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Simulation and Design of an Integrated Fly Back Converter for Uninterruptible

Power Supply

Rakesh Maurya1, Punnaiah Gunturu & Shaikh Mo


Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhailine 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable
National Institute of Technology, Surat-07, INDIA
rmaurya@eed.svnit.ac.in

Abstract—Due to increasingly demand of power in each area, removal of redundant inverter and use of, high switching
power cut is regular phenomena. Even an interruption for few frequency.
cycles of power supply, results in losses of data storage, mal So for only a few designs of such high frequency dc UPS
functioning of various sensitive equipments. Various methods had been reported in [3, 4]. All these designs have a common
have been reported in literatures to provide continuous power feature that a single power transistor is used for current
supply such as uninterrupted power supply, battery system and switching in both normal and backup operations, while
others non conventional source of energy (Solar and Wind another transistor is used for battery charging. While this
system). In this paper a model is developed to maintain regular feature enables full utilization of the power transistor, the
power to consumers even interruption in power supply occurs conversion efficiency in backup operation will be
for few cycles. Mathematical model is developed under different
unacceptably low when the voltage of backup battery is much
modes of operation such as normal, back-up and charging.
lower than the voltage of the main input, because the high
Three winding high frequency transformer is designed to
interface utility and battery back-up system with load. A 50
voltage MOSFET will have on-resistance too large for
Watts integrated fly back converter for DC uninterruptible low-voltage, high-current switching.
power supply is designed and tested. In this paper, a integrated fly back converter for dc UPS
Index Terms—Switched Mode Power Supply, Uninterruptible application is proposed to solve this problem. The proposed
Power Supply. converter accepts a high voltage main input and a low voltage
backup battery input. With separated converter circuits for the
I. INTRODUCTION main and battery inputs, the ratings of each switching device
can be optimally selected, thus enabling the converter to
Nowa days, it can hardly imagine the lifestyle without the achieve high conversion efficiency in normal, backup, and
provision and processing activities which use electrical charging operations. The circuit is simple, with two switching
energy, and its supply. In recent years, a lot of research has transistors and a single magnetic structure only. The converter
been carried out on the design of uninterruptible power supply can also be extended to provide multiple outputs with
systems to provide clean and uninterruptible power to isolation.
equipment in critical applications such as personal computers,
medical equipment, telecommunication systems, industrial
and commercial controls, etc under normal or abnormal utility II. PROPOSED INTEGRATED FLY BACK CONVERTER
power conditions. In order to supply continued power to the
load in the absence of utility power, energy storage systems A. Operation in different mode:
such as batteries or flywheels are incorporated in the UPS for
this purpose.
The power conversion is mainly accomplished using
power electronics switches due to the advanced development
of fast-switching and high current capabilities. However, the
UPS is often large and bulky due to the use of
mains-frequency inverter. Besides, the system conversion
efficiency, from ac input of UPS to dc output of computer
power supply, will be low due to multiple voltage conversions
and inversions [1]. Therefore, it would be desirable to
integrate the external UPS into the computer switching power
supply to form a dc uninterruptible power supply [2]. The dc
UPS so designed will have high efficiency due to single
voltage conversion. The system cost will also be reduced
substantially due to removal of the redundant inverter and
rectifier. The dc UPS will have small size, which is slightly
Figure 1. The proposed integrated fly-back converter
larger than a conventional switching power supply but much
smaller than a UPS, plus a switching power supply due to the
The circuit of the proposed integrated fly back converter is
shown in Fig.1. The switch SW1 is used to select the mode of
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operation. When the main power input VAC is functioning IQ1 from VCl. A disadvantage of the proposed converter is
properly, the switch SW1 will be closed and MOSFET Q2 that the charging current is load-dependent and cannot be
turned off to operate the converter in normal mode. The controlled independently. The converter thus cannot provide
equivalent circuit of the converter in normal mode is shown in battery charging when there is no load. Battery charging is
Fig. 2(a). The battery voltage VB should be chosen to be instead controlled by charging time, i.e. the duration the
higher than Vc1n2/n1 to prevent diode D2 from conducting converter operates in charging mode.
when Q1 is turned on. Such choice will make the backup
converter (VB, Q2, D2 and n2) idle, thus disappearing from the B. Steady-State Analysis
equivalent circuit during normal-mode operation. The steady-state analysis of the converter is performed with
When input power failure is detected, MOSFET Q1 will be the following assumptions.
switched off and switch SW1 will be closed to operate the • The converter operates in the continuous conduction.
converter in backup mode. The equivalent circuit of the • D1 and D2 have slow reverse recoveries.
converter in backup mode is shown in Fig.2 (b). • Power losses and stray capacitances and inductances
are ignored.
• Capacitor voltages are constant within a switching
cycle.

(a) Normal Mode

Figure 2. (c) Charging mode

Referring to the equivalent circuits in Fig.2,the


expressions for the steady-state waveforms of the converter in
different modes of operation can be written as shown in
table-A.
As a design requirement, the duty cycles in different mode
of operations are related by
D2(Backup) < Dl(Norma1) < Dl(Charging)
In order to keep the output voltage V0 constant.
The voltage stress shown in the table –A on Q2 during turn
off in different operating modes can be related by
(b) Back-up mode VDS2(Norma1) = VDS2(Backup) > VDS2(Charging).
As the battery voltage VB is much lower than main input The voltage stress on D3 during turn off in different
voltage VCl, the switch current iQ2 in backup will be much operating modes can be related by
higher than the switch current iQ1 in mode normal mode. VD3(Backup) > VD3(Normal) > VD3(Charging).
Therefore a low-voltage, low-RDs(on) MOSFET should be
chosen for Q2. The number of turn’s n2 in the primary of
backup converter should be chosen to be much smaller than n1
in the main converter and with much higher current winding
used.
When the main power input VAC is functioning properly,
SW1 can be opened to operate the converter in the charging
mode. The equivalent circuit of the converter in the charging
mode is another flyback converter as shown in Fig.2(c). As
the battery VB is in series with the main input VCl, the battery
charging current -IB will be equal to the averaged input current

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(a)

(b)
The voltage rating of D3 should thus be chosen according
to iD3PK The peak MMF in transformer TI is given Figure 4. (a) Load current (b) load voltage versus time in Normal Mode
by.MMFPK= n3iD3PK together with the maximum value of the
expressions is used to determine the air gap length of the
transformer core of T1.
C. Simulink Model of Proposed Integrated Fly Back
Converter

(a)

(b)
Figure 3. Integrated operation of Normal and Backup with control Figure 5. (a) Load current (b) load voltage versus time in Back-Up Mode
circuitry for automatic on-off operation of two MOSFET’s with three phase
circuit breaker

Fig 3 shows simulink model of integrated flyback


converter for high frequency dc UPS operation. For
demonstrating practical aspect we used circuit breaker to cut
off the main supply for few cycle interruptions.
D. Simulation Results and Discussion
(a)
Fig. 4 and Fig 5 shows the result of output current and
output voltage under Normal and back up mode of simulink
model shown in Fig 3.

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IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Normal Mode of Operation:

(b)
Figure 6. (a) Supply voltage versus time (b) Load voltage, load current
with intergrated converter

Fig 6 shows the output of Fig. 3 Integrated operation of


Normal and Backup with control circuitry for automatic on
(a) Input Voltage Waveform:20V r.m.s
and off operation of two MOSFET’s with three phase circuit
breaker. It is seen that even between 0.2 to 0.4 and 0.7 to 1 sec
supply is cut off by circuit breaker but battery is providing
power to load with same voltage of 5 V and 10 amp .
Therefore proposed model ensures reliable power supply to
consumer final stage.

III. HARD WARE DESIGN

A. Lay Out of Integrated Fly back Converter:


The circuit of the proposed integrated fly back converter is
shown in fig 1. The converter has two power inputs VAC and (b) Reference voltage
VB. The main power input VAC is the ac mains, which
produces a high input voltage VC1 across input capacitor C1
when rectified by Din, or preferably by full-wave bridge
rectifier. The backup source VB is a low-voltage battery (e.g.,
18 V). The switch SW1 is used to select the mode of operation.
The converter can also be extended to give multiple outputs
by including additional secondary windings and output
rectifiers.
B. Three winding High frequency Transformer Design :
A three winding transformer is designed on a single
magnetic core with 2 primary windings and a common (c) Gate pulse for MOSFET 1 & 2
secondary winding. During normal mode power is transferred
from first primary to common secondary with turns ratio
equal to 40:4 and During backup mode power is transferred
from second primary to common secondary with turns ratio
equal to 7:4.
Design Specifications:
Output voltage VO = 5V
Output ripple 1% of VO
Output current, IO= 10A
Switching frequency fs = 100KHZ
Supply voltage, VNcc = 110V ± 10% (Normal Mode)

(d) Primary Voltage of Transformer winding1

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Figure 8. (c) Load Voltage

V.CONCLUSION
The operation, design and analysis of an integrated
flyback converter for high frequency dc UPS application
are mentioned in detailed. The converter is powered by a
high- voltage main power input and a low-voltage backup
battery. The converter features a simple circuit, high
(f) Secondary Voltage of Transformer efficiency, small size, and low cost compared with the
conventional cascade of a UPS and switching power supply.
This converter should find applications in personal computers
and workstations. Three windings high frequency transformer
is designed to interface utility and battery back-up system
with load. A 50 Watts integrated fly back converter for DC
uninterruptible power supply is designed and tested

REFERENCES
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[5] T. Koyashiki and T. Ogata, “A multiinput type converter for an
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[6] E. C. Snelling. Sofi Ferrites: Properties and Applications, 2nd ed.
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(b)Transformer Secondary winding Voltage

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