depth and severity
of the current recession. With consumer confidence so low,
recovery will take a long time. Consumers in the U.S. have been
hard hit by the current recession, with the value of their houses
dropping and their pension savings decimated on the stock market.
Not only have consumers watched their wealth being eroded – they
are now fearing for their jobs as unemployment rises.
U.S. employers shed 63,000 jobs in February 2008, the most in
five years. Former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said
on April 6, 2008 that "There is more than a 50 percent chance the
United States could go into recession.". On October 1, the Bureau
of Economic Analysis reported that an additional 156,000 jobs had
been lost in September. On April 29, 2008, nine US states were
declared by Moody's to be in a recession. In November 2008
Employers eliminated 533,000 jobs, the largest single month loss
in 34 years. For 2008, an estimated 2.6 million U.S. jobs were
eliminated.
Although the US Economy grew in the first quarter by 1%, by June
2008 some analysts stated that due to a protracted credit crisis and
"rampant inflation in commodities such as oil, food and steel", the
country was nonetheless in a recession. The third quarter of 2008
brought on a GDP retraction of 0.5% the biggest decline since
2001. The 6.4% decline in spending during Q3 on non-durable
goods, like clothing and food, was the largest since 1950. A Nov

19
17, 2008 report from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
based on the survey of 51 forecasters suggested that the recession
started in April 2008 and will last 14 months. They project real
GDP declining at an annual rate of 2.9% in the fourth quarter and
1.1% in the first quarter of 2009. These forecasts represent
significant downward revisions from the forecasts of three months
ago.
A December 1, 2008, report from the National Bureau of
Economic Research stated that the U.S. has been in a recession
since December 2007 (when economic activity peaked), based on a
number of measures including job losses, declines in personal
income, and declines in real GDP.

Other countries
A few other countries have seen the rate of growth of GDP
decrease, generally attributed to reduced liquidity, sector price
inflation in food and energy, and the U.S. slowdown. These
include the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Australia, China,
India, New Zealand and the Euro zone. In some, the recession has
already been confirmed by experts, while others are still waiting
for the fourth quarter GDP growth data to show two consecutive
quarters of negative growth. India along with China is
experiencing an economic slowdown but not a recession.

10 Indian industries to do well during recession

20
In the current global economic slowdown, every sector of business
is being affected and is witnessing a hard time. But IKON
Marketing Consultants reports that in India there are few sectors
which will grow in this adverse situation.

AS EVERY business sector is affected by present global crisis and


everybody is talking of slow down in business, still in India there
are few sectors which will grow in this adverse situation. Let’s
have a look.

1. Food
No one can survive without basic food material like milk,
vegetables and drinking water. Food processing companies will not
be affected much and rather will earn profits by increasing the
prices. These are the basic needs which we as a common man can
not produce by our self.
According to Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MFPI), the
food processing industry in India was seeing growth even as the
world was facing economic recession. According to the minister,
the industry is presently growing at 14 per cent against six to seven
per cent growth in 2003–04.The Indian food market is estimated at
over US$ 182 billion and accounts for about two thirds of the total
Indian retail market. Further, the retail food sector in India is likely
to grow from around US$ 70 billion in 2008 to US$ 150 billion by
2025.

2. Railway
As the aviation sector has been affect much badly and resulting in
sharp rise in the air ticket rates the frequent travelers’ will prefer
railways to cut the cost of traveling and this will result in increased
traffic in railways and long queues at railway booking counters.
The freight traffic of Indian Railways has continued to grow in the

21
last few months, albeit at slow pace, indicating only marginal
impact of the global recession on the Indian economy.
The railways registered 13.87 per cent growth in revenue to Rs
57,863.90 crore in the first nine months ended December 31, 2008.
While total earnings from freight increased by 14.53 per cent at Rs
39,085.22 crore during the period, passenger revenue earnings
were up 11.81 per cent at Rs 16,242.44 crore. The railways have
enhanced freight revenue by increasing its axle loading, improving
customer services and adopting an innovative pricing strategy.

3. PSU Banks
As seen in the private sector much of the job cuts due to global
slowdown, it’s the public sector undertaking (PSU) banks which
gained much confidence due to job safety and security. More and
more people are likely to turn towards government institutions,
particularly banks in the quest for safety and security.
A report "Opportunities in Indian Banking Sector", by market
research company, RNCOS, forecasts that the Indian banking
sector will grow at a healthy compound annual growth rate
(CAGR) of around 23.3 per cent till 2011.

4. Education
As education is considered as the basic necessity and in India it is
seen as a long term investment by parents and with respect to the
demand still there is a huge supply gap. The craze to study in
foreign university among the Indian youth still alive which will
prompt foreign education institute to target India provided vast
young population willing to join. We will see more and more
foreign educational institutions coming up in India in recent
coming years.

22
Huge government as well as private investment is likely to flow
into the Indian educational system. D E Shaw, a US$ 36 billion,
global private equity firm is planning to invest around US$ 200
million in the Indian education sector.

5. Telecom
People will not stop to communicate with each other due to global
crises rather it has been seen that it will increase much particularly
with mobile communication. With cheap cell phones available in
the Indian market and cheaper call rates, the sector has become the
necessity and primary need of everyday life.
Telecom sector, according to industry estimates, year 2008 started
with a subscriber base of 228 million and will likely to end with a
subscriber base of 332 million – a full century. The telecom
industry expects to add at least another 90 million subscribers in
2009 despite of recession. The Indian telecommunications industry
is one of the fastest growing in the world and India is projected to
become the second largest telecom market globally by 2010.

6. IT
Recent news shown that Indian IT sector will grow 30 to 40 per
cent next year. And on the other side to survive in current
slowdown, industries have to decrease the cost and for that they
will resort to customised IT solutions which will further boost up
the software solution demand.
India is fast becoming a hot destination for outsourced e-
publishing work. As per a Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
report, the industry is growing at an annual rate of 35 per cent and
India’s outsourcing opportunities in the value-added and core
services such as copy editing, project management, indexing,

23
media services and content deployment will help make the
publishing BPO industry worth US$ 1.46 billion by 2010.

7. Health care
India in case of health care facilities still lakes the adequate supply.
In health care sector also there is huge gap between demand and
supply at all the levels of society. Still there are so many urban
areas were you could hardly find any multi specialty hospital. And
in case of metros the market sentiments itself created a need of
psychological consultation.
Healthcare, which is a US$ 35 billion industry in India, is expected
to reach over US$ 75 billion by 2012 and US$ 150 billion by 2017.
The healthcare industry is interestingly poised as it strives to
emerge as a global hub due to the distinct advantages it enjoys in
clinical excellence and low costs.

8. Luxury products
The high and affluent class of society will not be affected much by
this global crises even if their worth is reduced significantly. They
will not change their lifestyle and will not stop spending on
luxurious goods. So luxurious product market will not be affected
and in fact to maintain the lifestyle those affluent will spend more
for it. Luxury car makers are pouring in to woo the nouveau riche
(Audi, BMW are the most recent entrants).

9. M&A & Marketing Consultants


As in the current business slow down survival will be the main
focus, the marketing and management consultants will be called
for to reduce the costs and to show the ways to survive and stay in
market. Others may join hands to fight with this situation together

24
will call for the Marketing & M&A consultants. In a booming
market there are growth strategies and M&A opportunities to
advise on. When businesses are cutting back, consultancies will be
right there to help clients decide where to wield the axe.
According to Ministry of Commerce and Industry’s estimation, the
current size of consulting industry in India is about Rs 10000
crores including exports and is expected to grow further at a
CAGR of aproximately 25 per cent in next few years.

10. Media and Entertainment


In current bad times, where people are losing jobs and getting
enough time to watch TV, they will seek entertainment at home
and hence advertising revenues will increase for the commercial
channels. Also businesses like production of religious texts and
religious materials, religious channels will do well. The TRP of
religious channels will increase compare to the other
entertaining/commercial channels.

According to a report published by the Federation of Indian


Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the Indian M&E
industry is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate
(CAGR) of 18 per cent to reach US$ 23.81 billion by 2012.
According to the PWC report, the television industry was worth
US$ 5. 48 billion in 2007, recording a growth of 18 per cent over
2006. It is further likely to grow by 22 per cent over the next five
years and be worth US$ 12. 34 billion by 2012.

Effects of Recession

25
An economic recession can usually be spotted before it happens. There is
a tendency to see the economic landscape changing in quarters preceding
the actual onset. While the growth in GDP will still be present, it will
show signs of sputtering and you will see higher levels of unemployment,
decline in housing prices, decline in the stock market, and business
expansion plans being put on hold. When the economy sees extended
periods of economic recession, the economy can be referred to as
being.in.an.economic.depression.
About the only good thing about a recession is that it will cure inflation.
The balancing act the Federal Reserve must pursue is to slow economic
growth enough to prevent inflation without triggering a recession.
Currently, it must do this without the help of fiscal policy, which is
generally trying to stimulate the economy as much as possible through
lowering taxes, spending on social programs and ignoring current account
deficits. The Major Effects of Recession are:

• Slump in the market – Goods and services are difficult to be sold


as the purchasing power of the people comes down.
• Stock prices come down – Investment suffers. The industrial
production is badly affected as investors avoid investing in companies
that might suffer losses during recession. Bigger companies are able to
withstand the setbacks but smaller companies have a tough time and some
may end up closing down.

26
• Increase in unemployment – People are thrown out of jobs. They
are left in the lurch. They are unable to meet both ends. Many goods and
services are not within their reach.

• Depression – Recession causes depression if it persists for a long


time. Negative trends are visible in the stock market and rapid
unemployment is there. Companies need to be bailed out by the
government. Public spending suffers a set back.
• National debts on the rise – Increase in national debts means less
money can be spent by the government on development. Money gets
diverted in bailing out companies. The recent recession in the U.S.
indicates how banks have to depend upon federal aid for their survival.
Taxpayer’s money is being spent in giving these banks a boost.
• Halted Imports and exports – As the developing economies
exports depends upon the functioning and purchases from the developed
economies. In recession both the economies get affected badly as the
developed economies don’t have much liquidity so as to purchase or
depend on the Import as there is not enough money circulating in the
markets to purchase the resources available thus it ultimately affects the
exporting economies in terms of their export revenues.

US Recession can it affect India?

27
Indo-US bilateral trade has been upbeat, except for the nuclear deal that is
facing a stormy period. According to the Indian Finance Minister, USA
will not go through the impending recession. Even if it does, it is not
likely to impact India. Having said that, in the last week of January 2008,
the actually story seems to be different. But trade and commerce, is
affected. Investors are aggrieved at the trading activity coming to a
grinding halt frequently in the last three months. Indian exports to the US
are less than earlier and dependence is less as it is also exporting to rich
European nations, China and Japan. Asian markets have also felt the
slump when Dow Jones hit the low notes. How much can India withstand
the impact?
In the first place, is the 2008 recession coming at all? If the rest of the
world recession impacts other nations, how can India remain insulated?
The crisis of US recession is looming on its policies in the Middle East
and home turf. There is no immediate concern for Indians. The jobs are
not being threatened as yet. BPOs are still working 24 X 7 and jobs are
being generated in other sectors. Real estate has more or less stabilized in
many cities and small towns. Infrastructure activity has not slowed down
either. The software professionals are returning home and Indian students
prefer to study in Australia, New Zealand and Britain.

Since US is one of the major super powers, a recession–mild or deeper


will have eventual global consequences? USA may cut their capital

28
investments into the country if they have to control recession at their end.
The year 2008 has not started on a good note for the US economy. Till the
stocks don’t climb upwards chances are that investors will loose more
money. Despite world recession and India’s optimistic outlook, the results
will not show at least in the next two years. Is a recession coming to
Indian shores? Highly unlikely. The rupee may have appreciated against
the shrinking dollar. But Indians are enjoying the new found material
wealth and flaunting it. The reigns have to be tighter at the US end till the
economy becomes buoyant.

]
Impact of a possible US Recession on India

• Though no one likes or wants a recession, almost everyone appears


(looking at WEF, Davos) reconciled to one in the United States.
Meanwhile, politicians continue to downplay any fears of global
repercussions, citing decoupling of the United States and other economies
as a buffering factor. But what is the reality for countries like India?

• It would be naïve to imagine that a recession in the United States


would have no impact on India. The United States accounts for one-fourth
of the world GDP and any significant slowdown is bound to have
reverberations elsewhere. On the other hand, interdependencies between

29
the US economy and emerging economies like India and China has
reduced considerably over the last two decades. Thus, the effect may not
be as drastic as would have been the case in the 1980s.

• Even so, fears of a US recession led to panic in the Indian stock


market. January 21 and 22 saw a meltdown with a mind-boggling US$450
billion in market capitalization being vaporized. An unprecedented
interest cut by the Fed led to a bounce-back on January 23 and at the time
of this writing, the benchmark index (BSE) has gained 2.5%, almost in
line with Hang-Sang, Nikkei, and Kospi.

• History might hold a clue here. The last time the bubble burst (2001-
2002), the DJIA went down by 23%, while the Indian Index fell by 15%.

• Much has happened between then and now. The Indian economy
has shown a robust and consistent growth trajectory and the projection for
2008 is 9%. Indian exports to the United States account for just over 3%
of GDP. India has a healthy trade surplus with the United States.

• Many companies like ICICI and TATA AIG holding saw an large
shredding of their consumers shares as people panicked in fear of
companies losing large sum of money in the nearby future as they were
having partnerships with the off-shores Financial Institution,

• During the Recessional periods the Inflation rate was seen touching
its life-time high of 13.68% in Indian Economy.

30
• Recession created a situation of High Interest rated followed by
Liquidity crunching situations in the economy and this resulted in the less
of credit for the capital formation of the various sectors and major sectors
affected was the Automobiles, Metals and the Business Outsourcing
sectors.

The effects of this Recession on India may be different from those of


the past ?

• A credit crisis in the United States might lead to a restructuring of


asset allocation at pension funds. It has been suggested that CalPERS is
likely to shift an additional US$24 billion to its international portfolio. A
large portion of this is likely to flow into India and China. If other funds
follow suit, a cascading effect can be expected. Along with the already
significant dollar funds available, the additional funds could be deployed
to create infrastructure--roads, airports, and seaports--and be ready for a
rapid takeoff when normalcy is restored.

31
• In terms of specific sectors, the IT Enabled Services sector may be
hit since a majority of Indian IT firms derive 75% or more of their
revenues from the United States--a classic case of having put all eggs in
one basket. If Fortune 500 companies slash their IT budgets, Indian firms
could be adversely affected. Instead of looking at the scenario as a threat,
the sector would do well to focus on product innovation (as opposed to
merely providing services). If this is done, India can emerge as a major
player in the IT products category as well.

• The manufacturing sector has to ramp up scale economies, and


improve productivity and operational efficiency, thus lowering prices, if it
wishes to offset the loss of revenue from a possible US recession. The
demand for appliances, consumer electronics, apparel, and a host of
products is huge and can be exploited to advantage by adopting
appropriate pricing strategies. Although unlikely, a prolonged recession
might see the emergence of new regional groupings--India, China, and
Korea?

• The tourism sector could be affected. Now is the time to


aggressively promote health tourism. Given the availability of talented
professionals, and with a distinct cost advantage, India can be the
destination of choice for health tourism.

• The Indian Rupee has appreciated in relation to the US dollar.


Exporters are pushing for government intervention and rate cuts. What is

32
conveniently forgotten in this debate is that a stronger Rupee would
reduce the import bill, and narrow the overall trade deficit. The Indian
central bank (Reserve Bank of India) can intervene anytime and cut
interest rates, increasing liquidity in the economy, and catalyzing
domestic demand. A strong domestic demand would also help in
competing globally when the recession is over.

United States Recession History

The United States has encountered 32 cycles of expansions and


contractions, with an average of 17 months of contraction and 38 months
of expansion. Below you will find a detail history of economic recession
in the United States

• Recession 1926

• Post World War I


• Late 2000's Recession
Recession
• Early 2000's Recession
• Panic of 1907
• 1990's Recession
• 1870's Recession

• 1980's Recession • 1890's Recession

• 1970's Oil Crisis • Panic of 1857

• Late 1960's Recession • Panic of 1837

• Early 1960's Recession • Depression of 1807

33
• Late 1950's Recession

• Early 1950's Recession

• Late 1940's Recession

• Recession of 1945

• The Great Depression

Net Changes in U.S Jobs

T hous ands
600
Industrial Production World-wide

400 34
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
Jan - 07
January
Feb - 07
Mar - 07 Tendencies:
Apr - 07
May - 07

Sub-prime Crisis
Jun - 07
Jul - 07
2007-November

Aug - 07
Sep - 07
2008

Oct - 07
Nov - 07
Dec - 07
Jan - 08
Feb - 08
(Worldwide)

Mar - 08
Apr - 08
May - 08
During

Jun - 08
Jul - 08
Aug - 08

35
Sep - 08
Recession

Oct - 08
Nov - 08
• Involves financial institutions providing credit to borrowers who do
not meet prime underwriting guidelines. Sub-prime borrowers have a
heightened perceived risk of default, such as those who have a history of
loan delinquency or default, those with a recorded bankruptcy, or those
with limited debt experience.
• In case of 2008 recession case the sub-prime mortgage resulted in
huge losses because the financial institutions where in the situation of
excess creditor to defaulter’s already known as Ninja’s and are low on
credit-worthiness.
• It started with the lending of the money to the various less credit
worthy people in order to face the intense competitions in the markets of
lending.

After the Housing bubble busted out it resulted in the low of these
Mortgages packaging and thus resulted into the filing of the
Bankruptcies of the Biggest 5’s of New-York Wall-Street such as
the BEAR-STERN,LEHMAN BROS. and other such as AIG and
MORGAN STANLEY being acquired up by the various other
competitors and helped by the Federal Reserve.

36
COMPANY
PROFILE

37
COMPANY PROFILE

Nokia has played a pioneering role in the growth of cellular technology in India,
starting with the first-ever cellular call a decade ago, made on a Nokia mobile
phone over a Nokia-deployed network.

Nokia started its India operations in 1995, and presently operates out of offices in
New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata,Jaipur,Lucknow,Chennai, Bangalore, Pune and
Ahmedabad. The Indian operations comprise of the handsets business; R&D
facilities in Bangalore and Mumbai; a manufacturing plant in Chennai and a
Design Studio in Bangalore.

Over the years, the company has grown manifold with its manpower strength
increasing from 450 people in the year 2004 to over 15000 employees in March
2008 (including Nokia Siemens Networks). Today, India holds the distinction of
being the second largest market for the company globally.

38
VISION & MISSION

Many organizations have attempted to redefine the business they are


in, or even streamline their growth in a specific direction. The merger
of Brooke Bond with Lipton India, the Glaxo Health Food Division
being sold off to Heinz, the takeover of Timesbank by HDFC or the
take over of Kelvinator by Whirlpool are some recent examples of
organizations which have perhaps done some serious "soul-
searching" and taken bold strategic decisions. An interesting trend in
recent times is that companies have begun to define their
"Vision/Mission Statement". A mission statement articulates the
philosophy of the company with respect to the business in specific
and society in general. Once the mission statement of the company is
finalized and adapted, it provides a readymade guideline to
employees of the organization about its principles, policies and
practices.

It is important here to distinguish between "vision" and "mission" for


the nokia e- series. Vision is often referred to as "skyhooks for the
soul". In fact, vision is that igniting spark that can inspire and energise
people to do better. The focus of vision is to reach out hungrily for the
future and drag it into the present. To quote Tom Peters, "Developing
a vision and living it vigorously are essential elements of leadership".
The latest trend in many nokia e- seriess is to apply the "VIP"
approach i.e. "Vision Integrated Performance

Devices business

Nokia has established itself as the market and brand leader in the mobile devices
market in India. The company has built a diverse product portfolio to meet the
needs of different consumer segments and therefore offers devices across five
categories ie. Entry, Live, Connect, Explore and Achieve. These include products
that cater to first time subscribers to advanced business devices and high
performance multimedia devices for imaging, music and gaming.

39
Nokia has been working closely with operators in India to increase the
geographical coverage and lower the total cost of ownership for consumers.
Today, Nokia has one of the largest distribution network with presence across
1,30,000 outlets. In addition, the company also has Nokia Priority Dealers across
the country and Nokia ‘Concept stores’ in Bangalore, Delhi, Jaipur, Hyderabad,
Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Chennai, Indore and Mumbai to provide customers a
complete mobile experience.

Services business

With the global launch of Ovi, the company's Internet services brand name,
Nokia is renewing itself to be at the forefront of the convergence of internet and
mobility. From being a product centric company, Nokia is now focusing to
become solutions centric. The strategic shift is built on Nokia’s bid to retain
consumers and empower Nokia device owners to realise the full potential of the
Internet. Nokia will build a suite of Internet based services like Nokia Maps, the
Nokia Music Store and Nokia N-Gage around its Ovi brand.

Infrastructure business

Nokia Siemens Networks is a leading global enabler of communications services.


The company provides a complete, well-balanced product portfolio of mobile and
fixed network infrastructure solutions and addresses the growing demand for
services with 20,000 service professionals worldwide. Its operations in India
include Sales & Marketing, Research & Development, Manufacturing and Global
Networks Solutions Centre. Headquartered in Gurgaon, Nokia Siemens
Networks has 47 offices and presence in over 170 locations across the country.

R & D centers

Nokia has three Research & Development centers in India, based in Bangalore
and Mumbai. These R&D hubs are staffed by engineers who are working on
next-generation packet-switched mobile technologies and communications
solutions to enhance corporate productivity.

The Center in Bangalore, the biggest R&D site in the country comprises S60
Software Organization, Common Technologies, Next Generation now called
Maemo Software, Productization and Software & Services.

40
Design Studio

Nokia has set up its first Design Studio in Bangalore in partnership with Srishti
School of Art, Design and Technology. The first of its kind, the design studio will
give Nokia designers and India’s talented youth the opportunity to work together
on new design ideas for India and the global markets.

Manufacturing in India

Nokia has set up its mobile device manufacturing facility in Chennai, India to
meet the burgeoning demand for mobile devices in the country. The
manufacturing facility is operational with an investment of USD 210 million and
currently employs 8000 people. Nokia has recently announced fresh investments
to the tune of US $ 75 million towards its manufacturing plant in Sriperumbudur,
Chennai for the year 2008.

Some Achievements for Nokia

• Ranked No 1 Most Trusted Brand Survey by Brand Equity, 2008


• Ranked the No 1. MNC in India by Businessworld, India’s leading
business weekly, 2006
• Ranked as the No. 1 telecommunications equipment vendor in the country
by Voice & Data for five consecutive years –2008, 2007, 2006,2005 and
2004
• Ranked as the 9th most powerful brand by Millward Brown’s BrandZ 2008
• Ranked world’s 4th most valuable brand by Interbrand, 2007
• Ranked Asia’s most trusted brand by the Media-Synovate, 2006

Nokia is a Finland-based company, established in 1865. The


company is a leader in mobile communications. It has an
employee base of around 58,874. It has 14 manufacturing
facilities located in China, UK, Finland, Hungary, Germany,
Mexico, Brazil, and the Republic of Korea. Its Research &
Development centers are located in Japan and China.

41
Nokia products

INTRODUCTION NOKIA E-SERIES

42
Financial Performance

2006 2005 Change Revised*


EUR EUR % 2004
m m EUR m
Net sales 41 34 20 29 371
121 191
Operating profit 5 488 4 639 18 4 326
Profit before taxes 5 723 4 971 15 4 705
Net profit 4 306 3 616 19 3 192
Research and 3 897 3 825 2 3 776
development

The Nokia Eseries SDK Plug-ins [1] enable developers to take full
advantage of the additional features present in such Nokia Eseries
enterprise-grade devices as the Nokia E55 messaging device and
Nokia E75 business smartphone. Each Nokia Eseries SDK Plug-in
enhances and extends a specific S60 3rd Edition SDK.
With the plug-ins, C++ applications can be developed and tested in
an SDK emulator. Each SDK plug-in includes the APIs for using the
features that have been added to Nokia Eseries devices, such as
printing and the e-mail LED, along with device skins for the SDK
emulators. Use of the APIs is supported by comprehensive
documentation and example applications.
A Nokia Eseries SDK plug-in, used in combination with the
appropriate S60 3rd Edition SDK, provides all the tools required to
build and test enterprise applications for Nokia Eseries devices.

NOKIA ESERIES SDK PLUG-IN FOR THE S60 3RD EDITION,


FEATURE PACK 2 SDK FOR SYMBIAN OS

43
Features

Printing framework
The printing framework enables developers to create new or update
existing applications with the capability to produce hard copy via an
external printer. The emulator supports the testing and debugging of
applications that need printing capabilities. In S60 3rd Edition,
Feature Pack 2 Eseries devices, the printing framework has been
updated with a new AIW interface, which simplifies the addition of
printing features to S60 applications for Nokia Eseries devices.

E-mail LED API


The E-mail LED API allows applications to initiate blinking of the e-
mail LED that is present on certain Eseries devices via the Central
Repository using the Symbian Publish and Subscribe API. When
initiated, the e-mail LED blinks in accordance with the device’s
preference settings

Products
Nokia E65 - Specifications - Nokia India
Get detailed information about the Nokia E65 specifications. Nokia E65
incorporates a long battery life, 3G, quad-band calling, and multiple
messaging options into a slim, stylish design with dedicated One Touch
keys.

Nokia 6151 - Specifications - Nokia India


Get detailed information about the Nokia 6151 specifications. No matter
how fancy, a phone is still, above all, a phone: a trustworthy, convenientway
for you to stay in touch with the people who matter to you at home, at the
office, and abroad.

Nokia E5 - Products
Nokia E5: connect to colleagues and friends through IM, email and your
favourite online social networks.

44
Nokia 6270 - Nokia India
Discover the Nokia 6270: a reliable, intuitive phone that keeps you close to
the people that matter. Classic design meets proven technology. The
luxurious Nokia 6270 phone boasts an impressive 2 megapixel camera and
excellent features, all packed in a stylish metal casing.

1209 - Specifications - 65,000 Color Vibrant Display Screen Phone with


Prepaid Tracker Applications
Get detailed information about the Nokia 1209 specifications. Highly
affordable with a premium exterior, the Nokia 1209 is the ultimate choice of
many first time users. The convenient One Touch shortcut key takes you to
message, calendar or phonebook features and even a handy flash light.

PRODUCT NAME

The following table shows the skins and features supported by the
plug-in for S60 3rd Edition, Feature Pack 2 Eseries devices:
E- Nokia Eseries
Printing
mail Device
Device Skins Framework
LED Identification
API
API API
Nokia epoc_240x320.ini
X X
E55
Nokia epoc_240x320.ini with
E75 keypad and 320x240.ini
X X
with QWERTY
keyboard

Nokia E65 - Specifications - Nokia India


Get detailed information about the Nokia E65 specifications. Nokia E65
incorporates a long battery life, 3G, quad-band calling, and multiple

45
messaging options into a slim, stylish design with dedicated One Touch
keys.

Nokia 6151 - Specifications - Nokia India


Get detailed information about the Nokia 6151 specifications. No matter
how fancy, a phone is still, above all, a phone: a trustworthy, convenientway
for you to stay in touch with the people who matter to you at home, at the
office, and abroad.

Nokia E5 - Products
Nokia E5: connect to colleagues and friends through IM, email and your
favourite online social networks.

Nokia 6270 - Nokia India


Discover the Nokia 6270: a reliable, intuitive phone that keeps you close to
the people that matter. Classic design meets proven technology. The
luxurious Nokia 6270 phone boasts an impressive 2 megapixel camera and
excellent features, all packed in a stylish metal casing.

1209 - Specifications - 65,000 Color Vibrant Display Screen Phone with


Prepaid Tracker Applications
Get detailed information about the Nokia 1209 specifications. Highly
affordable with a premium exterior, the Nokia 1209 is the ultimate choice of
many first time users. The convenient One Touch shortcut key takes you to
message, calendar or phonebook features and even a handy flash light.

Nokia E52 - Specifications


Nokia E52 is ideal for working on the move. It offers 3G, HSDPA/HSUPA
and WLAN internet connectivity, excellent battery life and noise
cancellation.

Nokia 1800 - Products


The Nokia 1800 comes with a built-in FM radio, preloaded Nokia Life
Tools, and a range of other practical features.

Nokia 6500 slide - Specifications - Nokia India


Get detailed information about the Nokia 6500 slide specifications.

46
Nokia C5-00 - Features
The Nokia C5 mobile phone features social networking, email, IM, imaging,
video, music, web browsing and pre-loaded maps – in a beautiful, compact
form.

Nokia 9300i - Applications - Nokia India


Mobile Sales Online provides scenarios tailored to the needs of sales
representatives, sales managers, key account managers, and top
management. Fujitsu mProcess Business Process Mobilizer Fujitsu
mProcess Solution is a business process automation toolset for corporations
wanting to more effectively and efficiently mobilize their operational mobile
staff; be it field force service engineers, sales people, logistics or health care
professionals

Original series

47
Phone Screen type Relea Form
S Technology Generation
model sed factor
Nokia
Monochrome 1987 D NMT-900 1G Candybar
100
Nokia
Monochrome 1992 D NMT-900 2G Candybar
101
Nokia
Monochrome 1998 D AMPS/N-AMPS Unknown Candybar
252
Nokia
Monochrome 1998 D AMPS/N-AMPS Unknown Clamshell
282
Nokia
Monochrome 1995 D AMPS Unknown Candybar
636
Nokia
Monochrome 1996 D AMPS Unknown Candybar
638
Nokia
Monochrome 1999 D NMT-900 Unknown Candybar
640
Nokia
Monochrome 1999 D NMT-900 Unknown Candybar
650
Nokia
810 (car Monochrome 2003 D GSM Unknown Candybar
phone)
Nokia Unkn
Monochrome D AMPS Unknown Candybar
918 own
Nokia
Monochrome 1992 D AMPS DCT1 Candybar
1000
Candybar
Nokia - First
Monochrome 1992 D GSM DCT1
1011 GSM
phone
Nokia TACS/ETACS/NMT-
Monochrome 1995 D DCT1 Candybar
Ringo 900
] 1000–9000 series

Nokia 1000 series – Ultra basic series


The Nokia 1000 series include Nokia's most affordable phones. They are
mostly targeted towards developing countries and users who do not require
advanced features beyond making calls and SMS text messages, alarm
clock, reminders, etc.

48
Phone Releas Technology/ Form factor Images
Screen type S
model ed Frequency
Nokia
128 x 160 color 2009 P CDMA Candybar
1006
Nokia 96 x 65
2003 D GSM Candybar
1100 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 65
2005 D GSM Candybar
1101 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 65
2005 D GSM Candybar
1108 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68 Inverse
2005 D GSM Candybar
1110 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68
2006 D GSM Candybar
1110i Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68
2006 D GSM Candybar
1112 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68
2007 D GSM Candybar
1200 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68
2008 P GSM Candybar
1202 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68
2009 P GSM Candybar
1203 Monochrome
96 x 68 CSTN
Nokia
(color super- 2007 D GSM Candybar
1208
twist nematic)
96 x 68 pixels
Nokia CSTN
2007 D GSM Candybar
1209 (color super-
twist nematic)
Nokia 84 x 48 TDMA/AMP
2002 D Candybar
1220 Monochrome S
Nokia 84 x 48 TDMA/AMP
2002 D Candybar
1221 Monochrome S
Nokia 84 x 48 TDMA/AMP
2002 D Candybar
1260 Monochrome S
Nokia 84 x 48 TDMA/AMP
2002 D Candybar
1261 Monochrome S
Nokia 96 x 68 2010 P GSM Candybar

49
1280 Monochrome
Nokia 96 x 68 16-bit
2006 D GSM Candybar
1600 (65,536) Color
Nokia
Monochrome 1996 D GSM Candybar
1610
Nokia
Monochrome 1997 D GSM Candybar
1611
Nokia 128 x 160
2010 P GSM Candybar
1616 (65,536) Color
Nokia
Monochrome 1997 D GSM Candybar
1620
Nokia
Monochrome 1998 D GSM Candybar
1630
Nokia
Monochrome 1998 D GSM Candybar
1631
Nokia
(65,536) Color 2008 P GSM Candybar
1650
Nokia 128 x 160
2008 P GSM Candybar
1661 (65,536) Color
Nokia 128 x 160
2008 P GSM Candybar
1662 (65,536) Color
Nokia
128 x 160
1680 2008 P GSM Candybar
(65,536) Color
classic
Nokia 128 x 160
2010 P GSM Candybar
1800 (65,536) Color

Nokia 3000 series – Expression series


The Nokia 3000 series are mostly mid-range phones targeted towards the
youth market. Some of the models in this series are targeted towards young
male users, in contrast with the more unisex business-oriented 6000 series
and the more feminine fashion-oriented 7000 series. Feature wise, the 3000
series slot between the 2000 and 6000 series.
Phone Release Generati
Screen type S Technology
model d on

50
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit
2003 D GSM DCT4
3100 (4096) Color

Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit


2003 D CDMA2000 1x DCT4
3105 (4096) Color
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit
2003 D GSM DCT4
3108 (4096) Color
Nokia
128 x 160 18-bit GSM/EDGE/HS
3109 2007 D BB5.0
(262,144) CSD
classic
Nokia
Monochrome 1997 D GSM DCT2
3110
Nokia
128 x 160 18-bit GSM/EDGE/HS
3110 2007 D BB5.0
(262,144) CSD
classic
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit
2004 D GSM DCT4
3120 (4096) Color
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit
2004 D CDMA2000 1x DCT4
3125 (4096) Color
Nokia
240 x 320 (16M)
3120 2008 P WCDMA/GSM -
Color
classic
128 x 160 18 bit
Nokia (65,536) Color
2004 D GSM DCT4
3128 96 x 64 16 bit (4,096)
Color (external)
128 x 160 18-bit
Nokia (262,144) Color
2005 D CDMA2000 1x DCT4
3152 96 x 65 Monochrome
(external)
128 x 160 18-bit
Nokia (262,144) Color
2005 D CDMA2000 1x DCT4
3155 96 x 65 Monochrome
(external)
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit
2003 D GSM DCT4
3200 (4096) Color
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit CDMA2000
2004 D DCT4
3205 (4096) Color 1x/AMPS

51
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 1999 D GSM DCT3
3210
Nokia 128 x 128 16-bit
2004 D GSM DCT4
3220 (65,536) Color
Nokia 176 x 208 16-bit
2005 D GSM DCT4
3230 (65,536) Color
Nokia 176 x 208 18-bit
2005 D GSM BB5.0
3250 (262,144) Color
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2001 D CDMA/AMPS DCT3
3280
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2001 D CDMA/AMPS DCT3
3285
Nokia 128 x 128 12-bit
2003 D GSM DCT4
3300 (4096) Color
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2000 D GSM DCT3
3310
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2002 D GSM DCT3
3315
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2001 D TDMA/AMPS DCT3
3320
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2001 D GSM DCT3
3330
Nokia
96 x 65 Monochrome 2001 D GSM DCT3
3350
Nokia
84 x 48 Monochrome 2001 D TDMA/AMPS DCT3
3360
The Nokia 5000 series are similar in features to the 3000 series, but often
contain more features towards active individuals. Many of the 5000 series
phones feature a rugged construction or contain extra features for music
playback.

Phone model Relea Technol Form factor


Screen type S Camera
number sed ogy

Nokia 5000 240 x 320 2008 P GSM Candybar 1.3 MP

52
(65,000) Color
128 x 160 16
Nokia 5030
bit (65,536) 2009 P GSM Candybar None
XpressRadio
Color
128 x 160 16-
VGA(0.3
Nokia 5070 bit (65,536) 2007 D GSM Candybar
MP)
Color
128 x 128 12-
Nokia 5100 bit (4096) 2003 D GSM Candybar None
Color
84 x 48
Nokia 5110 1998 D GSM Candybar None
Monochrome
84 x 48 TDMA/
Nokia 5120 1998 D Candybar None
Monochrome AMPS
84 x 48 TDMA/
Nokia 5125 1998 D Candybar None
Monochrome AMPS
84 x 48
Nokia 5130 1998 D GSM Candybar None
Monochrome
240 x 320
Nokia 5130
(256,000) 2008 D GSM Candybar 2.0 MP
XpressMusic
Color
128 x 128 12-
Nokia 5140 bit (4096) 2004 D GSM Candybar None
Color
128 x 128 16-
VGA (0.3
Nokia 5140i bit (65,536) 2005 D GSM Candybar
MP)
Color
84 x 48 TDMA/
Nokia 5160 1998 D Candybar None
Monochrome AMPS
84 x 48 TDMA/
Nokia 5165 2000 D Candybar None
Monochrome AMPS
84 x 48
Nokia 5170 1999 D CDMA Candybar None
Monochrome
84 x 48
Nokia 5170i 1999 D CDMA Candybar None
Monochrome
84 x 48 CDMA/
Nokia 5180iP 2002 D Candybar None
Monochrome AMPS
Nokia 5185i 84 x 48 2002 D CDMA/ Candybar None

53
Monochrome AMPS
84 x 48
Nokia 5190 1998 D GSM Candybar None
Monochrome
128 x 160 18-
Nokia 5200 VGA (0.3
bit (262,144) 2006 D GSM Slide
XpressMusic MP)
Color
84 x 48
Nokia 5210 2002 D GSM Candybar None
Monochrome
Nokia 5220 240 x 320
2008 P GSM Candybar 2.0 MP
XpressMusic (262K) Color
UMTS/
360 x 640 24-
GSM/E
Nokia 5230 bit (16M) 2009 P Candybar 2.0 MP
DGE/HS
Color
PDA/
320 x 240 18-
Nokia 5300
bit (262,144) 2006 D GSM Slide 1.3 MP
XpressMusic
Color
240 x 320 24
Nokia 5310 bit
2007 D GSM Candybar 2.0 MP
XpressMusic (16,777,216)
Color
Nokia 5320 240 x 320 1) 2.0 MP
2008 P UMTS Candybar
XpressMusic (16M) Color + CIF
The 5510 was Nokia's first phone with a built in MP3 player, and it had 64
megabytes of memory for storing MP3s. It also had a full QWERTY
keyboard and an 84 x 48 monochrome display. This phone did not sell very
well even though it was advertised on television, possibly because it was too
expensive and too big. Its replacement is the Nokia 3300.
The 5330 XpressMusic was discontinued, but replaced by the Nokia X3.
The X3 features some styling cues taken from the 5330.
Nokia 6136 UMA is the first mobile phone to include Unlicenced Mobile
Access. Nokia 6131 NFC is the first mobile phone to include Near Field
Communication.

Nokia Eseries – Enterprise series


Main article: Nokia Eseries

54
The Nokia Eseries is an enterprise-class series and includes business-
optimized smartphones.
Phone
model Screen type Release Technology Camera
Image
d s
number
240 x 320
1.3
18-bit
Nokia E50 2006 GSM/EDGE megapixel
(262,144)
s
Color
240 x 320
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/HSD 2
Nokia E51 2007
million) PA/3G/WLAN megapixels
Color
320 x 240
3.2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/HSDP
Nokia E52 2009 megapixel
million) A/3G/WLAN
s
Color
320 x 240
3.2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/HSDP
Nokia E55 2009 megapixel
million) A/3G/WLAN
s
Color
352 x 416
24-bit (16.7
Nokia E60 2006 GSM/UMTS/WLAN None
million)
Color
320 x 240
24-bit (16.7
Nokia E61 2006 GSM/UMTS/WLAN None
million)
Color
320 x 240
2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/UMTS/
Nokia E61i 2007 megapixel
million) WLAN
s
Color
320 x 240
24-bit (16.7
Nokia E62 2006 GSM/EDGE None
million)
Color
Nokia E63 320 x 240 2008 GSM/EDGE/UMTS/ 2

55
24-bit (16.7
megapixel
million) WLAN
s
Color
320 x 240
2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/UMTS/
Nokia E65 2007 megapixel
million) WLAN
s
Color
240 x 320
3.15
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/UMTS/
Nokia E66 2008 megapixel
million) WLAN
s
Color
352 x 416
2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/WLAN/UMTS
Nokia E70 2006 megapixel
million) (Europe/Asia)
s
Color
320 x 240
3.2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/UMTS/
Nokia E71 2008 megapixel
million) WLAN
s
Color
320 x 240
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/HSDP 5.0 megapi
Nokia E72 2009
million) A/HSUPA/WLAN xels
Color
320 x 240
3.2
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/UMTS/
Nokia E75 2009 megapixel
million) 3G/WLAN
s
Color
320 x 240
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/HSDP 5.0 megapi
Nokia E5 2010
million) A/3G xels
Color
800 x 352
Nokia E90 3.15
24-bit (16.7 GSM/EDGE/3G/WL
Communic 2007 megapixel
million) AN
ator s
Color

Nokia Nseries – Mobile Computer series


Main article: Nokia Nseries

56
The Nokia Nseries is for people who wish to have advanced multimedia and
connectivity features and as many other features as possible into one device.
Phone
model Screen Releas
Technology
Form
Camera
number type ed factor

176 x 208
Nokia 18-bit GSM/EDGE/UM
2005 Candybar 2.0 megapixels
N70 (262,144) TS
Color
Nokia 176 x 208
N70 18-bit
2006 GSM/UMTS Candybar 2.0 megapixels
Music (262,144)
Edition Color
320 x 240
Nokia 18-bit
2006 GSM/UMTS Clamshell 2.0 megapixels
N71 (262,144)
Color
176 x 208
Nokia 18-bit
2006 GSM Candybar 2.0 megapixels
N72 (262,144)
Color
320 x 240
Nokia 18-bit GSM/EDGE/UM
2006 Candybar 3.2 megapixels
N73 (262,144) TS
Color
Nokia 320 x 240
N73 18-bit GSM/EDGE/UM
2006 Candybar 3.2 megapixels
Music (262,144) TS
Edition Color
320 x 240
Nokia 24-bit
2006 GSM/UMTS Clamshell 2.0 megapixels
N75 (16.7M)
Color
320 x 240
Nokia 24-bit
2007 GSM/UMTS Clamshell 2.0 megapixels
N76 (16.7M)
Color
Nokia 329 x 240 2007 GSM/UMTS Candybar 2.0 megapixels

57
24-bit
N77 (16.7M)
Color
320 x 240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN
2008 Candybar 3.2 megapixels
N78 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA
Color EGSM
320 x 240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN
2008 Candybar 5.0 megapixels
N79 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA
Color EGSM
352 x 416
Nokia 18-bit
2006 GSM/UMTS Slide 3.15 megapixels
N80 (262,144)
Color
320 x 240
Nokia 24-bit GSM/UMTS/WL
2007 Slide 2.0 megapixels
N81 (16.7M) AN
Color
320 x 240
Nokia
24-bit GSM/UMTS/WL
N81 2007 Slide 2.0 megapixels
(16.7M) AN
8GB
Color
320x240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN
2007 Candybar 5.0 megapixels
N82 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA
Color EGSM
320x240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN 2-way
2008 5.0 megapixels
N85 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA Slide
Color EGSM
320x240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia
24-bit UMTS WLAN
N86 2009 Slide 8.0 megapixels
(16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA
8MP
Color EGSM
352 x 416
Nokia 18-bit
2005 GSM/UMTS Clamshell 2.0 megapixels
N90 (262,144)
Color

58
176 x 208
Nokia 18-bit
2005 GSM/UMTS Slide 2.0 megapixels
N91 (262,144)
Color
320 x 240
Nokia 24-bit
2007 GSM/UMTS Clamshell 2.0 megapixels
N92 (16.7M)
Color
320 x 240
Nokia 18-bit
2006 GSM/UMTS Clamshell 3.2 megapixels
N93 (262,144)
Color
320 x 240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN
2007 Clamshell 3.2 megapixels
N93i (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA
Color EGSM
320 x 240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN 2-way
2006 5.0 megapixels
N95 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA Slide
Color EGSM
320 x 240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia
24-bit UMTS WLAN 2-way
N95 2007 5.0 megapixels
(16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA Slide
8GB
Color EGSM
320 x 240 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN 2-way
2008 5.0 megapixels
N96 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA Slide
Color EGSM DVB-H
640 x 360 GSM EGPRS QWERTY
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN keyboard,
2009 5.0 megapixels
N97 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA with
Color EGSM tilt display
360 x 640 GSM EGPRS QWERTY
Nokia
24-bit UMTS WLAN keyboard,
N97 2009 5.0 megapixels
(16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA with
mini
Color EGSM tilt display
Nokia 360 x 640 2010 GSM EGPRS Candybar 12.0 megapixels
N8 (16.7M) UMTS WLAN
Capacitive WCDMA HSDPA

59
AMOLED
touchscree EGSM
n
800 x 480 GSM EGPRS
Nokia 24-bit UMTS WLAN
2009 Tablet 5.0 megapixels
N900 (16.7M) WCDMA HSDPA
Color EGSM
Note:

• Although part of the Nseries, the Nokia N800 and N810 Internet
Tablets did not include phone functionality. See the Internet Tablets
section.

Nokia Xseries – Multimedia series


Main article: Nokia Xseries
The Nokia X series targets a young audience with a focus on music and
entertainment.

60
OBJECTIVE’S

OBJECTIVE’S

 To analysis how we can increase the sales of nokia e-series product.

 To know about customer satisfaction level toward recession.

 To analysis customer perception about nokia e- series

 To analysis of effect on recession on nokia e series product.


 To study about recession

61
62
RESEARCH
METHODOLOG
Y

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methods may be understood as those methods/techniques that are


used for conduction of research. All those methods which are used by the
researcher during the course of studying his research problem, are termed as
research methods . Keeping in view, the research methods can be put into
following three groups:

63
 In the first group we include those methods which are
concerned with the collection of data. These methods will be
used where the data already available are sufficient to arrive at
the required solution.
 The second group consists of those statistical techniques which
are used to establish relationships between the data and the
unknown.
The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the
accuracy of the obtained resultsThis type of analysis helps the management
of the company to plan its future polices according to the external
environment. Any sound research must have a proper design to achieve the
required result, this study id constructed on the basis of descriptive design.

The methodology, I have adopted for my study is the various tools, which
basically analyze critically economical position of to the nokia series

RESEARCH DESIGN

To conduct the market research first of all it is necessary to create a research


design. A research design is basically a blue print of how a research is to be
conducted, it may include;

1. CHOOSING THE APPROACH

64
2. DETERMINING THE TYPES OF DATA NEEDED.
3. LOCATING THE SOURCE OF DATA.

4. CHOOSING A METHOD OF DATA.

Research Design

Conclusion
Exploratory

Descriptive Casual

Observation Survey Experiment

65
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Following limitations were encountered while preparing this project:

• Lack of experience

• Short time duration

• Lack of proper supervision

• Small sample size

• Lack of resources

66
DATA
COLLECTION

67
Types of data collection

There are two types of data collection methods available.


1. Primary data collection
2. Secondary data collection

1) Primary data collection method

The primary data is that data which is collected fresh or first hand, and for
first time which is original in nature. Primary data can collect through
personal interview, questionnaire etc. to support the secondary data.

2) Secondary data collection method

The secondary data are those which have already collected and stored.
Secondary data easily get those secondary data from records, journals,
annual reports of the company etc. It will save the time, money and efforts to
collect the data. Secondary data also made available through trade
magazines, balance sheets, books etc.
This project is based on primary data collected through personal interview of
head of account department, head of SQC department and other concerned
staff member of finance department. But primary data collection had
limitations such as matter confidential information thus project is based on
secondary information collected through five years annual report of the
company, supported by various books and internet sides. The data collection
was aimed at study of working capital management of the company

TOOLS USED

To know the response. I have used the questionnaire method in sample


survey.

Statistical tools used are:

68
• Pie Charts
• Bar Graphs
• Percentage method

Data analysis
&
Interpretation

69
Q1. Which Companies Mobile handset are using ?

Options Percentage of Respondents


LG 46
Nokia 48
Tata Indicom 2
Spice 4

50

40

30 LG
SPICE
20 Tata Indicom
NOKIA
10

0
Percentage of Respondents
Interpretation:

48% of the respondents are using LG 46% of the respondents are using
SPICE This shows that Market share of NOKIA e series is 48% which is the
result of aggressive sales promotional strategy of the company.

70
(2)What was the sale of nokia e-series during pre-recession?

option Percentage of respondents


Low 25
Average 35
high 40

40
35
30
25
Low
20
Average
15 high
10
5
0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

25% of the respondents of say that the of the nokia was low because other
companies are providing better schemes, 35% of the respondents are saying

71
that other telecom companies are offering attractive promotional offers and
40% say it was on high position.

(3)What was the sale of nokia e- series during recession?

Option Percentage of respondents


Increase 40
Decrease 35
moderate 25

40
35
30
25
Increase
20
Decrease
15 moderate
10
5
0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of the
respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the respondent says
it was on moderate stage.

72
(4) What is the change percentage of nokia e-series during recession?

Option Percentage of respondents


Increase 50
Decrease 35
moderate 15

40
35
30
25
Increase
20 Decrease
15 moderate
10
5
0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

50% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of the
respondent says that was on decrease stage and 15% of the respondent says
it was on moderate stage.

73
(5) What is the sale of nokia e-series during the post recession?

Option Percentage of respondents


High 40
Low 35
average 25

40
35
30
25
High
20
Low
15 average
10
5
0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of the
respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the respondent says
it was on moderate stage.

74
(6) Did nokia provide any schemes?

Option Percentage of respondents


Yes 65
No 35

70

60

50

40
yes
30 no

20

10

0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

75
40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of the
respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the respondent says
it was on moderate stage

(7) Did you take any advantages to nokia e-series in recession.

Option Percentage of respondents


Yes 65
No 35

70

60

50

40
Yes
30 No
20

10

0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of the
respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the respondent says
it was on moderate stage

76
(8) Which kind of schemes provided by the company?

Option Percentage of respondents


Discount 35
Free gift 30
Coupons 25
others 15

35

30

25
Discount
20
Free gift
15 Coupons
10 others

5
0
Percentage of respondents

Interpretation:

40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of the
respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the respondent says
it was on moderate stage.

77
(9) Now are you satisfied with the nokia e -series handset?

Option Percentage of respondents

Yes 65

no 35

90
80
70
60
50 East
40 West
30 North
20
10
0
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

Interpretation:

65% of the respondent says that it we are satisfied with nokia brand and 35%
of the respondent says no.

78
10) How nokia is different from other products?

Options No of respondents
Price 41
Quality 29
Services 22
others 18

45
40
35
30
Price
25
Quality
20
Services
15 others
10
5
0
No of respondents

79
Interpretation

41% of the respondents say that price factor make different nokia to other
and 29% of the respondent say that quality make different and 22 % of the
respondent say that nokia services make different.

11) Did recession decrease the sale of nokia e-series?

Options No of respondent

Yes 55

No 45

60

50

40

30 Yes
No
20

10

0 80
No of respondent
Interpretation

55% of respondent say yes and 45% the respondents say that there were no
effect of recession on sale of nokia.

OBSERVATIO
NS
81
&
FINDINGS

Observation & findings

 48% of the respondents are using LG 46% of the respondents are using
SPICE This shows that Market share of NOKIA e series is 48% which is
the result of aggressive sales promotional strategy of the company.

 25% of the respondents of say that the of the nokia was low because
other companies are providing better schemes, 35% of the respondents
are saying that other telecom companies are offering attractive
promotional offers and 40% say it was on high position.

82
 40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage.

 65% of the respondent says that it we are satisfied with nokia brand
and 35% of the respondent says no.

 50% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 15% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage

83
Conclusion
&
Suggestions

Conclusion

In the present project I have analyzed the effect of recession on nokia e-


series brand used by nokia. I found that nokia e-series is having aggressive
sales promotion strategy to attract customers.

The best part of this brand is the schemes which nokia provide to their
customer. nokia is offering unlimited option at a very low cost as compared
to other companies.

The promotional offers launched by Airtel are also very good. nokia is No.1
mobile provider brand.

84
Over the past couple of months, fears of a slowdown in the United States of
America have increased. The impact of the sub prime crisis along with a
slowdown in mortgages has led to a significant lowering of growth
estimates. Since the United States dominates the global economy, any
slowdown there would have an impact on most of the global economic
variables.

For India, it could mean a further appreciation in the rupee Vis--Vis the US
dollar and a darkening of business outlook for sectors dependent on US
companies. No sector has a dominant influence on earnings growth and risks
to our estimate are limited. Corporate India is also learning to master the art
of efficient capital management, reduction in costs and delivery of value-
added services to sustain profit margins. Further, interest rates are expected
to be stable primarily due to control over inflation and proactive measures
undertaken by the RBI.

SUGGESTIONS

 Aggressive Sales Promotional activities must be done.


 The company should introduce some new type of advertisements
which can capture attention of people always and they may retain the
advertisement during recession.
 Customers must be made aware about the Schemes of nokia e-series
mobile.
 Tariff plan should have consistent base. It should not fluctuate
frequently.

85
 Customer retention programs should be more frequent in order to
assess the feedback of the customers about the company.
 Efforts should be made to minimize the billing related problems.
 Value Added Services need to be streamlined.
 Customers should be properly educated about the latest launching of
the services.

86
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliography

 www.nokia.com

 www.economist.about.com

 www.economisttime.com

 www.sharemarket.com

87
BOOKS

Laurence Shatkin, Ph.D. , Editors at JIST

Jerry Ryan , Roberta Ryan

88
ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE

QUESTIONNAIRE

Name : _______________________________
Address : _______________________________
Occupation : _______________________________
Office Address : _______________________________

Q1. Which Companies Telephone services you are using ?


a. LG b. NOKIA
c. Tata Indicom d. SPICE

89
(2) What was the sale of nokia e-series during pre-recession?

(a) Low (b) average (c) high

(3) what was the sales of nokia e- series during recession?

(a) Increase (b) decrease c) moderate

(4) What is the change percentage of nokia e-series during recession?

(a) increase (b) increase © moderate

(5) Did nokia provide any schemes?

(a) Yes (b) no

(6) There were any advantages to nokia e-series in recession.

(a) yes (b) no

(7) Which kind of schemes provided by the company?

(a) discount on MRP (b) free gift

(c) coupons (d) other

(9) now are you satisfied with the nokia e -series handset?

(a) yes (b) no

10) How nokia is deferent from other products?

a) Price
b) Quality
c) Services
D) Others

90
11) Does recession decrease the sale of nokia e-series?

A) YES
b) No

91