You are on page 1of 202

Pinnacle – The MBA Entrance Course

Make it happen
Dear student,

Her father almost perished in the carnage that followed Partition. She was born with a major
handicap of being a girl in a state, which would rather celebrate boys. She was expected to
join her father's tyre manufacturing business. She had resigned herself to teaching because her
father was too busy to be even aware of her existence, leave alone her ambition. Finally, what
happened to her? She became the first woman from India to go into space. She was Kalpana

Yes, we are talking of Kalpana Chawla who, unfortunately, perished with her fellow astronauts
as Columbia exploded minutes before touch down on February 1, 2003.

According to one of her former teachers, as reported by The New York

Times, young Kalpana would say, ''I have to do this thing, and I'll do
it.'' That attitude sums up the secret of her success.

Cut to you.

You are at the start of your own journey into space. After man y
gruelling weeks and months of preparation, you will step into your
spaceship and blast off into a brilliant career, powered by your MBA

This is no science fiction. This trip is for real. What do you intend to
do? Withdraw and attempt something safer? Try to be brave and say
koshish karenge? Or roll up your sleeves, smi le at destiny and say, kar
ke dikhayenge?

That's our mantra at PT kar ke dikhayenge. Now that you have

chosen us to help you, we are sure you too share the kar ke
dikhayenge approach.

Here at PT, we like to think of ourselves as

enablers. We have had the privilege of helping
many walk on the moon, in a manner of speaking.
But that is not the end for us. We keep targeting
new planets and solar systems. There is always a better way, we believe. And that conviction
is what has kept us the light years ahead of others.

Boosting your launch will be our TDpro Engine – technology-driven process engine. TDpro Engine
ensures that every single process – course design, course delivery, centre infrastructure, faculty
selection, faculty training, website content updating, students resources management, HR operations,
marketing seminars, materials management, IPR control and management, centre administration,
etc. – is scientifically documented and controlled to give you, the user, the best advantage.

The voyage you are set for requires discipline and perseverance. It is as demanding as it is
rewarding. Your determination and hard work can change the course of your life. We at PT will
be happy to provide you the right launching pad.

Yes, we will help you make it happen! Hum kar ke dikhayenge!

Begin the countdown and prepare to zoom up! We are with you. All the way.

Sandeep Manudhane,
Founder Chairman
PT Education

IC : PTpnsgk01 (1) of (202)


Updates 2007-08 – National ......................................... 3

Updates 2007-08 – International ................................. 16
Events 2007-08 – National (Monthwise) ..................... 27
Events 2007-08 – International (Monthwise) ............. 39
Events 2007-08 – Sports .............................................. 48
Events 2007-08 – Science and Space ......................... 54
Business Updates ........................................................... 56
Science Updates ............................................................ 65
Sports Updates .............................................................. 67
Awards/Prizes – National ............................................... 70
Awards/Prizes – International ....................................... 72
Indian Economy Data ..................................................... 74
Business & Economy - Misc. .......................................... 79
Latest Who’s Who – India ............................................ 81
 Council of Ministers ...................................................... 81
 Chiefs of Armed Forces ............................................... 83
 Judiciary ........................................................................ 83
 Capitals, Governors and Chief Ministers of States .... 84
 Capital, Lt. Governor and Chief Minister of
National Capital Territory ............................................ 85
 Capitals, Lt. Governors/Administrators and
Chief Ministers of Union Territories ............................. 85
Heads of important offices [India and World] ............. 86
Latest who’s who – World ........................................... 92
General Awareness – Quiz ............................................ 93-148
General Awareness – Objective key ............................ 148-149
Business Compendium ................................................... 150-202

(2) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

They know
enough who know how
to learn.

UPDATES 2007-08
 Supreme Court Order for be registered irrespective of the faith
Compulsory Registration of of the couple who tied the knot.
Marriages in All Religions. However, in the wake of that order,
various States as well as UT
In a very significant directive to all
Governments reported compliance under
States and Union Territories, the
Hindu Marriage Act only. In a majority
Supreme Court of India ordered on
of cases suggesting non-compliance,
October 25, 2007, compulsory
religious barriers governing the
registration of marriages of couples from
matrimonial custom and its registration
all religions throughout the country. As
emerged as the biggest stumbling block
per its earlier order, the Supreme Court
refraining the Governments from
directed all States and Union Territories,
uniformly bringing the Court’s order into
which have not enacted rules to this
effect. One of the fundamental
effect so far, to frame the necessary
objectives of the Court’s order was to
rules within a period of three months.
curb the practice of child marriage, still
The Supreme Court’s latest order was prevalent in several regions.
passed by a Bench comprising Justice Subscribing to the view expressed by the
Arijit Pasayat and Justice P. Sathasivam National Commission for Women on this
on a petition filed by a divorcee, named issue, the Court stated that compulsory
Seema, who sought directions for making registration of marriages would be
registration of marriages obligatory. The extremely significant as regards a gamut
Bench categorically stated in its order of women-centric issues such as
that marriages should be compulsorily prevention of child marriage and ensuring
registered “in respect of persons who a minimum age of marriage; prevention
PT Education, All rights reserved.

are citizens of India even if they of marriages without the consent of

belonged to various religions.” parties involved; checking illegal bigamy/
In its earlier order on February 14, polygamy; enabling married women to
2006, the Supreme Court had directed claim their right to live in the matrimonial
that all marriages in the country should home, maintenance and so on.

Corp. Office: Delhi Regd. Office: Indore

PT centres spread across India ~ Established 1993

Our motto “Kar Ke Dikhayenge” is delivered through our

unique Technology Driven Process Engine (TDPro engine).
Email: Web:

IC : PTpnsgk01 (3) of (202)

 UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi’s Ms. Gandhi aptly maintained that practising
Address To UNGA On Inter- non-violence in its true spirit calls for “strict
national Day Of Non-Violence discipline of mind: the courage to face
aggression, the moral conviction to stay
In her landmark address to the 192-member the course and the strength to do so
UNGA (United Nations General Assembly) without harbouring any malice towards
at its annual session in New York on the opponent.” She opined that at the
October 2, 2007, UPA Chairperson and heart of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of
Congress President Ms. Sonia Gandhi non-violence was his belief that strength
spoke of the international community’s came from righteousness, not force; power
“collective failure” to move towards came from truth, not might; victory came
comprehensive universal disarmament. from moral courage, not imposed
She also referred to the “disturbing submission.
emergence” of non-state players in the
spread of terrorism. The occasion of her Touching upon Mahatma Gandhi’s idea
address to the UNGA assumed a that means and ends are inseparable,
m o m e n t o u s she said that his time-tested worldview
significance as the considered means themselves to be
United Nations mother of the ends. So, he held that
observed “Father of unworthy means could never produce
the Nation” Mahatma worthy ends.
Gandhi’s birthday as
Now, as we take a look at history, both
the first International
past and contemporary, there is every
Day of Non-violence.
reason to believe that violence has only
“It is not the relevance of Mahatma Gandhi begot violence in an unending spiral,
that is in question today ... it is whether fostering hatred and revenge. “Violence
we have the courage to emulate his seeks to impose and overwhelm, which is
preachings and what he lived and died why its victories are transitory. Non-
for,” Ms. Gandhi said in her address. She violence seeks to engage and persuade,
was heard in rapt attention by leaders which is why its results are enduring,”
from different nations and her son Ms. Gandhi said amidst cheers.
Mr. Rahul Gandhi, External Affairs Minister Emphasising that the Mahatma himself
M r. P ra n a b M u k h e r j e e a n d h i s d e p u ty was, first and foremost, a man of action,
Mr. Anand Sharma. she said that he was indeed a man of
deep contemplation and galvanising
Ms. Gandhi said the world was facing e n e rgy.
violence of various kinds and there was a
collective failure on the part of the “It is this energy that enabled him to
international community in tackling overcome resistance arising from
terrorism and checking nuclear hostility, indifference and cynicism. It is
proliferation. The United Progressive this energy that gave him the resilience
Alliance Chairperson also had a word of to press ahead, in spite of tremendous
caution for representatives from across obstacles and tribulations,” the Congress
the world, asking them not to make the leader said and recalled the Mahatma’s
Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary remark, “We must ourselves become the
another annual ritual. Fallacies about non- change we seek”.
violence abound, Ms. Gandhi said,
If the 20th century was the bloodiest in
rejecting the contention by some that it
human history, it was also the century
was a sign of weakness or cowardice.
when non-violence saw its greatest
“Nothing could be further from the truth,”
triumphs, cutting across the boundaries
she told sceptics, adding non-violence
of continents and faiths. “It is worth
went far beyond passive resistance or even
remembering that among the myriad civil
civil disobedience.
disobedience movements, the only army
(4) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
of non-violence was the one led by Khan It will be
Abdul Ghaffar Khan, known to history as available at all-
‘the Frontier Gandhi’,” Ms. Gandhi said. State TB
 President Launches “Save the hospitals,
Girl Child” Campaign primary health
Hon’ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil on centres and
October 2, 2007, described the declining DOTS clinics. It
girl child ratio in the country as a “matter was designed
of shame,” and said girls should be by the
treated not as a “curse” but as a “boon.” Tuberculosis Association of India. Dr.
Launching a “Save the Girl Child” Ramadoss briefed the President on the
campaign of the Union Health and Family country’s success in checking the spread
Welfare Ministry on the occasion of of TB and the effectiveness of the
Gandhi Jayanti in New Delhi, Ms. Patil programme that was able to save six
said it was a matter of shame that the million lives since its inception.
disturbed sex ratio was seen not only in
“Since the launch of the programme in
the backward States, but also in the
1998, we have been able to bring down
progressive society. The President, who
the death rate and seen an increase in
was the first signatory of the campaign,
the detection rate. The WHO has
said it was a matter of concern that the
awarded the programme as the largest
phenomenon was seen among those
public health campaign in the world,” Dr.
educated and having a status in society.
Ramadoss said.
“This disturbing sex ratio was creating a As part of the celebrations of the 60th
big problem. This could develop into a Year of Independence, Shahid Bhagat
crime, which would not be good for the Singh’s birth centenary ‘and the
stability and security of the society”, she anniversary of the First War of
said. Misuse of technology to determine Independence, the President also
the sex of the foetus and easy access to released a commemorative gold medallion
it had contributed to the rapid decline in at a separate function at the Rashtrapati
the child sex ratio which could adversely Bhavan. The medallion is a tribute to
impact the delicate balance of nature and the freedom fighters and salutes the
destroy the moral and social fabric. The undying spirit and emotions of Indians.
President said the launch of the campaign
would have a far reaching impact on the  58th International Astronautical
minds of people. Congress At Hyderabad
Union Health and Family Welfare Minister The 58th International Astronautical
Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss said he was not Congress (IAC) was inaugurated by the
only “concerned” at but also felt Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s
“ashamed” of the current trend of Office, M r. P r i t hv i r a j Chavan at
declining girl child ratio in the country. Hyderabad on September 24, 2007. As
“We have to reverse the trend. For this many as 2,000 delegates, including chiefs
we have launched many campaigns. of several national space agencies from
Parliamentarians were allotted Rs. 5 lakh different countries, took part in the IAC.
each to create awareness of the A series of lunar missions planned by
subject”, he added. Japan, China, Russia, the US and India
and later missions of land rovers and
The President also launched a human beings to Mars came sharply into
tuberculosis seal to create awareness focus at the IAC plenary, when the
and raise funds to fight the disease in heads of top national space agencies
N e w D e l h i o n O c t o b e r 3 , 2 0 0 7. T h e gathered to answer questions from
attractively designed seal costs Rs. 2. delegates.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (5) of (202)
In his opening speech, Mr. Chavan urged Mr. Edward C. Stone and International
the space-faring nations to promote an Institute of Space Law (IISL) President
ethical, legal framework for the use of Mr. Nandasiri Jasentuliyana highlighted
space and to prevent it from becoming different dimensions of space activities
“a future war zone.” He reminded the today, the global character of these
delegates about the dangers of activities and their numerous
extending the conflicts on earth into implications.
outer space and “turning space into a
b a tt l e f i e l d o f fu t u re .” “ O u r c o m m o n M r. B . N . S u r e s h , C h a i r m a n , l o c a l
resolve is essential to prevent such an organising committee, said there were
e ve n t u a l i ty ”, h e s a i d . Re c a l l i n g t h e gaps in knowledge in understanding the
former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s phenomenon of global change and space
message to the second UN Conference scientists should focus on this. He said
on Peaceful Use of Outer Space, he there was renewed interest in robotics
urged scientists and leaders “to see the and human exploration of space.
world in its wholeness, as indeed it is D r. M i c h a e l G r i f f i n , A d m i n i s t r a t o r,
viewed from space, and through their National Aeronautics and Space
collective wisdom, take practical steps Administration (NASA), US, said he was
to ensure that our differences are not convinced that the first human being
extended into space.” would land on Mars in 2037. “When this
c o n f e r e n c e m e e t s i n 2 0 5 7, I a m
Mr. Chavan said that a robust system
convinced that we will be able to
for the protection of space assets,
celebrate the 20th anniversary of the
whether used for military, commercial or
f i r s t h u m a n l a n d i n g o n M a r s . . .”, h e
societal applications, would be needed
asserted at the Congress. Dr. Griffin said
to be addressed urgently through
the next step in space exploration would
appropriate legal, technical and
be one step beyond the International
cooperative mechanism. There was also
Space Station (ISS), where 15 partners
an urgent need to design regulations to
of the US were engaged in building a
minimise the menace of growing debris
platform for humanity above the earth’s
in outer space. Mr. Chavan said that the
Indian Space Programme has planned
about 60 missions over the next five Dr. Sun Laiyan, Administrator of CNSA
years for achieving several new (China National Space Administration)
objectives in different fields, including revealed that his country had planned
navigation and space transportation. its missions to the moon in three stages:
ISRO Chairman Mr. G. Madhavan Nair orbiting, roving and returning. China had
said the organisation was entering the no plans to send a man to the moon.
next phase of space vision with B u t D r. L a i y a n w a s c o n f i d e n t t h a t
components of advanced technologies for “ h o p e f u l l y, t h e o b j e c t i v e w o u l d b e
low-cost access to space planetary fulfilled later.”
exploration and manned mission D r. K e i j i Ta c h i k a w a , P r e s i d e n t o f
initiatives in the next few decades. He Japanese Space Exploration Agency, said
said the Government had not yet taken Japan would send a series of spacecraft
any decision to send an Indian into to the moon to explore it further. “Our
space. future programme in human space flight,”
s a i d M r. A n a t o l y N . Pe r n i m ov, H e a d ,
In their speeches, International
Federal Space Agency, Russia, “will be
Astronautical Federation President
in three major steps” starting in 2015
Mr. James V. Zimmerman, International
and continuing upto 2040.
Academy of Astronauts’ President

(6) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 Sethu Project: Centre To Central Government has total respect
Consider Alternative Alignment for all religions and Hinduism in particular
in the context of the present case.”
M r. G o p a l S u b r a m a n i a m s a i d t h e
Government would review the matter. A
mechanism would be set up to consider
objections/suggestions from petitioners
and others, and a final decision on the
alignment would be taken in three months.
In view of this, he said, the Centre and
the Archaeological Survey of India
decided to withdraw the entire counter-
affidavits filed on September 10 and 11,
2007 and sought permission to do so. He
said, “The Central Government is also
keen that its decisions bind and bring
society together, rather than cause any
disruption in the religious and social
psyche of one true India.”
Earli e r, the Centr e had stated in one
affidavit that the studies conducted by
the Geological Survey of India between
December 2002 and 2005 also conclusively
established that Adam’s Bridge was a
natural geological formation comprising
compact clay, calcareous sandstone and
fossiliferous limestone.
In a major development, the Centre on
September 14, 2007 informed the On the plea for an alternative alignment,
Supreme Court that it would consider the Centre had stated that the alignment
executing the Sethusamudram shipping No. 6, which was the present alignment of
channel project through an alternative the Sethusamudram project, had been
alignment so that the 30-km-long Ramar validly resorted to after a due
Sethu/Adam’s Bridge could be protected consideration of all relevant factors,
from damage. The feasibility of including ecological factors. None of the
alternative alignments would be other alternatives which are suggested by
considered in three months, Additional the petitioner are viable alternatives.
Solicitor-General Mr. Gopal Subramaniam The ASI had submitted that there was no
told a Bench consisting of Chief Justice evidence to prove “the existence of the
K . G . B a l a k r i s h n a n a n d J u s t i c e R . V. characters or the occurrence of the
Raveendran. It was hearing a batch of events” in the Ramayana. Later on, the
petitions filed by Janata Party president Law Minister M r. H . R . Bhardwaj
M r. S u b r a m a n i a n S w a m y a n d o t h e r s announced that the objectionable
seeking a direction to protect and declare portions in the ASI affidavit would be
Ramar Sethu a national monument. withdrawn and a supplementary affidavit
The ASG said, “The Central Government
has taken note of the wide-ranging When the matter was taken up, the ASG
public sentiment, which has been said, “We have decided to withdraw the
expressed in respect of the decision to two affidavits and placed before the
proceed with the construction of the court new submissions.” Dr. Subramanian
Sethusamudram shipping channel. The Swamy said certain documents in the
IC : PTpnsgk01 (7) of (202)
government’s possession should be made The DRDO’s Chief Controller, Research
available to him. The ASG replied that and Development (Aeronautics and
whatever documents or material were in Material Sciences), Mr. D. Banerjee said
its possession would be given on receipt that with “stealth obviously be an
of an application. important issue” the fuselage would
have to carry internally housed weapon
Senior counsel Mr. K.K. Venugopal and bays. Stealth would also need the power
M r. M . N . K r i s h n a m a n i , a p p e a r i n g f o r plant to be internally mounted and of a
petitioners Dandi Swami Sri Vidyananda non-after burning turbofan engine type.
Bharati and Amagopalan, said the However, specifications for issues like
Government must consider their p a y l o a d , r e t r a c t a b l e l a n d i n g g e a r,
suggestions. The ASG said it would endurance and hard points for auxiliary
consider all points of view and take a fuel tanks are yet to be finalised. The
final decision. DRDO has already made arrangements
Recording the submissions, the Bench for radar cross simulation (identification
extended till January 2008 the August of radar reflecting areas) and
31 interim order, which said “the dredging measurement of radar cross section (the
activity may be carried out, but till extent to which an object reflects an
September 14 the alleged Adam’s Bridge/ incident electromagnetic wave). The
Ramar Sethu shall not be damaged in nodal agency for the UCAV programme
any manner.” It posted the matter for is the Bengaluru-based Defence Research
further hearing in the first week of and Development Organisation
January 2008. Laboratory and the Aeronautical
Development Establishment. The UCAV
 India Joins Select Group To will be programmed with route and target
Develop Technology For UCAV details and can conduct the mission
India has joined a select group of virtually autonomously, without human
countries that have launched controllers.
programmes to develop technology for The DRDO was looking for a partner from
an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle private sector for its Medium Attitude
(UCAV). The UCAVs or ‘combat drones’, Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial
which are the latest addition in Vehicle (UAV). It is expected that the
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are DRDO’s MALE surveillance UAV will have
different from the latter as they have an endurance of 24 hours and can
specific designs to deliver weapons and operate at 35,000 feet. It will also have
attack targets. They have a higher autonomous take-off and landing,
degree of autonomy. wheeled undercarriage and a single
The Indian programme is indeed the (Rotax) piston engine.
result of concerted efforts of the The other global programmes are the
Defence Research and Development French nEWROn, Israel’s Eitan, British
Organisation (DRDO). It will promote the Taranis, China’s Anjian and the US’s X-
development of know-how for a swept 45. These programmes imply that the
wing, stealth design and composite technology are in various stages of
construction technical demonstrator that development. The UCAV can be utilised
will demonstrate “the technical feasibility, for suppression of enemy air defence,
military utility and operational value for electronic warfare, surveillance, precision
a networked system of high strike and associated operations.
performance” weaponised UCAVs.

(8) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 New President Of India declared elected on
August 10, 2007, as
Ms. Pratibha Patil the country’s 12th
was sworn in by Vice-President. In a
Justice K.G. triangular contest in
Balakrishnan, Chief which Mr. Ansari was
Justice of India, on pitted against the
July 25, 2007, as National Democratic
the first woman Alliance (NDA)
President and in nominee, Ms. Najma
all, the 12th Heptulla and the
President of the United National Progressive Alliance
Republic of India. Earlier, on July 22, (UNPA) candidate, Mr. Rasheed Masood,
2007, Ms. Pratibha Pa t il, the United he emerged winner securing 455 out of
Progressive Alliance-Left candidate for the 762 votes polled.
the Presidential election was declared
elected for the post of the President of Born in Kolkata on April 1, 1937, Mr.
India. Ms. Patil’s victory over her NDA- Ansari is the grand nephew of freedom
backed rival and outgoing Vice-President fighter and former Congress President
Mr. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat capped a (1927) Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari. Starting
long and bitter contest hitherto his career as a civil servant in the Indian
unprecedented in the annals of Indian Foreign Service in 1961, he held
history. prestigious posts such as the Permanent
Representative of India to the United
Born on December 19, 1934 in Nadgaon
Nations, High Commissioner to Australia
(Jalgaon district, Maharashtra), Ms. Patil
and Ambassador to the United Arab
is also the first Maharashtrian to hold
Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Saudi
the country’s most august office.
Arabia. He also served as the Vice-
Throughout her long and successful
Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim
c a r e e r, s h e h a s h e l d a n u m b e r o f
University from May 2000 to March 2002
important designations. A trained
and then, as the Chairman of India’s
l a w y e r, s h e r e p r e s e n t e d E d l a b a d
National Commission for Minorities
constituency in Jalgaon district as a
(NCM). He was awarded the Padma Shri
Member of Maharashtra Legislative
in 1984.
Assembly from 1962 to 1985. Ms. Patil
was a Member of Parliament from  Supreme Court Refuses To
Vacate OBC Quota Stay
Amravati Lok Sabha constituency for five
years (1991 - 1996). She was Deputy The Centre’s bid to get the OBC
Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha for two reservation implemented in educational
years (November 1986 – November institutions from the current academic
1988). She was also the first woman year suffered a serious jolt on August
Governor of Rajasthan from 2004 to 8 , 2 0 0 7, w h e n t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t
2007. refused to grant a relief to the
Government in this regard. The Court
 New Vice-President Of India
categorically stated that the Government
Former diplomat Mohammad Hamid Ansari had failed to do the necessary
was administered the oath of office by groundwork for getting prior approval
Hon’ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil at from competent authorities to increase
the Rashtrapati the number of seats with a view to
accommodating quota students. It was
Bhavan on August 11, 2007. He took noted by the Apex Court that the
charge as Rajya Sabha Chairman on implementation of the quota in medical
A u g u s t 1 3 , 2 0 0 7. E a r l i e r, h e w a s colleges, dental colleges and engineering

IC : PTpnsgk01 (9) of (202)

institutions was out of question this year concerted effort to mobilise other
since the Centre did not seek the nations towards giving recognition to
mandatory prior approval of the Medical Hindi as the seventh official language of
Council of India, Dental Council of India the United Nations. The six UN languages
a n d A l l - I n d i a C o u n c i l f o r Te c h n i c a l are English, French, Spanish, Russian,
Education. Chinese and Arabic. The conference also
appealed to expatriate Indians to
The Bench comprising Justices Arijit pressurise their respective governments
Pasayat, C.K. Thakker, R.V. Raveendran to support this move.
and Dalveer Bhandari, said if the
medical, dental and engineering colleges The conference had nine thematic
were to be kept out, there was no sessions at which scholars from India
question of implementing the quota in and abroad, including scholars from non-
other institutions where such approval Hindi speaking regions, presented papers
had even been obtained. on subjects ranging from Hindi and IT to
the role of Bollywood in the promotion
 Indo-US Nuclear Deal Gets
of Hindi. Eminent figures of Hindi
Cabinet Approval
literature and authors in different related
The Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement dialects also attended the event. The
has been approved by the Union Cabinet. concluding session saw 14 significant
Following a high-level meeting of the proposals being put forward with a view
Cabinet Committee on Security and to promoting the use of Hindi globally
Political Affairs, External Affairs Minister and making it popular through broad-
Mr. Pranab Mukherjee said that all the based efforts at different levels.
requirements from the Indian side have Earlier, United Nations Secretary-General
been met. Mutual consensus on the final Mr. B an Ki-moon drew wide applause
manuscript of the deal was arrived at when he inaugurated the Eighth World
during a meeting in Washington between Hindi Conference on July 13, 2007, with
Foreign Secretary Mr. Shivshankar Menon a sprinkling of Hindi. “Is sammelan mein
and US Deputy Secretary of State Mr. bhag lete hue mujhe bahut khushi ho
Nicholas Burns. The meeting was rahi hai, aur mai sab ko shubhkamnayen
attended by National Security Adviser deta hun (I am very happy to participate
Mr. M.K. Narayanan and Nuclear Energy in the conference, and convey my best
Commission Chairman Mr. Anil Kakodkar. wishes to all participants)”, said Mr.
The final approval was granted in a Moon at the end of his speech.
cabinet committee meeting on nuclear
P r i m e M i n i s t e r D r. M a n m o h a n S i n g h
security presided over by Prime Minister
expressed the hope through his message
Dr. Manmohan Singh on July 25, 2007.
about Hindi getting the attention it
E a r l i e r, t h e d ra f t o f t h e d e a l w a s
deserved in the United States.
prepared during the four-day secretarial
Addressing the gathering through video-
level talks between the two countries.
conference from New Delhi, Dr. Singh
Subsequently, on July 27, 2007, India
said it was important to improve the
and America declared the civilian nuclear
language’s compatibility with the
deal recognized. Indian authorities have
proclaimed that its indigenous nuclear
programme is quite safe.  Red Fort Of Delhi On World
Heritage List
 Eighth World Hindi Conference
Delhi’s Red Fort, a majestic fort built by
The three-day eighth World Hindi
Mughal emperor Shah Jahan has found
Conference came to an end at the UN
a place in UNESCO’s World Heritage List.
headquarters in New York on July 15,
The decision to include the Red Fort on
2007, with an appeal to India to make a
the list was taken on June 28, 2007, in
(10) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
New Zealand by the World Heritage missile project. The NPO-M is the Russian
Committee. This puts the National Capital partner of the joint venture.
at par with Agra, each with three World
Heritage Sites now. BrahMos can fly at a velocity of 1 km a
second and its range is 290 km. It can carry
Built in the 17th century, the Red Fort conventional warheads weighing 300 kg,
has much more to offer than the and is nine metres long and has two stages.
influence of Shah Jahan’s obsession with
 Kamat Is New Goa CM
perfection. With its own special place in
modern Indian history, the Red Fort is a Mr. Digambar V. Kamat was sworn in as
collage of different periods from the the 19th Chief Minister of Goa on June
Mughal to the British. The World Heritage 8 , 2 0 0 7. H e w a s p r o p o s e d a s a
Committee also inscribed three other consensus candidate for the Congress
cultural sites – the Iwami Ginzan Silver Legislature Party (CLP) leadership by the
Mine and its Cultural Landscape in Japan, Pradesh Congress Committee President
the Parthian Fortresses of Nisa in Mr. Ravi Naik and outgoing Chief Minister
Turkmenistan, and the Sydney Opera Mr. Pratapsinh Rane after the former
House in Australia. failed to muster support from some
 BrahMos Handed Over To The crucial allies. Mr. Kamat, who joined the
Army Congress after playing a key role in
toppling the BJP Government in 2005,
Inaugurating was administered the oath of office and
a function at secrecy by the State Governor, Mr. S.C.
the BrahMos Jamir at the Raj Bhavan.
Earlier, in the Goa Assembly elections,
C o m p l e x ,
the Congress-NCP (National Congress
which marked
Party) alliance emerged as the largest
the handing
combination by winning 19 seats in the
over of a
40-member Legislative Assembly of the
replica of the
State. As per the results announced on
M o b i l e
June 5, 2007 in Panaji, the BJP (Bharatiya
Janata Party) bagged 14 seats. Among
Launcher (MAL) of the missile to the
other political parties, the Save Goa Front
I ndian Army, the then President Dr.
(SGF) and the Maharashtra-wadi
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam said in New Delhi on
Gomantak Party (MGP) won two seats
June 21, 2007, that the time has come
each while the United Goans Democratic
for BrahMos Aerospace Limited to work
Party (UGDP) got one seat.
on the Mark-II version of the BrahMos
supersonic cruise missile so that we could  Mayawati Sworn In As The New
still be the market leader in hypersonic Uttar Pradesh CM
cruise missiles. In the emerging network-
centric warfare scenario, the fast BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) Chief
deployment of hypersonic missile systems Ms. Mayawati was sworn in on May 13,
will be necessary to maintain our force- 2007, as the 32nd Chief Minister of Uttar
level supremacy, he said. BrahMos is a Pradesh. She was administered the oath
product of India-Russia cooperation. of office and secrecy by the State
Governor Mr. T.V. Rajeswar at the Raj
Dr. Kalam congratulated Dr. A. Sivathanu Bhawan in Lucknow. Along with
P i l l a i , C E O a n d M a n a g i n g D i r e c t o r, Ms. Mayawati, who became the Chief
BrahMos Aerospace, and Dr. Herbert A. Minister of the country’s most populous
Ye f r e m o v, Director-General, NPO State for the fourth time, a 49-member
Mashinostroyenia (NPO-M), Russia, and Ministry led by her including 19 Cabinet
the Defence Research and Development rank Ministers also took oath and
Organisation (DRDO) on realising the assumed office.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (11) of (202)
Earlier, results of Kingfisher is due to take delivery of the
the Assembly aircraft in 2011-12.
elections in UP
were announced A380 can land and takeoff on any runway
on May 11, 2007. that can accommodate a Boeing 747, but
By registering airports will have to do some
victory in 206 out modifications for its weight and
of 403 Assembly w i n g s p a n . I n c i d e n t a l l y, o n l y t h r e e
constituencies for airports in India – Delhi, Mumbai and
which the Kochi – can accommodate the aircraft.
elections were  14th SAARC Summit
held, BSP led by
Ms. Mayawati The 14th Summit of the leaders of South
emerged as the largest party, while the Asian Association for Regional
Samajwadi Party (SP), led by the Cooperation was held on April 3-4, 2007
o u t g o i n g C h i e f M i n i s t e r M r. M u l ay a m in New Delhi. Apart from Prime Minister
Singh Yadav, ended up with 97 seats Dr. Manmohan Singh, the other leaders
only. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of the member nations of the regional
and the Congress managed to secure 51 grouping who attended the summit
and 22 seats, respectively while other included the Sri Lanka President
parties and independents together had D r. M a h i n d a R a j a p a k s a , B a n g l a d e s h
27 seats in their kitty. interim Government’s Chief Adviser
Mr. Fakhruddin Ahmad, Maldives President
 World’s Biggest Aircraft Lands Mr. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, Nepal Prime
In India Minister Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala, Pakistan
The world’s biggest passenger aircraft – Prime Minister Mr. Shaukat Aziz, Bhutan
Airbus A380 – that can seat up to 850 P r i m e M i n i s t e r M r. Ly o n p o K h a n d u
passengers cruised through Indian skies Wangchuk and Afghanistan President
and landed in New Delhi for the first Mr. Hamid Karzai. Earlier, Afghanistan
time on May 6, 2007. The A380, the formally joined SAARC as the 8th member
world’s first double-deck passenger of the regional grouping.
aircraft, landed at the Indira Gandhi Terrorism, trade and transit were the
International Airport at Runway 10. The three major issues at the landmark summit
aircraft, which of an expanded SAARC. The summit
reached Delhi as part of world tour, was underscored a larger global interest in
parked at the terminal near the Air the region with the United States, the
Traffic Control (ATC) building. During its European Union, China, Japan and South
India visit, it took some VIPs on a flight Korea participating as observers for the
over Delhi and on May 8, 2007 it took first time in the 22-year-old history of
off for Mumbai. The 80-foot tall giant the regional grouping. The focus of the
aircraft flew off from Mumbai on May 9, opening session of the summit was on
2007. making the SAARC a more efficient
organisation and implementing crucial
The four-engined airliner, which has been
regional projects that have been long
manufactured by the European
under discussion. SAARC leaders
Aeronautic Defence & Space Co. has a
discussed the contours of a South-Asian
wingspan of about 262 feet (79.8 m), a
University to be set up in India. An
length of 239 feet (73 m) and a maximum
intergovernmental agreement was signed
take-off weight of more than 5,40,000
to this effect and the details in that
kg (1.2 million pounds), is ‘almost as big
regard were worked out.
as a football field’. In India, private airline
Kingfisher is the only carrier that has a
firm order for five A380 aircrafts.

(12) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

Other important intra-regional projects Committee)
that were discussed included the registered the
institution of a SAARC Development Fund, participation
a Regional Telemedicine Network and a of political
Regional Food Bank. India pressed for l e a d e r s ,
more intra-regional cooperation in diplomats,
combating the common scourge of thinkers,
terrorism in the region. India’s concern intellectuals,
about terrorism in the region is directly farmers and
linked to its broader agenda of promoting social activists
greater connectivity and free trade in from over 90
the region. countries.
 Cauvery Tribunal Gives Final In the opening session UPA Chairperson
Award and President of the Congress Party
Ms. Sonia Gandhi and ‘Father of the
The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal
Nation’ Mahatma Gandhi’s granddaughter
gave its much awaited final award on
Ms. Ila Gandhi, besides foreign
February 5, 2007 setting out the share
dignitaries including the former Zambian
of waters of the Cauvery among the
President Mr. Kenneth Kaunda, former
riparian States of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
President of Poland and Nobel laureate
and Kerala, and the Union Territory of
Mr. Lech Walesa, President of Maldives
Pudicherry. The proceedings over the
Mr. Momoon Abdul Ghayoom and 2006
politically sensitive issue went on for more
Nobel Peace Prize winner Mr. Muhammad
than 16 years. The Tribunal, comprising
Yunus addressed the conference. Nobel
C h a i r m a n J u s t i c e M r. N.P. S i n g h a n d
laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu from
members Mr. N.S . Rao and Mr. Sudhir
South Africa was another notable
Narain, in a unanimous award determined
international personality who spoke
the total availability of water in the
during the conference.
Cauvery basin at 740 thousand million
cubic feet (tmcft) at the Lower Coleroon At the end of the conference, around
Anicut site on the basis of 50 percent 400 delegates from 90 nations and 122
dependabil ity. organisations signed the landmark
“ S a t y a g ra h a C e n t e n a r y D e c l a r a t i o n ”,
In a balancing act it apportioned the showing a global unanimity on the
total as follows: for Tamil Nadu, 419 relevance of Mahatma’s ideals in
tmcft (as against the demand of 562 poverty, hunger and disease – and to
tmcft); Karnataka 270 tmcft (as against pave the way for peace and harmony.
its demand of 465 tmcft); Kerala 30 tmcft The delegates appealed to the United
and Puducherry 7 tmcft. The quantum Nations to declare October 2, the
reserved for environmental protection is Mahatma’s birthday, as the International
10 tmcft, and that determined for Non-violence Day.
inevitable “escapages” into the sea is 4
tmcft.  Landmark Visit Of Russian
President Vladimir Putin
 International Centennial
Conference On Mahatma On a landmark visit aimed at
Gandhi’s Satyagraha consolidating the bedrock of Indo-
Russian cooperation, President Vladimir
A two-day international conference was Putin of Russia reached New Delhi on
held at Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi on January 25, 2007. After bilateral talks
J a n u a r y 2 9 - 3 0 , 2 0 0 7, t o m a r k t h e between Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan
centenary of Mahatma Gandhi’s timeless Singh and Russian President Mr. Vladimir
principle of Satyagraha. The conference, Putin, the two sides agreed to take their
organised by the AICC (All India Congress
IC : PTpnsgk01 (13) of (202)
 Justice Balakrishnan Becomes
37th Chief Justice Of India
Justice K.G. Balakrishnan (62), the
seniormost judge of the Supreme Court,
took over as the 37th Chief Justice of
I n d i a o n J a n u a r y 1 4 , 2 0 0 7. H e
succeeded Justice Y.K. Sabharwal who
retired on January 13, 2007. Earlier, the
formal notification on the appointment
was issued on December 26, 2006. With
his appointment to the topmost office of
Indian Judiciary, he has become the first
Chief Justice of India belonging to the
Scheduled Caste. He will have a tenure
relations to “new heights” in all other till May 2010.
areas particularly defence, trade, space At the beginning of
a n d s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o l o g y. L a t e r, his legal career in
Mr. Putin shared with the then President 1968 as an
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Prime Minister advocate, Justice
Dr. Manmohan Singh the majestic podium Balakrishnan
at the India Gate as the Chief Guest pleaded both
during the 57th Republic Day celebrations criminal and civil
held in New Delhi on January 26, 2007. cases in the
Ernakulam court.
Two joint statements were issued and
He was appointed
eight accords signed by the two sides,
munsif in the
including one on cooperation on sharing
Kerala Judicial
of data from Russia’s Global Navigation
Services in 1973. He later resigned and
Satellite System (GLONASS) and jointly
resumed practice in the Kerala High
l a u n c h a ‘ YO U T H SAT ’. T h e y h o p e t o
Court. In 1985, he was appointed judge
restore this system through joint efforts
of the Kerala High Court, and in 1997
and organise its transition to new
was transferred to the Gujarat High
Court. He became Chief Justice of the
devices. Russia intends to increase (with
Gujarat High Court in 1998, and in 1999,
the participation of India) the grouping
he assumed charge as the Chief Justice
of GLONASS system to 18 satellites in
of the Madras High Court. On June 8,
2007. The launch of these satellites will
2000, he was elevated to the Supreme
be on board on both Russian and Indian
space boosters.
Areas in which the Russian side  Pravasi Bharatiya Divas 2007
showed deep interest in co-operating The Fifth Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
include telecommunications, shipbuilding, ended with the conferment of the
and high technology including outer Pravasi Samman Awards to some
space. In the field of space, both the outstanding people of Indian origin
countries have agreed to jointly develop associated with different fields, by the
and exploit the Russian global navigation then President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
satellite system, GLONASS. at Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi on
January 9, 2 0 0 7. In all, 15
distinguished personalities received
the awards for their stellar
contributions to various fields.

(14) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

Earl i e r, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan The awardees included Gopal Raju
Singh along with Minister of Overseas (USA); Lord Diljit Rana, MBE and member
Indian Affairs Mr. Vayalar Ravi, Deputy of the House of Lords (UK); Dave
P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f S i n g a p o r e M r. S . Sukhdip Singh Hayer (Canada); Dr. M.
Jayakumar and Delhi Chief Minister Anirudhan (USA); Billy Nair (South
Ms. Sheila Dikshit lit the lamp to mark Africa); Pheroze Nowrojee (Kenya);
the inauguration of the fifth Pravasi N i r m a l K . S i n h a ( U S A ) ; D r. K . R .
Bharatiya Divas in New Delhi on Somasundram (Malaysia); Kenneth
January 7, 2007. Speaking at the annual Benjamin (Jamaica); Sibabrata Roy
congregation of the Indian diaspora, (Germany); Syed M. Salahuddin (UAE);
Dr. Singh said India was happy that the D r. B . R . S h e t t y ( A b u D h a b i ) ; M o t i
US had adopted a legislation which would Tikaram (Fiji); Abdul Magid Abdool Karim
enable it to cooperate in the field of Vakil (Portugal); and Dr. P. Jayaraman
civil nuclear energy. Calling the US law (USA).
on civil nuclear energy an important step
forward in bilateral ties, he thanked the
Indian-American community for their
significant role in highlighting the
importance of this initiative in the United
States and elsewhere.

Pearls of wisdom

“The great composer does not set to work because he is inspired, but becomes inspired
because he is working. Beethoven, Wagner, Bach and Mozart settled down day after day to
the job in hand with as much regularity as an accountant settles down each day to his
figures. They didn't waste time waiting for inspiration.”

“The darkest hour has only sixty minutes.”


“The roots of true achievement lie in the will to become the best that you can become.”

“The greatest part of our happiness depends on our dispositions, not our circumstances.”

“Don't be afraid to give your best to what seemingly are small jobs. Every time you
conquer one it makes you that much stronger. If you do the little jobs well, the big ones
will tend to take care of themselves.”
“Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.”

IC : PTpnsgk01 (15) of (202)

UPDATES 2007-08
 Kirchner – Argentina’s First North Korea “agreed to disable all its
Elected Woman President existing nuclear facilities” as the next
step in a landmark agreement reached
In a rare power by the six parties in February, 2007,
handover between according to a copy of the agreement
spouses, Ms. text released by China, host of the
Cristina Fernandez talks. The four-day discussions ended
d e K i r c h n e r, t h e in Beijing on September 30, 2007. As
wife of the part of the second phase, North Korea
outgoing Argentina will disable its 5-MW plutonium producing
President M r. reactor and two other key facilities at
Nestor Kirchner and Yongbyon by December 31, 2007.
a centre-left
Ms. C. F. Kirchner
s e n a t o r, became The facilities were described by
the country's first popularly elected Mr. Bush as the “core” of North Korea’s
woman President in Buenos Aires nuclear weapons programme, according
( A r g e n t i n a ) o n O c t o b e r 2 8 , 2 0 0 7. to a US government statement released
According to experts, her win was in Washington.
primarily based on the economic boom
Earlier, Washington had accused North
and the popularity of her husband.
Korea of running a secret programme
M s . K i r c h n e r, a t h r e e - t e r m s e n a t o r, to develop highly enriched uranium. It
captured 45 percent of the vote, is worth mentioning in this regard that
outpacing another woman runner-up, highly enriched uranium and plutonium
independent candidate Ms. Elisa Carrio, could be used to make nuclear
by more than 22 percentage points. In w e a p o n s . H o w e v e r, t h e r e w a s n o
her victory speech, she defended mention of uranium in the statement.
President M r. N e s t o r K i r c h n e r ’s
controversial handling of inflation and In return for pushing ahead with
the nation’s consumer price index. She disarmament, the five other parties to
promised to put a priority on creating the talks would provide North Korea with
jobs, boosting exports and bettering another 9,00,000 tonnes of heavy fuel
health care and education. oil or its equivalent in aid, the pact said.
Pyongyang received 1,00,000 tonnes of
 North Korea Agrees To fuel from South Korea and China after it
Disable Main Reactor s h u t d o w n Yo n g b y o n , a n d a l l o w e d
inspectors from the UN atomic watchdog
North Korea has agreed to declare all back into the country.
its nuclear programmes and disable its
main atomic reactor by the end of 2007 The statement said the US agreed to
under the US supervision, according to work to improve bilateral relations with
a six-nation agreement released on North Korea, “moving towards a full
October 3, 2007. The deal – the second diplomatic relationship.”
phase of a long-running process aimed
Washington also committed itself to
at ending Pyongyang’s atomic weapons
working towards removing Pyongyang
drive – was immediately welcomed by
from its list of state sponsors of terrorism
the US President, Mr. George W. Bush,
but only if the country continued pushing
as well as by Japan and South Korea.
ahead with disarmament. The talks,

(16) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

which began in 2003, failed to stop North jung, that meeting had broken the cast-
Korea from testing an atomic bomb in iron mould of the Cold War-era hostilities
October, 2006. between the two sides.
Envoys from six nations struck an During their summit talks on October 4,
agreement on the next phase of ending 2007, the two leaders pledged to seek
North Korea’s nuclear weapons help from China and the United States
programme, which the United States in formally declaring the 1950-53 Korean
hailed as comprehensive and detailed. War over at the earliest. Categorically
“The joint statement was very reaffirming their resolve to adopt the
c o m p r e h e n s i v e ,” t h e U S n e g o t i a t o r, policy of non-aggression against each
Mr. Christopher Hill told media-persons other, Mr. Kim and Mr. Roh also called
referring to the agreement outlined by for the resumption of regular freight
China, which hosted the talks. “China train services between the two countries.
put together a very nice joint statement. They also agreed to send a joint cheering
There are lots of details. It is very squad to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games
useful,” Mr. Hill added. by train besides operating direct tour
flights between Seoul and Mount Paektu
One key feature of the statement was
on the North Korean border with China.
a reference to disabling North Korea’s
main nuclear facility at Yongbyon and The two leaders, in their joint
two other sites by the end of 2007. statement, said that North Korea and
They were simply shut down in July South Korea would hold a meeting of
2007, but disablement is regarded as a defence ministers in November, 2007 to
major step further because once that is discuss ways to prevent armed clashes.
done, the North Korea would require Also, the Prime Ministers from the two
months to get them operational again in sides would meet in Seoul to discuss the
order to resume any weapons implementation of the agreement. As per
programme. the historic accord, leaders of the two
states will meet frequently. Moreover,
 South Korea And North Korea the North and South will establish a
Reach Historic Accord special district in the North Korean west-
Crossing “the forbidden line” in a quest coast port city of Haeju and set up a
for peace and reconciliation, South regular maritime transport service with
Korean President Mr. Roh Moo-hyun on the South and a joint fishing ground.
O c t o b e r 2 , 2 0 0 7, w a l k e d i n t o N o r t h The two states will repair the highway
Korea from across the nominally joining the North Korean capital and
demilitarised zone that has kept the two Kaesong and refurbish a railway line on
ethnic neighbours apart for over 50 the North’s border with China.
years.  Seasoned Fukuda Takes Over As
S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , M r. R o h w a s Japan’s Premier
unexpectedly greeted by his potential Mr. Yasuo Fukuda, the President of the
summit partner and North Korean leader Liberal Democratic Party of Japan, was
M r. K i m J o n g - i l . M r. K i m h a d e a r l i e r appointed the 91st Prime Minister of the
deputed North Korea’s titular Head of c o u n t r y o n S e p t e m b e r 2 5 , 2 0 0 7,
State Mr. Kim Yong-nam to receive the succeeding Mr. Shinzo Abe who resigned
visiting dignitary on his arrival. e a r l i e r. M r. F u k u d a r e t a i n e d h i s
The first-ever inter-Korean summit took predecessor’s Finance and Economy
place in Pyongyang just over seven Ministers, leaving analysts cautious
years ago. Known as the summit of two about prospects for further free-market
Kims under the “sunshine policy” of the reforms.
then South Korean leader, Mr. Kim Dae-

IC : PTpnsgk01 (17) of (202)

Mr. Fukuda, who In what could be seen as one of the
has vowed to most alarming signs yet of accelerating
c o n t i n u e global warming, the summer melt-back
economic reform exceeded the September 2005 low point
while easing the by 22 percent in an area of 1.2 million
pain of rural square kilometres in more than 3,85,000
areas, retained square miles. This represented an area
Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga and five times the size of the UK. The colossal
Economic and Fiscal Policy Minister Hiroko shrinkage is immediately and dramatically
Ota along with Akira Amari, the Trade visible on satellite images of the two low
Minister. Both have pledged to stay true points. Furthermore, the difference
to free-market reforms, but many between 2005 and 2007 is more than
analysts doubt whether the new double the difference between 2005 and
government has the appetite to push 2002, the previous lowest year.
through painful public spending cuts
after a recent Upper House election “It’s the biggest drop from a previous
defeat. record that we’ve ever had and it’s really
quite astounding,” said Mr. Walt Meier, a
The Opposition, which seized one House research scientist at the US National
of Parliament in July 2007 elections, Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in
argues that reforms initiated under Mr. Colorado. “That’s a dramatic change in
Abe’s predecessor, Mr. Junichiro Koizumi, one year. Certainly we’ve been on a
have hurt the social safety net and downward trend for the last 30 years or
regional economies. so, but this is really accelerating the
trend,” he added.
Mr. Koizumi set out to slash public works
spending and break up the post office The ice cover of the Arctic Ocean shrinks
with its $3 trillion in assets, which were in the summer and regrows in the autumn
used to bankroll often wasteful but a n d w i n t e r, i n a r e g u l a r c y c l e . B y
politically popular public works. September 16, 2007, it had shrunk to
1.6 million sq. miles, the NSIDC said.
Fo llowing the resignation of Mr. Abe, This compares with the 2005 low point
Mr. Fukuda and Mr. Taro Aso were the of 2.07 million sq. miles. The contrast is
two Liberal Democratic Party leaders even greater with the long-term average
who contested in the election for the over the past 20 years or so. Between
Prime Minister’s post, held on September 1979 (when regular satellite monitoring
23, 2007. In the election, Mr. Fukuda had just started) and 2000, the long-
received 338 votes, about 100 more term average minimum was 2.6 million
than necessary for a majority in the sq. miles.
House of Representatives whereas
M r. A s o c o u l d g e t 1 9 7 v o t e s o n l y. The remarkable increase in the rate of
Although Mr. Fukuda could not have a melting in the past two or three years
majority of votes in the House of has led to a revision of estimates of
Councillors (Upper House), the result when the Arctic might be wholly ice free
went in his favour by Article 67 of the in summer. Early predictions by the UN’s
Constitution of Japan. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC), based on computer
 Arctic Ice Melts To Its Lowest
models of global warming, suggested
Level Ever
that as climate change advances, this
According to the US scientists, the sea might happen by 2080. But now
ice of the Arctic shrank to its lowest- scientists are increasingly thinking the
ever level in September 2007, shattering models have seriously underestimated
the previous record, set two years ago, the rate, and it may happen much
by an enormous amount. earlier.

(18) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

According to Mr. Mark Serreze, another ensure national security and at the same
senior NSIDC researcher, it might take time stand up to international terrorism
only 25 years or less. “If we were talking in any part of the globe and in any
even two or three years ago, I’d have situation.”
said the transition to an ice-free Arctic
summer might be between 2070 and In 2003, the US tested a vacuum device,
2100,” he said. “But we’re starting to officially called the Massive Ordnance Air
see that is rather optimistic, and an Blast Weapon, which was quickly dubbed
educated guess right now would be 2030. the “Mother of All Bombs” by American
It’s something that could be within our commentators. Russian experts are
lifetime. We’re on a strong spiral of referring to the allegedly mightier
decline; some would say a death spiral. Russian incarnation as the “Father” –
I wouldn’t go that far but we’re certainly the Russians claim their new weapon is
on a fast track. We know there is a much smaller than the US vacuum bomb,
natural variability, but the magnitude of but four times more powerful.
change is too great to be caused by
natural variability alone,” he added.  Bush And Hu Reaffirm Their
Commitment To Strengthening
What the melting of the Arctic ice will do Bilateral Ties
is spell doom for much of the wildlife of
the region, led by polar bears, which The US
need the ice to hunt seals. Polar bears P r e s i d e n t
were officially notified as a threatened M r. G e o rge W.
species in 2006 by being included in the Bush and the
Red List of the World Conservation C h i n e s e
Union. P r e s i d e n t
 Russia Tests ‘Father Of All M r. H u J i n t a o
Bombs’ in a face-to-
face meeting on the sidelines of an Asia-
Russia has tested the “Father of all Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
bombs,” a conventional air-deliv e red Summit in Sydney on September 6, 2007,
explosive that experts say can only be discussed issues ranging from climate
compared with a nuclear weapon in terms change and Iran to recall of China-made
of its destructive power. The device is a food and products and individual freedom
fuel-air explosive, commonly known as a in China. Both the leaders affirmed their
vacuum bomb, that spreads a high
strong commitment to build relations of
incendiary vapour cloud over a wide area
bilateral cooperation between their
and then ignites it, creating an ultra-
countries. Each emphasised on the
sonic shock wave and searing fireball
significance of the multidimensional facts
that destroys everything in its wake.
o f t h e s e t i e s . M r. H u s a i d h e w a s
A Russian state TV showed the test site, committed to further advance our
which “looked like a lunar landscape”, constructive and cooperative relations.
including the shattered remains of a
town, following the blast at an Describing the meeting as a constructive
undisclosed location recently. ‘The results and cordial conversation, Mr. Bush said
of tests of the aviation explosive device that he was very comfortable in his
have shown that it is comparable with discussions with President Mr. Hu. He
nuclear weapons in its efficiency and said that they exchanged ideas on a lot
potential,” according to Armed Forces of interests that they wanted to work
D e p u ty C h i e f o f S t a f f M r. A l e x a n d e r together on. He cited in particular their
R u k s h i n . “ B u t ”, h e a d d e d , “ i t i s desire to work together on climate
environment friendly, compar ed to a change.
nuclear bomb, and it will enable us to
IC : PTpnsgk01 (19) of (202)
The Chinese President called the meeting was attended by Mr. Nursultan
discussion “candid and friendly”. As a Abishevich Nazarbayev, President of the
response to Mr. Bush’s enthusiasm about Republic of Kazakhstan, Mr. Hu Jintao,
climate change, he said that the issue President of the People’s Republic of
of climate change born on the welfare China, Mr. Kurmanbek Bakiev, President
of whole humanity and the sustainable o f t h e Ky r g y z Re p u b l i c , M r. V l a d i m i r
development of the whole world. He Putin, President of the Russian
suggested that the solution to the Fe d e ra t i o n , M r. E m o m a li R a k h m o n o v,
problem was in development of an President of the Republic of Tajikistan
appropriate mechanism through stronger and Mr. Islam Karimov, President of the
international cooperation. Republic of Uzbekistan. Mr. Nurgaliev
Bolat Kabdylkhamitovich, Secretary-
Mr. Hu further added that the United General of the SCO and Mr. Myrzakan
Nations Framework should remain the S u b a n o v, D i r e c t o r o f t h e E x e c u t i v e
main channel for the international efforts Committee of the SCO Regional Anti-
to address climate change. Mr. Bush also terrorist Structure (RATS) participated
said that Iran, North Korea, Sudan, the in the meeting.
US-China economic and trade ties and
currency and exchange rates in that The heads of
bilateral context were discussed with Mr. the SCO
Hu. states signed
the Tr e a t y
Mr. Bush said that he shared with Mr.
Hu the concerns of the US about religious
freedom and religious liberty in China.
over the
He also pointed out the recent debate
terms of the
about the defective China-made products
agreement at the commemorative summit
and food subject to recalls. “Mr. Hu was
of the Council of SCO Heads of State
quite articulate about product safety and
held in Shanghai on June 15, 2006. It
I appreciated his comments”, said Mr.
aimed to develop long-term friendship
and cooperation. They signed the
Mr. Bush also expressed his enthusiasm Bishkek Declaration and adopted the
about accepting Mr. Hu’s invitation to Action Plan of the Member States of the
attend the 2008 Olympics in China. Shanghai Cooperation Organization which
However, no public comment was made sought to ensure International
about China’s military profile and its Information Security for the
recent anti-satellite test. implementation of the Statement of
Heads of SCO Member States on
Noting that the bilateral meeting was International Information Security of
candid, friendly, sincere and cordial, Mr. June 15, 2006. Representatives of the
Hu said, “We both expressed a desire to SCO members also signed the Agreement
work for the growth of business and on Inter-governmental Cultural
commercial sides” of the equation through Cooperation among Shanghai
dialogue and consultations. He Cooperation Organization Member
appreciated “the consistent US position States.
of opposing any changes to the status
quo in the situation across the Taiwan They also reviewed the progress made
Straits.” by the SCO since the previous meeting
of the Council of Heads of State,
 SCO Meets In Bishkek reached agreement on future steps to
A regular meeting of the Council of Heads promote all-round cooperation within the
of Members of the Shanghai Cooperation SCO framework, and had an in-depth
Organization (SCO) was held on August exchange of views on the current
16, 2007 in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. The international and regional situation. It
(20) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
was felt that there is a growing need presented in 2002 and rejected by the
for closer cooperation among parliaments Jewish state, extends an offer from all
and supreme courts of the member Arab countries to recognize Israel in
states and for information sharing in the exchange for an Israeli withdrawal from
legislative field to improve the legal land captured in the 1967 Middle East
systems of the SCO members. W a r.
The heads of state accepted the Currently, Egypt and Jordan are the only
invitation of President Mr. Vladimir Putin two nations in the League that recognise
of the Russian Federation to observe Israel. The Arab body refused to
the Peace Mission 2007, joint counter- recognise Israel after the creation of
terrorism military exercise. The armed the Jewish state in 1948 and suspended
forces of the SCO countries conducted Egypt in 1979 for a decade when it
on August 17, 2007. In fact, this was became the first Arab state to make
the largest military exercise with China peace. The Arab League endorsed the
and other Central Asian states in plan again in March 2007 over concerns
Russia’s Ural Mountains. The meeting of about Iran’s growing influence. Arab
the Council of Heads of SCO Members League’s initiative offers Israel’s normal
for 2009 will be held in Yekaterinburg, ties with all Arab states in return for a
the Russian Federation. full Israeli withdrawal from territory it
oc cupied in 1967, the cr eation of a
India is a dialogue partner of the SCO.
Palestinian state and a solution to the
M r. D e o ra r e p re s e n t e d In d i a a t t h e
Palestinian refugee problem.
 Hong Kong Marks First Decade
 Historic Initiatives To End West Under Chinese Rule
Asia Crisis
Chinese President Mr. Hu Jintao reminded
Giving a new
the territory of Hong Kong that the
positive turn to
motherland comes first, as the city
the ongoing
embarked upon its second decade under
efforts for
B e i j i n g ’s r u l e o n J u l y 1 , 2 0 0 7. “ O n e
restoring peace in
country is a pre-requisite of two
the troubled
systems,” he said at a ceremon y to
West Asia region and finding an enduring
swear in Hong Kong Chief Executive
solution to the issue of the creation of
Mr. Donald Tsang and his cabinet for a
Palestinian state, Israeli Prime Minister
new five-year term. “One country means
Mr. Ehud Olmert paid a historic visit to
that one
the West Bank town of Jericho and met
must uphold
President Mr. Mahmoud Abbas on August
the power
6, 2007. Mr. Olmert’s visit was the first
vested with
by a top Israeli leader to a Palestinian
the central
town since the outbreak of fighting
between Israel and Palestine in 2000.
and China’s
E a r l i e r, a d e l e g a t i o n fr o m t h e A rab sovereignty,
League made a historic visit to Israel on unity and
July 25, 2007, to present its own Middle security.”
East peace initiative. The foreign People’s Liberation Army parachutists
ministers of Egypt and Jordan, the first performed stunt jumps, and took out a
delegation comprising 22 members sent grand parade. At midnight, Chinese
to the Jewish state, formally presented officials attended a Buddhist bell-chiming
the Arab League’s proposal for peace ceremony along with chanting monks to
between Israel and Palestine in mark the countdown to midnight, the
Jerusalem. The proposal, originally moment Britain had handed back Hong
IC : PTpnsgk01 (21) of (202)
Kong after 156 years as a colony, and Earlier, Mr. Blair was given an emotional
to bestow peace and prosperity on the standing ovation by the MPs. He
t e r r i t o r y. A t t h e s a m e t i m e , a c ro s s admitted he had “never pretended to be
Victoria H a r b o u r, p r o - d e m o c ra c y a great House of Commons man” but he
lawmakers gave a stinging rebuke to paid tribute to the “noble” work of the
China’s rule on the balcony of the city’s MPs and – in his final words to
historic legislature. Parliament – said : “I wish everyone,
 Brown Is UK’s New Prime friend or foe, well and that is that, the
Minister end.” As per an announcement made by
the “quartet” of the UN, America, EU
Mr. Gordon Brown of the ruling Labour and Russia, Mr. Blair has been assigned
Party became on June 27, 2007, the a new job as a peace envoy in the
52nd Prime Minister of UK and 11th Prime Middle East.
Minister of the Queen’s reign, succeeding
Mr. Tony Blair as per an announcement  Peres Elected Israeli President
made by the lat ter earlier. Outgoing
Prime Minister Mr. Tony Blair, the longest- Veteran statesman and Nobel laureate
serving Prime Minister of Labour Party in Mr. Shimon Peres was elected President
m o d e r n h i s t o r y, a l s o r e s i g n e d h i s of Israel on June 13, 2007, capping a
Parliamentary seat. It brought to an end six-decade old political career in which
a political career that spanned nearly a he has held every senior political
quarter of a century but was eventually p o s it i o n . M r. Pe re s h a s b e e n e l e c t e d
marred by his decision to partner with ninth President of Israel at a time when
the US President Mr. George W. Bush in the office of the ceremonial head has
the much talked-about invasion of Iraq taken a severe battering in view of
in 2003. charges of rape and sexual misconduct
against the outgoing President,
After being handed over the keys of 10
Mr. Moshe Katzav.
Downing Street, the new British Prime
Minister Mr. Gordon Brown, who served Speaking at the Knesset after the final
as the Chancellor of Exchequer in Mr. round of voting, a beaming Mr. Peres
Blair’s Government since 1997, remarked, thanked the lawmakers who supported
“Let the work of change begin.” He said him and pledged to “give my all to serve
his priorities were education, health and Israel.” Mr. Peres said he saw his new
restoring trust in politics and promised role as a unifier of Israel’s fractured
to “try my utmost”. Mr. Brown promised society. “The President’s role is not to
to lead a government of “all the talents” deal with politics and partisanship, but
and said his “mission” was to provide
to represent what unites us in a strong
“the best of chances for everyone”.
v o i c e ,” h e s a i d . “A P r e s i d e n t m u s t
represent the people’s desire to be a
united nation,” the elderly statesman
P r i m e M i n i s t e r M r. E h u d O l m e r t p a i d
tribute to his deputy saying that, “Israel
has been waiting hopefully for the
election of Mr. Peres as President.” The
83-year-old Nobel laureate won 86 votes
in a second round ballot after his two
rivals in the race threw their support to

(22) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 Climate Protection Captures Africa.” They pledged to lift Africa out
Centrestage At The 33rd G8 of poverty and agreed on a $60-billion
Summit plan to fight diseases like AIDS,
tuberculosis and malaria. However, no
Leaders of the member nations of G8, timeframe was set for the pledged aid.
the grouping of world’s eight most
industrialised countries, assembled for The G8 leaders also agreed on a policy
the grouping’s 33rd annual summit at agenda to promote a smooth adjustment
Kempinski Grand Hotel in Heilingendamm of global imbalances in the context of
(Germany) from June 6 to June 8, 2007. sustained robust economic growth. They
“Growth and Responsibility” was the unanimously recognised the importance
central theme of the G8 Summit and its of initiatives like cross-border direct
key focus was the framework conditions investment in shaping the world’s
for the global economy, involving the economy and resolved to strengthen
largest emerging economies in the open and transparent investment
system of global responsibility and regimes. In a joint declaration on non-
climate protection issues. proliferation, they vowed to restrict the
access of countries, including NPT (Non-
Heads of State and Government of G8
proliferation Treaty) signatories, to civil
nations who attended the Summit
nuclear technology. But the declaration
included President Mr. George W. Bush
made no reference to the nuclear
of USA, President Mr. Vladimir Putin of
weapons states’ treaty obligation to get
Russia, President Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy of
rid of their arsenals.
F r a n c e , P r i m e M i n i s t e r M r. S t e p h e n
Harper of Canada, Prime Minister  Nicolas Sarkozy Becomes The
Mr. Romano Prodi of Italy, Prime Minister New French President
Mr. Shinzo Abe of Japan and the then
Prime Minister Mr. Tony Blair of UK, apart Conservative leader Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy
from Germany’s Chancellor Ms. Angela was elected on May 6, 2007, the next
Markel who hosted and chaired the President of France, succeeding the
summit. Mr. Jose Manuel Durao Barroso, outgoing President Mr. Jacques Chirac.
President of the European Commission, Mr. Sarkozy secured 53 percent votes,
represented European Union at the beating his Socialist rival, Ms. Segolene
Summit. India, Brazil, Mexico, China and Royal, by 6 percentage points. His
South Africa, represented by Prime election marks the culmination of a long
Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, President political career during which he served
Mr. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, President in a number of key ministerial capacities.
Mr. Fel ipe Calder on, Pr esident Mr. Hu Presently, he is the President of the
Jintao and President Mr. Thabo Mbeki ruling Conservative party, the UMP.
respectively, attended the summit as G8
+ 5 participants.
One of the most significant developments
at the summit was the breakthrough on
climate protection achieved after the G8
leaders agreed on halving global CO 2
emissions by 2050. In a joint statement,
they said that this goal would be
achieved as part of a UN process
involving even the big emerging
economies. At the conclusive stage of
the Summit on June 8, 2007, the G8
leaders spelt out their strong interest in
“a stable, democratic and prosperous

IC : PTpnsgk01 (23) of (202)

B o r n i n F r a n c e , M r. S a r k o z y i s t h e  French TGV Train’s New Speed
progeny of Hungarian-Greek parents. Record On Rails
With his victory in the French Presidential
election, he is set to become the sixth A French TGV (“Train a Grande Vitesse”,
President of the current Fifth Republic which means ‘high-speed train’ in
of France which came into being in 1958 French) train made a new world speed
with the election of General Charles de record on April 3, 2007, when it hurtled
Gaulle by direct universal suffrage. down a newly-built track in the country’s
Mr. Sarkozy has been the mayor of the eastern Champagne region at a dizzying
wealthy Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur- speed of 574.8 kmph. The special train,
Seine and has held some senior Cabinet which has been christened V150, is an
posts, including those of Finance and enhanced version of trains that will run
the Interior. Approximately 44.5 million on the Paris-Strasbourg line from June
voters of France took part in the French 2007. Prior to achieving the outstanding
Presidential election, which, experts feat, the train had been preparing for
believe, may have some crucial the record run for weeks. A number of
underpinnings not only for France itself journalists and other guests boarded
but also for the EU’s course of action the train on its record run.
and agenda of expansion. Earlier, Engineer Alstom, state railways
 Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s group SNCF and track operator RFF had
teamed up to demonstrate French
Visit To Japan
engineering excellence and boost export
Chinese Premier Mr. Wen Jiabao paid a prospects for French trains. It merits
historic three-day State visit to Japan mentioning that the absolute speed
on April 11, 2007. It was the first such record for trains was set by a “Maglev”
visit by a Chinese premier in seven train in Japan, at 581 kmph in 2003.
years. The purpose of the visit was to However, those trains do not run on
bring about a thaw in the bilateral relations rails but glide on a magnetic field. The
of the two regional neighbours. During his previous speed record for a train running
stay in Japan, Mr. Jiabao made one point on rails was 515.3 kmph, set in France
very clear at the beginning of his speech : in 1990.
“The past, he believes, is less important
than the present and the future. When I The V150 is made up of two normal cars
came to Japan 15 years ago, it was also that will run on the eastern TGV track,
April and the cherry blossoms were in full three double-decker carriages and three
bloom.” sets of motorised wheels. The train can
develop over 25,000 horsepower, twice
Past Chinese leaders have visited Japan that of a conventional TGV. The record
in different ways. Thirty years ago, was set between Preny near Metz in the
Deng Xioaping rode the Shinkansen bullet east of France, and Bezannes near
train and praised Japan’s scientific and Reims. The event run was broadcast live
technological advances, giving rise to a on television in France and neighbouring
“Deng mania.” In contrast, Mr. Jiang Germany.
Zemin scolded the country for its
Following the inaugural TGV service
historical wrongs and decisively worsened
between Paris and Lyon in 1981, the
r e l a t i o n s . M r. We n f o l l o w e d D e n g ’ s
TGV network, centred on Paris, has
example. Wherever he went, he
expanded to connect cities across France
emphasized the idea of friendship.
and in adjacent countries. TGVs link
Former Japanese Prime Minister
France with Belgium, Germany and the
M r. Ya s u h i ro N a k a s o n e wa s p l e a s e d .
Netherlands through the Thalys network,
“This is the first time a Chinese leader
while the Eurostar network links France
has made such an estimate of Japan,”
and Belgium with the UK.
he said.

(24) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 Maoists Join The New Interim billion US dollars after the opening
Government Of Nepal ceremony of China’s national exhibition.
Russian First Deputy Prime Minister
In a major boost to the ongoing peace M r. D m i t r y M e d v e d e v, C h i n e s e V i c e
process in Nepal, prominent Maoist Premier Mr. Wu Yi and Russian Economic
leaders of the Communist Party of Nepal D e v e l o p m e n t a n d Tr a d e M i n i s t e r
(CPN(M)) joined the Girija Prasad Koirala- Mr. German Gref took part in the signing
led SPA (Seven Party Alliance) ceremony.
G o v e r n m e n t o n A p r i l 1 , 2 0 0 7, t h u s
forming an interim set-up as per a Terming Mr. Hu Jintao’s visit to Russia
landmark agreement between the SPA very successful and of “significant
and the CPN(M). In keeping with the i m p o r t a n c e ,” M r. K o n s t a n t i n V n u k o v,
a g re e m e n t , P r i m e M i n i s t e r M r. G i r i j a Director of the first Asian department at
Prasad Koirala took a fresh oath as the the Russian Foreign Ministry, said, “The
interim government’s head and ‘Year of China in Russia’ as well as the
administered the oath of office to 22 ‘Year of Russia in China’ marked in 2006,
Ministers. Earlier, Mr. Koirala resigned are both comprehensive and great
from his post and was reelected events which covered various fields
unanimously by the interim legislature. ranging from politics, economy to social
and cultural aspects.” “Russia has never
Prior to the swearing-in of Mr. Koirala
held such a large-scale event with any
and the Ministers of the interim
other country,” said the official.
Government, a meeting of the top
leaders of SPA and CPN(M) was The four-day exhibition, which started
convened in Kathmandu, which on March 27, 2007, and was sponsored
unanimously decided to hold the by the Ministry of Commerce of China,
Constituent Assembly elections on June covered over 30 industries from energy
20, 2007. It decided to make necessary to home appliances. More than 15,000
amendments in the interim Constitution products were exhibited in an area of
to give powers to the interim legislature 20,000 square metres at the Crocus-
and abolish the institution of monarchy expo centre. The exhibition attracted
b y a t w o - t h i r d m a j o r i t y. I n a j o i n t more than 86,000 Russian visitors and
statement issued after the meeting, it the trade volume of agreements signed
was said that the legislature would on the sideline of the event reached 4.9
immediately go for an overthrow of the billion US dollars, according to figures
monarchy if the King indulged in any from the Chinese Ministry of Commerce.
secret plot to impede the Constituent
Assembly elections.  Justice Rana Bhagwandas
Becomes Pakistan’s First Hindu
 Chinese President’s State Visit Chief Justice
To Russia
Justice Rana Bhagwandas was sworn in
Chinese President Mr. Hu Jintao paid a at the Supreme Court’s Karachi registry
three-day state visit (March 26-28, on March 24, 2007, as the first Hindu
2007) and held talks with his Russian Chief Justice of Pakistan by Justice
counterpart Mr. Vladimir Putin. At the end Javed Iqbal, who functioned as the
of their summit level talks, the two interim acting Chief Justice after the
leaders signed a joint statement on ways removal of the Chief Justice Iftikhar
to further develop the Sino-Russian Chaudhry on March 9, 2007. Speaking
strategic partnership of cooperation. after the swearing-in ceremony, Justice
They also took part in the opening Bhagwandas said that the judiciary would
ceremony of the “Year of China in Russia” not disappoint the people and that they
and a Chinese National Exhibition. w o u l d s o o n h e a r “ g o o d n e w s ”. H e
Chinese and Russian enterprises signed assured the people of Pakistan that the
21 agreements and contracts worth 4.3 judiciary under him would proceed
IC : PTpnsgk01 (25) of (202)
without any bias in the matter of the reaffirmed the ASEAN countries’
Presidential reference against the commitment to realise the Millennium
dismissed Chief Justice Iftikhar Development Goals (MDGs) of the United
M u h a m m a d C h a u d h r y. H e s a i d t h e Nations as part of their efforts of socio-
Supreme Judicial Council, the five-judge cultural community building. The Heads
panel inquiring into the reference, would of 10 countries also agreed to rely on
s o o n d e c i d e w h e t h e r M r. C h a u d h r y the ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial bodies to
should be given an open hearing as he achieve the goals of their collective
has demanded, or if it should continue social welfare with clear timelines.
to hear the case in camera.
Leaders from the 10-member Association
Justice Bhagwandas said the inquiry considered moving the bloc into a more
would be conducted speedily, and that “rules-based” community at the
he would do everything to maintain the concluding session of the summit on
independence and dignity of the judiciary. J a n u a r y 1 5 , 2 0 0 7. A S E A N l e a d e r s
He appealed to the media to avoid adopted the Convention on Counter
comments on the reference against Terrorism, a historic pact that enables
M r. C h a u d h r y a s i t w a s s u b j u d i c e . member countries’ anti-terror units to
Meanwhile, the Sindh and Karachi Bar track movements of suspicious money or
Associations continued protests over the people throughout the region, and to
removal of the Chief Justice as Justice allow for the extradition of terror
Bhagwandas was being sworn in. The two suspects. The convention is the first and
associations boycotted the ceremony. a legally binding one on anti-terrorism.
 The 12th ASEAN Summit  New UN Chief To Focus On
Regional Conflicts
The 12th ASEAN (Association of South
East Asian Nations) Summit officially Mr. Ban Ki-moon, former Foreign Minister
opened in Cebu (The Philippines) on and well-known diplomat of South Korea,
J a n u a r y 1 3 , 2 0 0 7, w i t h t h e f u l l took over as United Nations Secretary-
participation of Heads of State from the G e n e ra l o n J a n u a r y 1 , 2 0 0 7, f a c i n g
10 member countries, namely Brunei, numerous crises across the globe as well
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, as the challenging task of reforming the
Myanmar, the Phi lippines, Singapore , global organisation itself. The 62-year-old
Thailand and Vietnam. Besides them, the diplomat’s handling of the reform, launched
Heads of some Dialogue Partners, in 2005 by his predecessor Mr. Kofi Annan,
including India, China, Japan and will be closely watched by UN members,
Australia were also invited to take part notably the United States, which strongly
in the summit. The Indian delegation was backed his candidacy.
headed by Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan
Aware of the huge task ahead of him,
Singh. The theme of 2007 summit was
Mr. Ban said at a news conference on
“One Sharing And Caring Community.”
his first day at one of the world’s most
After discussions and deliberations on prestigious offices that he wanted to
a diverse range of issues, leaders of “restore trust” in the United Nations. In
ASEAN signed the Cebu Declaration subsequent interviews he promised to
To w a rd s O n e C a r i n g A n d S h a r i n g devote most of his attention to solving
Community and committed to promote a the immediate problem of regional
socially prosperous community within conflicts around the world. He said he
the region. The Cebu Declaration cited wanted to be a “harmoniser” and a
the need to reduce poverty, protect the “bridgebuilder”, pointing out that the
rights of children and women, improve conflict in West Asia, the Lebanese
education and cherish the environment situation and the crisis in Darfur (Sudan)
on their way to the economic would be among his priorities.
integration by 2015. The document
(26) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
EVENTS 2007-08
JANUARY 2007 14 : The Supreme Court disqualifies 13
MLAs of UP Assembly who belonged
1: According to the NKC (National
to the Bahujan Samaj Party.
Knowledge Commission), India
will need 1,500 universities to attain 21 : A Group of Ministers endorses the
a gross domestic enrolment ratio of Civil Aviation Ministry’s proposal to
at least 15 percent by 2015. merge the two state-run carriers –
3 : Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh Air India and Indian.
inaugurates the 94th Indian 26 : Railway Minister Mr. Lalu Prasad
Science Congress at presents the Railway Budget for
Chidambaram (Tamil Nadu). 2007-08 in Parliament.
6: NIN (National Institute of 27 : The Finance Minister tables the
Nutrition) announces that it will Economic Survey 2006-07 in
conduct first study on the links between Parliament prescribing steps to
HIV/AIDS and nutrition in India. check inflation and sustain high
9: The Centre decides to declare 2007 economic growth.
as ‘Water Year’.
14 : Justice K.G. Balakrishnan is sworn MARCH 2007
in as the 37th Chief Justice of India.
16 : Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) 1: The Union Cabinet clears the
announces that it has become the merger of the state-owned
first Indian IT company to register $1 carriers–Air India and Indian.
billion in revenues in a single quarter. 5: Pilotless target aircraft Lakshya
26 : Adventurer Ajeet Bajaj unfurls the is test-flown.
tri-colour at the South Pole as India 8: Major General (Retd.) Bhuwan
celebrates Republic Day. Chandra Khanduri takes over as
27 : The French Government confers the Chief Minister of Uttarakhand.
Legion d’honneur (Legion of 19 : The Central Government sets up the
Honour) on Mr. Amitabh Bachchan. National Mission on
31 : Nobel laureate Desmond Tutu Monuments and Antiquities
receives the Gandhi Peace Prize. with a term of five years.
FEBRUARY 2007 21 : According to a report of the
National Sample Survey, the
1: The Centre bans the export of milk poverty in the country declines to
powder till September 2007. 21.8 percent in 2004-05 from 26.1
4 : India successfully test-fires percent in 1999-2000.
BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. 22 : The prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru
6 : The Railways announces that the Award for International
advance reservation period would Understanding-2005 is conferred on
be extended from 60 days to 90
Nobel laureate Wangari Muta
days on an experimental basis.
Maathai of Kenya.
11 : The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
31 : Iran’s application for observer status
achieves the distinction to get a
in the South Asian Association
berth in the elite Nova
for Regional Cooperation
Benchmarking Group (NBG).
(SAARC) is unanimously approved by
13 : R e s e r v e B a n k o f I n d i a ( R B I )
the SAARC Foreign Secretaries at
announces the hike of Cash
their Standing Committee meeting in
Reserve Ratio (CRR).
New Delhi.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (27) of (202)
APRIL 2007 27 : Reliance Industries Ltd. Chairman
Mr. Mukesh Ambani becomes the
3 : Inaugurating the 14th SAARC first trillionaire in the country.
Summit in New Delhi, Prime 28 : M r . A . R . L a k s h m a n a n , r e t i r e d
Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh says judge of the Supreme Court,
that India will allow “zero-duty assumes charge as the Chairman of
access” for goods from Bangladesh, the 18th Law Commission.
Afghanistan, Nepal, Maldives and 31 : T h e U n i o n C a b i n e t a p p r o v e s a
Bhutan by the end of 2007. scholarship scheme for higher
8 : Sarah Jane Dias of Mumbai is education for students of the
crowned ‘Miss India World’ while Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Delhi girl Puja Gupta and New Tribes.
Zealander of Indian origin Puja
Chitgopekar are crowned ‘Miss JUNE 2007
India Universe’ and ‘Miss India
Earth’, respectively. 2 : Hon’ble President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul
9 : Congress leader Mr. Dorjee Kalam presents the National Bal
Khandu is sworn in as the new Shree Honour 2006 at
Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. Rashtrapati Bhawan.
12 : Nuclear capable long-range ballistic 8 : Mr. Digambar V. Kamat is sworn
m i s s i l e Agni-III i s s u c c e s s f u l l y in as the 19th Chief Minister of
test-fired. Goa.
27 : The Securities and Exchange Board 11 : The Government proposes to expand
of India (SEBI) makes Permanent the National Child Labour Project
Account Number the sole to all endemic districts during the
identification number for all 11th Five-Year Plan period.
participants in the securities markets 14 : Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, a
from July 2, 2007. Congress woman and Governor of
30 : B o l l y w o o d l e g e n d D i l i p K u m a r i s Rajasthan since 2004, is endorsed
conferred the Phalke Ratna as the candidate for the presidential
Award . election.
15 : Government clears the proposal to
MAY 2007 set up the Indira Gandhi National
Tribal University.
1 : Mr. Kuldeep Goyal is appointed as 22 : Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh
the Director (Planning and New announces to set up 30 new central
Services) of the public sector Bharat universities.
Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). 25 : Vice-President Mr. Bhairon Singh
6 : The world’s largest passenger Shekhawat files his nomination
aircraft Airbus A380 lands for the papers for the July 19 Presidential
first time in India. election.
10 : T h e h i s t o r i c C e n t r a l H a l l o f 28 : R e d F o r t i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e
Parliament comes alive as it UNESCO’s World Heritage List.
witnessed the commemoration of the 30 : Former Delhi Chief Minister Sahib
first War of Independence of 1857. Singh Verma dies in an accident.
11 : BSP supremo Ms. Mayawati wins
the UP Assembly elections with JULY 2007
23 : Hon’ble President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul 1 : The Union Panchayati Raj Minister,
Kalam presents the National Mr. Mani Shankar Aiyar with 57-
Communal Harmony Award to member delegation, arrives at
octogenarian social activist Lahore in Pakistan for a three-day
Mr. Rabindra Nath Upadhyay. visit.
(28) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
5 : The Union Cabinet approves India’s awarded the Ashok Chakra, the
participation in the International country’s highest award for valour
Thermo-nuclear Experimental during peacetime, posthumously. All
Reactor (ITER) project. the three laid down their lives while
18 : F o u r t e e n I n d i a n i n n o v a t o r s a r e battling terrorists in Jammu and
awarded the Innovators’ Award Kashmir.
instituted by aerospace giant 19 : Two Indian Air Force (IAF) pilots
Lockheed Martin Corporation, under Wg. Cdr. Mr. Anil Kumar and
its India innovation growth Mr. Rahul Manga create a world
programme in New Delhi. record b y s u c c e s s f u l l y f l y i n g a
21 : Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil is microlight aircraft around the world
declared elected the 12th President in 80 days.
of India. She defeats her lone 21 : Japanese Prime Minister Mr. Shinzo
opponent, Vice-President Abe calls for further strengthening
Mr. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat by a of ties between Japan and India
margin of 3,06,810 votes. during his visit to India.
25 : Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil is sworn 28 : The Government issues the much-
in as the 12th President of the awaited tender for purchase of
country, becoming the first woman fighter aircrafts which is estimated
President of India. to be worth Rs. 42,000 crore but
A joint meeting of the Cabinet half of the amount must be sourced
Committee on Political Affairs from India.
(CCPA) and the Cabinet Committee 31 : The Rural Affairs Editor of The
on Security (CCS) approves the text H i n d u, M r . P a l a g u m m i Sa i n a t h
of the 123 civilian nuclear receives the 2007 Ramon
cooperation agreement arrived at Magsaysay Award for
between India and the US. Journalism, Literature and Creative
26 : L t . G e n . D e e p a k Kapoor is Communication Arts from the
appointed as the next Chief of Philippines Supreme Court Chief
Army Staff; Gen. Kapoor will take Justice Mr. Artemio Parganiban in
over from Gen. J.J. Singh who Manila (Philippines).
retires on September 30, 2007.
1 : Watershed development work taken
4 : The country’s first mobile court up at Haripura in Kota district of
to make the judicial system Rajasthan wins the National
accessible to remote and backward Productivity Prize for 2007 in
areas is inaugurated by Chief recognition of good results achieved
Justice of India, Justice K.G. in the region.
Balakrishnan, in the Mewat district 3 : Delhi becomes the country’s first
of Haryana. state to provide a legal shape to
8 : Mr. Shyam Benegal, the renowned the much talked about Bread and
Film Director and the pioneer of new Breakfast Scheme with an
Indian cinema, wins the 2005 ordinance to this effect promulgated
Dadasaheb Phalke Award. by the Delhi Government.
11 : M o h a m m a d H a m i d A n s a r i i s 4 : The five-nation Malabar
sworn in as the new Vice-President e x e r c i s e, p a r t i c i p a t e d b y m o r e
of India at the Rashtrapati Bhavan than 20,000 personnel from the
in New Delhi. navies of Australia, India, Japan,
14 : T h r e e a r m y m e n i n c l u d i n g C o l . Singapore and the United States,
Vasanth Venugopal, Capt. R. Harshan starts in the Bay of Bengal.
and Naib Subedar Chunni Lal are
IC : PTpnsgk01 (29) of (202)
6 : INS Jalashwa, newly acquired 5 : Agni-I, t h e s u r f a c e - t o - s u r f a c e
warship from the US, leaves Mumbai missile, is launched successfully from
for Visakhapatnam, amid differing the Outer Wheeler Island, off the
speculations in various quarters in Orissa coast. The single-stage missile,
the backdrop of the multinational powered by solid propellants,
naval drill. reaches its range of 700 km.
14 : In its revised affidavit the Centre 8 : After the withdrawal of support
informs the Supreme Court that it from the Bharatiya Janata Party,
will consider executing the Karnataka Chief Minister Mr. H.D.
Sethusamudram shipping channel Kumaraswamy submits his
project through an alternative resignation to the State Governor,
alignment so that the 30-km-long Mr. Rameshwar Thakur, following
Ramar Sethu/Adam’s Bridge which the Governor recommends
could be protected from damage. the dissolution of Assembly and the
18 : The Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh imposition of President’s Rule.
(National Population Stabilisation 10 : International Atomic Energy Agency
Fund) begins the exercise of Director-General Mr. Mohammed
mapping the existing health facilities ElBaradei during his visit to India points
in the country right up to the out that there is no deadline for starting
district level. talks on an India-specific safeguards
25 : President Ms. Pratibha Devisingh arrangement but it is imperative for the
Patil, in her inaugural address at country to utilise nuclear energy to
the 53rd Commonwealth sustain the current high growth rate.
Parliamentary Conference 11 : T h e U n i o n C a b i n e t a p p r o v e s a
(CPC) in New Delhi, underlines the financial package, including issuing
importance of collective actions, of Rs. 23,457 crore oil bonds and
stating that sustainable extending the subsidy scheme on
development cannot be achieved by LPG cooking gas and kerosene for
individual nations. the next three years.
28 : The Union Government announces 13 : The Cabinet Committee on Security
the extension of the National Rural (CCS) clears the Fifth Generation
Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), Aircraft (FGA) to replenish the
which guarantees 100 days of wage depleting Indian Air Force levels
employment to rural households, to and approves an aircraft-related
all the districts in the country. joint venture between a Russian
29 : A h i g h - l e v e l r e v i e w c o m m i t t e e company and Hindustan Aeronautics
suggests radical redesigning and Limited (HAL).
renaming of the Indian Council of 15 : U n i o n M i n i s t e r f o r S c i e n c e a n d
Social Science Research (ICSSR) as Technology Mr. Kapil Sibal
the Indian Academy of Social inaugurates a state-of-the-art
Sciences (IASS) with a view to National Tsunami Early
restore its credibility. Warning Centre, which has the
30 : General Deepak Kapoor takes over capability to detect earthquakes of
as the Chief of the Army Staff more than magnitude 6.
from General J.J. Singh. 16 : The United Women Front (UWF)
– billed as India’s first national
political party formed by women –
1 : The Union Cabinet approves the is launched in New Delhi.
amendments to the Payment of 18 : India and Pakistan reiterate their
Bonus Act, 1965, that will make commitment to uphold the ceasefire
industrial workers drawing up to and hold consultations to
Rs. 10,000 monthly salary eligible strengthen the confidence-building
for annual bonus. measures (CBMs) in New Delhi.
(30) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
22 : A c t o r S a n j a y D u t t i s s e n t t o 6 : Former SEBI Chairman and Chief
Ye ra w a d a j a i l a f t e r h e i s fo u n d Patron of Bhagwan Mahaveer
guilty in the 1993 Mumbai blasts Viklang Sahayata Samiti D R Mehta
case. The 4,340 page judgement has been conferred 2007 Tech
copy is also given to him. Museum Award for Innovation
23 : U N s p e c i a l e n v o y M r. I b r a h i m for the Benefit of Humanity.
Gambari meets Prime Minister Mehta's organisation is the world's
Dr. Manmohan Singh and wants New largest artificial limb manufacturing
Delhi to encourage Yangon to work a g e n c y, k n o w n f o r i t s a ff o rd a b l e
with UN authorities. “Jaipur Foot ”.
29 : T h e S e n s e x s u r g e s a b o v e t h e 7 : The visiting President of Switzerland
historic figure of 20,000 for the Micheline Calmy-Rey, concluded
first time. her four-day visit to India during
which she held talks with Indian
leaders on bilateral cooperation and
other matters of mutual interest.
8 : The Union Cabinet approved
4 : The All India Democratic Women's
amendments to the Armed Forces
Association (AIDWA) set up seven
Tribunal Bill, 2005, which would
c o m m i s s i o n s o n d o w r y, s i n g l e
take the load of defence related
woman, water management,
cases off the High Courts'
panchayats, self-help groups, shoulders.
health and the National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act 12 : Dr Samir K Brahmachari took
(NREGA). over as Director General of the
4 : Swami G a h a n a n a n d a, 14th Council of Scientific and Industrial
President of the Ramakrishna Math Research (CSIR).
and Mission, passed away in a 12 : The Department of Telecommunications
Kolkata hospital. He was 91. (DoT) announced guidelines for
5 : In a tightening of provisions in the introducing 3G services in the
seventh round of New country and stated that the 3G licences
Exploration licensing Policy would be granted through auctioning.
(NELP-VII), the union government 3G is the generic name for next -
decided to make several changes in generation mobile networks that allow
the model production sharing high data speed. They are capable of
contract. The changes proposed supporting high data rate services such
underlined the government's role in as high resolution video and multimedia
sale of oil and gas. They also ensure services in addition to voice, fax and
quicker decision making regarding conventional data services.
the pricing formula.
12 : I n d i a a n d R u s s i a s i g n e d f o u r
6 : T e a m l e a s e S e r v i c e s, a h u m a n agreements in space, defence, trade
r e s o u r c e a n d s t a f f i n g a g e n c y, and narcotics control and agreed to
released the India Labour Report, expand their ongoing cooperation in
2 0 0 7. T h e r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t a c i v i l i a n n u c l e a r e n e r g y. T h e
large number of educated Indian agreements were signed by Russian
youth are simply unemployable, President Valdimir Putin and Prime
lacking vocational skills, because as Minister Manmohan Singh during the
much as 90 percent of the country's latter's official visit for the 7th
college and school output has only annual summit in Moscow.
bookish knowledge.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (31) of (202)

12 : B Ramalinga Raju, Chairman and 14 : The 13th Technology Summi t and
F o u n d e r, S a ty a m Computer Technology Platform was organised
Services, was named the Ernst & by the Union Minister for Science
Young Entrepreneur of the and Technology and Earth Sciences,
Year 2007. He will now represent Kapil Sibal. The summit provides
India at the Ernst & Young World a platform for symbolic partnership
Entrepreneur of the year Award in in the technology arena for
Monte Carlo, Monaco in May 2008. promotion of joint ventures,
The Lifetime Achievement Award technology tie-ups and investment
has been given to Keshub Mahindra, opportunities among participating
the Patriarch of the Mahindra countries.
Group. 16 : Indian space scientists reached a
13 : M i c r o s o f t I n d i a ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l new milestone with the successful
Development Research Centre testing of the indigenous
(IDRC) and the M S Swaminathan cryogenic stage, w h i c h p o w e r s
Research Foundation (MSSRF) have the Geosynchronous Satellite
launched a Rural Innovation L a u n c h Ve h i c l e ( G S LV ) . I n d i a n s
Fund (RIF) to encourage joined an exclusive league of
entrepreneurs to develop software scientists from the US, Russia and
solutions for the needs of the rural Europe, who have the capability to
communities. design and build cryogenic engines.
13 : T h e N a t i o n a l H u m a n R i g h t s These engines are critical for
Commission (NHRC) reports that launching communication satellites
India has witnessed a 4 percent as well as manned missions.
increase in crimes against children 17 : Noted painter Akbar Padamsee was
below 18 y ears. More alarmingly, honoured with the Dayawati Modi
child rape rate has gone up by 14 Award for his outstanding
percent and kidnappings and contribution to contemporary Indian
abductions by 10 percent. It also art. The award is instituted by the
notes that missing children remain a Dayawati Modi Foundation for Art,
neglected and low-priority Culture and Education. The award
intervention area. The report comprises a cash prize of Rs 2.51
observes that the juvenile justice lakh, a silver shield and a scroll of
system has failed to provide care honour.
and protection to vulnerable 18 : Former Chief Justice of India R S
children despite the Juvenile Pathak died following a heart
Justice (Care and Protection of attack in New Delhi.
Children) Act, 2000. 19 : K a r n a t a k a C h i e f M i n i s t e r B S
14 : U n i o n M i n i s t e r f o r S c i e n c e a n d Yeddyurappa resigned as the first
Technology, Kapil Sibal, launched an government of the Bharatiya Janata
ambitious and innovative National Party (BJP) in south India fell on its
Biotechnology Strategy for the eighth day after H.D. Deve Gowda,
next five years, hoping to hike chief of alliance partner Janata Dal
revenues of the country's biotech (S), decided he had not got a good
industries from $2.3 billion to $7 enough deal on ministries.
billion by 2010. 19 : P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a n m o h a n S i n g h
14 : Former Union Finance Secretary and launched the Indira Gandhi
Adviser to the Finance Minister National Old Age Pension
Vijay Kelkar was appointed as the Scheme (IGNOAPS) that would
chairperson of the 13th Finance provide a monthly pension to people
Commission, constituted by over 65 years and Below the
President Pratibha Patil. Poverty Line (BPL). The scheme,
launched to mark the birth
(32) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
anniversary of former Prime 21 : Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and
Minister Indira Gandhi, will cover his Chinese counterpart Wen
1.57 crore people and cost Rs. Jiabao, during their meeting in
3,772 crore, with equal Singapore on the sidelines of the
contributions from all states and 3rd East Asia Summit, laid stress
union territories. on peaceful use of nuclear energy
19 : Nobel Laureate Wangari Mathai as a source of clean energy for
was awarded the Indira Gandhi attaining energy security. India and
Prize for Peace, Disarmament and China are confident of surpassing $
Development for 2007 by President 30 billion in bilateral trade this year.
Pratibha Patil at Rashtrapati As it has already crossed $ 27
billion, the two countries would
Bhavan, New Delhi.
achieve target of $40 billion before
20 : “The Golden Elephant”, the week- 2010.
long 15th International 21 : Chairman of India's Atomic Energy
Children's Film Festival Commission, Anil Kakodkar, met
concluded at Lalitha Kala Thoranam, International Atomic Energy Agency
Public Gardens, Hyderabad. The chief Mohammed El Baradei to
festival was organised by the negotiate a safeguards agreement
Children's Film S o c i e t y, in to pave the way for New Delhi's
collaboration with the state deal with Washington.
government of Andhra Pradesh. 23 : Uphaar Cinema hall owners Sushil
20 : Planning Commission approved a Ansal and Gopal Ansal were
mega scheme of Rs. 1,800 crore for sentenced by a Sessions Court in
the 11th Five-Year Plan to New Delhi to two years rigorous
provide scholarships to 25 lakh imprisonment for causing death due
students belonging to the minority to negligence. On June 13, 1997, in
communities studying in Class VI to a devastating fire in the theatre
X. The basic eligibility criterion is had caused the death of 59 people.
that the annual income of parents 23 : At least 13 persons, including four
should not be more than Rs 2 lakhs. lawyers, were killed and 60 injured
when six bombs went off in three
20 : The Centre put an end to political
court complexes in Uttar
uncertainty in Karnataka by re-
Pradesh. Loaded on cycles parked
imposing President’s Rule, paving
outside the lawyers’ chambers in
the way for fresh elections.
Lucknow, Faizabad and Varanasi,
21 : The sixth India-Association of South the bombs exploded in quick
East Asian Nations, ASEAN succession, during the official lunch
Summit w a s h e l d i n S i n g a p o r e . break.
India proposed to enhance bilateral 23 : The union government announced
trade with the ASEAN countries from the National Policy for Farmers,
the current $30 billion turnover to 2007 based on the
$50 billion by 2010. recommendations of the National
21 : The Human Resource Development Commission for Farmers headed by
(HRD) Ministry cut down on its eminent agricultural scientist M.S.
budget for implementing the Right Swaminathan. It would replace the
to Education Law by National Agriculture Policy, 2000.
approximately Rs 1 lakh crore as 23 : T h e 3 8 t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i l m
the population of children between Festival of India (IFFI-2007) was
the 6-13 age group has not been inaugurated in Goa and was
rising according to projections. scheduled to conclude on December
3, 2007.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (33) of (202)

24 : T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f 28 : The Second Administrative Reforms
Jurists Award, 2007 was Commission (ARC) has recommended
presented to the Chief Justice of a b o l i t i o n o f o c t r o i. B u t i t h a s
England and Wales, Lord Phillips of suggested that the government
Worth Matravers by President should evolve mechanisms to
Pratibha Patil, for his lifetime compensate local government for
contribution to the cause of justice. the loss of revenue.
29 : According to the UNESCO Report
25 : The three-day Bharatiya Vigyan
on Education, India slipped five
Sammelan (All India Science
ranks to 105 since 2006 on global
Conference) 2007 concluded in
education parameters, leading to
Bhopal. The conference presented
fears that the country would miss
10 recommendations that focused
most of the millennium development
on promoting traditional scientific
goals for its children. Despite
knowledge along with modern
remarkable strides in the UN's
science and increased community Education for All by 2015
participation for balanced and programme, huge gender disparity
sustainable development. remains a problem in India. Girls
27 : C h a i r m a n of the Second account for 66 percent of the out-
Administrative Reforms of-the-school children in the region,
Commission (ARC), M. Veerappa the highest share worldwide.
Moily presented the sixth report of 29 : UNESCO has conferred a certificate
ARC to Prime Minister Manmohan following the inclusion of Delhi's
Singh. It carries a number of historic Red Fort complex in the
recommendations on local World Heritage List. The official
governance, favouring democratic announcement by the World
decentralisation and making local Heritage Committee in July 2007
bodies citizen-centric. has taken Delhi's tally of World
Heritage Monuments to three. The
27 : St. John's College, Cambridge
other two are Qutub Minar and
has announced the Dr Manmohan
Humanyun's tomb.
Singh Scholarships. These have
29 : India has been unanimously elected
been set up exclusively for Indian
the Chairman of the Executive
students in order to enable them to
Council of the General Assembly of
acquire Ph.D. and M.Phil degrees in
the United Nations World
areas such as science, technology Tourism Organisation (UNWTO)
and social sciences. for a period of one year at the 82nd
28 : Thomas Bata ( 9 3 ) , h e a d o f t h e meeting held in Colombia.
Bata shoe empire, who opened his
small factory near Kolkata in 1932, DECEMBER 2007
has been honoured by the Canada
India Business Council (CIBC) for his 1 : Parliament approved a Bill to provide
outstanding contribution to armed forces status to the
promoting India in Canada. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) and
28 : T h e Delimitation Commission gave it legal backing to strengthen
headed by Justice Kuldip Singh has policing of borders with Nepal and
Bhutan. The Sashastra Seema Bal Bill
notified delimitation in all states,
2007 was passed by the Lok Sabha.
barring the 19 parliamentary seats in
The Rajya Sabha had already
A s s a m , M a n i p u r, A r u n a c h a l a n d
passed the Bill. The SSB, earlier
Nagaland, where the 2001 Census,
known as the Special Service
the reference point for redrawing
Bureau, was set up in 1963 after the
boundaries, is under litigation.
S i n o - I n d i a n Wa r. I t g u a r d s t h e
(34) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
almost 1,800-km-long border with 3 : M Natarajan, Scientific Advisor to
Nepal and another stretch of 700 km the Defence Minister of India,
with Bhutan. It has 41 battalions. received the Sir C V Raman Birth
4 : The Parliamentary Standing Centenary Award 2008 and a
Committee on Labour redrafted Gold Medal from Prime Minister
The Unorganised Sector Manmohan Singh at the inaugural
W o r k e r s ' S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B i l l. function of the 95th Indian Science
The proposed changes include an Congress.
amendment to the title of the Bill, 7 : Former Prime Minister
definition of various significant Ch andrashekhar's son and
terms, and composition of the Samajwadi Party candidate Neeraj
national and state social security Shekhar retained his family's hold
advisory boards and functions on the Ballia L o k S a b h a s e a t i n
assigned to them. eastern Uttar Pradesh by winning
the by-election by a huge margin.
JANUARY 2008 8 : Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh
inaugurated the 6th Pravasi
2 : Kiran Bedi who recently took
Bharatiya Divas ( P B D ) m e e t i n
voluntary retirement from police
New Delhi. Dr Singh announced the
service launched a new website
setting up of a Prime Minister's The portal, under
Global Advisory Council of People of
Project Mission Safer India by
Indian origin to serve as a high level
non-governmental organisation
platform to draw upon the
“India Vision Foundation”, will act as
experience and knowledge of the
a bridge between complainants and
best Indian minds wherever they
police service to seek appropriate
redress. The website will entertain may be based. The Prime Minister
only those who went to police also announced launching of an
stations but their complaints were Overseas Workers Resource Centre
unheard, unacknowledged or not (OWRC), which will provide relevant
registered. information and assistance to
3 : President Pratibha Patil signed the potential migrant workers, and will
p r o c l a m a t i o n b r i n g i n g Nagaland also operate a multilingual help line
under Central rule. The state for grievance redressal and
assembly was placed under interventions on behalf of overseas
suspended animation. The union workers in distress.
cabinet had recommended 17 : T h e u n i o n c a b i n e t a p p r o v e d a n
President’s Rule on January 1, additional release of Rs. 530 crore
2008, after taking stock of the towards waiver of overdue interest
political situation in the state. on agricultural credit in the 31 debt-
3 : Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh stressed districts of Karnataka,
inaugurated the 95th Session of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and
Indian Science Congress in Maharashtra.
Vishakhapatnam. This is the 19 : N a t i o n a l K n o w l e d g e C o m m i s s i o n
annual gathering of Indian (NKC) Chairman Sam Pitroda
scientists with a focus on a released the Commission's second
particular scientific theme or issue. annual “Report to Nation” in New
This year the theme was Delhi. The report includes
"Knowledge-based Society Using recommendations on portals, health
Environmentally Sustainable Science information network, legal
a n d Te c h n o l o g y " . T h e r o l e o f education, medical education,
nuclear energy as an efficient and management education, open and
clean alternative source of energy distance education, open
was emphasised in the conference.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (35) of (202)
educational resources, innovation, 25 : T h e g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e d t h e
intellectual property rights (IPRs), winners of the Padma Awards for
legal framework for public funded the year 2008. These include 13
research and traditional health Padma Vibhushan, 35 Padma
systems. Bhushan and 71 Padma Shri awards.
24 : The union cabinet approved the
setting up of an All India For the seventh consecutive year,
Institute of Ayurveda on the nobody was named for the highest
lines of All India Institute of Medical civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
Sciences (AIIMS) that will focus on It was last conferred jointly on Lata
fundamental research, drug safety Mangeshkar and Bismillah Khan.
evaluation, standardisation, quality
control and scientific validation of Padma Vibhushan: External
ayurvedic medicine. Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee,
24 : Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh industrialist Ratan Tata, sportsmen
gave away the National Bravery Sachin Tendulkar and Viswanathan
Awards for 2007 to 22 children, 4 Anand, Infosys chief mentor
girls and 18 boys. Four of them got Narayana Murthy, environmentalist
t h e a w a r d s p o s t h u m o u s l y. T h e R K Pachauri, Delhi Metro chief E
coveted Bharat Award was Sreedharan, UK-based industrialist
conferred on 17-year old Babita and Lakshmi Narayan Mittal, Justice A S
Amarjeet of Haryana, who saved Anand, the former bureaucrat P N
several schoolmates from drowning D h a r, P R S O b e r o i ( t r a d e a n d
when their school bus fell into the industry) and playback singer Asha
Western Yamuna canal near Ganaur, Bhosle. Mountaineer Edmund Hillary
Sonipat. The Sanjay Chopra
was awarded Padma Vibhushan
Award was given to six-year old
Yu k t a r t h S h r i va s t a v a of
Chhattisgarh while the Geeta
Padma Bhushan: Indian-American
Chopra Award was conferred
astronaut Sunita Williams, French
posthumously on Kumar Lalrempui of
writer Dominique Lapierre, ICICI
Hmar Veng in the Mamit district of
chief K V Kamath and Citibank head
Vikram Pandit.
24 : The Ministry of Culture in
association with the seven Zonal
Cultural Centres (ZCCs) organised Bollywood actor Madhuri Dixit,
National Folk Dance Festival Hollywood filmmaker Manoj Night
“Tarang” from January 24 to 29, Shyamalan and national football
2008 as part of the Republic Day captain Baichung Bhutia are among
celebrations. the 71 Padma Shri awardees.
30 : The union cabinet cleared the 25 : D r R a m P u n u j a n i a n d S e t h u
setting up of Central Institute of Charitable Trust have been selected
Classical Tamil in Chennai at a for the National Communal
cost of Rs 76.32 crore. This followed Harmony Award for the year
the decision to grant Tamil the status 2007. Dr Ram Punujani is a former
of classical language. Tamil Nadu professor at IIT Mumbai and has
Chief Minister would be the ex- been spreading message of peace
officio chairperson of the institute. and amity through lectures,
publications, workshops and
meetings and by travelling
extensively to different parts of the
country disseminating messages of
secularism, pluralism and communal
(36) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
harmony. S ethu Charitable Tr u s t , 28 : The National Council of Bharatiya
Mumbai was established in 1994 and Janata Party approved an
is engaged in the rehabilitation of amendment to the Party
riot victims and their families, and Constitution that will provide its
more specially those orphaned by women workers 33 percent
communal, caste and terrorist reservation right from the mandal
violence in Mumbai and other parts to all levels. However, there was no
of the country. such amendment made in the party
26 : T h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s w e r e constitution to give the same
conferred gallantry awards by percentage of reservation to women
President Pratibha Patil. among central office bearers and in
the highest decision making body.
Ashok Chakra (highest gallantry 30 : M a h a t m a G a n d h i ’ s g r e a t g r a n d
award in peace time): Major Dinesh daughter Nilamben Parikh
Raghu Raman (posthumous); immersed his ashes in Chowpatty
Captain Harshan (posthumous); bay off Mumbai, on the 60th death
Naik Subedar Chunni Lal anniversary of Gandhiji. This is the
(posthumous) and Colonel Vasanth second time that an urn containing
Venugopal (posthumous). Bapu's ashes was found. First such
Kirti Chakra (second highest kalash was found in 1997 in a bank
gallantry awards): Major Shatrujeet locker in Cuttack (Orissa).
Kotwal, Major Subha Chand Punia, 31 : Eminent Hindi writer Krishna Sobti
Major Kumandur Prabhakar Vinay has been chosen for the 2007
and Sepoy Suresh. Vyas Samman, the prestigious
26 : India showcased its military might award for literature instituted by
and diverse cultural heritage in the the K K Birla Foundation. Sobti has
capital as the country celebrated its been given the honour for her novel
59th Republic Day with French “Samay Sargam”, published in 2000.
President Nicolas Sarkozy as the
guest of honour.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (37) of (202)

Books and Authors
Chindia Rising Jagdish N Sheth
The Self Destructive Habits of Good Companies Jagdish N Sheth
Business Mantras Gita Piramal
Free Prize Inside Seth Godin
Alexander The Great’s Art Of Strategy Partha Bose
The Elephant, The Tiger and The Cellphone Shashi Tharoor
Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance? Louis V Gerstner Jr
The Origin Of Brands Al Ries and Laura Ries
Businessthink Stephen R Covey
The Bonfire of the Vanities Tom Wolfe
The Romance of Tata Steel Michael Smith
The Age of Turbulence Alan Greenspan
The Black Swan Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Think Big and Kick Ass in Business and Life Donald Trump and Bill Zanker
Microtrends Mark J. Penn with E. Kinney Zalesne
A Bull in China Jim Rogers
Our Iceberg Is Melting John Kotter, Holger Rathgeber
An Outsiders Perspective P Chidambaram
Horizons : The Tata India Century 1904-2004 Aman Nath & Jay Vithalani
Sugar in Milk: Lives of Eminent Parsis Bakhtiar K. Dadabhoy
The Power of Unreasonable People John Elkington and Pamela Hartigan
Billions of Entrepreneurs Tarun Khanna
My Secret Life on the McJob Jerry Newman
Biography of the Dollar Craig Karmin
The Logic of Life Tim Harford

(38) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

EVENTS 2007-08
JANUARY 2007 16 : India drafts its 14-clause version of
the important bilateral nuclear
agreement with the US, called ‘123
1: Mr. Ban Ki-moon of South Korea
a g r e e m e n t ’.
takes over as the new UN Secretary-
General. 20 : E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r s o f t h e
11 : In a dramatic development, European Union (EU) announce in
Bangladesh President Mr. Iajuddin Brussels (Belgium) that they will cut
Ahmed resigns as chief of the non- down overall carbon dioxide
party caretaker government and emissions by 20 percent by 2010.
declares emergency in the country. 25 : Indian doctors in Britain win a major
concession as the Health
20 : Ms. Hillary Clinton, former first
Department agrees to delay the
lady and New York senator,
implementation of the new
becomes the first woman to bid for
discriminatory immigration rules
US Presidency in the country’s 230-
which effectively bar government
year history that has seen 43
hospitals from hiring doctors from
presidents – all White Anglo-Saxon
outside the European Union.
26 : Mr. Martin Scorsese wins his first
25 : Climate change remains the focus
best director’s prize at the Oscars
of discussions at the World
for his film The Departed; the film
Economic Forum on the first day
also grabs the Best Picture Prize at
in Davos (Switzerland).
the 79th Academy Awards.
29 : Bollywood star Shilpa Shetty
becomes the first Indian to win the
Celebrity Big Brother, a reality MARCH 2007
show on UK’s Channel 4, beating
Pop Star Jermaine Jackson. 3 : Pakistan test-fires a short-range
31 : Mr. Ratan Tata, Chairman of Tata surface-to-surface nuclear missile
Group, acquires the Anglo-Dutch ‘Hatf-II’ or ‘Abdali’, barely 8 days
steel firm Corus for £6.7 billion after a similar test.
outbidding Brazil’s Companhia 6 : Chinese Foreign Minister Mr. Li
Siderurgica Nacional (CSN) in Zhaoxing, in Beijing, says that the
London. boundary dispute between India and
China is a problem imposed on the
FEBRUARY 2007 people of both countries by
“Western colonialists”.
14 : The Foreign Secretaries of India
1: The jumbo Council of Ministers of
and Pakistan, Mr. Shiv Shankar
the Mahinda Rajapakse
Menon and Mr. Riaz Mohammed
government of Sri Lanka swells to
Khan, respectively, conclude talks
108 members in Parliament of 225.
in Islamabad agreeing to consider
5: The Board of Directors of PepsiCo a set of new Kashmir-related
announces the appointment of confidence building measures
Indian-American corporate leader (CBMs), and conclude a host of
Ms. Indra Nooyi as the agreements relating to peace and
Chairwoman of the company. security.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (39) of (202)

27 : T h e A m n e s t y I n t e r n a t i o n a l 7 : Nobel laureate Prof. Amartya Sen
expresses its grave concern about is chosen for the 2007 World
reports that American intelligence Economic Prize.
agents have detained and 8 : An Israeli archaeologist finds the
interrogated terror suspects in tomb of King Herod.
secret places in Pakistan.
11 : East Timor Prime Minister Mr. Jose
31 : Pakistan successfully test-fires a Ramos, a Nobel Peace laureate, is
short range nuclear-capable, elected as President.
surface-to-surface missile named
25 : The Sri Lankan Government agrees
Abdali or Hatf VI with a range of
in ‘principle’ to consider amending
200 km.
the Grant of Citizenship to Persons
of Indian Origin Act, 2003.
APRIL 2007 29 : Mr. Umaru Yar’Adua is sworn in
as the President of Nigeria.
1 : Prime Minister Mr. Girija Prasad 30 : Thailand’s Constitutional Court bans
Koirala of Nepal takes a fresh oath the deposed Prime Minister
as the head of the country’s interim Mr. Thaksin Shinawatra from
Government, comprising the Nepal politics for five years.
Communist Party (Maoist).
3 : A strong 6.2 magnitude earthquake JUNE 2007
rocks Afghanistan, Pakistan and
parts of northern India, triggering
panic in the region, where a 2 : The Sixth Asian Security
devastating trembler in October Conference is held in Singapore.
2005 claimed about 80,000 lives. 6 : The 33rd Summit of leaders of G8
10 : Pakistan’s cabinet committee on begins in Heilingendamm
economic affairs approves a gas- (Germany).
sharing agreement with India. 13 : Mr. Shimon Peres, 83, is elected
13 : A g i t a t i o n o v e r t h e o u s t e r o f the ninth President of Israel.
Pakistan Chief Justice Iftikhar 16 : Noted novelist Mr. Salman
Muhammad Chaudhry rocks Rushdie is conferred
Pakistan. ‘Knighthood’ by Queen Elizabeth
24 : NASA releases the first 3-dimensional II of Great Britain in London.
images of Sun from Solar 19 : The French Government presents
Terrestrial Relations the ‘Chevalier de l’Ordre
Observatory (STEREO). National du Merite’ (Knight of the
28 : Indonesia and Singapore sign a Order of Merit) award to Kolkata
defence cooperation agreement and Book Fair Director, Mr. Kalyan Shah.
an extradition treaty in Bali. 27 : Mr. Gordon Brown takes over as
30 : P a k i s t a n P r e s i d e n t G e n . P e r v e z the new Prime Minister of Britain.
Musharraf and his Afghan
counterpart Mr. Hamid Karzai sign JULY 2007
the crucial Ankara Declaration.
1 : Leaders of the African Union
MAY 2007 begin a three-day Summit in Accra
6: Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy, a 7 : In a glittering ceremony in Lisbon, a
Conservative Party leader, is private Swiss foundation chooses
elected President of France. seven “new wonders of the world”
in which Taj gets the supreme place.
(40) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
10 : Abdul Rashid Ghazi, the Islamic 8 : Mr. Xanana Gusmao who has also
cleric who gave a spark to Lal served as the country’s first
Masjid’s confrontation is killed in President, is sworn in as East Timor’s
bloody fighting. new Prime Minister in Dili.
11 : The Royal Society, UK’s National 18 : Russia resumes global patrols by
Academy of Science in London its long-range bombers to deal with
confers the King Charles II Medal the threats to its national security.
on Hon’ble President Dr. A.P.J. 21 : R u s s i a n P r e s i d e n t M r . V l a d i m i r
Abdul Kalam in recognition of his Putin kicks off Russia’s biggest air
extraordinary contribution to show, vowing to use oil windfall to
promotion of science in India. boost the plane-building and other
14 : The Australian Federal Police (AFP) high-tech industries.
charges Indian doctor Mohammed 28 : T h e T u r k i s h P a r l i a m e n t e l e c t s
Haneef with terrorist activities. Foreign Minister Mr. Abdullah Gul
20 : T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f P a k i s t a n as the country’s President, making
reverses the Government’s decision him the secular republic’s first head
thereby reinstating the ousted of the state with an Islamist past.
Chief Justice, Mr. Iftikhar 29 : The Taliban sets free 12 of the 19
Chaudhry. This is the first time in South Korean captives as the
the 60-year history of Pakistan that six-week hostage crisis in
the decision of a military ruler has Afghanistan reaches near
been reversed. resolution.
23 : Turkey’s Justice and Development
(AK) party led by Prime Minister
Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdogan
sweeps victory in the Parliamentary
elections, cornering 46.7 percent of 2 : The US and North Korea resume
the votes and 341 seats in the 550- nuclear weapon talks in Geneva,
member Parliament. with the chief US negotiator hoping
27 : Sri Lanka becomes a member of the to nail down progress achieved
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). earlier.
31 : A u s t r a l i a assures India of 6 : Nepal’s largest and oldest party,
“cooperation” in the civil nuclear the Nepali Congress, decides to
energy sector during the 40th go in for a federal republic,
Ministerial Meeting of the Association practically ending any space for the
of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) survival of the 240-year monarchy
in Manila (The Philippines). in the country.
10 : I n d i a a n d M e x i c o s i g n t h r e e
pacts, including an extradition
AUGUST 2007 treaty and a double tax avoidance
1 : During a meeting organised by the 12 : R u s s i a a n n o u n c e s t h a t i t h a s
Association of South East Asian successfully tested a lethal new air-
Nations (ASEAN) in Manila delivered bomb, which it says is the
(Philippines), External Affairs world’s most powerful non-nuclear
Minister Mr. Pranab Mukherjee weapon.
and Chinese Foreign Minister
20 : P a k i s t a n E l e c t i o n C o m m i s s i o n
Mr. Yang Jiechi express satisfaction
announces October 6, 2007 as the
on the bilateral trade relations
date of Presidential election,
between the two countries and
clearing the way for President Gen.
discuss climate change and energy
Pervez Musharraf to run for the
security issues.
top post.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (41) of (202)
23 : Japan’s ruling party, the Liberal opposition resignations and boycott,
Democratic Party, chooses centrist and questions about the legality of
Mr. Yasuo Fukuda as the his candidacy pending in the
country’s next Prime Minister, after Supreme Court that prevented the
Mr. Fukuda fends off a challenge official declaration of the results.
from the former Foreign Minister, 8: Prof. Mario Capecchi and
Mr. Taro Aso. Prof. Martin Evans of USA with UK’s
30 : North Korea agrees to declare all Prof. Oliver Smithies are announced
its nuclear programmes and disable as the winners of the 2007 Nobel
its main atomic reactor in Prize in Medicine for their creation
Yongbyon under the US of “designer mice” to track the roles
supervision by year-end as the next of different genes in human
step in a landmark agreement development and disease.
reached by the six parties at the 9 : France’s Prof. Albert Fert and
second round of their talks in Germany’s Prof. Peter Gruenberg win
Beijing. the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics
for a discovery that has shrunk the
OCTOBER 2007 size of hard disks found in computers,
iPods and other devices.
10 : Germany’s Prof. Gerhard Ertl wins
2 : UPA Chairperson Ms. Sonia Gandhi
the 2007 Nobel Prize in
addresses the United Nations
Chemistry for his studies of
General Assembly as the United
chemical reactions on solid surfaces,
Nations marks Mahatma Gandhi’s
which are key to understanding
birthday as the first International
questions related to the thinning of
Day of Non-violence.
ozone layer.
3 : Prof. Ben Green, Hershel Smith
11 : British writer Ms. Doris Lessing wins
Professor of Mathematics at
the 2007 Nobel Literature Prize
Cambridge University (UK), is
for her epic novels which cover
selected for the prestigious
feminism, politics and her youth in
SASTRA Ramanujan Prize in
recognition of his outstanding
contributions to different areas on 12 : The former US President Mr. Al Gore
mathematics influenced by the and the UN’s top climate panel, the
Indian genius Srinivasa Ramanujan. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
4 : South Korea and North Korea agree Change (IPCC), jointly win the
to resolve the issue of unification 2007 Nobel Peace Prize.
on their own initiative in accordance 15 : Three USA economists Prof. Leonid
with the spirit of by-the-Korean Hurwicz, Prof. Eric S. Maskin and
people themselves. Prof. Roger B. Myerson are
announced as Nobel Prize
5 : Nepal’s peace progress suffers a
winners in Economics for 2007.
setback after the Coalition
government decides to suspend the 16 : Irish author Ms. Anne Enright wins
Constituent Assembly election the Man Booker Prize for her
scheduled for November 22, owing novel ‘The Gathering.’
to irreconcilable differences among 17 : At the IBSA Summit in Pretoria, Prime
Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with
the partners of the ruling combine
South African President Mr. Thabo
on the future of the monarchy and Mbeki and Brazilian President Mr.
the modality of the election. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
6 : Pakistan President Gen. Pervez emphasise on the need for ensuring
Musharraf gains victory in a the supply of safe, sustainable and
Presidential election marred by non-polluting sources of energy to
meet the rising demand.
(42) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
18 :The former Pakistan Prime Minister, 6 : China and Russia pledged to step
Ms. Benazir Bhutto r e t u r n s t o up their partnership as they inked
Pakistan ending eight years of self- sweeping deals covering politics,
i m p o s e d e x il e . S o o n a f t e r, s h e diplomacy, energy and finance. The
narrowly escapes a suicide attack agreements were signed after
in which over 150 persons are killed. visiting Chinese Prime Minister Wen
20 : Mr. Bobby Jindal, a Conservative Jiabao and his Russian counterpart
Republican Congressman from the Viktor Zubkov conferred on
New Orleans suburbs is elected bilateral relations.
Louisiana’s Governor, the nation’s 7 : Justice Iftikhar Mohammad
youngest and first Indian-American C h a u d h a r y, t h e d e p o s e d C h i e f
Governor. Justice of Pakistan Supreme Court,
21 : The 17 th National Congress of the was awarded the highest honour of
Communist Party of China (CPC) the prestigious Harvard Law
adopts a resolution to amend the CPC School, Medal of Freedom for his
constitution, enshrining “Scientific work to uphold the legal system's
Outlook on Development” and fundamental commitment to freedom
other strategic thoughts. and justice.
24 :During a trilateral meeting among 7 : Iran built a landmark 3,000
External Affairs Minister Mr. Pranab centrifuges for uranium enrichment,
Mukherjee, Chinese External Affairs according to President Mahmoud
Minister Mr. Yang Jiechi and their Ahmadinejad, despite inter-
R u s s i a n c o u n t e r p a r t M r. Sergei national pressure to halt its atomic
Lavrov in Harlin, China, India work. Scientists say that in ideal
opposes imposing sanctions on conditions, 3,000 centrifuges can
Myanmar and calls for encouraging make enough highly enriched
all stake holders to advance political uranium in a year's time for an atom
reforms and national reconciliation. bomb.
28 : Argentina’s First Lady, Ms. Cristina 7 : Of the 123 countries ranked in the
Fernandez de Kirchner wins the Trade and Development Index
country’s presidential election, (TDI) 2006 by the United Nations
becoming the first elected woman C o n f e re n c e on Tr a d e and
President. Development ( UNCTAD), India
secured 86th position. The TDI
indicates how well trade and
development are integrated in a
c o u n t r y. I t t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t
3 : Pakistani President General economic, social and institutional
Pervez Musharraf declared factors like human capital, physical
emergency rule, suspended the infrastructure and trade
Constitution and fired the country's performance to determine the
Chief Justice. extent of contribution of trade to
5 : Social Democrat Alvaro Colom was overall development. The US ranks
elected Guatemala's new number one, followed by Germany,
President, promising a new Denmark, the UK and Singapore.
beginning and a broad political 8 : US author Norman Mailer, the
dialogue to confront the Central author of World War II account
American country's economic and “The Naked and the Dead” passed
social problems. away in New York. Norman Mailer
6 : China and the United States agreed won the Pulitzer Prize twice, in
to open a hotline between the 1969 for “The Armies of the Night”
defence ministries of the two and in 1980 for “The Executioner's
countries. Chinese Defence Minister Song”.
Cao Gangchuan and visiting US 10 : According to the World Economic
Secretary of Defence Robert Forum's latest Gender Gap Index
Gates made the announcement in report, India has been ranked 114
Beijing. after taking into account economic,
political, educational and health
IC : PTpnsgk01 (43) of (202)
parities, among 128 countries. 16 : Muhammed Soomro, Chairman of
Gender Gap Index was topped by the Pakistan Senate was sworn in
Sweden with a gender equality of by Pakistani President General
81.5 percent, followed by Norway, Pervez Musharraf as the caretaker
Finland and Iceland. Prime Minister to take the country
12 : India and Russia have resolved the into the January 2008
long-pending issue of utilising the Parliamentary elections.
rupee debt fund totalling Rs. 80 16 : The UN General Assembly passed a
billion for Russian investments and draft resolution calling for an end to
trade and signed an accord on the death penalty, which critics
development and production of a complained marked an attempt to
multi-role transport aircraft. The two interfere with the sovereignty of the
sides inked four agreements after UN member-states.
the 2-day Eighth Indo-Russian 17 : I s r a e l a n d t h e P a l e s t i n i a n
Summit talks between Indian Prime Authority agreed on a pledge to
Minister Dr Manmohan Singh and negotiate "immediately and
Russian President Vladimir Putin at continuously" to reach a final
the Kremlin. peace agreement within a year.
12 : China launched a new remote But the draft declaration avoids
sensing satellite, nearly three going into detail on the core issues.
weeks after its first lunar orbiter Israel has rejected any mention of
was sent into space. The 2,700 kg the 1967 borders, seen by the
satellite Yaogan III was launched Palestinians and many others as the
on board a Long March-4C carrier indispensable basis for agreement.
rocket from the Taiyuan Satelli te 18 : An International Non-Governmental
Launch Centre in North China's Organisation (NGO), Water Aid,
Shanxi province. has put India in second place on
14 : Alexis Lemaire, a 27-year-old the list of the world’s worst places
French mathematician created a for sanitation. China is number one
world record after working out in in the 2007 Water Aid report on
his head the 13th root of a random the status of the world’s toilets.
200-digit number in just 72.4 18 : The two-day Finance Ministers and
seconds. Central Bank Governors Meeting of
15 : The five-day 20th World Energy Group of Twenty (G-20) concluded
Congress concluded in Rome. At in Kleinmond (South Africa). The
the end of the Congress, Russian meeting focused on currency
representatives confirmed that they imbalances and the risks to global
have chosen Europe as a priority growth from credit woes stemming
market for energy supplies for many from the US subprime mortgage
years. crises.
15 : The UN Nobel-winning panel of 18 : The Third Summit of Head of States
climate scientists sifted through and governments of OPEC member
evidence that global warming would countries concluded in Riyadh, Saudi
wreak far-reaching damage as they Arabia. I t issue d a call to the
prepared a report for world decision- international community to protect the
makers. The report summarises the stability of global energy markets,
assessment of the reaffirming the need to use energy
Intergovernmental Panel on for sustainable development and
Climate Change (IPCC) regarding emphasis ing the importance of
global warming, its impacts and the protecting the environment.
tools for tackling it. 19 : The US and Russia reached an
15 : Russia withdrew troops that were agreement on how to safely
based in Georgia since the Soviet dispose of 34 metric tonnes of
collapse in 1991. The Russian troop Russian weapons-grade
presence had long been a source plutonium, overcoming a major
of irritation between the two hurdle in a joint nuclear non-
countries. proliferation effort that at times has
been close to falling apart.
(44) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
20 : Ian Smith, the former Rhodesian 24 : A pro-government majority of
P r i m e M i n i s t e r, w h o u n i l a t e ra ll y Bolivia's Constituent Assembly
declared independence from British approved a new draft Constitution for
rule, died at Capetown in South the country, with an opposition boycott
Africa. Smith ruled the country for and violent protests on the streets.
15 years from 1964 to 1979, in an 24 : Australia's Labour Party swept
ultimately futile effort to maintain into power at national elections,
white minority rule. Rhodesia propelling 50-year-old former diplomat
became Zimbabwe after Kevin Rudd into office on a wave of
independence from Britain in 1980. support for generational change.
20 : Dr S u r i n P i t s u w a n , a f o r m e r Labour Party routed the coalition led
Foreign Minister of Thailand, was by Conservative Party’s Prime
formally appointed as the Minister John Howard, which has
Secretary-General of ASEAN for ruled the country for 11 years, with
the period 2008-2012. a promise of major policy changes on
21 : T h e UN General Assembly Iraq and global warming.
Committee passed a resolution 25 : T h e Bush Administration
slamming Myanmar, Iran and announced that it will suspend its
North Korea for human rights legal defence of a new rule issued
abuses despite objections by in August 2007 to punish employers
several developing nations. who hire illegal immigrants,
21 : Russia announced that it will hold conceding a hard-fought opening
Presidential polls on March 2, 2008 round in a court battle over a
to elect a successor to incumbent central measure, in its strategy to
Vladimir Putin. curb illegal immigration.
22 : India ranks 128 out of 177 countries 25 : T h e f o r m e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f
in the latest Human Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, returned
Development Index (HDI) to his home land from Saudi Arabia
released by the United Nations after seven years of exile. Sharif
Development Programme (UNDP). was compelled to live in exile after
The HDI is a summary measure for the then Pakistani Army Chief and
monitoring long-term progress in present-day President Pervez
average level of human Musharraf staged a bloodless coup.
development in three basic 26 : India's High Commissioner to the UK
dimensions: a long and healthy life, and career diplomat Kamlesh
access to knowledge and decent Sharma was unanimously elected
standard of living. At the top of Secretary-General of the
the HDI list is Iceland (0.968) and Commonwealth. He will resume
at the bottom is Sierra Leone office on April 1, 2008. He is the
(0.336). In the immediate first Indian to hold the coveted post.
neighbourhood, Sri Lanka is ranked 26 : In the Croatian elections, Prime
99, Maldives 100, Bhutan 133, Minister Ivo Sanader's Croatian
Pakistan 136, Bangladesh 140 and Democratic Union (HDZ) won 60
Nepal 142. seats, while the Social Democrats
23 : The Council of the Commonwealth (SDP) got 55 seats.
suspended Pakistan for the 26 : C h i n a a n d F r a n c e s i g n e d m a j o r
second time in eight years after deals for passenger jets and a
President Pervez Musharraf clamped nuclear reactor worth $ 27 billion,
a state of emergency. after the Presidents of the two
24 : A t t h e e n d o f t h e 5 3 - n a t i o n nations vowed greater cooperation
Commonwealth Summit held in in trade and international affairs.
Kampala (Uganda), the leaders 26 : P a k i s t a n ' s President Pervez
pledged to work closely to promote Musharraf resigned as army chief in
policies to combat climate change, a ceremony held at the army's
but could not agree on headquarters at Rawalpindi and
recommending a binding target for appointed General Ashfaq Kiyani,
cutting emissions of greenhouse former Chief of the Intelligence
gases. service (ISI) as the new army chief.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (45) of (202)
27 : Pakistan's Pervez Musharraf was 3 : Asian nations came together in Beppu
sworn in as a civilian president ( J a p a n ) f o r t h e f i r s t “Water
for another five years in office, a Summit” aiming to tackle water-
day after he resigned as army related disasters, which hit this region
chief. This is his second term as more than any other and are seen
the President of Pakistan. He first to worsen due to global warming.
took power in a military coup in 3 : Vo t e r s i n Ve n e z u e l a n a r r o w l y
1999 and ruled for eight years as defeated a proposed overhaul to
a military president. the Constitution in a contentious
27 : The Middle East Peace Conference referendum over granting President
also known as “Annapolis Peace Hugo Chavez sweeping new
Conference” was held at the powers. It was the first major
United States Naval Academy in electoral defeat in the nine years
Annapolis, Maryland (US). The goal of his presidency. Voters rejected
of the conference was to produce the 69 proposed amendments 51 to
a substantive document on 49 percent.
resolving the Israeli-Palestinian
conflict along the lines of President JANUARY 2008
George W Bush's roadmap for peace
with the eventual establishment of 1 : Slovenia b e c a m e t h e f i r s t n e w
a Palestinian State. European Union member state to
30 : I r a n a g r e e d t o f i n a n c e p r o j e c t s take over the helm of the European
worth $ 1.9 billion in Sri Lanka on Union. For the next six months,
soft terms following a bilateral visit until the end of June 2008,
by Sri Lanka President Mahinda Ljabljana will be steering EU policy
Rajapakse to Tehran. following the conclusion of the
Portuguese presidency.
DECEMBER 2007 2 : India and Myanmar held
comprehensive talks in New Delhi
1 : Miss China Zi Lin Zhang was to enhance bilateral ties,
crowned Miss World 2007 at the particularly in trade and energy.
Chinese tourist resort of Sanya The visiting Foreign Minister of
while Miss Angola Michaela Reis was Myanmar, U Nyan Win held wide
the first runner up and Carolina ranging discussions with India's
Mor from Mexico was the second External Affairs Minister Pranab
runner up. Mukherjee.
2 : It was a landslide victory for 6 : A scientific expedition team from
United Russia, the party China reached the height of 3,000
supported by President Vladimir metres on the Antarctica at the
Putin, in the parliamentary Changcheng (Great wall) station
elections. United Russia bagged 315 in the west of the continent.
seats in the 450-seat Duma while 11 : Nepal will hold its first elections
the communists came a distant in nine years on April 10, 2008.
second, followed by the Liberal The twice-delayed elections will
Democratic Party. establish a special assembly which
3 : Australia ratified the Kyoto is meant to write a new
Protocol and will be a full member Constitution for Nepal, formally
of the Protocol by the end of March declare the country a republic after
2008. more than two centuries of royal
3 : The UN Climate Change rule and replace the current interim
Conference began in Bali parliament.
(Indonesia). Delegates and scientists 13 : T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i c e A g e n c y
from around the world aimed to build “Interpol” announced the
a new international pact by 2009 to resignation of its President and
combat global warming or risk economic South African Police Commissioner
and environmental disaster caused by Jackie Selebi who had been
rising temperatures. placed on extended leave in South
Africa on suspicion of corruption.
(46) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
15 : I n d i a n Prime Minister Dr the cruelty of his rule. The flag
Manmohan Singh left for India was also changed in 2004, when a
after his three-day maiden visit to line of script, allegedly in Saddam
Beijing during which he held talks Hussain's own handwriting, was
with China's top leadership and changed to Kufic script. But the
received a pledge from Beijing on latest change is only temporary, as
bilateral co-operation in the field of a design for a new flag will be
civil nuclear energy. sought after one year. The Arabic
17 : India and Malaysia finalised a inscription “Allahu Akbar” (God is
draft memorandum of Great) in green will be retained.
understanding on the recruitment 28 : Thailand’s newly elected House of
and welfare of each others' Representatives voted People
workers. India estimates that Power Party (PPP) leader Samak
nearly 150,000 of its nationals are Sundaravej as the country’s new
working in Malaysia. Prime Minister. Samak was
21 : T h e 4 t h I n d i a - U K S u m m i t backed by 310 members of the 480-
concluded in New Delhi with the two seat House of Representatives.
countries vowing to forge ever- Samak's only rival was the 43-year
closer linkage on all major political old Abhisit Vejjajiva, leader of the
and economic issues including Opposition Democrat Party, who got
counter terrorism and climate 163 votes.
change. The two Prime Ministers, 29 : T h e g o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a h a s
Dr Manmohan Singh and Gordon cleared the biggest ever arms
Brown stressed that the countries deal with the United States--
will jointly work in every conceivable purchase of six large transport
way to further boost their planes at an estimated cost of one
“strategic partnership of equals”. billion dollars (about Rs. 4,000
22 : Iraq’s parliament adopted a new, crore). The Hercules C-130 J
temporary national flag in a move aircraft, which has all-weather and
long demanded by the country night-flight capabilities will improve
minority that the Saddam the ability of the Indian armed
Hussein-era banner is reminder of forces to quickly transport troops
to areas of conflict.

Pearls of wisdom

“Life is the acceptance of responsibilities or their evasion it is a business of meeting

obligations or avoiding them. To every man the choice is continually being offered, and
by the manner of his choosing you may fairly measure him.”
IC : PTpnsgk01 (47) of (202)
EVENTS 2007-08

4: Services win the men’s National

basketball title, beating Kerala in 3 : India’s Jeev Milkha Singh is
the final played in Jaipur named ‘Asian Player of the
(Rajasthan). Year’, after a successful season
which saw him lift four titles and
6: South Africa defeat India by five
top the Asian Tour Order of Merit.
wickets in the third and final Test match
in Cape Town, to win the series 2-1. 16 : Herschelle Gibbs (South Africa)
creates ODI record by hitting six
18 : Viswanathan Anand (India) wins
6s o f f D a a n V a n B u n g e ’ s ( T h e
over Russian Grandmaster Peter
Netherlands) one over in a Group ‘A’
Svidler in the fifth round of the
match of the 2007 World Cup, which
Group A at Corus International
South Africa won by 221 runs at
Chess tournament.
Warner Park, Basseterre (St. Kitts).
31 : India score a 160-run victory over
20 : India defeat Bermuda by a record
West Indies in the fourth ODI at
margin of 257 runs in their Group B
Vadodara (Gujarat), thus winning
match of the World Cup 2007 at
the One-Day International series 3-
1; Sachin Tendulkar is declared ‘Man Port of Spain (Trinidad).
of the Series’. 24 : South Africa eke out a one-wicket
31 : Sachin Tendulkar scores his 41st win over Sri Lanka despite Lasith
century in ODIs and in all, 76th Malinga’s unprecedented four
century in international cricket at wickets in four successive balls
Vadodara. in a World Cup Super Eight match
at Georgetown (Guyana).
APRIL 2007
5 :Mumbai win the 2007 Ranji
Trophy final defeating Bengal by 8 : Martin Strel of Slovenia completes
132 runs in Mumbai. his swim of the entire 5,265 km
Amazaon River in 65 days, thus
8 :Noted chess player Koneru
making a new world swimming
Humpy wins the Rs. 1.5 lakh
MAYTAS Vizag Challenger distance record.
Trophy with a game to spare 17 : South Korean city of Incheon wins
beating J. Deepan Chakkravarthy. the bid to host the 2014 Asian
17 : India win the Hero Honda Cup Games, outmanoeuvring New
ODI series 2-1 as it defeat Sri Lanka Delhi.
by seven wickets in the final of the 27 : India wins six Bronze medals at the
four-match series in Visakhapatnam. Asian Weightlifting Championship
18 : The 33rd National Games come held in Taian in Shandong Province of
to an end in Guwahati with Manipur China.
winning the IOA’s special trophy for
emerging the best among states
bagging 51 Gold, 31 Silver and 40
Bronze medals.

(48) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

28 : Australia win the ICC Cricket 29 : S a c h i n T e n d u l k a r r e a c h e s t h e
World Cup 2007 by beating Sri total of 15,000 ODI runs while
Lanka by 53 runs in the final at playing the second one-dayer of
Keningston Oval in Bridgetown the Future Cup in Belfast, Ireland.
(Barbados). Australian speedster
Glenn McGrath who took 26 JULY 2007
wickets in the tournament is
adjudged the ‘Player of the
5 : Sochi, the Russian Black Sea resort,
Tournament’ .
wins the right to host the 2014
Winter Olympic Games at the
MAY 2007 International Olympic Committee
meeting in Guatemala City.
15 : I n d i a c l i n c h t h e o n e - d a y s e r i e s 7 : Venus Williams of USA defeats
against Bangladesh. India claim the Marion Bartoli of France 6-4, 6-1 in
honours 2-0 with M.S. Dhoni being the Wimbledon women’s singles in
declared the ‘Man of the Series’. London.
18 : Dempo Sports Club of Goa wins 8 : Roger Federer of Switzerland
its second National Football defeats Spaniard Rafael Nadal 7-6
League Title defeating Mohun (7), 4-6, 7-6 (3), 2-6, 6-2 in the
Bagan of West Bengal 1-0 at the men’s singles final at Wimbledon
Nehru Stadium, Margao (Goa). in London.
26 : China’s Guo Yue defeats Li Xiaoxia in 23 : G o l f e r P a d r a i g H a r r i n g t o n o f
the women’s singles final at the World Ireland wins the British Open
Table Tennis Championship in defeating Sergio Garcia of Spain in
Zagreb. Carnoustie, Scotland.
27 : India beat Bangladesh by an innings 29 : Iraq win the 2007 AFC Asian Cup
and 239 runs in the second Test at Football title with a 1-0 victory over
Dhaka to clinch the two-match Test Saudi Arabia in Jakarta, Indonesia.
series 1-0; Sachin Tendulkar, who
scores his 37th century in Tests, is AUGUST 2007
declared the ‘Man of the Series’.
7 : Indian Archery team led by World
JUNE 2007 Cup Gold medallist Dola Banerjee
wins the npower International
10 : Propped up by superb centuries of Archery Challenge at Lord’s
M.S. Dhoni and Mahela Jayawardene, (England).
Asia XI win the third and final ODI 8 : Manavjit Singh Sandhu is chosen
o f t h e Afro-Asia Cup c r i c k e t for the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna
tournament held at the M.A. award 2006 for his outstanding
Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai, by performance in shooting. He won
13 runs thereby clinching the series the trap shooting Gold in the World
3-0. Championships 2006 in Zagreb.
18 : Golfer Angel Cabrera of Argentina 9 : Jaspal Rana, a triple Gold
wins the US Open Championship Medallist in the 2006 Doha Asian
defeating United States’ Tiger Games, is announced as the
Woods with a 1-under-par 69 at “Sportsperson of the year
Oakmont (USA). This is the first 2006-07” at the seventh Petroleum
Argentine win in a major Sports Promotion Board’s annual
championship event in 40 years. awards function held in New Delhi.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (49) of (202)

13 : The third and final Test m a t c h 26 : V i s w a n a t h a n A n a n d o f I n d i a
between India and England at scores over Alexander Morozevich
The Oval ends in a draw. India of Russia to emerge as the 11th-
win the series 1-0. round winner at the World Chess
19 : Viswanathan Anand of India wins Championship in Mexico City,
World Rapid Chess Mexico.
Championship at Mainz (Germany)
defeating Levon Aronian 2.5-1.5 in OCTOBER 2007
the best-of-four games final.
29 : The Indian football team win the 3 : Mark Boucher o f S o u t h A f r i c a
ONGC Nehru Cup defeating Syria breaks the world record for
1-0 in New Delhi. maximum number of wicketkeeping
dismissals in the first cricket Test
SEPTEMBER 2007 against Pakistan in Karachi
(Pakistan), surpassing Australian
5 : Dimitri Mascarenhas of England Ian Healy’s record (395).
hits five sixes in an over against 12 : South Africa clinch Test series
India which is the first time five defeating Pakistan 1-0 as the
sixes have been hit in an ODI over second Test match ends in a draw
against a Test-playing nation. in Lahore (Pakistan).
9 : India retain the men’s Asia Cup 14 : Australia clinch the Future Cup
Hockey title with a resounding 7- ODI seven-match series defeating
2 win over South Korea in the India by 18 runs in the crucial sixth
summit clash at Chennai. match of the seven-match series in
11 : ICC Twenty20 World Cup begins Nagpur, Maharashtra.
in South Africa, with the host 17 : Australia clinch the Future Cup
defeating West Indies in the trophy 4-2; India defeat Australia
inaugural match. by two wickets in the last match
12 : New Zealand create a new world held at Wankhede Stadium in
record by defeating Papua New Mumbai. Murali Kartik, who picked
Guinea 39-0 in the Oceania Olympic up 6 wickets and made valuable 21
men’s hockey qualifying runs is adjudged the 'Man of the
tournament. Match.' Andrew Symonds of
Australia is chosen the 'Man of the
16 : Brett Lee of Australia claims the first
Series . '
hat-trick in Twenty20
international against Bangladesh 20 : Narjit Singh of India claims the lone
in Cape Town, South Africa. Gold for India in boxing on the last
day of the Military Games held
19 : Yuvraj Singh hits six 6s off an
in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
over, a first in Twenty20 cricket,
against England in the ICC World 20 : South Africa register a 15-6 win
Twenty20 in Durban, South Africa. over England in the Rugby World
Cup final at the Stade de France in
20 : Host China win both the men’s and
Paris (France).
women’s team titles in the Asian
Table Tennis Championship in 21 : Kimi Raikkonen clinches his first
Yangzhou. Formula One World title by
winning the Brazilian Grand Prix
24 :India win the inaugural ICC World
held in Sao Paulo.
Twenty20 defeating Pakistan by
5 runs in the final in Johannesburg, 21 : Argentine David Nalbandian beats
South Africa. Roger Federer of Switzerland 1-6,
6-3, 6-3 to clinch the Madrid
Masters tennis tournament held in
Madrid, Spain.
(50) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
21 : Justine Henin of Belgium defeats 20 : Australia won the final and second
French Tatiana Golovin 6-4, 6-4 to test match of the Warne-
secure the Zurich Open title at Muralitharan Trophy after
Zurich, Switzerland. defeating Sri Lanka by 96 runs in
29 : South Africa win ODI series 3-2 Hobart.
against Pakistan with a stunning 24 : Dola Banerjee created history by
14-run victory in the fifth and final winning the gold medal in the
match in Lahore, Pakistan. women's Individual Recurve
Competition at the World Cup
NOVEMBER 2007 Archery final in Dubai (UAE).
25 : Sachin Tendulkar b r o k e Allan
Border's record of 11,174 runs in
7 : Churchill Brothers clinched the
test matches in the first test match
120th Durand Cup football title
against Pakistan in New Delhi. Sachin
when they registered a 1-0 win over
is only behind Brian Lara who has
Mahendra United (Mumbai) in New
made 11,953 runs in test cricket.
25 : American Tyson Gay, winner of
11 : World No. 1 woman tennis player
three gold medals at the Osaka World
Justine Henin beat Maria
Championships in August 2007 and
Sharapova of Russia 5-7, 7-5, 6-3
Ethiopian distance runner Meseret
in Madrid to retain her WTA
Defar, who broke her own world
Championships Title.
record in the 5000 metres in Oslo in
11 : Australian wicket-keeper and hard- June 2007, were named Athletes
hitting left-handed batsman Adam of the Year 2007.
Gilchrist was voted Australia's
greatest player of one-day
international cricket ahead of Ricky DECEMBER 2007
Ponting and former captain Steve
Waugh. 12 : Sanath Jayasuriya, the 38-year-
13 : Roger Federer of Switzerland was old former captain and left-handed
crowned the year's top player for batsman of Sri Lanka, announced
the fourth consecutive time when his retirement from test cricket. He
he received the ATP Race Award has played 109 Tests and scored
2007 in Shanghai. 6885 runs.
15 : Saurav Ganguly became the third 16 : Sri Lanka's off-spin bowler Muttiah
cricketer in the world to have taken Muralitharan s u r p a s s e d f o r m e r
100 wickets and scored 10,000 Australian bowler Shane Warne's
runs in one day internationals. He world record of 708 test
captured this record when he took wickets. Playing his 116th match,
the wicket of Pakistan's Shahid Afridi Muralitharan created history against
in Gwalior. Sachin Tendulkar is England at Kandy, while claiming the
at number one position with 154 wicket of Paul Collingwood.
wickets and 15,835 runs in 405
ODIs followed by Sanath Jaisurya JANUARY 2008
of Sri Lanka.
18 : Switzerland’s Roger Federer won 4 : USA beat Serbia 2-1 in the final of
his fourth Masters Cup title after Hopman Cup to clinch the title.
five years in Shanghai (China) when Serena Williams and Mardy Fish of
he defeated world's No. 6 David the USA bagged the title with a
Ferrer 6-2, 6-3, 6-2. straight-set win in the deciding
mixed doubles 7-6 (5), 6-2 defeating
Jelena Jankovic and Novak Djokovic.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (51) of (202)
6 : Mikhail Youzhny of Russia beat 19 : Delhi won the Ranji Trophy after
Rafael Nadal of Spain to win the defeating Uttar Pradesh in the
Chennai Open Title in Chennai. super league final in Mumbai. Delhi
Youzhny beat Nadal 6-0, 6-1 in the won the trophy after a long gap of
final. 16 years.
6 : The logo for the 2010 22 : P e t r o l e u m S p o r t s P r o m o t i o n
Commonwealth Games designed Board registered its ninth
by Bangalore-based Idiom Design, successive victory in the men's
was launched in New Delhi at the section for the Rahimatullah Cup
grand finale of “1000 days to go” and in the women’s section for the
countdown run. The logo, Chadha Cup at the Senior National
i n c o r p o r a t i n g “ C h a k r a ”, a s a n Badminton Championship in Panaji.
unwinding spiral symbolising sport The men's team defeated Air India
is a variant of an existing logo. It 3-2 and women's team beat
also incorporates the Commonwealth Railways 2-1.
Games Federation emblem. 24 : Eight franchised city-based teams
9 : Gujarat won the Ranji Trophy will feature in the BCCI backed
Plate title in Mumbai after Indian Premier League ( I P L ) .
defeating Railways. From next year The star-studded Twenty-20 cricket
the Plate finalists will play in the competition will be held over 44
Superleague knock-out rounds. days in April and May 2008. BCCI
11 : The Bangalore Hi-Fliers defeated Vice-President and IPL Chairman
Chandigarh Dynamos in Bangalore Lalit Modi announced in Mumbai that
to clinch the Premier Hockey Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai,
League title. They beat Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mohali and
Chandigarh 2-1 in the third final of Jaipur would be the teams. The
the ESPN Premier Hockey League. tournament has a pool of nearly 80
12 : Abhijeet Gupta emerged international cricketers and the
champion in the sixth Parsvnath franchisees will take part in the
International Open Chess auctions for the players.
To u r n a m e n t w h e n h e d e f e a t e d Mukesh Ambani's Reliance
Uzbek Grandmaster Marat Industrial Limited won the Mumbai
Dzhumaev in the crucial 10th and franchise in the BCCI backed
final round. Indian Premier League (IPL), with
12 : South Africa registered victory the most expensive bid of 111.9
over West Indies in test cricket million dollars. Vijay Mallya of the
series and won the series 2-1 in UB Group was close behind with
Durban (S. Africa). 111.6 million dollars bid for
19 : India registered a historic win
over Australia in Perth in the The other IPL bids were won by
third cricket test by 72 runs after Deccan Chronicle ( 1 0 7 m i l l i o n
losing two test matches at d o l l a r s f o r H y d e r a b a d) , I n d i a
Melbourne and Sydney. Australia Cements (91 million dollars for
which was chasing the target of Chennai), GMR Group (84 million
413 runs for a record 17th dollars for Delhi) Shah Rukh's Red
successive test victory against India Chillies Entertainment (75.09
was dismissed for 340 runs. Irfan million dollars for Kolkata), Preity
Pathan was named Man of the Zinta, Ness Wadia, Karan Paul and
Match. Dabur's Mohit Burman (76 million
dollars for Mohali) and Emerging
Media (67 million dollars for

(52) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

24 : The Sony Television network and doubles final, Sun Tian-tian
Singapore-based World Sports (China) and Nenad Zimonjic
Group have purchased the (Serbia) triumphed after defeating
television rights for BCCI-backed Mahesh Bhupati and Sania Mirza of
IPL for the next 10 years for 1 India 7-6 (4), 6-4.
billion dollars. 27 : B . C h e t a n A n a n d a n d S a i n a
27 : Serbia's Novak Djokovic emerged Nehwal (both PSPB players) won
champion in men's singles final of the men's singles title and women's
the Australian Open singles title respectively in the 72nd
Championship in Melbourne senior National Badminton
(Australia). He defeated Jo-Wilfried Championship, which concluded in
Tsonga of France 4-6, 6-4, 6-3, 7- Panaji. Chetan beat Aravind Bhat
6 (2) in the thrilling match. Maria 21-14, 22-20. Saina Nehwal
Sharapova o f R u s s i a b e a t A n a defeated Trupti Murgunde 21-11,
Ivanovic of Serbia 7-5, 6-3 to clinch 21-10.
the women's singles title. It was 29 : I n d i a ' s o f f - s p i n n e r H a r b h a j a n
Sharapova's first Australian Open Singh was cleared of the charge
Title. In the men's doubles final, of racial abuse against Australian
Jonathan Erlic and Andy Ram all-rounder Andrew Symonds during
of Israel beat Arnaud Clement and the test in Sydney in the Appeal
Michael Llodra of France 7-5, 7-6 Hearing session at Adelaide Federal
(4) to emerge winner. In the mixed Court.

Pearls of wisdom

“Do not bite at the bait of pleasure till you know ther is no hook beneath it.”

“If you can imagine it, you can achieve it, if you can dream it, you can become it.”

“There are no eternal facts as there are no absolute myths.”


“God brings men into deep waters, not to drown them, but to cleanse them.”
IC : PTpnsgk01 (53) of (202)
EVENTS 2007-08
JANUARY 2007 biological laboratory called LOCAD-
PTS (short for Lab-On-a-Chip
10 : In a successful multi-mission, India’s Application Development-Portable
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Test System), which had been
(PSLV)-C7 takes off from its launched in December 2006, aboard
beachside launch pad at Sriharikota NASA’s space shuttle Discovery.
and injects four satellites into 23 : T h e Indian Space Research
precise orbit; two of which, namely Organisation (ISRO) makes the first
Cartosat-2 and SRE (Space commercial successful launch of
capsule Recovery Experiment) are Italian satellite, Agile through the
from India while LAPAN-TUBSAT is PSLV-C8.
a joint venture of Indonesia and
the Technical University of Berlin, JUNE 2007
and the PEHUENSAT-I is of
22 : The space shuttle Atlantis carrying
22 : India successfully recovers satellite Ms. Sunita Williams and six other
SRE-1 which was launched from astronauts lands safely at Edwards
Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. Air Force Base in California.


13 : China successfully puts its fourth 4 : Phoenix Mars Lander, a US

Beidou navigation satellite into space probe is successfully
orbit from the Xichang Satellite launched from Cape Canaveral,
Launch Centre in south west Florida, beginning its nine-month
China’s Sichuan province. journey to Mars, where it will dig
for clues to past and present life.
MARCH 2007
2 : Swiss astrophysicists Mr. Michel
Mayor a n d M r . Stephane Udry 2 : The Geosynchronous Satellite
discover a planet outside our solar Launch Vehicle, GSLV-F04 is
system that is potentially as successfully launched from
habitable as the Earth. Sriharikota and it places the
12 : I n d i a ’ s l a t e s t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s communication satellite INSAT-4CR
satellite, INSAT-4B, is successfully in its predetermined orbit.
launched by Ariane-5 vehicle from 27 : N A S A ’ s ‘ D a w n ’ s p a c e c r a f t i s
Kouru Island in French Guyana. launched from the Cape Canaveral
Air Force station in Florida (USA);
APRIL 2007 the first of its kind space mission
has been designed to explore two
8 : Indian-American astronaut Sunita asteroids – Ceres and Vesta – in
L. Williams tests for the first time order to throw light on the
on board the ISS (International mysteries of our solar system’s
Space Station), a miniature genesis.
(54) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
OCTOBER 2007 17 : Eka, a supercomputer developed at
Pune's Computational Research
10 : R u s s i a ’ s Soyuz-FG rocket, Laboratories (CRL), a Tata
headed to International Space subsidiary, has been ranked fourth
Station (ISS), blasts off from a in the Top 500 list of the fastest
launch facility in Kazakhstan. supercomputers in the world at
23 : US space shuttle Discovery blasts the international conference on high
off to the International Space performance computing in Reno,
Station. This is the second time in Nevada. The Tata supercomputer
NASA's history that a woman, is named Eka after the Sanskrit term
retired Air Force Col. Pamela for one, can perform 117.9 Teraflop
Melroy i s c o m m a n d i n g a s p a c e or trillions of calculations per second.
shuttle. The No. 1 position was claimed by
the Blue Gene/L system, a joint
24 : China launches its first lunar probe
development of IBM and the U.S.
when Chang’e-I, the country’s first
Department of Energy's (DOE)
lunar orbiter blasts off from Xichang
National Nuclear Security
Satellite Launch Center in China’s
Sichuan Province. Administration (NNSA), installed in
22 : T h e Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) has signed a
memorandum of understanding with
1 : “Science Express”, a special Tata Motors to develop cars that
exhibition mounted on a train was will run on hydrogen. ISRO will
flagged off at Safdarjung Railway provide the expertise for handling
Station in New Delhi on Oct 30, 2007 liquid hydrogen i.e., cryogenic
by Prime Minister Dr Manmohan technology in the proposed vehicle
Singh and German Chancellor while Tata will do the manufacturing.
Angela Merkel. The exhibition is
the result of a partnership in science
and technology between India and JANUARY 2008
Germany and explains how scientists
have uncovered some fundamental 21 : T h e Indian Space Research
understanding of nature. Organisation (ISRO) launched Israel's
12 : Intel launched its new breed of Technology Satellite from the Satish
Hafnium-based high-k metal gate Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota
chips which are smaller, faster, establishing its prowess in commercial
more energy efficient and do not launches. The Polar Satellite Launch
use toxic materials such as lead and Vehicle (PSLV-C-10) placed the 300
halogen. kg TECSAR satellite, also called as
Polaris, in the intended orbit after a
perfect lift off.

Pearls of wisdom

“A positive attitude may not solve all your problems, but it will annoy enough people to
make it worth the effort”
IC : PTpnsgk01 (55) of (202)

The Economic Times Awards, one of the country's most prestigious awards
presented every year to leading corporates, business leaders and entrepreneurs,
were conferred on the outstanding awardees in different categories in a ceremony
in Bengaluru on October 4, 2007. Talent Management, expansion on global scale
and flawless execution emerged as the leitmotif of the 2006-07 awards for
corporate excellence.

 Sensex touches 20,000-mark the Indian bourses to surge and

broader markets also participated in the
The Sensex touched the historic figure ra l l y. T h e B S E c a p i t a l g o o d s i n d e x
of 20,000 on October 29, 2007, in the gained 7 percent and the BSE Bankex
third biggest single day gain for the BSE was up by 4 percent, while the BSE oil
30-share index. The rally of 1-3 percent and gas index gained 5 percent.
in other Asian markets also supported

(56) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 Maiden commercial flight of the  Mukesh Ambani becomes the
Airbus A380 richest Indian

The Airbus A380, the world's largest Reliance industries Chairman, Mr. Mukesh
commercial jetl iner, made history on Ambani has overtaken NRI steel tycoon
October 25, 2007, with its maiden flight Mr. Lakshmi Mittal to become the richest
from Singapore to Sydney. The Singapore Indian in the world. Mr. Ambani's net worth
Airlines flight, which took off from Changi has soared past $50 billion, making him the
airport in the morning, landed several first Indian and only the fourth person
hours later in Sydney thereby scripting a after Mr. Bill Gates, Mr. Carlos Slim Helu
new era in the history of aviation. On and Mr. Warren Buffett to have a wealth
board the flight were a crew of 30 higher than this amount.
including four pilots and over 450 Based on the closing share prices of various
passengers from 35 countries. Earlier, group companies such as RIL, Reliance
tickets for the flight were sold in an online Petroleum, IPCL and Reliance Industrial
auction which raised $1.3 million for Infrastructure, Mr. Ambani was estimated
charity. Mr. Julian Hayward, who paid to have held shares worth $ 50.1 billion
more than $100,000 for a pair of first- (about Rs. 2,00,000 crore) through
class suites, was the top bidder while Mr. promoter holdings in these companies.
Georg Burdicek, who paid $560 for an
economy seat, got the cheapest ticket.  Four Indian-Americans make it
to Forbes list

Four Indian-Americans – acoustics pioneer

Mr. Amar Bose, Google founder director
Mr. Kavitark Shriram, venture capitalist
Mr. Vinod Khosla and Mr. Bharat Desai,
CEO of an info-tech outsourcing firm –
have made it to the Forbes list of richest
Americans. In the list released on
September 21, 2007, Mr. Bose shares the
The inaugural commercial flight of the 271st place with Mr. Shriram with a net
double-decker Airbus A380 has put an end w o r t h o f $ 1 . 8 b i l l i o n . M r. D e s a i a n d
to the nearly 37-year hegemony of the Mr. Khosla are ranked 286th and 317th,
Boeing 747 jumbo jet as the most spacious respectively, in the list.
passenger aircraft. Generally, the Boeing
747 jumbo jet carries about 400  India signs MoU with Bangladesh
passengers whereas the A380 is capable
of carrying as many as 853 passengers in India has signed a Memorandum of
an all-economy class configuration. Understanding (MoU) with Bangladesh on
However, for its historic first fl ight, September 16, 2007 in Dhaka on procedural
Singapore Airlines (SIA), regarded as one arrangements for importing eight million
of the best in the world, preferred a duty-free apparel articles under South
configuration of 471 passengers divided Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA). The MoU
into three classes including 12 in Singapore allows India to import apparel items from
Airlines suites, 60 in business class and Bangladesh without any conditionality of
399 in economy class. sourcing of fabric or port restrictions.
The A380 is as tall as a seven-story
building with each wing big enough to  India & Japan to sign currency
hold 70 cars. It is also the most fuel swap pact
efficient and quietest passenger jet ever
built to this date. The plane is powered During his visit to India, Japanese Prime
by four Rolls Royce Trent 900 engines. Minister Mr. Shinzo Abe, on August 22,
IC : PTpnsgk01 (57) of (202)
2 0 0 7, p r o p o s e d t o s i g n a b i l a t e r a l  Bharti, Wal-Mart form Wholesale
agreement on currency swap that will add Venture
to a regional network of such accords
designed to provide emergency financial Bharti Enterprises and Wal-Mart Stores
liquidity to either or both parties in times Inc. announced on August 6, 2007 a 50 :
of currency market or other turbulence. 50 joint venture to form Bharti Wal-Mart
M r. A b e s a i d t h a t h i s g o v e r n m e n t i s Private Ltd. for their wholesale cash-and-
committed to assist India in infrastructure carry and back-end supply chain
development, particularly the Delhi- management operations in India. Through
Mumbai and Delhi-Kolkata dedicated freight the new venture, the company would
corridors and Delhi-Mumbai Industrial serve neighbourhood kirana stores, fruits
Corridor (DMIC). and vegetable resellers, restaurants and
caterers and other business owners,
 Abatement rate raised for tour besides other retailers including Bharti
operators’ services Retail, which would be soon opening its
stores in India. The new venture would
The Centre on August 23, 2007, hiked the also provide small retailers and other
rate of abatement from 60 percent to 75 business owners a wide range of quality
percent for the purpose of calculating the products at competitive prices thereby
service tax payable by tour operators on helping them to grow their business and
‘package tour’ services. With the Central increase profitability.
Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)
issuing an amendment notification to this  Dream launch of 787 Dreamliner
effect, tour operators henceforth will be
required to pay service tax only on 25
percent instead of the earlier 40 percent
of the gross amount charged on customers
for such package tours.

 Taj Hotels Partners Okura of


Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces and Okura

Hotels and Resorts, one of the largest
international hotel groups in Japan, on
S e p t e m b e r 4 , 2 0 0 7, e n t e re d i n t o a
strategic joint marketing alliance to 787 Dreamliner, the new passenger jet
develop cross-promotional opportunities from Boeing Co., made a debut display
for both companies to harness each other’s in front of the company’s 15,000
strengths in their respective markets of employees at the aircraft manufacturer’s
dominance. Under the alliance, Taj Hotels plant at Everett, near Seattle, USA on
and Okura Hotels have agreed to July 8, 2007. The much-hyped mid-sized,
implement reciprocated points in each long-range aircraft is built with 50
loyalty programme – the Taj Inner Circle percent carbon composite materials and
and the Okura Club, wherein both hotel 15 percent titanium, making it much
chains will allow guests to earn and burn lighter and fuel efficient than existing
points at the participating hotels. aircrafts of the same size. The
Dreamliner is Boeing’s first new model in
13 years featuring a speciality of
lightweightness, whose newly designed
engines are made by General Electric
Co. and Rolls-Royce Plc that will help
save about 20 percent on fuel costs.
(58) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 ONGC to produce Gas from KG The total investment in the proposed
Basin by 2012 integrated township would be around
Rs. 1,500 crore. This IT township will
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) consist of residential apartments and
has drawn up plans to begin production retail space.
from its Krishna Godavari Basin block off
the East Coast by 2012. It has tied up  AV Birla Group launches
with GAIL (India) Ltd. for transportation Retailing Brand
and marketing of the gas. After signing
an agreement with GAIL for monetising The Aditya Birla Group has stepped into
of the reserves on July 24, 2007, ONGC the retailing segment with the launch of
C h a i r m a n a n d M a n a g i n g D i r e c t o r, Aditya Birla Retail that will operate under
Mr. R.S. Sharma said the corporation the brand name ‘Mor e’. The retail ing
estimated an initial output of 12 million venture will operate under two formats
standard cubic metres a day from the – Hyper markets and Super markets. The
KG-DWN-98/2 block in 2012. company will provide multi-shopping
formats through a series of conveniently
 NSEL to launch the country’s located neighbourhood supermarkets
first Spot Commodity Exchange that would stock the daily and weekly
household shopping needs and
The National Spot Exchange (NSEL), which destination hypermarkets that cater to
is an arm of the Multi Commodity monthly and event-based shoping needs.
Exchange (MCX), will launch its first spot The first supermarkets under the ‘More’
exchange in Ahmedabad. This will be the brand would open shortly in Pune and
first virtual spot commodity exchange in then expand quickly to other major cities.
the country. It has been decided that He also said the investment in the first
after the monitoring of the performance three years would be between Rs. 8,000
of Ahmedabad spot commodity exchange, and Rs. 9,000 crore, which will be
the company will launch others in financed through a mix of debt and
Rajasthan and Maharashtra. The MCX is equity. All stores would be owned stores
India’s largest commodity exchange. It and the investment in retailing would
has appointed Neutron Electronic System, not be from any of the listed Aditya
a communication technology solutions Birla Group companies.
provider, as its technology partner. Such
a partnership would enhance MCX to  Millionaire club swells to over
enhance its video based interactivity 100,000 in India
programme and also organise the existing
and potential stakeholders in the As per a recent study released on June
commodities trading system. This would 29, 2007 by Merrill Lynch and Capgemini,
be possible through various training the number of high net worth Indians grew
programmes. In fact, such a move will the second fastest in the world in 2006
enhance efficiency and responsiveness. with a 20.5 percent rise admist a strong
performance by stocks and property
 L&T to develop an IT Park in markets. The number of High Net Worth
Tamil Nadu Individuals (HNWI), with a net asset of
atleast $1 million, increased by 20.5
Larsen & Toubro and Arun Excello have percent to 100,015 in India in 2006,
announced that they would develop an second only after 21.2 percent growth in
IT park as part of its proposed integrated Singapore. Besides India, countries like
township at Vallancheri in Tamil Nadu. Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany,
This proposed park has been given the Russia, the UK, and the US also have
SEZ (Special Economic Zone) status. It more than one lakh people with at least
has been named as IT SEZ, ESTANCIA. one million dollars in net assets, excluding
IC : PTpnsgk01 (59) of (202)
their primary residence and consumables. initiative comes in a week when the
The number of Indian millionaires stood at world’s leading IT players – Google, Intel
about 83,000 in 2005. and 30 other companies announced a
coalition with the WWF to try to halve
 IBM launches ‘Project Big the amount of energy used by computers
Green’ within three years.

Leading information technology company  TCS ranks among world’s top 10

International Business Machine (IBM) has profitable IT companies
announced ‘Project Big Green’ in India
that will help companies reduce their Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), the
energy consumption by almost 50 largest software service company in
percent. Under the project, IBM will be India, has been ranked among the
launching new products and services world’s top 10 profitable firms with a
that will help reduce data centres’ return on equity of 46 percent, on June
energy consumption turning them into 24, 2007. TCS also ranks 23rd among
‘green’ data centres. IBM has launched world’s 100 leading IT companies. TCS,
this initiative as part of the global which went public in 2004, has been
‘Intelligent Energy’ campaign, aimed at growing rapidly with 41 percent rise in
helping economies cope with the existing revenues at $4.3 billion for the fiscal
and impending energy crisis. year ended March 31, 2007. The company
has the largest network of delivery
 L&T Infotech to invest Rs. 1,000 centres outside of India among all Indian
crore firms. In Latin America alone, it employs
more than 5,000 people, and has
L&T Infotech, the IT arm of Larsen & recently announced a new service
Toubro, will invest about Rs. 1,000 crore delivery centre in Mexico. The company
for expansion in the next three to four reported fourth-quarter profit rise of 47
years and is expecting to accumulate a percent, less than expected, as an
revenue of $1 billion by 2010. L&T has appreciation in the rupee eroded the
recently built a new 19,000 seat capacity value of overseas sales. The net income
software development centre in Navi climbed to Rs. 1,170 crore ($280 million)
Mumbai, at an investment of Rs. 60 for the three months ended March 31,
crore. L&T Infotech Chairman, Mr. A.M. 2007 from Rs. 796 crore in 2006.
Naik said, the company would be
investing Rs. 500-600 crore on  GE ties up with Healthcare Global
infrastructure and another Rs. 200-300
crore in developing engineering services GE Healthcare and Healthcare Global
in the next 3 to 4 years. Enterprises announced on June 14, 2007
a tie-up to address the growing cancer
 Wipro builds India’s first eco- diagnosis and treatment sector in India.
friendly desktops GE Healthcare is providing advanced FDA
complaint molecular imaging and scanning
Wipro Infotech has become the first equipment that can reduce the cost of
Indian computer maker to launch eco- cancer treatment and help the 77
friendly machines that comply with the percent of all cancer patients who cannot
European Union standard on Restriction access treatment in early stages.
of Hazardous Substances (RoHs) – the Healthcare Global has already set up the
information technology industry’s most first operational Molecular Imaging
stringent guidelines on the use of and Centre, functioning in Bangalore, which
limits on hazardous substances like lead, is investing over $84 million over 5 years
mercury, cadmium and compounds of to expand its treatment centres and
chromium on June 14, 2007. Wipro’s helping speciality hospitals.
(60) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 Mukesh Ambani is India’s First airline. From June 1, 2007, the airline has
Trillionaire stopped taking bookings for business class
and changed the announcement on board
a s ‘ We l c o m e o n - b o a rd J e t L ite’, w h i c h
earlier was ‘Welcome on-board Sahara
J e t L i te’. C o m p a ny o ff i c i a l s a re i n t h e
process of gradually changing the business
model, the aircraft and sinage at various
airports. Meanwhile, two or three planes
have been converted into an all-economy
configuration, while some passengers can
pay for economy class and sit in business
class if they are lucky. Jet Airways has
introduced a new livery, which has been
painted on two of the 65 aircraft in its
fleet. Moreover, over 600 employees of
Owing to sudden increase in share prices Air Sahara have become full-time
of Reliance I ndustries Ltd., the man employees of JetLite w.e.f. June 13, 2007,
behind the screen, Mr. Mukesh Ambani, as per the promise made by Jet Airways
the Chairman of the group, earned a after finalising the deal.
rare distinction by becoming the only
trillionaire in India with over Rs. 1,00,000  AI-Indian merged entity to be
crore of wealth through his known as Air India
shareholdings. M r. A n i l Ambani,
Mr. Mukesh’s younger brother is also not Ministry of Civil Aviation has announced
much far away from his elder brother that post Air India- Indian merger, the
holding close to Rs. 90,000 crore of new entity will be known as ‘Air India’,
wealth in the stock market through his while, ‘Maharaja’ will be retained as its
holdings in his group of companies. The mascot. The merged entity, to be called
combined market capitalisation of the the National Airline Company Ltd., would
four Mukesh Ambani Group of companies start operation from July 2007. The new
viz., RIL, Reliance Petroleum, IPCL and company will have its registered office
Reliance Industrial Infra-structure Ltd., in New Delhi, while its corporate office
has crossed the Rs. 2,50,000 crore will be in Mumbai. The new company’s
mark. The total promoter holding in these office for domestic operations as well as
companies is worth over half at about the strategic business units will be
Rs. 1,30,000 crore. The total investor’s mostly based in Delhi. The delivery of
wealth in the four Anil Ambani Group new aircraft including Boeing 777-200
firms viz., Reliance Communications, and A321 would begin from July 2007.
Reliance Capital, Reliance Energy and Air India is also planning to launch a
Reliance Natural Resources Ltd., has direct non-stop flight from Mumbai to
reached Rs. 1,42,384 crore, while total N e w Yo r k p r o b a b l y i n A u g u s t 2 0 0 7,
promoter holding is estimated at about followed by a non-stop Delhi-New York
Rs. 87,000 crore. flight. The new company would order or
lease 25 new aircraft by the end of
 Air Sahara renamed JetLite 2007. The logo of the new airline is a
red coloured flying swan with the ‘Konark
Air Sahara has been renamed ‘JetLite’ by Chakra’ in orange, placed inside it. The
Jet Airways Managing Director Mr. Naresh flying swan had been morphed from Air
Goyal who acquired Air Sahara for India’s characteristic logo, ‘The Centaur’,
Rs. 1,450 crore from the Sahara group whereas the ‘Konark Chakra’ was
after a long legal battle. Now, the airline reminiscent of Indian’s logo.
has been upgraded as a value-based

IC : PTpnsgk01 (61) of (202)

 Wockhardt buys top French drug issued by GAIL, the company laying the
firm for $265 million pipeline.
With gas flowing from Dahej, where
In yet another major overseas Petronet LNG imports and regassifies
acquisition, Wockhardt, the Mumbai- liquified natural gas, into the first stretch
based pharmaceutical and healthcare of the 576-km Dahej-Panvel-Dabhol
m a j o r, h a s b o u g h t N e g m a L e r a d pipeline decks have also been cleared
Laboratories, the fourth largest for resumption of the work on a 12-km
integrated pharmaceutical group in stretch of the pipeline in Chourasiya
France for $265 million (Rs. 1,089 crore). Taluka in Surat district.
It is the third largest acquisition in the But for the small stretch of 12-km, almost
pharma sector by an Indian company, all of the pipeline has been laid. Work
after Dr. Reddy’s $570 million purchase on the 12-km length was stalled as
of Betapharm, and Ranbaxy’s $324 Gujarat Government opposed the project
million acquisition of Romania’s Terapia. on the ground that the gas pricing
Negma Lerad has 600 employees, formula worked out for Dabhol would
including a 280-strong sales force. It result in rise in price of gas for industries
was owned by Ifrah Financials, a French in the State. The Centre has decided to
financing company. It has sales of $150 pool the price of spot LNG being imported
million. The company has 172 patents in for Dabhol with the long-term cheaper
its pipeline that may lead to new drugs. gas price, resulting in price of gas for
With this acquisition, Wockhardt has the power plant coming down but the
become the largest Indian pharmaceutical same for industries going up.
company in Europe with more than 1,500
employees based in the continent. It will  GAIL to invest Rs. 25,000 crore
now enjoy a pan-European presence,
covering several key markets – Germany, The state-run gas transporter GAIL plans
the United Kingdom, Ireland and France. to invest about Rs. 25,000 crore in
Wockhardt’s European business will now laying new pipelines and expanding
account for more than 60 percent of the petrochemical business during the next
company’s total revenues. Wockhardt five years.
presently has a portfolio of 130 products According to GAIL Director (Finance)
in the European market. Both Betapharm Mr. R.K. Goel, out of the total capex,
a n d Te r a p i a , t o o , w e r e o w n e d b y Rs. 10,000 crore will be funded from
venture capital funds before being internal resources and the remaining Rs.
bought by Indian companies. 15,000 crore will be borrowed from
The acquisition comes at a time when domestic and overseas market. GAIL’s
falling profits in the United States current debt-equity ratio of 0.12:1 will
unbranded medicine market have been help leverage debt for the expansion
adversely impacting the earnings of projects. The company will invest Rs.
major Indian companies. 2,744 crore during current fiscal – Rs.
1,761 crore in laying new gas pipelines,
 First stretch of Dahej-Panvel- Rs. 146 crore in petrochemicals, Rs. 500
Dabhol Pipeline commissioned crore in oil and gas exploration and Rs.
268 crore in new projects.
The first stretch of Dahej-Panvel-Dabhol Meanwhile, GAIL’s net pr ofit for the
pipeline, which will feed natural gas to financial year 2006-07 went up
the beleaguered Dabhol Power Project marginally to Rs. 2,387 crore against
in Maharashtra, has been commissioned. Rs. 2,310 crore a year ago while its
The 100-km Dahej to Surat length of the Quarter 4 profit went up by 67 percent
pipeline was commissioned by Petroleum due to overall increase in natural gas
Minister Mr. Murli Deora with a ‘gas-in’ business.
at Dahej, according to a press release
(62) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 Vodafone seals Hutch deal It is complementary and supports the
assumptions made in the bid for Mundra
UK’s telecom giant Vodafone has paid a UMPP.
discounted price of $10.9 billion in cash The acquisition is expected to secure
for Indian mobile firm Hutch-Essar to fuel requirements of TPC in the light of
complete a deal that gives it access to the aggressive growth plans charted out
one of the fastest growing mobile by it and open up opportunity to own
markets to counter saturation in and operate a range of world class,
European markets. The final price competitive and profitable power
represents a reduction of $180 million businesses in India as well as overseas.
from the originally agreed price of $11.08
billion, which reflects retention and  TCS announces historic Joint
closing adjustments as agreed with seller Venture in China
Hutchison Telecom.
The adjustments include provisions for a Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), one of
previously announced settlement pact India’s largest IT solutions companies,
with Indian partner Essar. The stage is announced the inauguration of its joint
n o w s e t f o r Vo d a fo n e t o s t a r t i t s venture in China on February 13, 2007.
operations in India, which is witnessing The joint venture is the outcome of
an addition of five million new mobile negotiations over two years between
subscribers every month. Hutch-Essar will TCS and its three Chinese partners and
become Vodafone-Essar over a period of is being touted as a role model for the
time. Chinese IT sector. According to TCS CEO
M r. S . Ra m a d o r a i , t h e j o i n t ve n t u r e ,
 Tata Power to acquire which marks an historic day in India-
Indonesian coal companies China IT collaboration, plans to employ
about 5,000 people over the next five
Ta t a Po w e r C o m p a n y ( T P C ) , I n d i a ’s years in China. The company employs
l a r g e s t p r i v a t e p o w e r g e n e ra t o r, some 800 people in China today.
announced on March 31, 2007 that it The joint venture is expected to provide
has inked definitive agreements to a big boost to the Chinese IT industry.
purchase 30 percent share in Indonesia’s The Chinese software industry has been
two major thermal coal producers, PT growing at a healthy pace of about 30-
Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) and PT Arutmin 40 percent annually in recent years.
Indonesia (Arutmin), and a related H o w e v e r, s o f t w a r e e x p o r t fr o m t h e
trading company of PT Bumi Resources mainland is behind India. In 2005, total
Tbk (Bumi). revenue earned from software export
According to a company press release, touched $3.59 billion whereas India’s
as part of the purchase, TPC has signed exports for the year ended March 31,
an Offtake Agreement with KPC, which 2006 were worth a hefty $17.2 billion.
entitles it to buy about 10 million tonnes
of coal per annum. TPC will be paying  Tatas acquire Corus
$1.1 billion for this purchase prior to
working capital and other adjustments. The Tatas, one of India’s oldest business
According to the Managing Director of houses, created corporate history on
T P C , M r. P r a s a d R . M e n o n , t h e January 31, 2007 when they outbid
acquisition of these coal companies, Brazil’s Companhia Siderurgica Nacional
among the top three largest exporting (CSN) to acquire the Anglo-Dutch steel
thermal coal mines in the world, firm Corus for an unexpected $12.1 billion
specifically addresses fuel requirements (approximately Rs.54,000 crore). This
for Mundra UMPP (Ultra Mega Power acquisition makes the 100-year-old Tata
Project), Trombay (near Mumbai) and the Steel the fifth largest steel producer in
coastal power project in Maharashtra. the world (the largest is Lakshmi Mittal’s
IC : PTpnsgk01 (63) of (202)
Mittal-Arcelor), with an annual output of with 36 making the grade. This
around 25 mil lion tonnes and 87,000 achievement marks a comeback of sorts
employees on its rolls. for Indian IT/BPO companies. In the 2006
This deal is the largest by an Indian firm list, only 26 Indian firms were named,
and the second largest in the global which was a sharp drop from the 2005
steel industry – Lakshmi Mittal forged list having 40 Indian firms.
the largest-ever deal worth $32.4 billion The US, which came second, has 32
in 2006 when his Mittal Steel acquired companies in the list. However, over a
Arcelor to create Arcelor-Mittal. dozen US companies service their clients
Though industry observers suggested mainly through BPO offices based in
that the Tatas had paid too much by India. Chinese firms presented their best
paying 608 pence (Rs. 526) a share, 5 show with eight firms making it to the
pence above the CSN offer, Tata Group 100. Four Malaysian, three from Brazil
Chairman Mr. R atan Tata justified i t and two from Russia made to the list.
saying that the acquisition of Corus, One Romanian and one Ukrainian firm
which marks Tata Steel’s first expansion debuted on the list. There was proof of
outside Asia, was worth it. The deal has world-beating individual firms emerging
lifted Tata Steel from the 56th to 5th outside India : Globant of Argentina was
position in global steel production and selected the best emerging global service
has tripled its capacity from provider while the Neusoft Group of
approximately 8.7m tonnes. It also gives China was declared the best emerging
Ta t a a c c e s s t o h i g h - va l u e E u r o p e a n Asian market.
market where Tata can ride on the back The survey brought to the fore the very
of this renowned brand. According to strong bilateral IT/BPO relationship
industry experts, the acquisition cost is between the US and India. The US is
about $710 per tonne whereas greenfield expected to purchase about $1.55 trillion
would have cost about $1200 per tonne. in IT/BPO goods and services in 2007,
According to information appearing in the of which two-thirds will probably come
media, of the $12 billion that the Tatas from India. In outsourcing, according to
have to raise to finance the deal, $4.1 PricewaterhouseCoopers, the global
billion will be pumped in as cash through market is worth $234 billion and the US
the equity route by Tata Steel. The rest represents 59 percent of this market.
will be in the form of debt raised from
three banks, ABN Amro, Credit Suisse HIGHLIGHTS
(bankers of Corus) and Deutsche Bank.
Corus, created from the merger of British  Tata Consultancy Services was rated
Steel and Hoogovens, employs 47,300 No. 1 among the top 10 best
people worldwide, including 24,000 in the performing IT services providers.
UK, at plants at Port Talbot, Scunthorpe  Polaris Software Labs topped the list
and Rotherham. of top 10 speciality application
development providers.
 Indian IT majors top 2007  Hinduja TMS was the best performing
Global Services 100 List call centre provider.
 US-based Genpact was rated No. 1
According to Global Services magazine, in human capital development and
which compiles the list of best IT and best performing BPO.
BPO companies on the basis of an 18-  Patni Computers was adjudged the
country survey, Indian firms topped the best engineering services provider.
2007 Global Services 100 List in the world

(64) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01


 NASA Launches Dawn Spacecraft  Journey To Mars Begins

To Probe Asteroids
A US space probe named Phoenix Mars
National Aeronautics and Space Lander was successfully launched on
Administration (NASA) launched its Dawn August 4, 2007 from Cape Canaveral,
spacecraft on September 27, 2007, to Florida, US, which began its nine-month
explore two asteroids located in the journey to Mars, where it will dig for
asteroid belt. The fundamental objective clues to past and present life. The
of NASA’s ambitious space mission is to Lander’s assignment is to dig through the
shed light on the early solar system by Martian soil and ice in the arctic region
exploring the two largest bodies in the and use its onboard scientific instrument
belt between Mars and Jupiter: an to analyse the samples it retrieves. The
asteroid named Vesta and a dwarf planet solar-powered Phoenix is equipped with
named Ceres. a 2.35 metre robotic arm that will enter
Scientists chose the two targets not only vertically into the soil. The craft is
because of their size but because they scheduled to complete its 680 million km
are so different from one another. Vesta, journey to Mars on May 25, 2008.
not exactly spherical in shape, is dry and
rocky, and appears to have a surface of  Atlantis Returns Safely
frozen lava. It is where many of the
meteorites found on Earth came from. Space shuttle Atlantis that carried
Ceres, upgraded to a dwarf planet in Indian-American astronaut Sunita
2006, is nearly spherical, icy and may Williams along with six crew members
have frost-covered poles. Both formed landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base
around the same time 4.5 billion years in California, USA on June 22, 2007 at
ago. 1.19 a.m. (IST). Sunita, who had set
off from Cape Canaveral on December
 Scientists Use Body Heat To 9, 2006 on space shutt le Discov ery,
Generate Electricity made history by staying 195 days in
space, the longest by a woman. She
German scientists have developed a way also set the world record for a female
of harnessing heat from the body to astronaut on spacewalks, totalling 29
generate electricity. It was confirmed by hours and 17 minutes.
the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated
Circuits on August 6, 2007. The method  Water Found On An Extrasolar
uses the difference between the body’s Planet
surface temperature and that of the
surrounding environment. The institute Scientists have reported the first
said the energy produced this way can conclusive discovery of the presence of
be used to power medical equipments. water vapour in the atmosphere of a
The system works on the principle of planet beyond our Solar System. The
thermo-electric generators-semi discovery was made by analysing the
conductor elements, which extract transit of the gas giant HD189733b, 63
electrical energy from the temperature l ight-years away, in the constellation
difference between a hot and cold Vulpecula, across its star in the infrared.
environment. Instead of a rocky world like Earth,

IC : PTpnsgk01 (65) of (202)

HD189733b is large, about 1.15 times However, astronomers believe that unlike
the mass of Jupiter. Located 4.5 million the Earth, the planet does not rotate
km from its star, it orbits the star in 2.2 on an axis and circles Gliese 581 once
days. In comparison, Earth is 150 million every 13 days. Because the planet does
km from the Sun; even Mercury, the not rotate, the side facing its sun would
innermost planet, is 70 million km away. always be bright. Besides having
HD189733b’s atmospheric temperature is appropriate temperatures, liquid water
about 1,000 Kelvin. probably exists in abundance on its
surface, according to discoverers.
 Satellite Launched For Nigeria The new planet is about five times
heavier than Earth, and gravity there
China launched a communication satellite would be about 1.6 times stronger in
for Nigeria at Xichang on May 14, 2007, comparison to the Earth. Scientists have
a first for an African country and the theorised that the planet is rocky like
first time China provided both the the Earth but the possibility exists that
satellite and the launch service. The it is a frozen “ice ball”, with liquid water
Nigerian Communication Satellite, a on its surface. However, either way it is
super-hybrid geo-stationary satellite will much larger in diameter than Earth. It is
provide communication service for Africa, 20.5 light years away from Earth.
parts of the Middle East and southern Planet 581C was discovered by a
Europe. The long March 3-B carrier telescope, which uses a special
rocket blasted off from Xichang Satellite instrument that splits light to find
Launch Centre in Southwest China’s wobbles in different wavelengths known
Sichuan province. as Doppler Effect.

 Scientists Find Most Earth-like  Gene To Stop Cancer Found

Chinese scientists have identified a gene
A team of European astronomers variant which appeared to protect people
announced the discovery of the most from various types of cancer. In the
Earth-like planet on April 24, 2007. The latest issue of the journal Nature
planet was discovered by the European Genetics, the experts said that they had
Southern Observatory in La Silla, Chile. studied the DNA of nearly 10,000
The planet, which is named 581C for the Chinese people over six and a half years
red dwarf star Gliese 581 it orbits, is by and had found that the gene variant
far the most habitable planet found appeared far more frequently than those
outside our solar system. The research who are cancer free. It is well known
team has concluded that the average that the gene Caspase-8 (CASP 8)
temperature of the planet falls regulates cell death. Programmed cell
somewhere between 32° and 104° death is important because it prevented
Fahrenheit. Although the planet orbits a cells from dividing and spreading
red dwarf star much closer to it in uncontrollably, a process that results in
comparison to the Earth, the tiny star c a n c e r.
gives off a much dimmer red light and
lasts longer than our Sun.

Pearls of wisdom

“Our lives improve only when we take chances – and the first and most difficult risk we
can take is to be honest with ourselves.”

(66) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01



Powell Creates New 100 Metre World Pankaj Advani Clinches IBSF Title :
Record : Asafa Powell of Jamaica set Pankaj Advani of India registered victory
new world record in 100 metres, clocking over compatriot Dhruv Sitwala 1963-1489
9.74 seconds in the heats of the Rieti to clinch the IBSF World Billiards title
Grand Prix in Italy on September 9, 2007. and received, the Arthur Walker Trophy
World Athletics Championships in Singapore on September 15, 2007.
2007 : The World Athletics
Championships were held in Osaka CHESS
(Japan) where Tyson Gay of USA won
the 100 m world title in 9.78 seconds on
Anand Becomes World Chess
August 26, 2007. Swedish Carolina Kluft
Champion : Viswanathan Anand of India
won a record third straight World
became World Chess Champion for the
Heptathlon Gold medal.
second time after a gap of seven years
when he took a short draw against
BADMINTON Hungarian Peter Leko in the 14th and final
round in Mexico City on September 29,
World Badminton Championship : 2007. Earlier, he beat Armenian Levon
Chinese Lin Dan won the men’s singles Aronian 2.5-1.5 in the best-of-four-games
World Badminton Championship, beating final of the World Rapid Chess Championship
Indonesian Sony Dwi Kuncora 21-11, 22- in Mainz (Germany) on August 19, 2007.
20 in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) on August
19, 2007. In women’s singles, Zhu Lin of CRICKET
China defeated Wang Chen of Hong Kong
21-8, 21-12. The men’s doubles was won
India Win Inaugural ICC World
by Indonesian pair Markis Kido and
Twenty20 : India lifted the inaugural
Hendra Setiawan 21-19, 21-19 defeating
ICC Twenty20 Trophy defeating Pakistan
Korean pair of Jung Jae-Sung and Lee
by 5 runs in the final at the Wanderers
Yong-Dae. In women’s doubles, Chinese
in Johannesburg, South Africa on
pair Yang Wei and Zhang Jiewen
September 24, 2007.
defeated compatriot pair of Gao Ling and
Huang Sui by 21-16, 21-19. Nova First Indian Wicket-keeper To
Widianto and Lilyana Natsir of Indonesia Record Six Dismissals In An ODI :
defeated Zheng Bo and Gao Ling of China Mahendra Singh Dhoni became the first
of 21-16, 21-14 to win the mixed doubles Indian wicket-keeper to record six
title. dismissals in an ODI. Dhoni achieved this
rare feat in the 5th ODI against England
at Headingley on September 3, 2007.
Sachin Scores 11,000 Runs In Test
Cricket : Sachin Tendulkar, the Indian
World Women’s Championship : cricketing legend, crossed the 11,000 runs
India emerged champion in the fourth mark in Test cricket. He achieved this
World Women’s Boxing Championship held formidable feat on July 29, 2007 during
in New Delhi by claiming 4 Gold, 1 Silver the 2nd Test match played between India
and 3 Bronze medals. and England at Trent Bridge, England.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (67) of (202)

Muralitharan – Quickest To Take on January 31, 2007 to clinch the four-
700 Test Wickets : Sri Lankan off-spin match ODI series 3-1.
wizard Muttiah Muralitharan, playing in Mumbai Regains Ranji : M u m b a i
his 113th match, became on July 14, Captain Amol Muzumdar proudly lifted the
2007, the only second bowler in the Ranji Trophy after defeating Bengal in the
history of Test cricket to take 700 or final played in Mumbai on February 5,
more wickets. 2007. This was the 37th victory for the
India Win Future Cup : Rahul Dravid home team in the history of Ranji Trophy.
and his team won the Future Cup 2-1
after winning the third and final ODI FOOTBALL
against South Africa in Belfast (Ireland)
on July 1, 2007.
Germany Win Women’s World Cup
Tendulkar Crosses Another Football Title : Germany defeated Brazil
Milestone – 15,000 Runs In ODIs : 2-0 to become the first nation to
Master Blaster Sachin Tendulkar became successfully defend the Women’s World
the first player to reach 15,000 runs in Cup Football title in Shanghai on
One-Day cricket in the second ODI September 30, 2007.
against South Africa in Belfast (Ireland) India Clinch Nehru Cup : The Indian
on June 29, 2007. Football team clinched the ONGC Nehru
Biggest Ever Test Win For India : Cup tournament title in New Delhi on
India registered an innings and 239-run August 29, 2007. The Indian team beat
v i c t o r y i n t h e s e c o n d a n d l a s t Test Syria 1-0.
against Bangladesh at the Sher-e-Bangla
Stadium in Dhaka (Bangladesh) on May
27, 2007, thus winning the two-Test
series 1-0.
Tiger Woods Wins World Bridge-
Asia XI Win Afro-Asia Cup : Asia XI
stone Invitational Golf
defeated Africa XI by 13 runs in the
Championships : Tiger Woods of US
third and final ODI of the Afro-Asia Cup
won the World Bridgestone Invitational
series at Chennai on June 10, 2007,
Golf Championships on August 5, 2007 to
thus wrapping up the series 3-0. M.S.
become the first player in the US PGA
Dhoni was adjudged ‘Man of the Match’
Tour history to claim two hat-trick wins
while Mahela Jayawardene was
in the same event.
presented the ‘Man of the Series’ award.
Jeev Milkha Singh – Asian Player
Kumble Joins 550 Test Wicket
Of The Year : India’s ace golfer Jeev
Club : Anil Kumble, the Indian leg
Milkha Singh was named Asian Player of
spinner, has become the fourth bowler
the Year at Phuket (Thailand) on March
in the history of international Test cricket
3, 2007 after a successful season where
to claim over 550 wickets (566 wickets
he lifted four titles including Volvo China
in 118 Tests).
Open and Volvo Masters besides the two
Australia Win ICC Cricket World Cup consecutive titles on the Japanese Tour.
2007 : Australia lifted the World Cup He also topped the Asian Tour Order of
2007 trophy for a record third successive Merit.
time after claiming a 53-run victory over
Sri Lanka in the final at Bridgetown
(Barbados) in Kingston Oval on April 28,
India Win ODI Series Against West India Retains Asia Cup : India
Indies : The Indian team captained by defeated South Korea with an incredible
Rahul Dravid defeated West Indies in score of 7 goals to 2 in the final of the
the final match at Vadodara (Gujarat) Asia Cup 2007 played in Chennai (Tamil
Nadu) on September 9, 2007.
(68) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
MISCELLANEOUS Women’s Singles : Venus Williams of
USA defeated Marion Bartoli of France,
33rd NATIONAL GAMES : (February to claim the title.
9 – 18, 2007) : The 33rd National Men’s Doubles : French duo Arnaud
Games concluded with a grand ceremony Clement and Michael Llodra defeated Bob
at the Indira Gandhi Athletic Stadium in Bryan and Mike Bryan, both from USA.
Guwahati (Assam) on February 18, 2007. Women’s Doubles : Cara Black of
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh gave Zimbabwe and Liezel Huber of South
away the championship trophy to Africa defeated Katarina Srebotnik of
Services, the overall Champion with 59 Slovenia and Japan’s Ai Sugiyama.
Gold, 46 Silver and 37 Bronze medals. Mixed Doubles : Jamie Murray of UK
and Jelena Jankovic of Serbia beat Jonas
Bjorkman of Sweden and Alicia Molik of
US Open Championship 2007 : Men’s
World Table Tennis Championship :
Singles : World’s No. 1 tennis player
The World Table Tennis Championship
Roger Federer of Switzerland won his
finals were held in Zagreb on May 26,
fourth consecutive US Open men’s
singles title overwhelming Novak Djokovic
Men’s Singles : Wang Liqin of China of Serbia 7-6, 7-6, 6-4 in the final in
beat his compatriot Ma Lin. New York (USA) on September 9, 2007.
Women’s Singles : Guo Yue of China Women’s Singles : Justine Henin of
beat Li Xiaoxia of China. Belgium won the US Open women’s
Men’s Doubles : Chen Qi and Ma Lin singles title defeating former champion
(China) beat Wang Liqin and Wang Hao Svetlana Kuznetsova of Russia 6-1, 6-3
(China). in the final on September 8, 2007. It
Women’s Doubles : Wang Nan and was the seventh Grand Slam of her
Zhang Yining (China) beat Guo Yue and career.
Li Xiaoxia (China). Men’s Doubles : Simon Aspelin
Mixed Doubles : Wang Liqin and Guo (Sweden) and Julian Knowle (Austria)
Yue of China beat Ma Lin and Wang Nan defeated Lukas Dlouhy and Pavel Vizner
of China. (both of Czech Republic).
Women’s Doubles : Nathalie Dechy of
TENNIS France and Dinara Safina of Russia
defeated Chuang Chia-Jung and Chan
Yung-Jan (both of Taiwan).
Wimbledon 2007 : Men’s Singles :
Mixed Doubles : Max Mirnyi and Victoria
Roger Federer of Switzerland defeated
Azarenka (both of Belarus) beat Leander
Rafael Nadal of Spain to win the
Paes (India) and Meghann Shaughnessy
Wimbledon men’s singles title, in London
(UK) on July 8, 2007.

Pearls of wisdom

“He who rejects change is the architect of decay. The only human institution which
rejects progress is the cemetery”
“One of the greatest discoveries a man makes, one of his great surprises is to find he can
do what he was afraid he couldn’t do.”
IC : PTpnsgk01 (69) of (202)
Dadasaheb Phalke Award : Veteran Gandhi International Peace Prize,
film maker Shyam Benegal was honoured 2006 : Noted Bollywood actress
with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for Ms. Shabana Azmi has been awarded the
2005 in New Delhi on September 14, Gandhi International Peace Prize the
2007 by the Hon’ble President year 2006. The prestigious award is given
Ms. Pratibha Patil. by the London-based Gandhi Foundation.

Filmfare Awards : Rang De Basanti Indira Gandhi Award for National

won the Award for Best Film at the 52nd Integration 2006 : The 22nd Indira
Filmfare Awards ceremony held in Gandhi Award for National Integration
Mumbai, Maharashtra on February 24, for 2006 has been awarded jointly to
2007. The list of winners is given below: M r. J . S . B a n d u k w a l a a n d M r. R a m
Best Film : Rang De Basanti Puniyani for promoting communal
Best Director : Rakeysh Omprakash harmony.
Mehra (Rang De Basanti)
Best Actor : Hrithik Roshan (Dhoom 2) Jnanpith Award, 2004 : Eminent
Best Actress : Kajol (Fanaa) Ka s h m i r i p o e t M r. R e h m a n Ra h i wa s
chosen for the Jnanpith Award for 2004.
Critic’s Award for Best Film : Lage Raho
Mr. Rahi, 82, is one of the most eminent
poets and critics of the Kashmiri
Critic’s Award for Best Actor : Aamir
language. His notable creations include
Khan (Rang De Basanti)
Subhuk Soda, Kalami Rahi and Siyah Rode
Critic’s Award for Best Actress : Kareena Jaren Manz.
Kapoor (Omkara)
Best Actor in a Supporting Role : Abhishek Khel Ratna Award 2006 for
Bachchan (Kabhi Alvida Na Kehna) Manavjit : Ace trap shooter Manavjit
Best Actress in a Supporting Role : Singh Sandhu was conferred the
Konkona Sen Sharma (Omkara) prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
Best Actor in a Comic Role : Arshad for 2006 by Hon’ble President
Warsi (Lage Raho Munnabhai) Ms. Pratibha Patil on August 29, 2007 at
Best Actor in a Villainous Role : Saif Ali the Ashoka Hall in the Rashtrapati Bhawan
Khan (Omkara) in New Delhi.
Best Playback Singer (Male) : Shaan,
Kailash Kher – ‘Chand Sifarish’ (Fanaa) Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award :
Best Playback Singer (Female) : Sunidhi Renowned agricultural scientist Dr. M.S.
Chauhan – ‘Beedi Jalai Le’ (Omkara) Swaminathan has been chosen for the
Best Music Award : A.R. Rahman (Rang Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award for
De Basanti) Excellence in Public Administration,
Best Lyricist : Prasoon Joshi – Chand Academics and Management, 2006.
Sifarish (Fanaa) Dr. Swaminathan has been selected in
recognition of his pioneering work in the
Best Debut : Kangana Ranaut
field of agricultural research.
R.D. Burman Award : Naresh Iyer (Rang
De Basanti)
National Communal Harmony
Lifetime Achievement Awards : Jaya
Awards 2006 : Octogenarian social
Bachchan and Javed Akhtar
activist from Assam Mr. Rabindra Nath
Upadhyay and Delhi-based Institute for
(70) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
Socialist Education were presented the Best Costume Designer : Anna Singh (Taj
National Communal Harmony Awards for Mahal – An Eternal Love Story) and
2006 by the then President Dr. A.P.J. Sabyasachi Mukherjee (Black)
Abdul Kalam in New Delhi on May 23, 2007. Special Jury Award : Anupam Kher (Maine
Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara)
National Film Awards 2005 : The Best Music Direction : Lalgudi Jayaraman
National Film Awards for 2005 were for Sringaram (Tamil)
announced on August 7, 2007. The delay Best Lyrics : Barguru Ramachandrappa
was due to court cases. The awardees (Thaayi) (Kannada)
in different categories are : Special Effects : Tata Elexi (Anniyan) (Tamil)
Best Feature Film : Budhadeb Dasgupta’s Best Choreography : Saroj Khan
Kaalpurush (Sringaram) (Tamil)
Best Non-Feature Film : Gaurav A. Jani’s
Riding Solo to the Top of The World
Outstanding Parliamentarian
Indira Gandhi Award for the Best First Awards : Hon’ble President Ms. Pratibha
Film of a Director : Parineeta Patil presented the Oustanding
Best Popular Film : Rang De Basanti Parliamentarian Awards to Union
Best Actor : Amitabh Bachchan (Black) Agriculture Minister Mr. Sharad Pawar
Best Actress : Sarika (Parzania) (2003), BJP leader Ms. Sushma Swaraj
Best Direction : Rahul Dholakia (Parzania) (2004), Union Finance Minister Mr. P.
C h i d a m b a r a m ( 2 0 0 5 ) a n d M r. M a n i
Best Audiography : Nakul Kamte for Rang
Shankar Aiyar, Minister of Panchayati
De Basanti
Raj, Youth Affairs and Sports (2006) in
Best Editing : P. S. Bharathi for Rang De
New Delhi on September 13, 2007.
Best Playback Singer (Male) : Naresh
Phalke Ratna Award : Bollywood
Iyer for Rang De Basanti
legend Dilip Kumar was conferred the
Best Playback Singer (Female) : Shreya
Phalke Ratna Award on April 30, 2007 in
Ghoshal for Paheli
Mumbai on the occasion of 138th birth
Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film anniversary of Dada Saheb Phalke, the
on National Integration : Daivanamathil father of Indian cinema.
(Malayalam) Sahitya Akademi Awards : The
Best Film on Family Welfare : Thavamai Sahitya Akademi selected two scholars –
Thavamiranthe (Tamil) Mr. Veturi Ananada Murty and Dr. Ham.
Best Film on Other Social Issues : Iqbal Pa. Nagarajaiah – for ‘Bhasha Samman-
Best Film on Environment Conservation/ 2006’ for their contribution to classical
Preservation : Kannada film Thutturi and medival literature.
Best Children’s Film : Blue Umbrella
Best Child Artist : Sai Kumar for Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize : The
Bommalata – A Bellyful of Dreams Council of Scientific and Industrial
Best Supporting Actress : Urvashi for Research (CSIR) announced the winners
Achhuvinte Amma (Malayalam) of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize to
Best Supporting Actor : Nasseeruddin 11 scientists for their oustanding
Shah for Iqbal contributions in various disciplines of
science in New Delhi on September 26,
Best Cinematography : Madhu Ambat for
2007. The list of awar dees included
Sringaram (Tamil)
Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Pundi
Best Screenplay : Prakash Jha, Sridhar Narasimham Rangarajan, Rama
Raghavan and Manoj Tyagi for Apaharan G o v i n d a r a j a n , B . V. R a j a ra m a B h a t ,
Best Art Direction : C.B. More for Taj Budaraju Srinivasa Murthy, A.Ajayaghosh
Mahal – An Eternal Love Story and Anil Bhardwaj.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (71) of (202)

Abel Prize : Mr. Srinivasa Varadhan, a Explanatory Journalism : Kenneth R.
mathematician of Indian origin in the United Weiss, Usha Lee McFarl ing and Rick
States was presented the prestigious Abel Loomis, Los Angeles Times
Prize in Oslo on May 22, 2007 for his work Local Reporting : Debbie Cenziper, Miami
on Probabilities. The prize was created by Herald
the Norwegian Government in 2002 to National Reporting : Charlie Savage,
mark the 200th anniversary of the birth Boston Globe
of the great Norwegian mathematician,
International Reporting : The Wall Street
Niels Henrik Abel.

Annual Academy Awards 2007 : At

Chinua Achebe awarded 2007 Man
the 79th Annual Academy Awards
Booker International Prize : Famous
(popularly known as the Oscars)
Nigerian novelist Mr. Chinua Achebe was
ceremony held in Los Angeles (USA) on
awarded the ‘2007 Man Booker
February 25, 2007, The Departed won
International Prize’ for fiction in London
the award for Best Motion Picture.
on June 13, 2007. Mr. Achebe is best
Following is the list of major winners :
known for his first novel ‘Things Fall
Best Motion Picture of the Year : The Apart’. Most of Achebe’s work centres
Departed on African society and politics.
Best Director : Martin Scorsese (The
Golden Palm Award : Romanian Director
Best Actor in a Leading Role : Forest Cristian Mungiu won the Golden Palm
Whitaker (The Last King Of Scotland) Award in the Cannes Film Festival 2007
Best Actress in a Leading Role : Helen for his movie 4 Months, Three Weeks and
Mirren (The Queen) Two Days. The film is about a young
Best Actor in a Supporting Role : Alan women seeking an illegal abortion during
Arkin (Little Miss Sunshine) Romania’s communist rule.
Best Actress in a Supporting Role :
Jennifer Hudson (Dreamgirls) India Abroad Person of the Year
Best Animated Feature Film of the Year Awards, 2006 : The weekly India Abroad
: Happy Feet presented the India Abroad Person of
Best Foreign Language Film : The Lives t h e Ye a r A w a r d s i n N e w Yo r k o n
Of Others (Germany) March 24, 2007. Ms. Indra Nooyi, CEO
and Chairperson-designate of Pepsi Co.,
was chosen as the Indian Abroad Person
Annual Pulitzer Prizes : The 91st
o f t h e Ye a r 2 0 0 6 . M r. S w a d e s h
annual Pulitzer Prizes in Journalism
Chatterjee was presented the First
were announced in New York on April 16,
Community Leader Award 2006. Novelist
2007. Following are the prominent winners :
Salman Rushdie was chosen for the first
Public Service : The Wall Street Journal
India Abroad Lifetime Achievement
Investigative Reporting : The Wall Street Award for his stellar corpus of work,
Journal and for his tireless encouragement to
Breaking News : Oregonian young writers. Astronaut Sunita Williams,
Investigative Journalism : Brett who is currently orbiting the Earth, was
Blackledge, Birmingham News conferred the India Abroad Publisher’s
Award for Excellence.
(72) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
International Gandhi Award : The creation of ‘designer mice’ to track the
Gandhi Memorial Leprosy Foundation of roles of different genes in human
Maharashtra has awarded its 10th development and disease.
International Gandhi Award to Mr Yohei
Sasakawa, Chairman of the Nippon Chemistry : Prof. Gerhard Ertl for his
Foundation and the World Health studies of chemical reactions on solid
Organization’s Goodwill Ambassador for surface, vital for understanding
the Elimination of Leprosy on April 12, 2007 questions related to the thinning of
in Mumbai. At the award ceremony, Vice- ozone layer.
P r e s i d e n t M r. B h a i r o n S . S h e k h a w a t
handed a certificate to Mr. Sasakawa.
E c o n o m i c s : P r o f. L e o n i d H u r w i c z
(USA), Prof. Eric S. Maskin (USA) and
Nobel Prize 2007 : The list of Nobel Prof. Roger B. Myerson (USA).
Prize winners for 2007 was announced
by Royal Swedish Academy in October
Ramon Magsaysay Award 2007 :
2 0 0 7. T h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a w a rd e e s
N o t e d m e d i a p e r s o n , M r. Pa l a g u m m i
associated with six different fields are
Sainath of India has been honoured with
as follows :
the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay award
for 2007 in recognition of his outstanding
Peace : The UN’s Intergovernmental contribution to the fields of journalism,
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and literature and the art of creative
former US Vice-President Mr. Al Gore. communication. The other prominent
awardees are as follows :
Literature : Ms. Doris Lessing (UK) Jovito R. Salonga (The Philippines) :
Government Service
Physics : Prof. Albert Fert (France) and Rev. Kim Sun-Tae (Korea) : Public Service
Prof. Peter Gruenberg (Germany) for a Mahabir Pun (Nepal) : Community
discovery that has minimised the size of Leadership
hard disks in computers, iPods and other Ta n g X i y a n g ( C h i n a ) : P e a c e &
devices. International Understanding
Chung To (China) : Emergent Leadership
Medicine : P ro f. M a r i o R . C a p e c c h i Chen Guangcheng (China) : Emergent
(USA), Prof. Martin J. Evans (UK) and Leadership
P r o f. O l i v e r S m i t h i e s ( U SA ) fo r t h e

Pearls of wisdom

“Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings”

“Ideals are like stars; you will not succeed in touching them with your hands, but like the
seafaring man on the occean desert of waters you choose them as your guides and following
them, you reach your destiny.”
“Concentration comes out of a combination of confidence and hunger.”

IC : PTpnsgk01 (73) of (202)


 Railways to establish agri-retail  New Farm Schemes introduced

The Cabinet Committee on Economic
Putting into action the assertions of Affairs (CCEA) approved two major
Railway Minister Mr. Lalu Prasad to reach schemes on August 16, 2007. These
out to the farming community and schemes include Additional Central
provide them a platform for sale of their Assistance (ACA) scheme and the
products at the local level, the Railways National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
on October 4, 2007 began inviting for wheat, rice and pulses. The aim is to
interested players to set up agriculture accelerate agricultural growth. The total
r e t a i l c h a i n s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y. outlay is more than Rs. 29,800 crore.
According to the proposal, the Railways
Under the Additional Central
would utilise the surplus land for
Assistance (ACA) scheme, an outlay of
development of facilities as part of agri-
Rs. 1,500 crore has been approved for
retail chain at non-metro stations to cash
the current fiscal. Also, Rs. 25,000
in on the retail revolution sweeping
crore has been allocated for the Eleventh
across the country. The Railways would
Five-Year Plan.
play a role of facilitator only and it would
limit itself to providing logistics at these  New export restrictions
The Ministry of External Affairs and the
 Government announces Rural Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilisers have
Job Scheme for entire country decided to introduce a mechanism that
The Union Government announced on would prevent dual use chemicals
September 28, 2007 the extension of reaching chemical & biological weapon
the National Rural Employment makers on August 6, 2007. However,
Guarantee Act (NREGA), which legitimate trade has been allowed. There
guarantees 100 days of wage will be greater scrutiny of the export of
employment to rural households, to all 24 products known as the Australia group
districts in the country. The scheme was chemicals. The Australia Group, an
started in February, 2006 in 200 most association of countries, has identified
backward districts having high Scheduled 63 items as chemical weapons precursors
Castes and Scheduled Tribes population that require strict licensing norms.
with an initial allocation of Rs. 11,500  RBI releases “The
crore. An additional 130 districts were Macroeconomic And Monetary
notified in 2007-08 and the budgetary Developments: First Quarter
allocation went up to Rs. 12,000 crore. Review 2007-08”
 Centre to import wheat The Reserve Bank of India said in a
An Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) report released on July 30, 2007, that
approved on September 3, 2007, the the manufacturing sector continues to
Centre’s plan to import 7.95 lakh tonnes drive the Indian economy, despite the
of wheat at a weighted average price of fact that growth has moderated in civil
$389.45 per tonne (about Rs. 16 a kg), aviation and mobile phone sectors.
as against Rs. 8.50 a kg minimum support
price paid to domestic farmers for wheat “The Macro-economic and Monetary
bought from them for the Public Developments: First Quarter Review”
Distribution System (PDS). 2007-08” was released on July 30, 2007.
(74) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
The report stated that manufacturing  BEL, HAL, PFC receive Navratna
sector expanded by 12.7 percent during Status
the April-May period, emerging as a key
driver for conspicuous growth in industrial Three PSEs (Public Sector Enterprises) :
production, which stood at 11.7 percent. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL),
Sectors like machinery and equipment, food Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and
products, basic metal and alloy industries Power Finance Corporation (PFC), were
and chemicals and chemical products were conferred Navratna Status in a function
the salient contributors to the held under the aegis of the Finance
manufacturing sector’s healthy Ministry in New Delhi on June 22, 2007.
performance. Union Finance Minister M r. P.
Chidambaram asked unlisted PSEs to tap
 First Natural Resource Data stock markets to realise their true
Centre in Kolkata potential, while addressing the function.
Besides conferring Navratna status to
India is set to have its first Natural
the three PSEs, Mr. Chidambaram also
Resource Data centre. National Bank for
released the ‘guidelines on corporate
Agricultural and Rural Development
g o v e r n a n c e f o r C P S E s ’. T h e o t h e r
(NABARD) is setting up the Natural
companies that have been conferred
Resource Management Centre in Kolkata.
Navratna status before are Bharat
The aim of this centre is to promote
Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat
sustainable use of land, water and
Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL),
biomass. It will also prepare a database
Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL),
on the country’s natural resources and
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited
use such data for research on research
(HPCL), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC),
management. The project was mooted in
Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited
the 1980s. NABARD acquired 1 acre at
(MTNL), National Thermal Power
Salt Lake’s sector 5 from the West Bengal
Corporation (NTPC), Oil & Natural Gas
Government in 1988.
Corporation (ONGC) and Steel Authority
This centre will be an autonomous body of India Limited (SAIL).
set up under the India Trust Act. A  Prime Minister unveils
governing body headed by the NABARD Rs. 25,000 crore agriculture
managing director will run the centre. package
There will be representatives from both
the State and Union Government in the P r i m e M i n i s t e r D r. M a n m o h a n S i n g h
governing body. announced a Rs. 25,000 crore plan at
the 53rd National Development Council
 Housing Price Index launched
(NDC) meeting at Vigyan Bhavan in New
The National Housing Bank, the Delhi on May 29, 2007 to boost the
government’s apex housing refinance country’s farm sector. The plan is based
institution, has launched India’s first on the peruse of states coming up with
housing price index. Called the NHB localised solutions for problems in their
RESIDEX, this index will tract fluctuations farm sector. The Prime Minister said
in the property market and collect data that the government would take steps
on the parallel black economy. Such data to launch a food security mission in the
will be the basis for policy decisions like coming months, in order to reduce the
rationalisation of stamp duty, capital country’s dependence on import of basic
gains tax, municipal tax and commodities such as rice and wheat.
determination of mortgage rates. A pilot Moreover, the government also intends
index had been developed earlier for to provide additional resources for
five cities – Delhi, Bangalore, Bhopal, irrigation under the Accelerated
Kolkata and Mumbai – for 5 years from Irrigation Benefits Programme. The NDC
2001 to 2005. sought a resolution selling a target to

IC : PTpnsgk01 (75) of (202)

raise wheat production by 8 million due to the continuing rally in the rupee
tonnes, rice by 10 million tonnes and against the US dollar. The country’s GDP
pulses by 2 million tonnes over the next crossed the trillion-dollar mark for the
four years. The special objective of the first time in history when the rupee
11th Five- Year Plan is to raise the appreciated to below the 41-level against
existing 2 percent growth in agriculture the US greenback on April 25, 2007, the
and allied activities to 4 percent by Swiss investment bank, Credit Suisse,
2012. The Prime Minister also said in a report.
announced that steps to restructure
the present urea-specific fertiliser Countries like the US, Japan, Germany,
subsidy programme would be under- China, the UK, France, Italy, Spain,
taken. Canada, Brazil and Russia have all
breached the trillion dollar GDP level in
 India signs BIPA with Mexico the past.
India signed a bilateral investment The bank put the country’s GDP at
protection agreement (BIPA) with Mexico around Rs. 41,00,000 crore, which
on May 21, 2007. This is the first such translates to slightly more than one
agreement with a member of the North trillion dollar at the current currency level
A m e r i c a n F r e e Tra d e A g r e e m e n t o f R s . 4 0 .7 6 a d o l l a r. B e s i d e s , t h e
(NAFTA). Other NAFTA members are the country’s stock market capitalisation has
US and Canada. The agreement has been risen to $944 billion, which is also closing
s i g n e d b y F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r, M r. P. fast on the trillion dollar level, it added.
Chidambaram and visiting Mexican The rupee has gained close to 13
Finance Minister Mr. M. Eduardo Sojo percent since moving past 47 a dollar in
Garza-Aldape. The North American trade July-August in 2006. Before the rally
bloc was created by the North American began about a month ago when the
Free Trade Agreement signed on January rupee was hovering at 45 to a dollar,
1, 1994. The grouping initially instituted the country’s GDP was estimated at
a schedule for phasing out tariffs to around $900 billion.
encourage free trade between the three
North American countries. In the recent India’s emergence as a trillion dollar
days, it has become a powerful trade economy also bodes well for the
body with strong trading relations with country’s stock market, as the Credit
European, African and Latin American Suisse report said that stock markets in
markets. Mexico offers excellent eight out of ten countries had risen in
opportunity for India to go for enhanced the one year after their economies first
market access through investments and crossed this mark. Indian stock market
joint ventures. The significance of a has risen by about 15 percent from its
sound trade relation between India and early April 2007 low on good quarterly
Mexico can be ascertained for the total results and a central bank decision to
trade level that has crossed $1.5 billion leave interest rates unchanged at its
mark in 2006 from $251 million in 1999. policy review.
Important sectors with strong Indian  India, UAE amend DTAA
exports are engineering goods, chemicals
and pharmaceuticals, gems and jewellery With a view to boosting bilateral trade
and textiles; while, Mexican exports to and economic ties, India and the United
India are dominated by crude and petro- Arab Emirates (UAE) on March 26, 2007,
chemicals. revised their agreement on Double
Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA)
 India joins Trillion Dollar Club and signed a pact for the exchange of
India has joined the elite club of 12 information between the stock exchange
countries with a trillion dollar economy, regulators in the two countries.

(76) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

The agreements were signed after talks  India receives first major FDI in
between Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Refining
Singh and the visiting Vice-President of
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
UAE, Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al
(HPCL), a state-owned oil company, has
joined hands with L.N. Mittal’s
To update their 1992 Agr eement on Luxemburg-based Mittal Investments to
Double Ta x a t i o n Avoidance and execute the Rs. 15,700 crore under
Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect construction Bathinda Refinery Project
t o Taxe s o n I n c o m e , t h e t w o s i d e s in Punjab. This is the first major FDI in
signed a protocol. An MoU was signed the oil refining sector. According to
between Emirates Security and reports that appeared in the third week
Commodities Authority and SEBI for o f F e b r u a r y 2 0 0 7, t h e H P C L B o a rd
assistance and mutual cooperation on approved the agreement which allows
exchange of information. HPCL and Mittal Investments to hold a
49 percent stake each in the project
A Framework Agreement on development and the remaining 2 percent will be
of industrial relations, which is aimed at allocated to financial institutions with the
increasing collaborations in different consent of both the parties. The 9 million
fields, was also signed. An MoU between tonnes per annum project will be
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and completed in 48 months and will have
Emirates Authority for Standardisation the capacity to produce 100 percent
and Metrology was also signed. high sulphur and heavy crude.
The two countries identified areas for According to information appearing in the
enhancing cooperation on priority basis. media, the state-run Oil India (OIL) may
These include pharmaceuticals, energy join the project in future and get 10-15
and two-way investment. percent equity share, leaving HPCL with
a lower stake. The project, which is
 India : Seventh largest steel
expected to be commissioned by 2011,
has already been granted all statutory
Minister of State for Steel, Mr. Akhilesh and regulatory approvals, including
Das, quoting Brussels-based environmental clearance. The project is
International Iron and Steel Institute expected to create a large number of
(IISI)’s study, said on March 12, 2007, employment opportunities and provide
that India’s steel production ranked impetus to industrial activities in Punjab.
seventh in 2006, up from ninth in 2004.
 Auto Mission Plan 2006-2016
Mr. Das said that India produced 44
million tonnes of crude steel in 2006,
7. 6 p e r c e n t m o re t h a n 4 0 . 9 m i l l i o n Auto Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-2016 was
tonnes in 2005. r e l e a s e d b y t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r, D r.
Manmohan Singh, on January 29, 2007
According to IISI, China continued to
in New Delhi. The plan envisages an
hold the lead position with an annual
investment of $40 billion and would strive
production of 418.8 million tonnes of
to transform India into a global
crude steel, followed by Japan (116.2
automobile player in the next ten years.
million tonnes), the United States (98.5
The plan also proposes a 25-point
million tonnes) and Russia (70.6 million
programme to help India emerge a
tonnes). The Asian region produced 53.7
manufacturing and export centre for
percent of the total crude steel
production in the world in 2006.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (77) of (202)

Speaking to mediapersons on the industry, envisages the formation of a
occasion, the Union Minister for Heavy monitoring committee under the
Industries and Public Enterprises, Mr. chairmanship of the Secretary, Ministry
S a n t o s h M o h a n D e v, s a i d t h a t t h e of Heavy Industries and Public
turnover of the automobile industry, as Enterprises and will have representatives
projected in the plan document, would from several ministries including finance,
increase to $145 billion by 2016 from road, transport, environment,
the current $35 billion, accounting for commerce, shipping, railways, petroleum
10 percent of the GDP. The Minister and natural gas and human resources
added that the export of the automobile development.
sector will have to increase to a minimum
of $35 billion from the present level of The plan has been hailed by the
$4.1 billion if India has to emerge a automobile industry, which is of the
viewpoint that this plan would provide
global player. He also said that by 2010,
the industry should provide employment the much-needed direction for this
to about 25 million people. i n d u s t r y. T h e i n d u s t r y h a s g a i n e d
importance because manufacturing base
The AMP, which has been prepared with is shifting from developed countries to
cooperation and participation of the emerging economies like India.

(78) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01


 India initiated the largest number  Government approved 22 Foreign

(16) of fresh anti-dumping Direct Investment (FDI)
investigations and final measures proposals entailing in inflow of Rs
while there has been a sharp drop 5115 crore, including that of World
worldwide in the number of new Bank's private sector arm IFC and
probes during January and June global private equity player Goldman
2007, a World Trade Organisation Sachs.
report stated on Nov. 5.
 India signed a Double Taxation
 Washington-based International Food A v o i d a n c e A g r e e m e n t ( DTA A )
Policy Research Institute in its latest with the Government of Iceland on
report entitled, "The World's Most Nov 23, 2007 for the avoidance of
Deprived: Characteristics and double taxation and for the
Causes of Extreme Poverty and prevention of fiscal evasion with
Hunger" has ranked India at 96th respect to taxes on income.
place among 119 developing
countries in its Global Hunger Index  The Centre raised Rs. 51,600 crore
(GHI) on Nov 7, 2007. from disinvestment of equity in
the Central Public Sector Enterprises
 Planning Commission in its meeting (CPSEs) and strategic sale of State-
held on Nov 8, 2007 under the owned companies since the inception
Chairmanship of Prime Minister Dr. of the policy in 1991. "The total
Manmohan Singh cleared the draft realisation from the strategic sale
of the 11th Plan (2007-12) that transactions was Rs. 6,344.35 crore,
seeks to step up economic growth which is around one-tenth of the total
rate to 9%. The total outlay of the amount of Rs 51,608.8 crore, raised
11th Plan has been placed at Rs. from disinvestment till July 31, 2007,"
3644718 crore which is more than said the White Paper on
double of the total outlay of the Disinvestment of CPSEs tabled in the
previous 10th Plan. Parliament on Nov. 23.
 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 'World Energy
 State governments approved the
Outlook 2007' report published by
introduction of a nationwide dual
IEA on Nov. 8, India is set to become
Goods and Service Tax (GST) from
the world's third largest oil importer
April 1, 2010 on Nov 28, 2007.
after the US and China before 2025,
according to the International Energy  The Trade and Development
Agency (IEA). Index (TDI) of In UNCTAD ranked
 The Union Government on Nov. 16 India at 86th place, up two ranks
withdrew the 'export licence' from its year ago position of 88,
restriction for overseas sale of onion among 123 countries included in the
as the prices of commodity have index list.
started to soften in domestic market.  The Union Government launched on
The Director General of Foreign Nov. 29 a fresh package of interest
Trade notified that the export of subsidy and reimbursement of some
onions could be undertaken after costs to help exporters struggling
getting the no-objection certificate after a 15 per cent rise in the
from NAFED and 12 other State rupee against the US dollar over
Trading Agencies (STEs).
IC : PTpnsgk01 (79) of (202)
the 2006. Customs duty on polyester in the 9th Auto Expo 2008. The price
and other man-made fibres and their of the car is expected to be Rs.
intermediate products have been 1.27 lakh and Rs. 1.30 lakh after
reduced to five per cent. The post- taking into account transportation
subsidy interest cannot exceed costs as well as 12.5 per cent VAT.
seven per cent, the rate for priority
lending.  The Minister for Civil Aviation, Praful
Patel l a u n c h e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
 Official data released by the Central Exhibition and Conference on Civil
Statistical Organisation (CSO) on Aviation 'India Aviation 2008' in
Nov. 30, showed that the GDP grew Hyderabad on Jan 11, 2008. The
by 8.9 per cent during the three Minister also announced that the Year
months ended September, down from 2008 would be celebrated as the
the previous quarter's 9.3 per cent. 'Year for Helicopters'.
 According to the survey conducted  India and China are the two fastest
by World Economic Forum, India growing major economies of the world
has been ranked 48th in the Global and are also hot investment
Competitiveness Index 2007-08 destinations globally but US-based
behind China (34th rank) but ahead Heritage Foundation places them
of Russia (58th rank) and Brazil (72nd low in a list of nations in terms of
rank) in the survey that covered 131 their Economic Freedom. India has
countries. The United States has been ranked at 115th while China is
been ranked as the world's most placed at 126th rank in the list of
competitive economy. 165 countries. Hong Kong tops the
list in economic freedom index
 The Union Government on Dec. 4 followed by Singapore, Ireland,
approved 16 Foreign Direct Australia and New Zealand.
Investment (FDI) proposals, including
that of Russia telecom firm Sistema  The Union Cabinet on January 30,
and Italian fashion retailer Dolce & 2008 decided to extend by six
Gobbana, envisaging a total inflow m o n t h s t h e t e r m o f t h e Second
of Rs. 647.48 crore. Administrative Reforms
Commission headed by Veerappa
 Ratan Tata, Chairman of the Tata
M o i ly. I t w i l l n o w h av e t i m e t il l
Group on Jan 10, 2008 unveiled his
September 30, to submit its report.
much awaited Rs. 1 lakh Car 'NANO'

Pearls of wisdom

“Earnestness is enthusiasm tempered by the reason”


“Nothing ever comes to one, that is worth having, except as a result of hard work”

“Courage is doing what you’re afraid to do. There can be no courage unless you’re scared”

(80) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil : President
Mohammad Hamid Ansari : Vice-President

Dr. Manmohan Singh : Prime Minister; in charge of Ministry of Personnel, Public
Grievances & Pensions; Planning; Atomic Energy; Space and other Ministries/Departments
that are not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister.

Mr. A.K. Antony : Defence

Mr. Pranab Mukherjee : External Affairs
Mr. Arjun Singh : Human Resource Development
Mr. Sharad Pawar : Agriculture; Food & Public Distribution,
Consumer Affairs
Mr. Lalu Prasad : Railways
Mr. Shivraj V. Patil : Home Affairs
Mr. Ram Vilas Paswan : Chemicals & Fertilizers; Steel
Mr. S. Jaipal Reddy : Urban Development
Mr. Sis Ram Ola : Mines
Mr. P. Chidambaram : Finance
Mr. Mahavir Prasad : Small Scale Industries, Agro & Rural
Mr. P. R. Kyndiah : Tribal Affairs
Mr. T. R. Baalu : Road Transport & Highways; Shipping
Mr. Shankarsinh Vaghela : Textiles
Mr. Kamal Nath : Commerce & Industry
Mr. H. R. Bhardwaj : Law & Justice
Mr. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh : Rural Development
Mr. Priyaranjan Dasmunsi : Information & Broadcasting;
Parliamentary Affairs
Mr. Mani Shankar Aiyar : Youth Affairs and Sports; Panchayati Raj;
Development of North-Eastern Region
Ms. Meira Kumar : Social Justice & Empowerment
Mr. A. Raja : Communications & Information
IC : PTpnsgk01 (81) of (202)
Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss : Health & Family Welfare
Mr. Sushil Kumar Shinde : Power
Mr. Murli Deora : Petroleum and Natural Gas
Mr. A. R. Antulay : Minority Affairs
Mr. Vayalar Ravi : Overseas Indian Affairs
Ms. Ambika Soni : Tourism & Culture
Mr. Saifuddin Soz : Water Resources
Mr. Santosh Mohan Dev : Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises
Mr. Prem Chand Gupta : Company Affairs
Mr. Kapil Sibal : Science & Technology; Earth Sciences

Ms. V. Radhika Selvi : Home Affairs
Mr. E. Ahammed : External Affairs
Mr. Suresh Pachauri : Personnel, Public Grievances and
Pensions; Parliamentary Affairs
Mr. B. K. Handique : Chemical and Fertilisers; Parliamentary
Ms. Panabaka Lakshmi : Health & Family Welfare
Dr. Dasari Narayana Rao : Coal
Dr. Shakeel Ahmad : Communications & Information
Mr. Rao Inderjit Singh : Defence
Mr. Naranbhai Rathwa : Railways
Mr. K. H. Muniappa : Shipping, Road Transport & Highways
Mr. M. V. Rajasekharan : Planning
Mr. Kantilal Bhuria : Agriculture; Food & Public Distribution,
Consumer Affairs
Mr. Manikrao Gavit : Home Affairs
Mr. Shriprakash Jaiswal : Home Affairs
Mr. Prithviraj Chavan : Prime Minister’s Office
Mr. Taslimuddin : Agriculture; Food & Public Distribution,
Consumer Affairs
Ms. Suryakanta Patil : Rural Development; Parliamentary Affairs
Mr. Md. Ali Ashraf Fatmi : HRD
Mr. R. Velu : Railways
Mr. S. S. Palanimanickam : Finance (Revenue Deptt.)
Mr. S. Regupathy : Environment & Forests
Mr. K. Venkatapathy : Law & Justice

(82) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

Ms. Subbulakshmi Jagadeesan : Social Justice & Empowerment
Mr. E.V.K.S. Elangovan : Textiles
Ms. Kanti Singh : Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises
Mr. Namo Narain Meena : Environment & Forests
Dr. Akhilesh Prasad Singh : Agriculture, Food & Public Distribution,
Consumer Affairs
Mr. Pawan Kumar Bansal : Finance
Mr. Anand Sharma : External Affairs
Mr. Ajay Maken : Urban Development
Mr. Akhilesh Das : Steel
Mr. M. M. Pallam Raju : Defence
Mr. Chandrasekhar Sahu : Rural Development
Mr. Ashwani Kumar : Dept. of Industrial Policy and Promotion,
Commerce & Industry
Ms. D. Purandeshwari : Human Resource Development
Mr. Dinsha J. Patel : Petroleum & Natural Gas
Dr. T. Subbarami Reddy : Mines
Mr. Jairam Ramesh : Dept. of Commerce (Ministry of Commerce
and Industry)
Mr. Jaiprakash Narayan Yadav : Water Resources
Malavalli H. Ambareesh : Information & Broadcasting


Supreme Commander : President Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil
Chief of the Army Staff : General Deepak Kapoor
Chief of the Naval Staff : Admiral Sureesh Mehta
Chief of the Air Staff : Air Chief Marshal Fali H. Major
Strategic Forces Command : Vice-Admiral Vijay Shankar
Chief of Integrated Defence Staff : Vice-Admiral Raman Puri

Mr. K. G. Balakrishnan : Chief Justice of India
Mr. Milon Kumar Banerjee : Attorney General of India
Mr. Justice Ashok Agarwal : Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal
Mr. Goolam E. Vahanvati : Solicitor-General of India
Mr. Vikas Singh : Additional Solicitor-General of India
Mr. Gopal Subramaniam : Additional Solicitor-General of India

IC : PTpnsgk01 (83) of (202)

States Capitals Governors Chief Ministers
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad Mr. N.D. Tiwari Dr.Y. S. Rajasekhar
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Mr.K.Sankaranarayanan Mr. Dorjee Khandu
Assam Dispur Lt. Gen.(Retd.) Mr. Tarun Gogoi
Ajit Singh
Bihar Patna Mr. R.K. Gavai Mr. Nitish Kumar
Chhattisgarh Raipur Mr. E.S.L. Narasimhan Dr. Raman Singh
Goa Panaji Mr. S. C. Jameer Mr. Digambar V. Kamat
Gujarat Gandhinagar Mr. Navalkishore Mr.Narendra Modi
Haryana Chandigarh Dr. A. R. Kidwai Mr.Bhupinder S. Hooda
Himachal Pradesh Shimla Mr. Just.(Retd.) Mr.Virbhadra Singh
Jammu and Srinagar(Summer) Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Mr. Gulam Nabi Azad
Kashmir Jammu (Winter) S. K. Sinha
Jharkhand Ranchi Mr. Syed Sibtey Razi Mr. Madhu Koda
Karnataka Bengaluru Mr. Rameshwar Thakur President’s Rule
Kerala Trivandrum Mr. R. L. Bhatia Mr.V. S. Achuthanandan
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Mr. Balram Jhakar Mr.Shivraj S Chauhan
Maharashtra Mumbai Mr. S. M. Krishna Mr. Vilasrao Deshmukh
Manipur Imphal Mr. Shivinder S Sidhu Mr. Okram Ibobi Singh
Meghalaya Shillong Mr. B. L. Joshi Mr. D.D. Lapang
Mizoram Aizawl Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Mr. Zoramthanga
M. M. Lakhera
Nagaland Kohima Mr. K. Sankaranarayan Mr. Neiphiu Rio
Orissa Bhubaneswar Mr. M.C. Bhandare Mr. Naveen Patnaik
Punjab Chandigarh Gen. (Retd.) Mr. Parkash Singh Badal
S. F. Rodrigues
Rajasthan Jaipur Mr. Shilendra Kumar Ms. Vasundhara Raje
Sikkim Gangtok Mr. Sudharshan Mr. Pawan Chamling
Tamil Nadu Chennai Mr. S. S. Barnala Mr. M. Karunanidhi
Tripura Agartala Mr. Dinesh Nandan Mr. Manik Sarkar
Uttarakhand Dehradun Mr. B.L. Joshi Maj. Gen. (Retd.) B.C.
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Mr. T. V. Rajeshwar Ms. Mayawati
West Bengal Kolkata Mr. Gopal Krishna Mr.B uddhadeb
Gandhi Bhattacharjee
(84) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
Nat. Cap.Territory Capital Lt. Governor Chief Minister
Delhi Delhi Mr. B. L. Joshi Ms. Sheila Dikshit



Union Territories Capitals Lt. Gover./Admins. Chief Ministers

Andaman and Port Blair Lt. Gen. (Retd.) —

Nicobar Islands Bhopinder Singh
Chandigarh Chandigarh Gen. (Retd.) —
S. F. Rodrigues
Dadra and Nagar Silvassa Mr. Rajni Kant Verma —
Daman and Diu Daman Mr. Rajni Kant Verma —
Lakshadweep Kavaratti Mr. Parimal Rai —
Pondicherry Pondicherry Mr. Mukut Mithi Mr. N. Rangaswamy

IC : PTpnsgk01 (85) of (202)

Mohammad Hamid Ansari : Chairman, Mr. Gurbachan Jagat : Chairman, UPSC.
Rajya Sabha. Dr. M. S. Swaminathan : Chairman,
Mr. K. Rahman Khan : Deputy Chairman, National Commission on Farmers.
Rajya Sabha. Mr. M. K. Narayanan : National Security
Mr. Somnath Chatterjee : Speaker, Lok Adviser and Special Adviser to PM
Sabha. (Internal Security).
Mr. Charanjit Singh Atwal : Deputy Mr. J. P. Batra : Chairman, Railway Board.
Speaker, Lok Sabha. Mr. Vivek Kumar Agnihotri : Secretary-
Dr. Manmohan Singh : Chairman, General, Rajya Sabha
Planning Commission. Mr. P.D.T. Achary : Secretary-General,
Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia : Deputy Lok Sabha.
Chairman, Planning Commission. Mr. P.C. Haldar : Director, IB.
Mr. A. B. Vajpayee : Chairman, BJP Mr. Vijay Shankar : Director, CBI.
Parliamentary Party.
Mr. A s h o k C h a t u r v e d i : D i r e c t o r,
Mr. L. K. Advani : Leader of Opposition Research and Analysis Wing.
(Lok Sabha).
Mr. S.I.S. Ahmed : Director-General,
Mr. Jaswant Singh : Leader of Opposition CRPF.
(Rajya Sabha).
Mr. Ashish Kumar Mitra : Director-
Mr. N. Gopalaswamy : Chief Election General,Border Security Force (BSF).
Mr. Ranjeet Kumar Das : D i r e c t o r -
Mr. Navin B. Chawla : Election General, Central Industrial Security
Commissioner. Force (CISF).
Mr. S.Y. Quraishi : Election Commissioner. Mr. A. K. Suri : Director-General, Railway
Mr. V. N. Kaul : Comptroller and Auditor- Protection Force.
General of India. Mr. V. K. Joshi : Director-General, Indo-
Mr. K.M. Chandrasekhar : Cabinet Tibetan Border Police.
S ecretary. Mr. Gopal Sharma : Director-General,
Mr. T. K. A. Nair : Principal Secretary to Sashastra Seema Bal.
Prime Minister. Vice-Admiral Rustom Faramroze
Mr. Kamal Pande : Secretary, Inter- Contractor : Director-General,
State Council. Coast Guard.
Mr. Justice S. Ratnavel Pandian : Lt. Gen. Avtar Singh : Director-General,
Chairman, National Commission for Defence Intelligence Agency.
Backward Classes. Mr. Sukhadeo Thorat : Chairman, UGC.
Ms. Shanta Sinha : Chairperson, Dr. R. Chidambaram : Principal Scientific
National Commission for Protection Adviser to the Government.
of Child Rights
Mr. M. Natarajan : Scientific Adviser to
Dr. Buta Singh : Chairman, National D e fe n c e M i n i s t e r a n d S e c r e t a r y,
Commission for Scheduled Castes Defence Research & Development
Mr. Kunwar Singh : Chairman, National Organisation.
Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
(86) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
Mr. G. Madhavan Nair : Chairman, Space Mr. C. S. Rao : Chairman, Insurance
Commission and ISRO. Regulatory Authority.
Mr. Anil Kakodkar : Chairman, Atomic Ms. Indira Bhargava : Chairperson,
Energy Commission and Secretary, C e n t r a l B o a r d o f D i r e c t Ta x e s
Dept. of Atomic Energy. (CBDT).
Mr. Nripendra Misra : Chairman, Telecom Mr. A. K. Singh : Chairman, Central Board
Regulatory Authority of India. of Excise & Customs.
Mr. B. K. Mishra : Chairman, SSC. Mr. Sushil Kumar Roongta : Chairman,
Mr. Anil Kumar : Chairman, Telecom SAIL.
Commission. Mr. S. K. Garg : CMD, NHPC.
Mr. Justice (Retd.) B. N. Kirpal: Mr. R.S. Sharma : CMD, ONGC.
Chairman, National Forest Mr. U.D. Choubey : CMD, GAIL.
Mr. S. Behuria : Chairman, IOC.
Dr. Amrita Patel : Chairperson, National
Dairy Development Board (NDDB). Mr. Prabir Sengupta : Director-General,
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade.
Lt. Gen. A.K. Nanda : Director-General,
Border Roads Organisation. Mr. M.R. Pasrija : CMD, Oil India Ltd.

Dr. Nirmal Kumar Ganguly : Director- Mr. Ashok Ganguly : Chairman, CBSE.
General, Indian Council of Medical Mr. M. Damodaran : Chairman,
Research. Securities & Exchange Board of India.
Mr. R. S. S. L. N. Bhaskardu : Chairman, Mr. Y. S. P. Thorat : Chairman, NABARD.
Public Enterprises Selection Board. Mr. O.P. Bhat : Chairman, SBI.
Mr. Prahlad Basu : Chairman, Board for Mr. R. H. Patil : Chairman, UTI Asset
Reconstruction of Public Sector Management Company.
Mr. V. P. Shetty : Chairman, IDBI.
Mr. D. K. Sikri : Registrar-General of India
and Census Commissioner. Mr. T.S. Vijayan : Chairman, LIC.

Mr. Justice D. P. Wadhwa : President, Mr. Justice Ajay Kumar Banerji :

National Consumer Disputes Chairman, Company Law Board.
Redressal Commission. Ms. Kapila Vatsayayan : P r e s i d e n t ,
Mr. A.R. Lakshmanan: Chairman, Law Indira Gandhi National Centre for the
Commission. Arts (IGNCA).

Mr. Y. V. Reddy : Governor, RBI. Mr. Nirupam Sen : India’s Permanent

Representative to UN.
Mr. Ravindra Varma : Chairman,
National Commission on Labour. Dr. Mangla Rai : Director-General, Indian
Council of Agricultural Research.
Mr. Justice G. N. Ray : Chairman, Press
Council of India. Mr. R. Jeyasheelan : Chairman, Central
Water Commission.
Mr. Ajit Bhattacharjea : Director, Press
Institute of India. Ms. Girija Vyas : Chairperson, National
Commission for Women.
Mr. Anil Kapoor : Chairman, Audit Bureau
of Circulations (ABC). Dr. C. Rangarajan : C h a i r m a n , 1 2 t h
Finance Commission.
Mr. Ravindra Kumar : Chairman, United
News of India. Prof. Suresh D. Tendulkar : Chairman,
National Statistical Commission.
Mr. Bahubali S. Shah : President, Indian
Newspaper Society. Mr. V. Rajagopalan : Chairman, Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
Mr. R. Lakshmipathy : Chairman, PTI.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (87) of (202)

Ms. Sharmila Tagore : Chairperson, Knowledge Commission.
Central Board of Film Certification. Mr. M. V. Kamath : Chairman, Prasar
Ms. Nafisa Ali : Chairperson, Children’s Bharti Board.
Film Society of India. Mr. Ratan Tata : Chairman, Investment
Mr. C. Babu Rajeev : Director-General, Commission.
Archaeological Survey of India. Mr. N. Lakshmi Narayanan : Chairman,
Mr. Habil Khorakiwala : P r e s i d e n t , NASSCOM.
FICCI. Mr. Anil K. Agarwal : President,
Mr. R. S. P. Sinha : Chairman, MTNL. ASSOCHAM.
Mr. R. N. Das : Director, Enforcement Mr. Manmohan Shetty : Chairman,
Directorate. National Film Development
Mr. D. Swarup : Chairman, Pension Fund Corporation.
Regulatory & Development Authority. Mr. Tripurari Sharan : Director, Film &
Mr. Pratyush Sinha : Central Vigilance Television Institute of India (FTII).
Commissioner. Mr. V. Thulasidas : CMD, Air-India.
Mr. S. Banerjee : Director, Bhabha Atomic Mr. V. Trivedi : CMD, Indian.
Research Centre. Mr. A. K. Puri : CMD, BHEL.
Mr. Wajahat Habibullah : Chief Mr. Ram Niwas Mirdha : Chairman,
Information Commissioner. Sangeet Natak Akademi.
Mr. Pradeep Kumar : Chairman, NHAI. Dr. Karan Singh : President, ICCR.
Ms. Rajni Patil : Chairperson, Central Prof. D. N. Tripathi : Chairman, ICHR.
Social Welfare Board.
Mr. Andre Beteille : Chairman, ICSSR.
Mr. Suresh Kalmadi : President, Indian
Olympic Association. Dr. Ishar J. Ahluwalia : Chairperson,
Prof. Krishan Kumar : Director, NCERT.
Mr. Kumarmangalam Birla : Chairman,
Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal : President, CII. Board of Trade.
Mr. Sam Pitroda : Chairman, National Mr. Mathew Varghese : Chairman, GIC.

Afghanistan : President – Hamid Karzai; Austria : P r e s i d e n t – T h o m a s K l e s t i l ;
Capital – Kabul. Chancellor – Wolfgang Schussel;
Albania : President – Alfred Moisui; Capital – Vienna.
Prime Minister – Fatos Nano; Capital – Bahrain : King – Hamad ibn al-Khalifah;
Tirana. Prime Minister – Sheikh Khalifah Sulman
Algeria:President – Abdelaziz Bouteflika; al-Khalifah; Capital – Manama.
Prime Minister – Ahmed Ouyahia; Bangladesh : President - Iajuddin
Capital – Algiers. Ahmed; Capital - Dhaka.
Argentina : President – Nestor Carlos Belarus: President - Alexander
Kirchner; Capital – Buenos Aires. Lukashenko; Prime Minister - Sergei
Australia : Governor-General – Michael Sidorsky; Capital -Minsk.
Jeffery; Prime Minister – John Winston Belgium : King - Albert II; Prime
Howard; Capital (Federal) – Canberra. Minister - Guy Verhofstadt; Capital -

(88) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

Bolivia : President - Evo Morales; Finland: President - Ms. Tarja Halonen;
Capital - La Paz. Capital - Helsinki.
Brazil : President - Luiz Inacio Lula da France : President - Nicolas Sarkozy;
Silva; Capital - Brasilia. Prime Minister – Francois Fillon;
Bulgaria : President - Georgi Purvanov; Capital - Paris.
Prime Minister - Simeon II; Capital - Gabon : President – Omar Bongo
Sofia. Ondimba; Prime Minister – Jean Eyeghe
Burkina Faso : President - Blaise Ndong; Capital – Libreville.
Compaore; Prime Minister – Paramanga Germany: P r e s i d e n t - H o r s t K o e h l e r ;
Ernest Yonli Capital -Ouagadougou. Chancellor - Ms. Angela Merkel;
Cambodia : King - Norodom Sihamoni; Capital - Berlin.
First Prime Minister -Ung Huot; Second Guyana : President - Bharrat Jagdeo;
P r i m e M i n i s t e r -H u n S e n ; C a p i t a l - Prime Minister - Samuel Hinds; Capital -
Phnom Penh. Georgetown.
Canada : Governor-General - Ms. Greece : President - Constantinos
Michaelle Jean; PM - Stephen Harper; Stephanopoulos; Prime Minister -
Capital - Ottawa. Costas Simitis; Capital - Athens.
Chile : President - Ms. Michelle Bachelet; Haiti : President – Rene Preval; Prime
Capital - Santiago. Minister – Gerard Latortue; Capital –
China : President - Hu Jintao; Prime Port-au-Prince.
Minister - Wen Jiabao; Capital -Beijing. Honduras : President – Manuel Zelaya;
Colombia : President - Alvaro Uribe Capital – Tegucigalpa.
Velez; Capital - Bogota. Hungary : President - Ferenc Madl;
Croatia: President - Stipe Mesic; Prime Prime Minister - Peter Medgyessy;
Minister -Dr. Ivo Sanader; Capital - Capital - Budapest.
Zagreb. Indonesia : President - Susilo Bambang
Cuba: President - Fidel Castro Ruz; Yudhoyono; Capital - Jakarta.
Capital - Havana. Iran : President - Mahmoud
Czech Republic: President - Vaclav Ahmadinejad; Capital - Teheran.
Klaus; Prime Minister - Jiri Paroubek; Iraq : President - Jalal Talabani; Prime
Capital - Prague. Minister - Nuri al-Maliki; Capital -
Denmark : Queen - Margrethe II; Prime Baghdad.
Minister - Anders Fogh Rasmussen; Ireland : President - Ms. Mary
Capital - Copenhagen. McAleese; Prime Minister - Bertie
East Timor : President – Jose Ramos- Ahern; Capital - Dublin.
Horta; Prime Minister – Xanana Israel : President - Shimon Peres; Prime
Gusmao; Capital - Dili. Minister – Ehud Olmert; Capital -
Ecuador : President – Rafael Correa; Jerusalem.
Capital – Quito Italy : President - Georgio Napolitano;
Egypt : President - Hosni Mubarak; Prime Prime Minister - Romano Prodi;
Minister - Ahmed Najief; Capital - Capital - Rome.
Cairo. Japan : Emperor - Akihito; Prime Minister
El Salvador : President - Mr. Elias : Yasuo Fukuda; Capital -Tokyo.
Antonic Saca; Capital - San Salvador. Jordan : King - Abdullah II; Prime
Ethiopia: President - Girma M i n i s t e r - Faisal al-Fayez; Capital -
Woldegyiorgis; Prime Minister - Meles Amman.
Zenawi; Capital - Addis Ababa.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (89) of (202)

Kazakhstan : President - Nursultan A. Nepal : King - Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Nazarbayev; Prime Minister – Karim Dev; P r i m e M i n i s t e r - G i r i j a P r a s a d
Masimov; Capital - Astana. Koirala; Capital - Kathmandu.
Kenya : President - Mwai Kibaki; Capital Netherlands : Queen - Beatrix;
– Nairobi. Capital - Amsterdam.
Korea, North : President - Marshal Kim New Zealand : Governor-General -
Jong II; Prime Minister - Hong Song Anand Satyanand; Prime Minister - Ms.
Nam; Capital - Pyongyang. Helen Clark; Capital - Wellington.
Korea, South : President - Roh Moo- Niger : President - Tandja Mamadou;
hyun; Capital - Seoul. Prime Minister - Hama Amadou,
Kuwait : Emir - Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad Capital - Niamey.
al-Sabah; Capital - Kuwait. Nigeria : President - Umaru Yar’Adua;
Kyrgyzstan : President (Interim) - Capital - Abuja.
Kurmanbek Bakiyev; Prime Minister – Norway : King - Harald V; Prime
Azim Isabekov Capital - Bishkek. Minister - Jens Stoltenberg; Capital -
Laos : President - Gen. Khamtay Oslo.
Siphandon; Prime Minister - Bouasone Pakistan : President – Gen. Pervez
Bouphavanh; Capital - Vientiane. Musharraf; Prime Minister –
Liberia : President - Ellen Johnson- Mr. Shaukat Aziz; Capital -Islamabad.
Sirleaf; Capital - Monrovia. Panama : President – Mr. Martin
Madagascar : President - Marc Torrijos; Capital – Panama City.
Ravalomanana; Prime Minister - Peru: President – Alan Garcia; Prime
Jacques Sylla; Capital -Antananarivo. Minister – Luis Solari; Capital - Lima.
Malawi : President - Bingu wa Philippines : President – Ms. Gloria
Mutharika; Capital - Lilongwe. Macapagal – Arroyo; Capital - Manila.
Malaysia : King - Tuanku Syed Poland : President – Lech Kaczynski;
Sirajuddin Syed Putra Jamalullail; Prime Prime Minister – Jaroslaw Kaczynski;
Minister -Abdullah Ahmad Badawi; Capital - Warsaw.
Capital - Kuala Lumpur. Portugal : President – Jorge Sampaio;
Maldives : President - Maumoon Abdul Prime Minister – Jose Socrates;
Gayoom; Capital - Male. Capital - Lisbon.
Mauritius: President - Karl A. Offmann; Romania : President – Traian Basecue;
Prime Minister - Navinchandra Capital - Bucharest.
Ramgoolam; Capital - Port Louis. Russia : President – Vladimir Putin;
Mongolia : President – Nambaryn Prime Minister - Viktor Zubkov;
Enkhbayar; Prime Minister – Capital - Moscow.
Miyeegombo Enkhbold; Capital – Ulan Rwanda : President – Paul Kagame;
Bator. Capital -Kigali.
Montenegro : President – Filip Saudi Arabia : King – Abdullah bin
Vujanovic; Prime Minister – Milo Abdul Aziz al Saud; Capital - Riyadh.
Dukanovic; Capital – Podgorica
Serbia : Prime Minister - Vojislav
Morocco : King - Mohammed VI; Prime Kostunica; Capital - Belgrade.
Minister - Driss Jettou; Capital - Rabat.
Sierra Leone : President - Ahmed Tejan
Myanmar (Burma) : Head of Govt. : Kabbah; Capital - Freetown.
Gen. Than Shwe; Capital - Nyapidaw.
Singapore : President - S. R. Nathan;
Namibia : President - Sam Nujoma; Prime PM - Lee Hsien Loong; Capital -
Minister - Theo-Ben Gurirab; Capital - Singapore.
(90) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
Slovakia : President - Ivan Gasparovic; Minister - Patrick Manning; Capital -
Prime Minister - Mikulas Dzurinda; Port-of-Spain.
Capital -Bratislava. Tunisia : President - Zine El Abidine Ben
South Africa : President – Thabo M. Ali; Prime Minister - Mohamed
Mbeki; Capital - Cape Town Ghannouchi; Capital - Tunis.
(Legislative) and Tshwane (Formerly Turkey : President - Abdullah Gul; Prime
Pretoria) (Administrative). Minister - Recep Tayyip Erdogan;
Spain : K i n g - J u a n C a r l o s I ; P r i m e Capital - Ankara.
Minister - Jose Luis Rodriguez Ukraine : President - Victor Yushchenko;
Zapatevo; Capital - Madrid. Capital - Kiev.
Sri Lanka : Exe. President – Mahinda United Arab Emirates : Prime
Rajapakse; Prime Minister - Ratnasiri Minister -Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid
Wickremanayake; Capital - Sri Al-Maktoum; Capital - Abu Dhabi.
Jayewardenepura Kotte (Colombo).
United Kingdom : Queen - Elizabeth II;
Sudan : President - Omar Hassan Ahmad Prime Minister - Gordon Brown;
al-Bashir; Capital - Khartoum. Capital - London.
Sweden : King - Carl XVI Gustaf; PM – United States of America :
Fredrik Reinfeldt; Capital - Stockholm. President - George W. Bush; Secretary
Switzerland : President - Moritz of State – Dr. Condoleezza Rice;
Leuenberger; Capital - Berne. Capital -Washington, D.C.
Syria : President - Bashar Al-Assad; PM - Uzbekistan: President - Islam A.
Muhammad Naji al-Otari; Capital - Karimov; Prime Minister – Shavkat
Damascus. Mirziyayev; Capital - Tashkent.
Taiwan : President - Chen Shui-bian; Vanuatu : President - Kalkokt
Prime Minister -Su Tseng-chang; Mahashelekel; Prime Minister - Ham Livi;
Capital - Taipei. Capital - Vila.
Tajikistan : President - Emomali Venezuela : President - Hugo Chavez
Rakhmonov; PM - Akil Akilov; Capital - Frias; Capital - Caracas.
Dushanbe. Vietnam : President - Nguyen Minh
Tanzania : President - Benjamin William Triet; Prime Minister - Nguyen Tan
Mkapa; Prime Minister - Frederick Dung; Capital - Hanoi.
Tulway Sumaye; Capital – Dodoma. Zambia : President - Levy Patrick
Thailand : King - Bhumibol Adulyadej; Mwanawasa; Prime Minister - General
PM – Surayud Chulanont; Capital - M. N. Masheke; Capital - Lusaka.
Bangkok. Zimbabwe : Executive President -
Trinidad and Tobago: President - Robert G. Mugabe; Capital - Harare.
George Maxwell Richards; Prime

Pearls of wisdom

“If you have made mistakes, even serious ones, there is always another chance for you.
What we call failure is not the falling down but the staying down.”

“Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you have imagined”

IC : PTpnsgk01 (91) of (202)

Ban Ki-moon : Secretary-General, Pascal Lamy : Director-General, WTO.
United Nations Organisation. Amara Essy : Secretary-General,
Ms. Asha-Rose Migiro : First Deputy African Union.
Secretary-General, UN. Louise Arbour : High Commissioner, UN
Major Gen. Randhir Mehta : Military High Commission for Human Rights.
Adviser to UN Dept. of Peace-keeping Ray Mali : Acting President,
Operations. International Cricket Council.
Robert Zoellick : P r e s i d e n t , W o r l d Abdullah Ahmad Badawi : Chairman,
Bank. Non-Aligned Movement.
Rodrigo Rato : M a n a g i n g D i r e c t o r , Jose Manuel Durao Barroso :
International Monetary Fund (IMF). President, European Commission.
Koichiro Matsuura : Director-General, Kandeh K. Yumkella : Director-
Dr. Margaret Chan : Director-General, Jammel Al Hujilan : Secretary-
WHO. General, Gulf Co-operation Council.
Jacques Diouf : Director-General, Food Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu : Secretary-
and Agricultural Organisation. General, Organisation of Islamic
Juan Somavia : Director-General, Conference.
Inter-national Labour Organisation. Alvaro Silva Calderon : Secretary-
Ann M. Veneman : Executive Director, General, Organisation of Petroleum
United Nations International Children's Exporting Countries (OPEC).
Emergency Fund (UNICEF). Cesar Gaviria Trujilo : Chairman,
Antonio Guterres : UN High Organisation of American States.
Commissioner for Refugees. Sam Nujoma : President, South-West
Mark M. Brown : D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , African People’s Organisation
United Nations Development (SWAPO).
Programme. Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei : Director-
Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi : General, International Atomic Energy
Secretary-General, United Nations Agency (IAEA).
Conference on Trade and Development Jaap de Hoop Scheffer : Secretary-
(UNCTAD). General, North Atlantic Treaty
Angel Gurria : Secretary-General, Organisation (NATO).
Organisation of Economic Cooperation Dr. Abdul Waheed Khan : Director,
and Development (OECD). Commonwealth of Learning.
Ms. Rosalyn Higgins : President, Hashim Abdul Halim : Chairman,
International Court of Justice. Commonwealth Parliamentary
Haruhiko Kuroda : President, Asian Association.
Development Bank. Ms. Thoraya Ahmed Obaid :
Donald Kaberuka : President, African Executive Director, UNFPA.
Development Bank. Ong Keng Yong : Secretary-General,
Jacques Rogge : President, ASEAN.
International Olympic Committee. Q. A. M. A. Rahim : Secretary-General,
Don McKinnon : Secretary-General, SAARC.
Commonwealth. Lamine Diack : President, International
Harshvardhana Singh : Deputy Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF).
Director-General, WTO. Michael Griffin : Chief of NASA(USA).
Prof. Alpha Oumar Konare : Chairman, Ms. Irene Zubaida Khan : Secretary-
African Union. General, Amnesty International.
(92) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

DIRECTIONS: For the following

questions, four options are given. Choose
the correct option.

1. Which of the following companies was

the partner for manufacturing Ford
Escort in India?
(1) Tata (2) Eicher (1) Balaji, Balaji Telefilms
(3) Escorts (4) Mahindra (2) Sri Krishna, Krishna Arts
(3) Shiva, CVM computers
2. Godrej h a d a n u n s u c c e s s fu l j o i n t (4) None of these
venture with .....
(1) HLL (2) P & G 7 . Arvind mills manufactures all of the
(3) Ford (4) None of these following brands of jeans except ....
(1) Flying Machine
3. W h i c h c o m p a n y o w n s t h e F l y i n g (2) Newport
Machine brand of jeans? (3) Levi’s
(1) Levi’s (2) Arvind Mills (4) Ruf & Tuf
(3) Mafatlal (4) None of these
8. Which brand is the market leader in the
4. Which of the following companies owns alkaline battery market in India?
the brands ESPN, Buena Vista (1) Duracell (2) BPL Excell
Television and Touchstone
Pictures? (3) Panasonic (4) Energizer

(1) Warner Brothers

(2) Star TV 9. Java, the computer language, was
invented by .....
(3) Fox Searchlight Pictures
(1) IBM
(4) Walt Disney Crop.
(2) Microsoft
(3) Sun Microsystems
5. T h e a u t o m o b i l e b r a n d s C a d i l l a c ,
Pontiac and Opel belong to ..... (4) Motorola

(1) Renault SA (2) Fiat Auto

(3) BMW (4) General Motors 10. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g b r a n d o f
batteries is owned by BPL?
(1) Duracell (2) Long life
6. The picture shown is of a Hindu God
as well as logo of the famous Indian (3) Excell (4) Energizer
C o m p a n y. N a m e t h e G o d a n d t h e

IC : PTpnsgk01 (93) of (202)

1 1 . TCS, a company under the Tatas , 1 8 . The Four Square Kings brands of
deals in cigarette, which promised the young
(1) Steel adults to Live Life King Size is
associated with
(2) Automobiles
(1) Godfrey Philips
(3) Software solutions and consultancy
(2) ITC
(4) cement
(3) Shaw Wallace
(4) Adani group
12. Which of the following brands is owned
by P & G?
(1) Iodex (2) Moov 19. Who is the largest tyre manufacturer
in India?
(3) Revital (4) Vicks
(1) Ceat (2) MRF
(3) J.K. (4) Dunlop
13. O. P. Lohia group controls
(1) Bikanervala Foods
20. I d e n t i f y t h e l o g o o f t h e f a m o u s
(2) Indo Rama Synthetics
software company and give name of
(3) Parke Davis the bird.
(4) HCL-Technologies

(1)Linux, Penguin
14. H o n g Ko n g ’ s H a r i l e l a g r o u p i s
(2) Apple, Penguin
engaged in
(1) Computer solutions (3) Linux, Kiwi
(2) Construction (4) Apple, Kiwi
(3) Hospitality industry
(4) Steel 21. T h e C h e n n a i b a s e d m o t o r c y c l e
manufacturer TVS launched a four
stroke, four geared, 150 cc scooter by
15. What does Novartis deal in? the name
(1) Power (2) Mobiles (1) TVS Legend
(3) Drugs (4) Watches (2) TVS Super
(3) TVS Supermo
16. Which of the following is owned by the (4) TVS Spectra
Eicher group?
(1) LML Vespa (2) Hero Honda
22. With what would you associate the
(3) Royal Enfield (4) TVS Suzuki brand name Ruggers?
(1) Shoes (2) Jeans
17. Who owns the famous brands Sat (3) Cigarettes (4) Casual Wear
Isabgol and Burnol?
(1) Dabur
23. A s h o k Leyland, a company
(2) Godrej manufacturing trucks, is associated
(3) Dr. Reddy’s Labs with
(4) Dr. Morepen (1) Reliance (2) Tata
(3) Birlas (4) Hindujas

(94) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

2 4 . Which one of the following is not a 3 0 . Brands like Stag, Panther, Cruiser,
shoe brand of Liberty? Bison, Tusker and Taurus are owned
(1) Force 10 (2) Footfun by
(3) Windsor (4) Ambassador (1) Tatas
(2) DRDO
2 5 . Who manufactures Pan Pasand? (3) Ashok Leyland
(1) Parle (2) Nutrine (4) Eicher
(3) Ravalgaon (4) Parry’s
31. The brands of mobikes like Samurai,
Shaolin, and of scooters like Spectra,
2 6 . The brands like Royale, Apcolite, are owned by
Tractor and Utsav are from the stable
of (1) Honda Motors
(1) Asian Paints (2) Eicher Group (2) Hyundai Motors
(3) Berger (4) Nerolac (3) TVS Suzuki Ltd (TSL)
(4) Mitsubishi Motors
27. B i s c u i t b ra n d s l i k e F i f t y - F i f t y ,
Bourbon, Nice and Good Day are 32. Who is Asia’s only manufacturer of
owned by Sulfolane?
(1) Parle (2) Britannia (1) Dr. Reddy’s
(3) Haldiram (4) Marico (2) Ranbaxy
(3) Moser Baer
28. In 1969, who introduced the brand (4) Cadila Pharmeceuticals Ltd.
(1) Nusli N. Wadia 33. Who is India’s leading producer of
(2) H. S. Parekh worsted suiting fabric with sixty
percent market share?
(3) N.A. Palkhivala
(1) Grasim (2) Digjam
(4) K.K. Patel
(3) Raymonds (4) Arvind Mills

29. Identify the logo and what is missing

in it? 34. Lucent Technologies is an off-shoot
o f w h i c h o f t h e f o ll o w i n g t e l e c o m
(1) Vodafone (2) Seimans
(3) AT & T (4) HP

35. The publication brands Standard &

(1) British Petroleum and alphabets B
Poor’s, Business Week and
and P are missing
Aviation Week are owned by
(2) Hindustan Petroleum and alphabets
(1) The Times Group
H and P are missing
(2) Mc Graw Hill
(3) Reliance Petroleum and alphabets
R and P are missing (3) Murdoch Group
(4) None of these (4) Touchstone Publication

IC : PTpnsgk01 (95) of (202)

3 6 . To whom does the mobile-phone brand 42. The Compass Group of North
Talkabout belong? America, a division of UK based
(1) Nokia (2) Samsung Compass Group PLC, is the leader in
(3) Motorola (4) LG (1) Footwear
(2) Apparels merchandising
37. To whom does the software brands (3) C o n t r a c t f o o d service and
Access and Excel belong? hospitality
(1) IBM (4) Computer hardware designing
(2) Microsoft
(3) Apple 43. Which company advertises itself with
(4) Dell Compupters the punchline Stop hunger?
(1) Cry
38. The edible oil by the name Dhara is (2) Sodexho
produced by (3) NHRC
(1) Gujrat Cooperative Milk Marketing (4) Red Cross Society
Federation (GCMMF)
(2) Hindustan Lever Ltd.(HLL)
44. The first electronic typewriter (ET 101
(3) Adani Foods in 1978) and the first personal computer
(4) Marico Industries (M20 in 1982) were launched by
(1) Microsoft (2) IBM
39. T h e m e g a b r a n d s M a r l b o r o a n d (3) Olivetti (4) National
Benson & Hedges are owned by
(1) Godfrey Philips 45. T h e w e ll k n o w n b r a n d s l i k e Lux ,
(2) Philip Moris Sunsilk, Lipton, Ponds and Close
Up are owned by
(3) ITC
(1) Nestle
(4) Moser Baer
(2) P & G
(3) Colgate-Palmolive
40. Which brand derives its name from a
Latin word meaning Snow White? (4) Unilever
(1) Lakme (2) Nivea
(3) Pond’s (4) Charmis 46. Motor Cars with brand names Sienna,
Corolla, Land Cruiser and
Highlander are the products of
41. The company is a famous trademark
(1) Mitsubishi
in the music business. Give the full
name of the company. (2) Toyota Motors Co. Ltd.
(3) Daewoo
(4) Fiat

47. To whom does the brands Eno and

Horlicks belong?
(1) HMV (His Master’s voice) (1) HLL
(2) TIPS (2) GlaxoSmithkline
(3) Sony Music (3) Nestle
(4) None of these (4) P & G
(96) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
4 8 . IP, the basic language to communicate 55. Which of the following company
over the internet, has been developed dealing in cookies and crackers was
by acquired by Kellogg’s in March 2001?
(1) IBM (1) Colgate-Palmolive
(2) Microsoft (2) Margarine Unie
(3) Cisco (3) Phillip Moris
(4) Sun Microsystems (4) Keebler Foods Co. USA

49. The mega mobil oi l brand Esso i s 56. Which company has taken over SRF
owned by Finance?
(1) Shell (2) Exxon Mobil (1) Kotak Mahindra
(3) HPCL (4) Gazprom (2) DCM Consolidated
(3) GE Capital
50. What does the word Motorola mean? (4) HCL
(1) Sound in motion
(2) Sound in music 57. Which company has taken over the
(3) The rising sun newspaper Business Standard?
(4) The flying eagle (1) Anand Bazar Patrika
(2) Kotak Mahindra
51. W h a t w a s t h e f i r s t product of (3) Bennett Coleman
Hewlett-Packard? (4) Wall Street Journal
(1) A camera
(2) A laptop 58. The logo belongs to which Reliance
(3) A computer company?
(4) An audio oscillator

52. Alliance Air is a subsidiary of which

of the following Airlines?
(1) Air France (2) Indian Airlines (1) Reliance Industries Ltd.
(3) Modiluft (4) KLM (2) Reliance Petrochemicals
(3) Reliance Infocom
53. Name the Public Sector Undertaking (4) None of these
acquired by Reliance Industries.
(1) IOC (2) ITDC 59. Which company has taken over the
(3) IPCL (4) IDPL brands Canada Dry and Crush
54. Which company has acquired Captain (1) Coca Cola (2) Pepsi Co.
Cook brand? (3) Cadbury (4) Unilever
(1) DCM Home Products
(2) Hindustan Lever 60. BRITCO Foods is a holding company
(3) Corn Products Co.
(1) Coca Cola (2) Pepsi
(4) None of these
(3) ITC (4) Parle India
IC : PTpnsgk01 (97) of (202)
6 1 . The headquarters of NIIT is in 6 9 .Gazprom, the world’s biggest gas
(1) Chennai (2) Bangalore company accounting for 23% of the
world output, belongs to
(3) Mumbai (4) New Delhi
(1) France (2) Iraq
(3) Saudi Arabia (4) Russia
6 2 . The headquarters of HFCL is in
(1) Delhi (2) Mumbai
70. To which country does the diamond
(3) Bangalore (4) Shimla mining giant De Beers belong?
(1) South Africa (2) UK
6 3 . ABB belongs to (3) USA (4) France
(1) Austria (2) Japan
(3) Switzerland (4) USA 71. To which country does the sportswear
company Adidas belong?
6 4 . Adobe System Inc. belongs to (1) Germany (2) France
(1) India (2) Japan (3) USA (4) Belgium

(3) Australia (4) USA

72. The logo shown is of a multinational
company. To which country does it
65. When and where was Citibank belong?
(1) 1912 in UK
(1) UK
(2) 1812 in USA
(2) USA
(3) 1917 in France
(3) France
(4) 1891 in Switzerland (4) Netherlands

66. The headquarters of L & T is in 73. To w h i c h c o u n t r y d o e s t h e M N C

(1) Delhi (2) Mumbai Hyundai belong?
(3) Hyderabad (4) Bangalore (1) Japan (2) S. Korea
(3) Taiwan (4) Thailand
67. Which of the following pharma majors
has its headquarters in New Delhi? 74. To which country does Heinz belong?
(1) Ranbaxy (1) USA (2) Germany
(2) Dr. Reddy’s Labs (3) Switzerland (4) Austria
(3) Cipla
(4) Pfizer 75. Zee (currently Zee Telefilms Ltd.), was
p r o m o t e d b y w h i c h g ro u p o f
68. The first headquarters of Microsoft companies, in 1992?
was established in 1975 at (1) The Essel Group
(1) New York (2) Washington DC (2) The Welcom Group
(3) New Maxico (4) Taxes (3) The Tata Group
(4) Dr. Reddy’s Group

(98) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

7 6 .Which Indian company was the first 82. Wi th which of the fo llowing is the
to out license a molecule for clinical Badla system associated?
trials to Novo Nordisk - the world (1) Foreign exchange
leader in diabetes care?
(2) Forward trading
(1) Moser Baer
(3) Currency markets
(2) Wockhardt
(4) Commodity market
(3) Dr. Reddy’s Labs
(4) R a n b a x y
83. In business terminology, what does
POP stand for?
7 7. The foundation of which company was (1) Post Operations Procedure
laid in a small shop in Kolkata, from
(2) Place of Publicity
where medicines were sent directly
through mail, to even the smallest of (3) Place of Purchase
villages in Bengal by Dr. S.K. Burman? (4) Point of Purchase
(1) Dabur (2) Hamdard
(3) Zandu (4) Cipla 84. T h e Z a m i n d a r i s y s t e m o f l a n d
78. HMT Ltd. was established in 1953, in (1) r a i s e d t h e s t a t u s o f r e v e n u e
technical collaboration with collectors to that of private
(1) Titan, India
(2) recognised each peasant holding a
(2) Timex, USA
plot of land as landlord and hence
(3) Oerlikon, Switzerland directly responsible for land
(4) All the above revenue to the state.
(3) was introduced in Delhi.
79. Identify the Bank from its logo. (4) was introduced in Madras.

85. QS 9000 certification is related to

(1) Corporation Bank
(1) automobile industry.
(2) Citi Bank
(2) computer software.
(3) Canara Bank
(3) computer hardware.
(4) Standard Charterd Bank
(4) All of the above

80. Which Indian pharmaceutical company

owns a USFDA certified plant? 86. New York Stock Exchange better
known as
(1) Ranbaxy (2) Dabur
(1) Wall Street (2) Baker Street
(3) Cadila (4) Lupin
(3) Fleet Street (4) Writers’ Street

81. T h e T o y o t a M o t o r C o . L t d h a s
derived its name from 87. What does the term Tax Break mean?
(1) the Toyota river (1) A situation which is providing some
relief from tax, in whole or part
(2) the Toyota city.
(2) Levying heavy taxes
(3) Sakichi Toyoda
(3) Paying Tax in parts
(4) None of these
(4) None of these

IC : PTpnsgk01 (99) of (202)

8 8 . Wh a t d o e s t h e term Bilateral 95. India joined the International
Monopoly mean? Monetary Fund in the year
(1) A m o n o p o l y i n m o re t h a n o n e (1) 1945 (2) 1946
business (3) 1948 (4) 1949
(2) Taking ov er a rival to create a
monopoly 96. I n w h i c h yea r was the Imperial
(3) A market with only one seller and Bank converted to State Bank of
one buyer India?
(4) None of these (1) 1950 (2) 1955
(3) 1956 (4) 1957
89. In which year was the Calcutta Stock
Exchange started? 97. In which year was SEBI established?
(1) 1908 (2) 1909 (1) 1981 (2) 1983
(3) 1910 (4) 1911 (3) 1985 (4) 1988

90. W h i c h a m o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i s a 98. In which y ear was the Taj Mahal

criterion of Star Trading Houses? Hotel started?
(1) Export (2) Import (1) 1904 (2) 1903
(3) Invisible (4) None of these (3) 1905 (4) 1906

91. Plastic money relates to 99. In which year was TISCO set up?
(1) plastic currency. (1) 1904 (2) 1905
(2) paper currency. (3) 1906 (4) 1907
(3) ATM cards.
100.In which year was RBI established?
(4) credit cards.
(1) 1935 (2) 1936
(3) 1940 (4) 1945
92. Standard and Poors
(1) is a credit rating agency.
101.Identify the logo of the famous
(2) is in joint venture with CRISIL.
pharmaceutical company.
(3) Both (1) and (2)
(4) None of the above
(1) Dr. Reddy’s Lab
(2) Ranbaxy
93. In which year did P & G launch Ariel
Blue? (3) Glaxo
(1) 1991 (2) 1992 (4) Nicholas Piramal
(3) 1993 (4) 1994
102.In 1935, Khwaja Abdul Hmied, set
up a pharmaceutical company, which
94. I n w h i c h y e a r w a s Banking
came to be popularly known as
Companies Act passed?
(1) Dr. Morepen
(1) 1947 (2) 1948
(2) Dabur
(3) 1949 (4) 1950
(3) Hamdard Laboratories
(4) Cipla
(100) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
103.In which year was P & G launched in 111.Which city is known as Silicon
USA? Valley of India?
(1) 1945 (2) 1890 (1) Bangalore (2) Mumbai
(3) 1837 (4) 1917 (3) Hyderabad (4) Chennai

104.In which year was Harley-Davidson

112.According to the survey of India’s
motorcycle first produced?
most valuable companies, which
(1) 1803 (2) 1903
is the most valuable PSU?
(3) 1819 (4) 1935
(1) Indian Oil (2) SAIL
(3) BHEL (4) ONGC
105.In which year was Intel founded?
(1) 1868 (2) 1982
(3) 1968 (4) 1992 113.The Oriental Bank of Commerce
was founded by
106.In which year was Unit Trust of (1) Lala Karam Chand Thaper in 1936.
India launched?
(2) R a i B a h a d u r L a l a S o h a n L a l i n
(1) 1964 (2) 1965
(3) 1966 (4) 1967
(3) the Indian Government and the
RBI in 1969.
107.Intel introduced the world’s first
(4) an act of Parliament.
micro-processor in the year
(1) 1981 (2) 1991
(3) 1971 (4) 1995 1 1 4 .Andy Grove i s t h e f o u n d e r o f a
famous company. Name the company.
108.ONGC was converted into a statutory (1) Intel (2) Microsoft
body by an act of the Indian Parliament (3) Digital (4) Compaq
(1) December 1955 (2)
August 1956 115.Name the company founded by
(3) October 1959 (4) January 1973 Thomas Alva Edison.
(1) Weshinghouse
109.Who started the Ford Motor (2) General Electric
(3) 20 th Century Fox
(1) Lionel Ford (2) Henry Ford
(4) Warner Brothers
(3) Charlie Ford (4) Nicholas Otto

110.Bill Gates was one of the founders 116.Renato Ruggerio is

of Microsoft. Who was the other? (1) a name connected with World Bank
(1) Paul Allen (2) an American corporate giant
(2) John Naisbitt
(3) a name connected with WTO
(3) Michael Crichton
(4) a name connected with Star TV.
(4) Kenneth Clarke

IC : PTpnsgk01 (101) of (202)

1 1 7. I d e n t i f y t h e t e l e c o m e q u i p m e n t 123.Which British Company made the UK’s
company from its logo first mobile call at a few minutes past
midnight, on the 1 st of January 1985?
(1) Lucent Technologies (1) Seimens (2) Nokia
(2) AT & T (3) Vodafone (4) Sony
(3) Ericsson
(4) Siemens 124 . W h i c h c o m p a n y b e c a m e a m a j o r
shareholder in L’Oreal, one of the
world’s leading makers of cosmetics,
118.What is the percentage of India’s in 1974?
share in world exports?
(1) HLL
(1) 0.58 (2) 1.28
(2) Shaw Wallace
(3) 12.58 (4) 15.28
(3) Nestle
(4) Colgate Palmolive
119.Every Street is Paved with Gold
is the name of the book written by the
founder chairman of a leading car 125.Which among the following nations is
manufacturer. Name the company. the highest recipient of IDA loans in
the world?
(1) Toyota (2) General Motors (1) India (2) China
(3) Ford (4) Daewoo (3) Mexico (4) Brazil

120.Which Japanese Automobile company 126.In February 2002, ABB opened a R &
entered into an alliance with Reneult D centre in Bangalore to
SA and a French automobile company, (1) develop good quality liquor.
to achieve a profitable and balanced
growth, for the two partners in 1999? (2) develop software and industrial IT
(1) Isuzu (2) Suzuki
(3) revitalise Enron power project.
(3) Honda (4) Nissan
(4) explore natural gas.

121.Which Indian business group is in a

127.What is the name of the Malaysian
joint venture with Mitsubishi to
currency which was devalued?
manufacture cars?
(1) Ringgit (2) Rupiah
(1) Reliance (2) Tatas
(3) Baht (4) Dinar
(3) Birlas (4) Thapars

128.The logo is of Imperial Tobacco

122.Name the person who revolutionised
company. In w h i c h y e a r wa s t h e
the electronics market in India. company founded?
(1) K. Mulchandani
(2) P. Nambiar (1) 1911
(3) S. P. Godrej (2) 1915
(4) Shiv Nadar (3) 1916
(4) 1910

(102) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

129.Based on sales and profits, which 135.Manu Chhabria is associated with
c o m p a n y i s t h e l a rg e s t I n d i a n the company
company? (1) Shaw Wallace & Co.
(1) HLL (2) Telco (2) Seagram.
(3) Reliance (4) Indian Oil
(3) Mohan Meakins.
(4) None of the above
1 3 0 . I f yo u h a d o n e u n i t e a c h o f t h e
following currencies, from which would
you be able to get the maximum 136.Name the apex institution in the field
number of rupees? of industrial development banking in
(1) US Dollar India.
(2) UK Pound (1) IFCI (2) ICICI
(3) Deutsche Mark (3) LIC (4) IDBI
(4) Japanese Yen
137.The World Trade Organisation was
set up to take over functions of which
131.The company with the largest refining
capacity in India is of the following?

(1) Indian Oil Corporation. (1) IUOTO (2) IMF

(2) Hindustan Petroleum. (3) ECOSOC (4) GATT

(3) Bharat Petroleum.
(4) Indo-Burmah Petroleum. 138.Who among the following is
considered to be the quality guru of
the world?
132.Which was the first public sector share (1) Phil Crosby
to be quoted on the Bombay Stock
Exchange? (2) Julia Morley
(3) Renato Rugieru
(1) Hindustan Petroleum
(4) All of these
(2) SAIL
(3) ONGC
139.The logo belongs to which tyr e
(4) Indian Oil
manufacturing company

133.Who has written the book The World

Bank and the Poverty of Nations? (1) Goodyear

(1) Don Morrison (2) MRF

(3) CEAT
(2) Jack Douglas
(4) Apollo Tyres
(3) Catherine Caufield
(4) None of these
140.The Indian partner of Microsoft to
pr ovide softwar e development
134.Name the apex bank for smal l consultancy is
industries. (1) HCL (2) PCL
(1) IDBI (2) SIDBI (3) TCS (4) TVSE
(3) IRCI (4) SBI

IC : PTpnsgk01 (103) of (202)

141.Name the company which has 147.Which Indian industrialist has been
l a u n c h e d I n d i a ’s f i r s t p r i v a t e honoured by the Wharton’s Dean
telecom network. Award?
(1) Bharti Telecom (1) Ratan Tata
(2) Siemens (2) Dhiruhbai Ambani
(3) Modi Telecom (3) Kumar Birla
(4) Spice (4) K.B. Dadiseth

142.Name the bank that is offering credit 148.Which International airline triggered
cards with pictures of your loved ones a price war in the Indian market by
on them. reducing air fares on flights?
(1) Hong Kong Bank (1) KLM (2) British Airways
(2) Visa (3) Air India (4) Lufthansa
(3) Citi Bank
(4) Standard Chartered 149.Which of the following company closed
its manufacturing unit in West Bengal
143.The logo belongs to the leader in the leading to violence by the workers?
Indian Ice-cream market. Name the (1) Ceat (2) Dunlop
company. (3) Bella Vesta (4) None of these

(1) Kwality Walls

150.What is the name of the Italian design
(2) Amul
agency which designed the small car
(3) Milk food launched by the Tata group?
(4) Vadilal (1) Perfetti (2) Gyanetti
(3) Don Juan (4) IDEA
144.Which of the following company has
purchased the pesticide brand –
Hexit? 151.Which of the fol lowing companies
makes the Acuvue UV contact
(1) Hindustan Lever lenses?
(2) Cipla (1) Bausch & Lomb
(3) Hoechst Schering (2) Johnson & Johnson
(4) Godrej Hi Care (3) Corning
(4) Designer Lenses
145.Name the company that has taken
over Rassi Cement Ltd.
(1) India Cements Ltd. 152.Which company or brand urges you in
its advertisements to get the Power
(2) ACC of freedom?
(3) JK Cement (1) Elle 18 (2) Exide
(4) Binani Group (3) Standard (4) Park Avenue

146.Which of the following brands is the

market leader in Indian zinc chloride 153.Which company markets the brands
batteries market? Star and Moon?
(1) Lakme (2) Oriflame
(1) Duracell (2) Novino
(3) Revlon (4) Avon
(3) Eveready (4) Energizer
(104) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
154.The world’s first high-voltage 161.In which year was Oil first struck at
generator called Power former was Bombay High?
launched by (1) 1979 (2) 1972
(1) L & T (2) ABB (3) 1981 (4) 1991
(3) GE (4) LG
162.To which country does the famous IT
155.What does Forbes Gokak deal in? company NEC belong?
(1) Tyres (1) USA (2) Japan
(2) Earth moving equipments (3) South Korea (4) UK
(3) Yarn and threading tools
(4) Sponge iron 163.To which country does ABN Amr o
156.Who owns the newspaper Hindustan
(1) Spain (2) France
(3) New Zealand (4) Netherlands
(1) Government of India
(2) K. K. Birla Group
164.The logo is of a famous automobile
(3) Kirloskar Group
company.When was it established in
(4) Bennette & Coleman Group India?

157.The tea brand Duncans belongs to

(1) 1972
(1) Torrent Group
(2) 1981
(2) Lloyds Group
(3) 1964
(3) G. P. Goenka Group
(4) 1952
(4) Jumbo Group

165.Which of the following companies was

158.Saatchi & Saatchi is an/a earlier known as Bachraj Trading
(1) engineering consultancy firm. Corporation?
(2) advertising agency. (1) LML
(3) subsidiary of HLL. (2) Mahindra & Mahindra
(4) telecom company. (3) Hindustan Motors
(4) Bajaj Auto
159.Identify the logo of a famous FMCG
group. 166.To which country does the mobile
handset manufacturer Siemens
(1) P & G
(1) UK (2) Switzerland
(2) Amul
(3) South Korea (4) Germany
(3) Nestle
(4) HLL 167.Which of the following groups owns
the Rajdoot brand of motor cycles?
160.In which year was India’s first financial (1) Eicher Industries
daily The Economic Times launched? (2) Punjab Tractors Ltd.
(1) 1961 (2) 1971 (3) Escorts
(3) 1982 (4) 1921 (4) Enfield
IC : PTpnsgk01 (105) of (202)
168.Which Central Government agency is 174.The Rajasthan Canal (now called the
responsible for the mapping and Indira Gandhi Canal) draws its water
exploration of minerals? from the river(s)
(1) The Geological Survey of India (1) Yamuna (2) Chambal
(2) Surveyor-General of India (3) Sutlej (4) Sutlej and Beas
(3) N a t i o n a l M i n e r a l D e v e l o p m e n t
Corp. Ltd. 175.A Sanctuary in Kerala is famous for
(4) Indian Bureau of Mines the animal shown. Name the sanctuary

169.Which multipurpose project provides

irrigation to maximum area in India?
(1) Beas
(2) Bhakra Nangal
(3) Damodar Valley
(4) Hirakud

(1) Idukki Sanctuary

170.Zoji-la pass connects
(2) Ghana sanctuary
(1) Srinagar and Leh.
(3) Periyar game sanctuary
(2) Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet.
(4) Gir Sanctuary
(3) Jammu and Kargil.
(4) Chamba and Spiti.
176.Which region is known as the Rice
Bowl of India?
171.Pulses are grown all over India except (1) Indo-Gangetic Plain
in areas of
(2) Krishna-Godavari Delta region
(1) unpredictable of rainfall.
(3) North-East region
(2) very high temperature.
(4) Kerala and Tamil Nadu
(3) very high rainfall.
(4) low rainfall.
177.The two poorest states in India are
(1) Bihar and Orissa.
172.Which sanctuary has been selected as
(2) Manipur and Bihar.
an alternative home for the Indian
lion? (3) Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
(1) Bandipur Santuary (4) Madhya Pradesh and Manipur.
(2) Ghana Santuary
(3) Periyar Sentuary 178.The population of the world is
(4) Chandra Prabha Sanctuary currently about
(1) 3.4 billion (2) 6.4 billion
(3) 8.7 billion (4) 9.1 billion
173.The science of old age is known as
(1) Chronology
(2) Odontology
(3) Gerantology
(4) Gerantochronology

(106) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

179.Name the clock tower which has 24 185.The name of the brand of logo shown
statues of men wearing traditional is taken from a particular species of
costumes of western India to represent deer native to South Africa. Name the
24 hours of the day. brand
(1) Rajabai Clock Tower in Mumbai
(2) Jantar Mantar in Delhi
(3) Victoria Memorial in Calcutta
(4) University Building in Pune

180.The Thunchen - is a musical

(1) Addias (2) Polo
instrument made of copper and silver.
It is so long and heavy that it needs to (3) Reebok (4) Nike
be supported at one end by a person
or be kept on a special wooden stand. 186.The effect of indirect tax is
Who plays this instrument?
(1) an increase in the prices.
(1) The Lamas of Ladakh, Bhutan and
Tibet (2) a reduction in the prices.
(2) The folk singers of Bengal (3) keeping the prices constant.
(3) The wandering minstrels of Nepal (4) making people panic about prices.
(4) The baisakhi dancers from Punjab
1 8 7. In which year were the
Fundamental Duties incorporated
181.Which Indian river is also known as in Indian Constitution?
Tsangpo or Dihang?
(1) 1975 (2) 1976
(1) Brahmaputra (2) Indus
(3) 1977 (4) 1979
(3) Narmada (4) Jhelum

188.A Supreme Court Judge is

182.Hasbro has a tie up with Funskool removed by the
India to market its toys and games in
(1) President’s order.
India. Name the parent company of
Funskool. (2) both Houses of Parliament.
(1) MRF (2) Classic Tin Toy (3) Chief Justice of India.
(3) Manhattan Toy (4) Toy-Kraft (4) P r e s i d e n t ’s o r d e r, a f t e r b o t h
Houses of Parliament pass the
183.Which of the fo llowing is used to
define the poverty line in India?
189.How can the Fundamental Rights
(1) Income data be protected by a citizen?
(2) Investment data (1) By approaching the Supreme Court
(3) Savings data which will issue appropriate rights
(4) Consumption data against the authority.
(2) Parliament will take note of such
violations and tell the Court.
184.Who among the following has been
roped in by the Indian music industry (3) T h e E x e c u t i v e w i l l i n f o r m t h e
to crack down on music piracy? Courts.
(1) Julio Reberio (2) KPS Gill (4) It is automatically protected.
(3) Kiran Bedi (4) Gautam Kaul
IC : PTpnsgk01 (107) of (202)
190.Which of the following Fundamental 196.Who is the chairman of
Rights has been deleted from our Disinvestment Commission?
constitutional amendment? (1) Yashwant Sinha
(1) Right against exploitation. (2) G.V. Ramkrishna
(2) Right to freedom of religion. (3) Sikandar Bakht
(3) Right to property. (4) N. Vittal
(4) Right to freedom of speech and
197.The famous personality shown was
t h e f o u n d e r President o f Indian
1 9 1 . In I n d i a , f o r h o w l o n g c a n a
Independence League. Who was he?
President’s ordinance remain in force?
(1) Three months.
(1) Rash Behari Bose
(2) Two months.
(2) Mahatma Gandhi
(3) Till the President revokes it.
(3) Motilal Nehru
(4) Six months.
(4) Subhash Chandra Bose
192.Constitution of India vests the
executive power of the Indian Union in 198.Which of the following was a notable
(1) the Council of Ministers. feature of the Civil Disobedience
(2) the Prime Minister. Movement of Mahatma Gandhi?
(3) the President. (1) Arrest of thousands of people
(4) the Parliament. (2) Participation of women
(3) Picketing of shops
193.The Preventive Detention Act has (4) Mass strikes
a restraining effect on the
(1) right to equality.
199.Which of the following Chinese
(2) right to freedom. pilgrims to India gives us information
(3) right to freedom of religion. about the Harshvardhana period?
(4) right to constitutional remedies. (1) Huen Tsang (2) Fa-Hien
(3) Itsing (4) Wang Hiuen Tse
194.The idea of Fundamental Duties is
derived from
200.Which of the following was not one of
(1) the American Constitution. the reasons why Gujarat was one of
(2) the British Constitution. the richest provinces of the Delhi
(3) the Russian Constitution. Sultanate?
(4) None of these (1) Excellence of its handicraft and
1 9 5 . In I n d i a , t h e o a t h o f o f f i c e i s (2) Its flourishing sea ports.
administered to the members of State (3) Richness of its mineral wealth.
Council of Ministers by the
(4) Richness of its soil.
(1) Governor.
(2) Chief Minister.
201.The Satavahana rulers were
(3) Chief Justice of the State High predominantly followers of
(1) Budhism (2) Hinduism
(4) Speaker of Legislative Assembly.
(3) Jainism (4) Shaivism
(108) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
202.In the year 1919, the All India 208.Which one of the following rights was
Khilafat Conference was held at described by B.R. Ambedkar as the
(1) Aligarh (2) Lucknow heart and soul of the Constitution?
(3) Deoband (4) Delhi (1) Right to freedom of religion
(2) Right to property
203.Which of the following was not written (3) Right to equality
by King Harshavardhana of the 7 th (4) Right to constitutional remedies
(1) Kadambari (2) Ratnavali 209.In olden days, certain sari weavers
(3) Nagananda (4) Priyadarshika of Madhya Pradesh grew long nails and
made slits in them so that they could
spin fine threads to make saris. What
204.Mitakshara is a book on were these saris called?
(1) Medicine (1) Sambalpuri (2) Chanderi
(2) Astrolonomy (3) Dhakai (4) Patola
(3) Hindu law of inheritance
(4) Dharamshastra 210.What is the name of the traditional
three piece attire of Tamilian
205.Identify the famous personality of Girls?
Indian independence struggle. (1) Churidar kurta
(2) Pavadai Thavani
(3) Bandhgala
(4) Chaniya choli

211.Who laid out the first Mughal garden

in India? What was it called?
(1) Jahangir – Shalimar Bagh
(1) Justice Ranade (2) Akbar – Nishat Bagh
(2) Mahatma Gandhi (3) Babur – Ram Bagh
(3) Rabindranath Tagore (4) Shah Jahan – Mumtaz Bagh
(4) Dadabhai Naoroji
212.Which Indian President participated in
2 0 6 . T h e Indian National Army wa s the Irish Freedom Struggle a n d
founded in the year even served a jail term for the same?
(1) 1940 (2) 1941 (1) Dr. S Radhakrishnan
(3) 1942 (4) 1943 (2) V. V. Giri
(3) Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
207.Who was the first Muslim to be elected (4) Gulzarilal Nanda
President of the Indian National
(1) M. A. Jinnah
(2) Maulana Azad
(3) Badruddin Tyabji
(4) Mohammed Ali
IC : PTpnsgk01 (109) of (202)
213.Which of the following South Indian 218.Where was the Great Bath of the
kingdoms arose out of the ruins of the Indus Valley civilisation found?
Mauryan Empire? (1) Mohenjodaro (2) Harappa
(1) The Chola (3) Lothal (4) Kalibangan
(2) The Pandyas
(3) The Satavahanas 219.At which place did Gautam Buddha
(4) None of these deliver his first lecture?
(1) Sarnath (2) Lumbini
214.Which Rashtrakuta ruler built the (3) Bodh gaya (4) Vaishali
famous Kailasha temple of Shiva at
220.Why was the Simon Commission
(1) Dantidurga boycotted by the Indians?
(2) Amoghavarsha-I (1) N o n e o f t h e I n d i a n s w e re i t s
(3) Krishna-I members.
(4) Khothiga (2) It was meant for the division of
215.Identify the famous personality. (3) There was no representative of the
Labour party.
(4) It was headed by General Dyer.

221.Who was the founder of the Gupta

(1) Chandragupta I
(2) Chandragupta II
(3) Samudragupta
(1) Jawahar Lal Nehru (4) Kumaragupta
(2) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
(3) C. Rajgopalachari 222.Akbar sought the f riendship and
(4) Mahatma Gandhi cooperation of Rajputs to
(1) crush the Afghan revolt.
216.Who came to control the Indian (2) s t r e n g t h e n t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f
National Congress after the split of Mughal Empire in India.
1907? (3) marry a Rajput lady.
(1) Terrorists (2) Moderates (4) defeat foreign tribes invading India.
(3) Extremists (4) None of these
223.Shankaracharya, the founder of the
217.During which decade did the Indian Bhakti Movement, belonged to
population record a negative growth (1) Maharashtra (2) Assam
(3) Bengal (4) South India
(1) 1921-31 (2) 1911-21
(3) 1941-51 (4) 1919-29

(110) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

224.Which of the following was an 230.Which of the following is a correct
outstanding feature of the reign of chronological order of the given four
Shahjahan? dynasties?
(1) Conquest of Deccan (1) Lodhi-Tughlaq-Slave-Khilji
(2) All round prosperity (2) Tughlaq-Slave-Khilji-Lodhi
(3) Administrative reforms (3) Slave-Khilji-Tughlaq-Lodhi
(4) D e v e l o p m e n t of art and (4) Khilji-Slave-Lodhi-Tughlaq
231.Which of the following was the
225.Where, today, is the battlefield of Capital of Mysore during the reign of
Plassey located? the king shown in the picture?
(1) Bihar
(2) Arunachal Pradesh (1) Hyderabad
(3) Orissa (2) Bangalore
(4) West Bengal (3) Thane
(4) Srirangapatnam
226.The first Battle of Panipat was
fought between 232.In which year was the Battle of
(1) Sher Shah Suri and Akbar. Talikota fought?
(2) Humayun and Ibrahim Lodhi. (1) 1565 (2) 1526
(3) Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi. (3) 1586 (4) 1576
(4) Babar and Rana Sanga.
233.Which of the following was the capital
2 2 7. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s i s of Harsha’s empire?
correctly matched? (1) Ujjain (2) Kannauj
(1) 1767 – Battle of Buxar (3) Thanesar (4) Prayag
(2) 1793 – Permanent Settlement of
Bengal 234.Which of the following dynasties did
(3) 1918 – Jallianwala Bagh tragedy not rule the Vijayanagar Kingdom?
(4) 1 8 9 0 – F o u n d a t i o n o f I n d i a n (1) Soluva (2) Tuluva
National Congress (3) Hoysala (4) Aravida

228.Who defeated the Marathas in the 235.Who were the contemporaries of the
third Battle of Panipat? Gupta Kings in the South?
(1) Rajputs (2) Afghans (1) Cholas (2) Rashtrakutas
(3) Myghals (4) Sikhs (3) Satavahanas (4) Vakatakas

229.In which year w as the Battle of 236.Who was the Viceroy of India at
Haldighati fought? the time of formation of the Indian
(1) 1526 (2) 1576 National Congress?
(3) 1605 (4) 1660 (1) Lord Canning (2) Lord Dufferin
(3) Lord Mayo (4) Lord Elgin

IC : PTpnsgk01 (111) of (202)

237.Which of the following dynasty was 244.Who among the following Governor-
w e l l - k n o w n fo r e x c e l l e n t v i l l a g e G e n e ra l s w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e
administration? partition of Bengal?
(1) Pandyas (2) Pallavas (1) Lord Canning (2) Lord Dalhousie
(3) Cholas (4) Chalukyas (3) Lord Amherst (4) Lord Curzon

238...... was named Vikramaditya. 245.Which metal is generally mixed with

(1) Samudragupta(2) Chandragupta II gold to make ornaments?
(3) Bindusara (4) Ashoka (1) Zinc (2) Copper
(3) Aluminium (4) Platinum
239.Who was the famous Deccan Hindu
King who crossed the Bay of Bengal 246.Who initiated the move to form the
and conquered a number of states in Indian National Congress?
Sumatra, Java and Malaysia?
(1) A. O. Hume (2) W. C. Bonnerjee
(1) Rajendra I (2) Rajendra Chola
(3) Annie Besant (4) M. K. Gandhi
(3) Pulakesin (4) Mahipala II

247.He is known as American Novelist and

240.Who was the first King to conquer Critic, who also wrote Lolita (1955).
Malwa, Gujarat and Maharashtra? He was born in
(1) Samudragupta
(2) Skandagupta (1) Poland
(3) Chandragupta Maurya (2) Hungary
(4) Harshavardhana (3) Russia
(4) Cuba
241.The coronation of Shivaji was
performed at
248.Which of the following writers was a
(1) Raigarh (2) Aurangabad leading member of the Harlem
(3) Peshawar (4) Bundela Renaissance?
(1) Allen Ginsberg
242.When did Gandhiji launch the Quit (2) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
India Movement? (3) Langston Hughes
(1) 1940 (2) 1942 (4) Louisa May Alcott
(3) 1941 (4) 1943

249.The American poet and novelist whose

243.Identify the famous old university. p o e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i ze d b y t h e i r
experimental typography (most notably
in the avoidance of capital letters),
technical skill, frank vocabulary, and
(1) Nalanda the sharpness of his satire is
(2) Takshashila (1) Robert Frost
(3) Patliputra (2) Walt Whitman
(4) Vikramashila (3) E. E. Cummings
(4) Bret Harte

(112) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

250.He wrote Cat’s Cradle and 256.Name the verse that is excessively
Slaughterhouse-Five. Who is he? regular, monotonous and predictable in
rhythm and rhyme.
(1) Kurt Vonnegut (1) Blank verse (2) Doggerel
(2) Norman Mailer (3) Elegy (4) Sonnet
(3) James Baldwin
(4) Ralph Ellison 257. T h e B h a g a v a d G i t a m e a n s The
Lord’s Song in what language?
(1) Russian (2) Hungarian
251.In which Shakespearen play do the
characters Leontes, Hermione and (3) Latin (4) Sanskrit
Polixenes appear?
(1) The Taming of the Shrew 258. Tennyson’s The Charge of the
(2) Macbeth Light Brigade was based on an actual
event in which war?
(3) The Winter’s Tale
(1) World War II
(4) Romeo and Juliet
(2) The War of the Roses
(3) The Crimean War
252.In Ibsen’s, The Wild Duck, what is
the profession of Hjalmar Ekdal? (4) The Vietnam War
(1) Photographer
(2) Chef 259.What epic poem is set in the Trojan
War a n d h a s A c h i l l e s a s i t s h e r o
(3) Lumberjack leaving the battlefield in anger?
(4) Soldier (1) The Charge of the Light Brigade
(2) The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
253.Which play did Thornton Wilder (3) The Iliad
(4) Kubla Khan
(1) The Skin of Our Teeth
(2) My Town
260.This poet feared that his poems incited
(3) Death of a Salesman
bloodshed during the Irish Rebellion.
(4) A Raisin in the Sun Who was he?

254.In which year did Arthur Miller won (1) W. B. Yeats

a Pulitzer Prize for his creation (2) Winston Churchill
Death of a Salesman?
(3) Bertrand Russell
(1) 1920 (2) 1985
(4) Thucydides
(3) 1949 (4) 1973

261.Diamond and Emerald are made of

255.Who did Abraham Lincoln call The
..... respectively.
little woman who started the Civil
War? (1) Carbon and Carbon
(1) Dorothy Thompson (2) Silica and Silica
(2) Louisa May Alcott (3) Silica and Beryllium
(3) Harriet Beecher Stowe (4) Carbon and Beryllium
(4) Sue Grafton

IC : PTpnsgk01 (113) of (202)

262.Which of the following 268.Where on Earth will you observe the
Electromagnetic waves has the longest lowest speed of rotation?
(1) the Equator.
(1) Ultraviolet rays
(2) the Tropic of Capricorn.
(2) Light rays
(3) the Antarctic Circle.
(3) Gamma rays
(4) the South Pole.
(4) Infrared rays

263.The Green-Revolution involves the 269.Genealogy is the study of

use of high yielding varieties of seeds (1) lines of descent
which require
(2) genera
(1) less fertilizer and less water.
(3) animals
(2) more fertilizer and less water.
(4) species
(3) less fertilizer and more water.
(4) more fertilizer and more water.
270.This famous temple was built by the
Cholas. Identify the temple.
264.Light of the nearest star, excluding the
Sun, reaches Earth in
(1) 4.3 minutes (2) 4.3 seconds
(3) 44.3 years (4) 4.3 years

265.The weight of the body at the centre

of the earth is
(1) zero.
(2) infinite. (1) Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram
(3) s l i g h t l y m o re t h a n t h a t a t t h e (2) Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur
surface. (3) Sun Temple, Konark
(4) s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t a t t h e (4) Meenakshi Temple, Madurai

271.Which of the following is an example

266.Which one of the following elements
of a sedimentary rock?
forms the strongest acid?
(1) Iodine (2) Bromine (1) Basalt (2) Granite

(3) Chlorine (4) Fluorine (3) Sand Stone (4) Marble

267.Name the forest which is different from 272.Autecology is the ecological study of
the other three. (1) different species.
(1) Savannas (2) Campos (2) a particular species.
(3) Downs (4) Lianos
(3) an extinct species.
(4) an endangered species.

(114) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

273.Economically, the most important 279.The famous personality shown in the
forests of India are picture was from
(1) Tidal forests.
(2) Thorn forests. (1) Spain
(3) Evergreen forests. (2) Britain
(3) France
(4) Tropical deciduous forests.
(4) Italy

274.Polythene is industrially prepared by

280.Which country founded the first
the polymerisation of
Eur o p e a n s e ttl e m e n t i n t h e 1 6 th
(1) Methane (2) Acetylene century America?
(3) Ethylene (4) Styrene (1) Britain (2) Spain
(3) Portugal (4) France
275.Which of the following elements is
present in largest amount in rocks and 2 8 1 . N a m e t h e t r e a ty s i g n e d b e t w e e n
minerals? England, France and America by which
(1) Silicon (2) Carbon the English recognised America as an
independent nation.
(3) Hydrogen (4) Gold
(1) Treaty of London (1784)
(2) Treaty of Virginia (1785)
276.The ideology of Nazism is associated (3) Treaty of Paris (1783)
(4) Treaty of Jamestown (1786)
(1) Capitalism
(2) Democracy 282.What was the main issue of conflict
(3) Anti-Semitism between North and South America
during the Civil War?
(4) Secularism
(1) Slavery (2) Industries
(3) Plantation (4) Red Indians
277.With which period do we associate the
283.What was the period of the American
(1) Neolithic Age
Civil War?
(2) Chalcolithic Age (1) 1865-1868 (2) 1868-1870
(3) Mesolithic Age (3) 1862-1868 (4) 1861-1865
(4) Pleistocene Age
284.In the year 1898, over which territory
278.Who introduced cashewnuts in India? did the USA went to war with Spain?
(1) The Portuguese (1) Cuba (2) Bahamas
(3) West Indies (4) Mexico
(2) The Dutch
(3) The British
285.When did USA enter First World
(4) The French War?
(1) 1914 (2) 1916
(3) 1917 (4) 1918

IC : PTpnsgk01 (115) of (202)

286.Which architect created the 291.Where did First World War begin?
skyscraper in Chicago, which is (1) Santa Monica (2) Sarajevo
recognised as a distinctive
contribution to modern American (3) Sussex (4) Romania
(1) Le Corbusier 292.Which nations were a part of the
(2) Walter Gropius Triple Entente?

(3) Louis Sullivan (1) Britain, France and Russia

(2) Germany, Austria and Hungary
(4) Frank Llyod Wright
(3) France, Germany and Britain

287.Which Japanese city used to be the (4) Russia, Britain and Italy
country’s capital before the capital
was shifted to Tokyo? 293.When did the First World War end?
(1) Kyoto (2) Osaka (1) 1917 A.D. (2) 1918 A.D.
(3) Kamakura (4) Yokohama (3) 1919 A.D. (4) 1916 A.D.

288.Which European nation had the 294.World Development Movement, a

maximum number of colonies before British group, is campaigning against
the First World War? a proposed port in India. Where is the
(1) Germany (2) Britain port planned be set up?
(3) France (4) Russia (1) Gujarat (2) Goa
(3) Maharashtra (4) Karnataka
289.Whom did the Germans blame for their
political confinement in the early 20 th 295.Who was TIME's person of the year
century? 2004?
(1) Austro-Hungarians (1) Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan
(2) Americans and British (2) Donald Rumsfield, US
(3) Japanese and Chinese (3) George W Bush, US
(4) French and British (4) Bill Gates, Microsoft

2 9 0 . The murder of this person was the 296.Name the film that swept the 62 nd
immediate cause of the First World Golden Globe Awards, winning three
War. Who is he? out of five categories it was nominated
(1) The Aviator
(2) Million Dollar Baby
(3) Being Julia
(4) Ray

297.This historian turned down the Padma

Award this year. Name him / her.
(1) Archduke Francis Ferdinand
(1) Irfan Habib (2) R. S. Sharma
(2) Archduke Thomas Ferdinand
(3) Sumit Sarkar (4) Romila Thapar
(3) King Francz Fredrick
(4) Prince Franz Fedinant
(116) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
298.This journalist turned down the 304.In which discipline has the Nobel
Padma Award this year. Name him / Prize been awarded three times to
h e r. the same person / organization?
(1) Mark Tully (1) Medicine (2) Chemistry
(2) Vir Sanghvi (3) Physics (4) Peace
(3) Madhusudan Anand
(4) Kanaksan Deka 305.In the year ....., Nobel Priz e was
a wa rded to the International
Committee of the Red Cross o f
299.Who won the Tagore Peace Award, Geneva.
2004, of the Asiatic Society? (1) 1917 (2) 1944
(1) Dr. Manmohan Singh (3) 1963 (4) All the above
(2) Amartya Sen
(3) Sonia Gandhi 306.Where in India, would one find the
(4) None of these maximum population of Tigers?
(1) Himachal Pradesh
300.Till September 2005, a total of ..... (2) Madhya Pradesh
Nobel Prizes have been given. (3) West Bengal
(1) 770 (2) 550 (4) Tamil Nadu
(3) 897 (4) 200
307.In which of the following years was
Mother Teresa awarded the Nobel
301.He was the only person in histroy to Peace prize?
individually win two Nobel Prizes. Who
(1) 1989 (2) 1979
is he?
(3) 1969 (4) 1959

308.Indian climate can be called

(1) mediterranean type
(2) tropical monsoon type
(3) sub-tropical type
(4) equatorial
(1) John Bardeen
(2) Dr. Linus Carl Pauling 309.The sun shines vertically on the
(3) Madam Curie Equator
(4) Frederick Sanger (1) throughout the year.
(2) for six months.
302.Economics as a subject was included (3) twice a year.
in the Nobel Prize in the year (4) once a year.
(1) 1970 (2) 1968
(3) 1967 (4) 1969 310.World Environment Day is
observed on
(1) 5 th June.
303.In which year was the Nobel
(2) 15 th July.
Foundation set up?
(3) 10 th November.
(1) 1900 (2) 1901
(4) 8 th September.
(3) 1866 (4) 1899
IC : PTpnsgk01 (117) of (202)
311.Which of the following is the hottest 317.World Bank is headquartered at
place in the world? (1) Berlin (2) Geneva
(1) Teheran, Iran
(3) Washington DC (4) Paris
(2) Jaisalmer, India
(3) Dallol, Ethopia
(4) Azizia, Libya 318.The World Health Organisation is
headquartered at

312.Which of the following has the (1) New York (2) London
lowest winter temperature in the (3) Geneva (4) Washington DC
(1) O t t a w a (2) Mexico city 319.In which year did the first ministerial
(3) Moscow (4) Verkhoyansk conference of the World Trade
Organisation take place?
313.He was the first Indian to win the (1) 1996 (2) 1997
Nobel Prize. Who was he? (3) 1998 (4) None of these

320.Interpol is headquatered at
(1) Rome (2) Lyons
(3) Paris (4) None of these

321.International Committee of Red

Cross (ICRC) is headquatered at
(1) Dr. C.V. Raman
(1) Berlin (2) Prague
(2) Rabindranath Tagore
(3) Moscow (4) Geneva
(3) J. L. Nehru
(4) H. G. Khorana
322.The first Earth Summit was held at
(1) Buenos Aires.
314.Which of the following decides the
climate of a place? (2) Rio De Janeiro.
(1) its proximity to the sea. (3) Dar-es-salam.
(2) its altitude. (4) None of these
(3) latitude.
(4) All of the above 323.India is a member of
(1) SEATO (2) EEC
315.Which of the following climate’s is (3) OPEC (4) None of these
best suited for Horticulture?
(1) Equatorial (2) Mediterranean 324.Identify the logo
(3) Monsoon (4) Tundra
(1) U. N. O.
316.In which of the following regions (2) ASEAN
would you find the Mediterranean
(3) OPEC
type climate?
(4) G - 8
(1) Florida (2) California
(3) Central Asia (4) Hungary

(118) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

325.Amnesty International is 333.Identify the logo.
headquatered at
(1) Geneva (2) London (1) UNO
(3) Paris (4) New York (2) ASEAN
326.Which of the following UN agencies
has its H.Q. in Paris? (4) OPEC
(1) UNISEF (2) ILO
(3) UNESCO (4) FAO 3 3 4.Who w a s t h e first Chairman of
327.Which of the following day is observed (1) Mr. Ziaur Rehman
as Commonwealth Day by the (2) Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad
member countries? (3) King Birendra
(1) Second monday of March (4) Mrs. Indra Gandhi
(2) Second monday of May
(3) Second monday of October 335.Which of the following is not a
(4) Second monday of April principal body of the UNO?
(1) Security Council
328.The International Court of Justice
(2) International Court of Justice
is headquatered at
(3) Trusteeship Council
(1) Hague (2) Geneva
(3) Rome (4) Vienna

329.Dr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali took 336.The permanent Secretariat of

over as the Secretary General of the SAARC is established at
UNO in (1) Dhaka (2) Karachi
(1) December 1990 (3) Kathmandu (4) None of these
(2) January 1991
(3) January 1992 337.Jute requires hot and moist climate
(4) December 1991 with adequate amount of rain and rich
soil. Which of the following countries
is the leading jute producer?
330.How many judges are there in the
International Court of Justice? (1) Brazil (2) India
(1) 10 (2) 12 (3) Thailand (4) Bangladesh
(3) 15 (4) 20
338.Cocoa is a tropical plant and requires
331.How many official working languages heat and moisture. Which of the
are recognised by the UNO? fol lowing countries is the second
(1) 8 (2) 7 l a r g e s t p ro d u c e r o f C o c o a i n t h e
(3) 6 (4) 5
(1) Brazil (2) Nigeria
332.What is the office term of an (3) Ghana (4) Ivory Coat
International Court of Justice
(1) 5 years (2) 6 years
(3) 9 years (4) 10 years
IC : PTpnsgk01 (119) of (202)
339.For which of the following crops, is a 347.A First World War American army
black volcanic soil and tropical recruiting poster depicted Uncle Sam
climate (without excess rainfall) most pointing his finger at the viewer and
suitable? saying
(1) Bajra (2) Tobacco (1) Join or Die
(3) Cotton (4) Jute (2) I Want You
(3) United We Stand
340.Photosynthesis involves (4) Crunch the Kaiser
(1) oxidation of H 2 O and release of O 2 .
(2) reduction of CO 2 and oxidation of 348.Which of the following slogans was
H 2 O. used by the leading American company,
(3) reduction of CO 2 and release of O 2 . Pinkerton's Inc.?
(4) reduction of CO 2 , oxidation of H 2 O (1) We Never Sleep
and release of O2 . (2) A Diamond is Forever
(3) Don't Leave Home Without It
341.Which of the following countries is the (4) All the News That's Fit to Print
largest producer of Rubber?
(1) India (2) Indonesia 349.Identify the logo.
(3) Thailand (4) Malaysia
(1) GIC
342.Which of the folllowing countries is the (2) UTI
world’s largest producer of
sugarcane? (3) LIC

(1) India (2) Pakistan (4) None of these

(3) Indonesia (4) Mauritius

350.All except one of the following lines is
associated with American political
343...... is the leading producer of Potash. figures. The odd one is by a European
(1) China (2) India figure. Identify it.
(3) USA (4) Canada (1) Peace in our time
(2) The buck stops here
344.Groundnut crop is the monopoly of (3) He kept us out of war
(1) Indonesia (2) Bangladesh (4) Tippecanoe and Tyler too
(3) Pakistan (4) India
351.The slogan Fifty-four forty or fight
referred to the boundary
345.Which continent leads in contribution
(1) of East and West Berlin
to world's rice production to the
maximum and by how much? (2) of the Oregon Territory
(1) Australia (50%)(2)Africa (42%) (3) of south Texas and Arizona
(3) Asia (90%) (4) Asia (72%) (4) between North and South Korea

352.Peace to the huts and war upon

346.Bamboo is a type of
the palaces was a slogan given by
(1) grass (2) herb
(1) Lenin (2) Attila
(3) shrub (4) t r e e
(3) Napoleon (4) Confucius
(120) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
353.Who led Texans into battle with this (1) Bank of Baroda
motto? (2) Birla Sun Life Insurance
Remember the Alamo! (3) Bridgestone Ltd.
(1) Jim Bowie (4) Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.
(2) Sam Houston
(3) Davy Crockett 360.Redefining Fashion is the punchline
(4) William Travis of
(1) Provogue (2) Gucci
354.With which president was this slogan (3) Adidas (4) L'Oreal
He kept us out of war 361.Taste that speaks for itself is the
(1) Woodrow Wilson punchline of
(2) Abraham Lincoln (1) Aristocrat Whiskey
(3) Warren Harding (2) Seagram Blenders Pride
(4) James Monroe (3) Officer's choice
(4) None of these
355.Who would have been most likely to
u t t e r t h i s m o tt o i n 1 8 6 1 ? O n t o 362.Which of the following uses the
Richmond p u n c h l i n e , For those who seeks
(1) Braxton Bragg perfection?
(2) George Pickett (1) Daikin AC (2) Whirlpool
(3) Irvin McDowell (3) Voltas Vertis (4) Hitachi AC
(4) James Longstreet
363.Fly the good times is the punchline
356.The Indian Multinational is a of
punchline of (1) Kingfisher Airlines
(1) Videocon (2) BPL (2) Thai Airways
(3) Titan (4) HMT (3) Air Deccan
(4) Air India
357.The Taste of India is a punchline of
(1) Nestle (2) Britannia 364.What is the punchline of BBC World?
(3) Parle (4) None of these (1) Putting news first
(2) Making sense of it all
358.Which of the following brand uses the (3) Be the first to know
punchline AC's with I. Q. (4) News for you
(1) LG (2) Samsung
(3) Voltas Vertis (4) Whirlpool 365.A friend you can bank upon is the
punchline of which financial institution?
359.This is a new logo adopted by (1) IDBI
(2) Lord Krishna Bank
(3) HDFC
(4) Vijaya Bank

IC : PTpnsgk01 (121) of (202)

366.Which group has launched the 372.Which one of the following companies
magazine Cosmopolitan in India? has published the novel The Insider
(1) The Times of India written by P. V. Narasimha Rao?
(2) The Hindustan Times (1) Penguin (2) Viking
(3) Living Media (3) Harper Collins (4) Rupa
(4) The Tribune
373.Who is the editor of the woman’s
magazine New Woman?
367.From which state is the newspaper
The Mathrubhumi published? (1) Hema Malini (2) Shubha De
(1) Tamil Nadu (2) Kerala (3) Arundhti Roy (4) None of these
(3) Karnataka (4) Gujrat
374.The venue of Lakme India Fashion
2005 was
368.Which newspaper group has launched
magazine Vanitha? (1) Kolkata (2) Mumbai
(1) Malayalam Manorma (3) New Delhi (4) Bangalore
(2) Anand Bazar Patrika
(3) Deccan Herald 375.Channel 7 is the name of the news
channel that belongs to the stable of
(4) The Times of India
(1) Living media group
(2) Jagaran group
369.Which famous news magazine in the
US is owned by The Washington (3) Zee group
Post company? (4) Star group
(1) Time (2) Fortune
(3) USA Today (4) Newsweek 376.Play TV is the name of an interactive
gaming TV channel that belongs to the
stable of
370.The logo belongs to which famous
Newspaper? (1) Times group (2) Star group
(3) Essel group (4) Sony TV

377.Mumbai Mirror is the name of the

recently launched daily in Mumbai. This
newspaper belongs to the stable of
(1) Times of India Group
(1) The Times of India
(2) Indian Express Group
(2) The Hindu
(3) Hindu Group (4) None of these
(3) Hindustan Times
(4) Amrit Bazar Patrika
378.Acc o rding to the Audit B u reau of
Circulation, which of the following is
371.Satyajit Ray’s last film was the world’s largest selling English
(1) Agantuk (2) Mahanagar newspaper?
(3) Ghare Baire (4) Apur Sansar (1) The Guardian
(2) The Times of India
(3) The Wall Street Journal
(4) USA Today
(122) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
379.India’s most Wanted’s string 387.Pillars of Hercules is the nick name
operation caught Shakti Kapoor of
seeking sexual favours. Which channel (1) Venice
telecast the programme?
(2) Straits of Gibraltar
(1) Zee TV (2) India TV
(3) Natal
(3) Aaj Tak (4) None of these
(4) None of the above

380.Which among the following is Indian’s

surface-to-air missile? 388.The ….. is referred to as the Isle of
(1) Agni (2) Prithvi
(1) Canaria Insula
(3) Trishul (4) Nag
(2) Channel Island
(3) Cape Verde Islands
381.Which country is known as the Land
of the Rising Sun? (4) Cayman Island
(1) Japan (2) Norway
(3) Ireland (4) Thailand 389.Which of the following is not a fibre
(1) Rubber (2) Cotton
382.Chicago is known as the
(3) Jute (4) Flax
(1) Windy city (2) Monsoon city
(3) City of records(4) None of these
390.What is the approximate length of the
Great Wall of China?
383.Guinea Coast of Africa is
(1) 2000 km (2) 2500 km
(1) Whiteman’s grave
(3) 3000 km (4) 6700 km
(2) Empire city
(3) Emerald city
391.The painter of Mona Lisa belonged
(4) Land of Daffodils to
(1) Italy (2) Paris
384.Land of Maple Leaves is the nick (3) France (4) Russia
name of
(1) New York (2) Canada
392.Hammer and Sickle was the national
(3) Malta (4) Ireland emblem of
(1) United States (2) France
385.Where is the Dutch of Indies? (3) Former USSR (4) Japan
(1) West Indies (2) Hawaii Island
(3) Indonesia (4) Netherlands 393.Reuter is the news agency of
(1) United States (2) United Kingdom
386.Which of the following is known as the (3) India (4) Germany
City of Golden Gate?
(1) Amritsar in India
394.If Indian Airlines is coded IC, what is
(2) San Francisco in USA the code for Jet Air-ines?
(3) London in England (1) 9 W (2) W 9
(4) None of the above (3) J W (4) J 9

IC : PTpnsgk01 (123) of (202)

395.Who popularised the term 402.Which company manufactures the
Industrial Revolution? Dettol range?
(1) Arnold Toynbee (1) Reckitt & Colman
(2) Lincoln (2) Bennet & Coleman
(3) Stalin (3) Johnson & Johnson
(4) Winston Churchill (4) Procter & Gamble

396.To what kind of products is the Eco 403.Which country was host to the first
Mark given? Soccer World Cup?
(1) Rich in proteins (1) Brazil (2) Uruguay
(2) Environment friendly (3) England (4) Spain
(3) Economically valuable
(4) Dangerous to the environment 404.The French Revolution gave rise to
the theory of
397.What does FMCG stand for?
(1) Communism (2) Nationalism
(1) Fast Moving Consumer Goods
(3) Democracy (4) Socialism
(2) Fast Market Consumer Goods
(3) First Market Corporate Game
405.Who emerged as a great leader in
(4) Fast Moving Corporate Goods F ra n c e a s a re s u l t o f t h e French
398.In which television channel does actor (1) Voltaire
Jackie Shroff have a stake?
(2) Napoleon Bonaparte
(1) Sony Entertainment Television
(3) Karl Marx
(2) Sahara TV
(4) None of these
(3) Star TV
(4) Zee TV
406.Which of the following battles was not
fought by Napoleon?
399.Which car in Spanish means
Charming? (1) Battle of Waterloo

(1) Matiz (2) Santro (2) Battle of Trafalgar

(3) Lancer (4) Icon (3) Battle of the Jutland

(4) Battle of Leipzig
400.How many stock exchanges are there
in India? 407.To which of the following countries did
(1) 22 (2) 42 Karl Marx belong?
(3) 14 (4) 30 (1) Germany (2) Russia
(3) Italy (4) England
401.Which international airline uses the
slogan Smooth as Silk in its
advertisements? 408.Boston Tea Party is associated with
(1) Cathay Pacific
(1) French revolution
(2) Thai Airways
(2) Russian Revolution
(3) Singapore Airlines
(3) Independence of Egypt
(4) Qantas
(4) American Independence
(124) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
409.Satanic Verses was written by 417.Day and night are equal at the
(1) Salman Rushdie (1) Poles (2) Equator
(2) Jhumpa Lahiri (3) Prime Meridian (4) Antarctic
(3) Amitav Ghosh
(4) Amrita Pritam 418.The chief constituent of gobar gas is
(1) Methane (2) Ethane
410.The God of Small Things brought (3) Butane (4) Propane
fame to
419.Gelatin is added to ice cream to
(1) Vikram Seth (2) Arun Shouri
(1) Hasten freezing
(3) Arundhuti Roy (4) Jhumpa Lahiri
(2) Avoid crystal formation
(3) Give flavour and taste
411.Who wrote Discovery of India?
(4) None of these
(1) Jawaharlal Nehru
(2) M. K. Gandhi
420.Permanent hardness of water is due
(3) Rajendra Prasad to the presence of
(4) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (1) Calcium bicarbonate
(2) Sodium bicarbonate
412.Sunny Days was written by (3) Calcium sulphate
(1) Adam Smith (2) Gulzar (4) Magnesium bicarbonate
(3) Sunil Gavaskar(4)Kuldip Nayar
421.Which of the following is a non-ferrous
413.The equatorial radius of the earth is
approximately (1) Cobalt (2) Aluminium
(1) 12,700 km (2) 6,900 km (3) Nickel (4) Iron
(3) 6,400 km (4) 11,600 km
422.Atomic weight of uranium is
(1) 237 (2) 238
414.The lay er of atmosphere close to
earth’s surface is called (3) 226 (4) 242
(1) Exosphere (2) Ionosphere
423.Which of the following gases is used
(3) Stratosphere (4) Troposphere in cigarette lighters?
(1) Butane (2) Methane
415.The most abundant element in the (3) Propane (4) Radon
earth’s atmosphere is
(1) Argon (2) Nitrogen 424.Nilgiri Hills are known as
(3) Oxygen (4) Krypton (1) Roof of the World
(2) Blue Mountains
416.The greatest mass of ice on the earth (3) Tea Treasure
is found in
(4) None of these
(1) Canada (2) Siberia
(3) Antarctica (4) Greenland 425.Riyal is the currency of
(1) Romania (2) Saudi Arabia
(3) Japan (4) Libya
IC : PTpnsgk01 (125) of (202)
426.Which of the following countries is 433.The name of which Japanese company
not grouped with the Caribbean? literally means 50 Bells?
(1) Cuba (2) Barbados (1) Isuzu (2) Hyundai
(3) Jordan (4) Angullia (3) Ikon (4) Hitachi

427.Who w as the first to classif y the 434.In 1980 which country did India beat
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World? to win the gold medal in hockey?
(1) Aristotle (2) Plato (1) Spain (2) Germany
(3) Antipater (4) Socrates (3) Pakistan (4) England

428.The largest temple in the world is

4 3 5 . I n w h i c h s p o r t a re c o m p e t i t o r s
(1) Meenakshi Temple
forbidden to play left-handed?
(2) Angkor Vat Temple
(1) Cricket (2) Golf
(3) Temple of Varanasi
(3) Squash (4) Polo
(4) Temple in Lumbini

436.Malcom Marshal is associated with

429.The world’s largest airport is
which sport?
(1) K i n g A b d u l A z i z I n t e r n a t i o n a l
(1) Basketball (2) Boxing
Airport at Jeddah
(3) Volleyball (4) Cricket
(2) International Airport at New York
(3) In t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t a t U n i t e d
States 4 3 7. I n w h i c h s p o r t d o e s o n e u s e a
(4) None of these
(1) Fencing (2) Badminton
430.The New York version of the Statue (3) Tennis (4) Canoeing
of Liberty was engineered by
(1) Alexandre Gustave Eiffel 438.The Treaty of Versailles was signed
(2) Henry Smith in
(3) Sir Edwin Lutyens (1) 1914 (2) 1920
(4) None of these (3) 1928 (4) 1919

431.Which industrialist began his career 439.The first atom bomb was dropped on
as an attendant for Burmah Shell Gas Hiroshima on
in Aden (Yemen)?
(1) August 6, 1945
(1) J. R. D. Tata
(2) August 9, 1945
(2) Henry Ford
(3) August 9, 1939
(3) Dhirubhai Ambani
(4) September 1, 1945
(4) Shubroto Roy

432.If IBM is the Big Blue, Coca Cola 440.With which war is the name of
the Big Red, what is Big Black? Florence Nightangale associated?
(1) Adidas (1) World War I
(2) United Parcel Service (2) World War II
(3) Bacardi Breezer (3) Crimean War
(4) A x e (4) Battle of Leipzig
(126) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
441.Philology is the 449.Which one of the following is the
(1) Study of bones largest lake in the world?
(2) Study of muscles (1) Lake superior (2) Caspian sea
(3) S t u d y o f ancient texts and (3) Lake Baikal (4) Lake Victoria
(4) Study of architecture 450.The mirror placed near the driver of
a bus is?
442.Meteorology is the study of (1) Plane mirror
(1) Weather (2) Meteors (2) Convex mirror
(3) Metals (4) Earthquakes (3) Concave mirror
(4) Cooling mirror
443.Oncology is the study of
(1) Cancer (2) Birds 451.Which is the longest railway platform
in India?
(3) Soil (4) Mammals
(1) Calcutta (2) Mumbai
(3) Sonepur (4) Kharagpur
444.Numismatics is the study of
(1) Numbers
452.Which premium international range of
(2) Stamps luggage was recently launched in India
(3) Coins and Paper Money by BlowPlast?
(4) Space (1) Samsonite
(2) Strolley
445.Ornithology is the (3) American Tourister
(1) Study of bones(2) Study of birds (4) Delsey
(3) Study of smells(4) None of these
453.Hero Global is a venture promoted
446.Night blindness is caused by the by the Munjal group
lack of (1) t o m a r k e t H e r o H o n d a t w o
(1) Vitamin C (2) Vitamin B wheelers in the overseas market.
(3) Vitamin A (4) None of these (2) to sell Hero bicycles in the overseas
(3) to build a automobile design lab of
447.Santosh Trophy is associated with?
international repute.
(1) Hockey (2) Football
(4) to set up company owned dealer
(3) Weightlifting (4) Tennis network in India.

448.Which of the following tax provides the 454.Which one of the following partnership
maximum revenue to the government in the domestic insurance sector is
of India? incorrect?
(1) Individual income tax (1) HDFC – Standard Life
(2) Excise duty (2) Birla – Sun Life
(3) Custom duty (3) Tata – Allianz
(4) Wealth tax (4) Max – New York Life

IC : PTpnsgk01 (127) of (202)

455.Which Indian woman was recently 462.Marshal Tito was
included in the Fortune magazine’s (1) President of Egypt
global list of 50 most powerful women
in business? (2) A hero of the World War II

(1) Lalita Gupte (3) President of Yugoslavia

(2) Meena Venkatesh (4) None of these

(3) Rama Bijapurkar

463.There were two Stevens in the
(4) Tina Ambani making of Apple Computer co. One
was Steven Jobs. What was the other
456.Which French King was known as the Steven’s last name?
Sun King? (1) Macintosh (2) Apple
(1) King Charles V (3) Wozniak (4) Jones
(2) King Francis II
(3) King Louis XIV 464.The lubricant, popularly known as Lal
Ghoda is owned by
(4) King Louis XVI
(1) IOC (2) ONGC
(3) HPCL (4) Shell
457.Who was the last Emperor of China?
(1) (Henry) Pu-Yi (2) Chiang Kai Shek
4 6 5 . T h e fo u n d e r c h a i r m a n o f Apollo
(3) Mao Zedong (4) Sun Yat-Sen Tyres was
(1) Adi Godrej
458.The Nobel Prize was given for the (2) N. A. Palkhiwala
first time in the year
(3) Raunaq Singh
(1) 1901 (2) 1910
(4) Manohar Rajaram Chhabria
(3) 1911 (4) 1912
466.Which company’s roots stretch back
459.The HQ of the International to Alexander Graham Bell, in 1875
Olympic Committee is located at the inventor of telephone?
(1) Olympia, Athens (1) American Express
(2) Lausanne, Switzerland (2) AT & T
(3) Paris, France (3) Vodafone
(4) New York, USA (4) Panasonic

460.When were the first Commonwealth 467.Vatican City has the largest church,
Games held? built in 1492-1612. Name it.
(1) 1948 (2) 1930 (1) St. Anne’s Church
(3) 1934 (4) 1945 (2) St. Peter’s Basillica
(3) Church of St. Aloysius Gonzaga
461.The term Bogey is associated with (4) St. Peter’s Church
(1) Tennis (2) Golf
468.Battle of Haldighati was fought in
(3) Baseball (4) Chess
the year
(1) 1576 (2) 1756
(3) 1657 (4) 1765

(128) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

469.East India Company was 4 7 6 . T h e f i r s t c o n f e re n c e o f I n d i a n
established in the year National Congress was held at?
(1) 1574 (2) 1857 (1) Bombay in 1885
(3) 1600 (4) 1747 (2) Madras in 1886
(3) Calcutta in 1885
470.Pitt’s India Act was passed in the (4) Madurai in 1887
(1) 1792 (2) 1790 477.An underground room where wine
(3) 1786 (4) 1784 is stored is known as
(1) Storeroom (2) Room
471.In which year did the first railway line (3) Cellar (4) Wine shop
open between Bombay and Thane as
well as a telegraph line in Calcutta
478.Which of the following plants of the
(1) 1852 (2) 1853 Indian Railways is located at
(3) 1857 (4) 1876 Kapurthala?
(1) Integral coach factory
472.The Indian National Congress was (2) Wheel and axle plant
founded in the year (3) Rail coach factory
(1) 1885 (2) 1888 (4) Diesel component works
(3) 1897 (4) 1899
479.Fungal garden is found in
473.Arrange the following four densely (1) Termite hill (2) Bird’s nest
populated states in decreasing order:
(3) Honeycomb (4) Wasp nest
i) Bihar ii) Kerela
iii) West Bengal iv) Uttar Pradesh
480. Allen Solly is a brand owned by
(1) 3, 1, 2, 4 (2) 4, 3, 2, 1 which group of Companies?
(3) 4, 1, 3, 2 (4) 4, 2, 3, 1 (1) Tata Group
(2) Madura Garments
474.What is the sex ratio in India? (3) Arvind Mills Group
(1) 829/1000 (2) 933/1000 (4) A. V. Birla Group
(3) 788/1000 (4) 879/1000
481.India’s first Electric Car is known as
475.President of India may make a (1) Reva (2) Mewa
reference to the Supreme Court of
India on a matter of public importance (3) Bewa (4) Mova
for an authoritative legal opinion under
(1) Original jurisdiction 482.India’s weightage in Morgan Stanley
Capital International (MSCI) index
(2) Advisory jurisdiction
has been cut to
(3) Constitutional jurisdiction
(1) (4)4 (2) 5 . 5
(4) Appellate jurisdiction
(3) 6 . 5 (4) 7.0

IC : PTpnsgk01 (129) of (202)

483.Who was the author of the famous 490.Bank rate is
storybook ‘Alice’s Adventures in (1) the rate at which commercial banks
Wonderland’? lead.
(1) Lewis Carroll (2) Rudyard Kipling (2) the rate at which commercial banks
(3) John Keats (4) H.G. Wells accept deposit.
(3) the rate at which the central bank
484.Who wrote ‘Where ignorance is lends to commercial banks.
bliss, it is folly to be wise’? (4) None of the above
(1) Robert Browning
(2) Karl Marx 491.Which one of the following countries
(3) William Shakespeare has the map of that country in its
(4) Rudyard Kipling national flag?
(1) Colombia (2) Congo
485.The book ‘Fifty Years in Cricket’ is (3) Cuba (4) Cyprus
written by
(1) Sir Len Hutton 492.Anaemia is caused in man due to the
(2) Greg Chappel deficiency of
(3) Wes Hall (1) Folic acid (2) Vitamin A
(4) Walt Gregory (3) Vitamin B (4) Iron

486.How many Oscars did ‘Gone with the 493.The name of Jahangir as a prince was
Wind’ win?
(1) Shah Jahan (2) Salim
(1) Eight (2) Nine
(3) Dara (4) Mirza
(3) Ten (4) Eleven

494.The paintings of Ajanta and Ellora

4 8 7. W h i c h m o v i e w a s I n d i a ’s s e c o n d are made out of
(1) Plant dyes
(1) Achut Kanya
(2) Chemical dyes
(2) Ghar Ki Lakshmi
(3) Imported foreign dyes
(3) Pather Panchali
(4) All of the above
(4) Mahanadi

488.Alma ata is the capital of 495.Identify the photograph.

(1) Lithunia
(2) Tadzhikistan (Tajikistan)
(3) Kazakhstan
(4) Uzbekistan

489.X-rays are not deflected in electric

and magnetic fields because they are
(1) charged particles. (1) George Bush
(2) electromagnetic waves. (2) Saddam Hussein
(3) moving with high velocity. (3) Yasser Arafat
(4) hard rays. (4) Shaikh Abdullah
(130) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
496.Fish plates in railway tracks are used 502.Who among the following has been
to elected new Secretary-General of the
(1) connect two rails. United Nations?
(2) join two coaches. (1) Shashi Tharoor(2) Ban Ki-moon
(3) guide the wheels. (3) Kofi Annan (4) None of these
(4) avoid fishes on tracks.
503.Which of the following places was the
venue for the 16th International AIDS
497.The purpose of choke in tube light
(1) Davos (2) New Delhi
(1) to increase the current.
(3) Shanghai (4) Toronto
(2) to heat the gas inside the tube.
(3) to limit the current flow through the
tube. 504.Who among the following is the winner
of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award
(4) t o increase the voltage for the year 2005?
(1) Shikha Tandon
(2) Anju Bobby George
498.When a body is taken from earth to
moon, its weight will (3) Pankaj Advani
(1) decrease (4) Rahul Dravid
(2) increase
(3) remain the same 505.Which of the following is the first
spacecraft sent by Europe to the
(4) slightly increase moon?
(1) SMART-1 (2) Atlantis
499.Identify the photograph. (3) Huygens (4) Discovery

(1) George Bush 506.Who among the following is the author

(2) Yasser Mahmud of the book Sacred Games?
(3) Mahmud Abbas (1) Jaswant Singh
(4) Saddam Hussein (2) Arundhati Roy
(3) Vikram Chandra
500.Name of the book written by the (4) Jhumpa Lahiri
famous cricket player Imran khan is
(1) Sandy Storm 507.‘Gladiator’ is a bike model from
(2) Sunny Days (1) Bajaj (2) Yamaha
(3) Indus Journey (3) Honda (4) TVS
(4) Wasim

508.Who among the following is the winner

501.Who among the following authors has of the men’s singles title of the US
been awarded the Man Booker Prize for Open 2006?
the year 2006? (1) Roger Federer
(1) J. K. Rowling (2) Arundhati Roy (2) Andy Roddick
(3) Kiran Desai (4) Jhumpa Lahiri (3) Marat Safin
(4) Lleyton Hewitt
IC : PTpnsgk01 (131) of (202)
509.Who is the Chairman of the National 515.In which of the following States has
Knowledge Commission? the ADAG group decided to set up a
(1) Arjun Singh 12,000 MW thermal power plant?
(2) Manmohan Singh (1) Orissa (2) Jharkhand
(3) Sam Pitroda (3) Bihar (4) West Bengal
(4) Dr. C. Rangarajan
516.Which of the following days is
celebrated as World Tourism Day?
510.Which of the following places was the
venue for the recently held G-8 (1) September 2 (2) September 27
Summit? (3) October 13 (4) October 24
(1) New York (2) St. Petersburg
(3) Moscow (4) Paris 517.Who among the following has been
appointed as the new Chairman of
State Bank of India?
511.Who among the following has won the
International Cosmos Prize for the year (1) A.K. Purwar (2) Y.V. Reddy
2006? (3) O.P. Bhat (4) A.K. Puri
(1) Arvind Kejriwal
(2) M.S. Swaminathan 518.Who among the following has been
(3) Raman Sukumar voted as MTV Youth Icon for the Year
(4) None of these
(1) M.S. Dhoni
(2) Shah Rukh Khan
512.Who among the following has been
crowned Miss Universe for the year (3) Rahul Dravid
2006? (4) Anil Ambani
(1) Zuleyka Rivera Mendoza
(2) Kurara Chibana 519.Which of the following companies has
(3) Lauriane Gillieron tied up with Mittal Steel to become the
largest steel company in the world?
(4) None of these
(1) Posco (2) Severstal
(3) Arcelor (4) Tata Steel
513.Which of the following countries has
been admitted as the newest (192nd)
member of the United Nations? 520.The Akari space telescope was
(1) Switzerland (2) Montenegro launched by which of the following
(3) Cameroon (4) Malawi
(1) Russia (2) Japan
(3) South Korea (4) China
514.Which of the following PSUs has
won the SCOPE Award for the year 2004-
05? 521.Which of the following is the highest
railway station in the world?
(1) SAIL (2) MTNL
(1) Lhasa (2) Naqu
(3) BSNL (4) GAIL
(3) Kalimpong (4) Santiago

(132) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

522.In which of the following States of 529.Who among the following has won the
India is the Similipal Biosphere Reserve Prem Bhatia Memorial Trust Journalism
located? Award 2006?
(1) Orissa (2) West Bengal (1) Navika Kumar
(3) Punjab (4) Karnataka (2) Barkha Dutt
(3) Praveen Swami
523.With which of the following sports is (4) Rajdeep Sardesai
Saina Nehwal associated?
(1) Lawn Tennis (2) Snooker 530.Who among the following is a recipient
(3) Badminton (4) Archery of the UN Population Award for the year
524.Who among the following is the winner (1) Dr. H. H. Akhter
of the Orange Prize 2006 for fiction? (2) Cristina Macaya
(1) J.K. Rowling (2) Arundhati Roy (3) Ela Bhatt
(3) Elfriede Zelinek (4) Zadie Smith (4) Dr. Raj Kumari Gupta

525.Who among the following has been 531.CBDT stands for

appointed as the new Chief Election (1) Central Board of Direct Taxes
(2) Central Bureau of Direct Tariffs
(1) B.B. Tandon
(3) Central Board of Direct Trades
(2) S.Y. Quraishi
(4) None of these
(3) N. Gopalaswami
(4) G.V.G. Krishnamurthy
532.Who among the following has been
elected new Chief Minister of Assam?
526.Which of the following buildings is the (1) Tarun Gogoi
tallest habitable building in the world?
(2) Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee
(1) Sears Tower
(3) Gegong Apang
(2) Petronas Towers
(4) Prafulla Mahanta
(3) Taipei 101
(4) Bank of China Tower
533.What is the new base year for
measuring inflation under the All India
527.Who among the fo l lowing sports- Consumer Price Index for Industrial
p e r s o n s h a s b e e n n a m e d L a u re u s Workers?
World Sportsman of the Year 2006? (1) 2001 (2) 1982
(1) Rafael Nadal (2) Ronaldinho (3) 1992 (4) 2000
(3) Rahul Dravid (4) Roger Federer
534.Which of the following places was the
528.Which of the following is the correct venue of the 18th Commonwealth
expansion of the acronym CRY? Games in 2006?
(1) Child Relief and You (1) Melbourne (2) Edmonton
(2) Child Rights and You (3) Hamilton (4) Manchester
(3) Croatian Reformative Youth
(4) None of these

IC : PTpnsgk01 (133) of (202)

535.Which of the following is the coldest 543.Which of the following Indian
place on the Earth ? companies has been placed in the first
(1) Vostok (2) Oymyakon position by the Forbes magazine?
(3) Verkhoyansk (4) Mayo (1) ONGC (2) Tata Steel
(3) Reliance (4) Wipro
536.Which of the following countries has
won the FIFA World Cup 2006? 544.At which of the following positions has
(1) Germany (2) Italy been India ranked as a tourist
destination, according to the Conde
(3) France (4) Brazil
Nast Readers’ Travel Awards?
(1) First (2) Fourth
537.Who among the following was the (3) Sixth (4) Tenth
founder of the Lodi dynasty?
(1) Sikander Lodi (2) Bahlul Lodi
545.At which of the following positions is
(3) Ibrahim Lodi (4) None of these India ranked in the list of the wealthiest
nations of the world in the year 2005?
538.Which among the following is India’s (1) Sixth (2) Eighth
first indigenously developed missile? (3) Twelfth (4) Twentieth
(1) Akash (2) Prithvi
(3) Agni (4) Trisul
546.Which one of the following companies
is associated with the exploration and
539.Which of the following countries was commercial production of oil in Barmer-
not a part of the erstwhile USSR? Sanchore basin of Rajasthan?
(1) Ukraine (2) Yemen (1) Cairn Energy
(3) Moldova (4) Azerbaijan (2) Unocal Corporation
(3) Reliance Energy Ventures
540.Where are the headquarters of the (4) ONGC
UNICEF located?
(1) New York (2) Washington DC 5 4 7. R e c e n t l y w i t h w h i c h c o u n t r y ’s
(3) Geneva (4) Paris government did ONGC-Mittal Energy
Limited (OMEL) sign a joint venture
deal of $6 billion dealing with
541.Who among the following has been infrastructure, refinery and power?
ranked No. 1 in the Forbes’ list of top
(1) Colombia (2) Venezuela
100 Most Powerful Women for the year
2006? (3) Nigeria (4) Saudi Arabia
(1) Sonia Gandhi (2) Condoleezza Rice
(3) Wu Yi (4) Angela Merkel 548.Which one of the following airports in
India is the first to be owned by a
public limited company?
542.USP (Unique Selling Proposition) is a
(1) Dabolim Airport, Goa
well known marketing term. Who coined
it? (2) Cochin Airport
(1) Philip Kotler (2) Rosser Reeves (3) Hyderabad Airport
(3) K. K. Birla (4) Michael Porter (4) Bangalore Airport

(134) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

549.Which one of the following companies 555.The ad-line ‘Good people to bank
has started a rural marketing network with’ is associated with
called ‘e-chaupals’? (1) Punjab National bank
(1) ITC (2) Dabur (2) State Bank of India
(3) P & G (4) Hindustan Lever (3) CitiBank
(4) Union Bank of India
550.The ad line ‘Connecting India’ is linked
556.‘Fair and Lovely’ range of products
(1) BSNL (2) Airtel was launched by
(3) MTNL (4) Hutch (1) P & G
(2) Lakme
551.Special Drawing Rights are allocated (3) Hindustan Lever
to the members of which of the
following organisations? (4) Godrej

(1) World Bank (2) IFC

(3) IMF (4) WTO 5 5 7. T h e s l o g a n ‘ L i v e y o u r d r e a m ’ i s
associated with which company?
(1) Liberty (2) Bata
552.Which one of the following statements
(3) Reebok (4) Woodland
is correct?
(1) A l l i a n c e A i r i s a w h o l l y - o w n e d
subsidiary of Indian Airlines 558.Which company has introduced ‘Dura
(2) The Airports Authori ty of India Technology’ in building cars?
manages seven of the country’s (1) Ford (2) Mitsubishi
international airports (3) GM (4) Maruti-Suzuki
(3) The Airports Authority of India is
the regulatory organisation for
559.Real Juices are products of which
enforcing civil air regulations in
(1) Nestle (2) Dabur
(4) It is the function of Directorate
General of Civil Aviation to plan and (3) ITC (4) None of these
construct runways and terminal
buildings and to provide air safety 560.Mittal Steel, the largest steel maker
services in the world, has signed a MOU with
which State Government for setting up
553.British Petroleum recently signed an a steel plant as well as undertaking
agreement with ..... for jointly building mining operations?
a refinery and rolling out retail outlets (1) Chhattisgarh (2) Bihar
in the Indian oil refining and marketing (3) West Bengal (4) None of these
(1) BP (2) Indian oil
561.Which airline displays the tag line,
(3) HPCL (4) IBP “There is no better way to fly”?
(1) Lufthansa
554.Aquaguard water purification systems (2) British Airways
are the products from
(3) Singapore Airlines
(1) Kenstar (2) Voltas
(4) Air India
(3) Bluestar (4) None of these
IC : PTpnsgk01 (135) of (202)
562.‘Georgia Gold’ brand of hot or cold 570.Lorenz curve is a graph which visually
beverages belongs to which company? presents a measure of
(1) Pepsi (2) Nestle (1) The inequality of a nation’s income
(3) HLL (4) Coca-Cola distribution
(2) The trend of inflation in the country
563.Apple computers Inc. was started by (3) T h e d e m o g ra p h i c s t a g e o f t h e
which of the following entrepreneurs? country
(1) Jack Welsch (2) Bill Gates (4) T h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e
(3) Steve Jobs (4) None of these

571.Which company has introduced 91-

564.Procter and Gamble took over which Octane petrol EXTRAPREMIUM in
famous brand recently? India?
(1) Revlon (2) Vicks (1) BPCL (2) Indian Oil
(3) Gillette (4) None of these (3) HP (4) IBP

565.Toy ota Motors manufactures small 572.Indian Airlines (New name : Indian)
cars with which one of the following have redesigned their logo which is a
joint venture partners? graphic wheel. This logo has been
(1) Nissan (2) Suzuki inspired from which one of the
(3) Daihatsu (4) Daewoo following?
(1) Hampi Temples
566.Which of the following companies is (2) Mamallapuram Temples
also present in other sectors like FMCG, (3) Sun Temple, Konark
Electrical equipment, etc. apart from (4) Khajuraho Temple
(1) Polaris (2) Infosys
573.Where is Davos – the venue of the
(3) Wipro (4) Patni Computers annual meeting of World Economic
Forum, located?
567.‘Unicorn’ motorbike model has been (1) France (2) Germany
launched by which company? (3) Switzerland (4) Luxembourg
(1) Hero (2) TVS
(3) Honda (4) Yamaha
574.In India, the first bank of limited
liability managed by I ndians and
568.‘Octavia’ brand belongs to which car founded in 1881 was
manufacturer? (1) Hindustan Commercial Bank
(1) BMW (2) Skoda (2) Oudh Commercial Bank
(3) Hyundai (4) None of these (3) Punjab National Bank
(4) Punjab and Sind Bank
569.RasGas is a gas company of which of
the following countries?
(1) Kenya (2) Russia
(3) Qatar (4) Kuwait

(136) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

575."World Development Report" is an 582.Which of the following rivers remains
annual publication of in India throughout its journey from
(1) United Nations Deve.Programme its source to the point of merger with
another river?
(2) I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank of
Reconstruction and Development (1) Beas (2) Chenab
(3) World Trade Organisation (3) Jhelum (4) Ravi
(4) International Monetary Fund
583.All of the following rivers flow into or
join the Ganges on its left side, except
576.The earlier name of WTO was
(1) Gomti (2) Son
(3) Gandak (4) Kosi
(3) UNIDO (4) OECD

584.Which of the following statements is

577.Which Indian businessman brought not correct?
back the ‘Sword of Tipu Sultan’ to
India? (1) The average height of the Western
Ghats goes on decreasing towards
(1) Kumarmanglam Birla the south
(2) Ratan Tata (2) A part of the Indus basin is shared
(3) Naveen Jindal by Punjab and Haryana
(4) Vijay Mallya (3) T h e I n d u s a n d t h e G a n g a
B r a h m a p u t ra river systems
together form the great plains of
578.Where are the headquarters of Asian
northern India
Development Bank located?
(4) The Himadri range lies south of the
(1) Singapore (2) New Delhi
Himachal range
(3) Manila (4) Mumbai

585.The phenomenon called ‘Equinox’ is

579.The State which produces maximum due to the
quantity of gold in India is
(1) rotation of the Earth on its own axis
(1) Karnataka (2) Punjab
(2) r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e E a r t h o n it s
(3) Chhattisgarh (4) Himachal Pradesh inclined axis
(3) oblate spheroid shape of the Earth
580.The currency of China is (4) gravitational pull of the planet
(1) Yen (2) Yuan
(3) Ringgit (4) Won 586.A circular area enclosing the area of
shallow water separated from the sea
581.The beautiful valleys of Kashmir, Kulu by low banks, is called
and Kangra, lie in which of the (1) an atoll (2) a barrier reef
following Himalayan ranges? (3) a fringing (4) a lagoon
(1) Himadri (2) Himachal
(3) Purvachal (4) Siwalik 587.The major part of agricultural land in
India is under
(1) cash crops (2) food crops
(3) oil seeds (4) plantation crops

IC : PTpnsgk01 (137) of (202)

588.The river Volga pours its water into 594.Great Circles are
the (1) the circles representing latitudes
(1) Black Sea north and south of the equator
(2) Caspian Sea (2) the equidistant lines drawn east
(3) Dead Sea and west of the Greenwich meridian
(4) Mediterranean Sea (3) i m a g i n a r y c i r c l e s w h o s e p l a n e
passing through the centre of the
Earth bisects it into two equal
589.As the height above sea level halves
increases, the temperature
(4) those parallels where the Sun is
(1) also increases imagined to halt its movement and
(2) decreases turn about northward or southward
(3) first decreases and then increases
(4) change of height has no effect on 595.How many minutes for each degree
temperature of longitude does the local time of any
place vary from the Greenwich time?
590.The Caspian Sea, the largest inland (1) Two minutes (2) Four minutes
sea or lake in the world, is located (3) Six minutes (4) Eight minutes
(1) wholly in the Continent of Europe
(2) wholly in the Continent of Asia 596.Spring tides are caused as a result of
(3) partly in Europe and partly in Asia the
(4) partly in Africa and partly in Asia (1) M o o n pulling the Earth
591.Which of the two planets listed below (2) Sun pulling the Earth gravitationally
are nearer to the Sun than the earth? (3) Moon and the sun pulling the Earth
(1) Jupiter and Mercury gravitationally in opposite
(2) Neptune and Venus directions
(3) Mars and Saturn (4) Moon and the Sun pulling the Earth
in the same direction
(4) Venus and Mercury

592.Cochin and Visakhapatnam sea ports 597.The atmosphere has been divided into
of India are situated on the sub-spheres according to the general
c h a ra c t e r i s t i c s o f t e m p e r a t u r e
(1) East and West Coasts, respectively variations. Their number is
(2) East Coast (1) 5 (2) 6
(3) West Coast (3) 7 (4) 8
(4) West and East Coasts, respectively
5 9 8 . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g fa c t o r s
593.Neap tides are caused by the govern(s) the atmospheric temperature
gravitational pull of the of the place?
(1) Moon only (1) Its latitudinal distance from the
(2) Sun only equator
(3) Moon and the Sun in the same (2) Its elevation from the sea level
direction (3) Prevailing winds and influence of
(4) M o o n a n d t h e S u n i n o p p o s i t e ocean currents, if any
directions (4) All of these
(138) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
599.Which of the following pairing is 606.All of the following caves are located
incorrect? in Maharashtra, except
(1) Isohyets – Humidity (1) Ajanta Caves
(2) Isobars – Pressure (2) Amarnath Caves
(3) Isotherms – Temperature (3) Elephanta Caves
(4) Isohels – Sunshine (4) Ellora Caves

600.In the context of their formation, 607.Doldrums are belts of low atmospheric
which of the following types of rocks pressure obtaining in the regions
is the most ancient? adjoining the equator to a distance of
(1) Igneous (2) Metamorphic (1) 5 d e g r e e l a t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e
(3) Plutonic (4) Sedimentary north only
(2) 5 d e g r e e l a t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e
601.Which of the following factors cause(s) south only
ocean currents? (3) 5 d e g r e e l a t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e
(1) Varying density of sea water north and south
(2) Varying temperature (4) 15 degree latitude towards the
north and south
(3) Winds
(4) All of these
6 0 8 . H i g h Ve l d s a r e t h e t e m p e ra t e
grasslands of
602.The local time at a place is 6 A.M.
(1) Africa
when the G.M.T. is 3 A.M. What is the
longitude of that place? (2) South Australia
(1) 45º E (2) 45° W (3) Europe and Asia
(3) 120° E (4) 120° W (4) South America

603.For determination of the age of which 6 0 9 . To w h i c h o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g

of the fo l lowing is ‘carbon-dating’ categories do the forests of the
method used? Western Ghats of India belong?
(1) Fossils (2) Rocks (1) Equatorial forests
(3) Trees (4) both (1) and (2) (2) Monsoon forests
(3) Sub-tropical evergreen forests
604.The minor planets revolving between (4) Temperate coastal forests
the orbits of Jupiter and Mars are called
(1) Asteroids (2) Comets 610.A stretch of sea water, partly or fully
(3) Meteors (4) Novas separated by a narrow strip from the
main sea, is called
605.Which of the following ranges (1) Bay (2) Isthmus
separates the Kashmir Valley from the (3) Lagoon (4) Strait
Indus Valley?
(1) Dhauladhar
611.In essence, the Varna system of the
(2) Great Himalayan range Aryans was based on
(3) Pir Panjal range (1) caste (2) colour
(4) Siwalik range (3) occupation (4) s e x
IC : PTpnsgk01 (139) of (202)
612.On breaking up of the Mauryan 617.Who amongst the Chalukyas was the
Empire, the Satavahanas rose to power most famous king of the line?
in the North-western Deccan in the (1) Pulakesin I
(1) second century BC (2) Kirtivarman I
(2) first century BC (3) Vikramaditya I
(3) first century AD (4) Pulakesin II
(4) second century AD
618.Medical encyclopedias and
613.Which of the following is the correct pharmacopoeias were composed in
chronological order of the following ancient India, the most famous being
imperial Guptas? t h a t o f C h a ra k a , w h o w a s a
(1) Chandragupta I, Kumaragupta I, contemporary of
Samudragupta, Skandagupta (1) Chandragupta Maurya
(2) C h a n d r a g u p t a I , S k a n d a g u p t a , (2) Ashoka
Samudragupta, Kumaragupta I
(3) Kanishka
(3) Chandragupta I, Samudragupta,
(4) Samudragupta
Kumaragupta I, Skandagupta
(4) Samudragupta, Chandragupta I,
Kumaragupta I, Skandagupta 619.Kanishka’s capital was at Purushapura.
Which of the following places in his
large kingdom had the status almost
614.Chandragupta Vikramaditya was the
of a second capital?
(1) son of Chandragupta I
(1) Banaras (2) Mathura
(2) father of Skandagupta
(3) Sanchi (4) Taxila
(3) grandfather of Kumaragupta I
(4) son of Samudragupta
620.Who were the immediate successors
of the imperial Mauryas in Magadha?
615.The first sermon of Gautama Buddha
(1) Kushanas (2) Pandyas
was called the
(3) Satavahanas (4) Sungas
(1) Turning of the Wheel of Law
(2) Salvation through Meditation
621.Which of the following statements
(3) Asceticism was not the path to
about Krishnadeva Raya is not correct?
(1) He was a great warrior and an able
(4) G o d w a s n o t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e
(2) He was the last great Hindu king
of Southern India
616.Which of the following was not
common between Buddhism and (3) He was a very learned person
Jainism? (4) H e w a s t h e f o u n d e r of the
(1) Both denied the authority of the Vijayanagar kingdom
(2) Both regarded rigid penance and 622.Who was the Nawab of Bengal at the
austerity as essential for salvation time of the Battle of Plassey?
(3) B o t h w e r e a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e (1) Mir Jafar (2) Mir Jumla
practice of animal sacrifices (3) Mir Qasim (4) Siraj-ud-daula
(4) Both were started by the members
of Kshatriya caste
(140) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
623.The buildings constructed by which 629.The two principal monuments of
of the following Mughal rulers Alauddin Khalji’s reign – the Jama’at
represent the climax in the evolution Khana Masjid and Alai Darwaza – were
of Mughal architecture? constructed at
(1) Akbar (2) Shahjahan (1) Agra (2) Delhi
(3) Jahangir (4) Aurangzeb (3) Dhar (4) Gulbarga

624.Who amongst the following was the 630.The Mughal emper or who ga ve
guardian and Regent of Akbar when he permission to the British to establish
succeeded to the dominion of his their trading centre at Surat was
father? (1) Humayun (2) Babur
(1) Asad Khan (2) Adam Khan (3) Jahangir (4) Akbar
(3) Asaf Khan (4) Bairam Khan
631.Who was the first Indian to become a
625.Which of the following battles marked Member of the British Parliament?
t h e re a l b e g i n n i n g o f t h e M u g h a l (1) M. Malabari
Empire in India?
(2) Dadabhai Naoroji
(1) First Battle of Panipat
(3) D.N. Wacha
(2) Second Battle of Panipat
(4) W.C. Bonnerjee
(3) Battle of Talikota
(4) Battle of Haldighati
632.Who started the Doctrine of Lapse?
(1) Lord Dalhousie
626.The Italian traveller, who left very
praiseworth y account of the (2) Lord Hardinge
Vijayanagar Empire, was (3) Lord Curzon
(1) E. Barbosa (2) Manucci (4) Lord Hastings
(3) Marco Polo (4) Nicolo Conti
633.Mahatma Gandhi was first referred to
627.When Timur invaded India at about the as the Father of the Nation by
close of the 14th century, the dynasty (1) Vallabhbhai Patel
that ruled the Sultanate of Delhi was (2) C. Rajagopalachari
(1) Lodhi (2) Sayyid (3) Jawaharlal Nehru
(3) Tughluq (4) Khilji (4) Subhas Chandra Bose

628.The first expedition of Muhammad of 634 .The first political organisation

Ghor in 1175 AD was directed against established in India in 1838 was known
(1) the Raja of Gujarat as
(2) his co-religionists, the Ismail ian (1) Bengal British India Society
heretics of Multan (2) Settlers’ Association
(3) K h u s r a u Malik, the last (3) Zamindari Association
representative of the dynasty of
(4) British India Society
Subuktgin and Sultan Mahmud
(4) the powerful Rajput king, Prithviraj

IC : PTpnsgk01 (141) of (202)

635.The Ryotwari Settlement was 641.The reason why the earnings of land
introduced by are not entirely economic rent is that
(1) James Thomson (1) Land can be employed in several
(2) Thomas Munroe uses
(3) Lord Cornwallis (2) The elasticity of supply of land is
(4) Mount Stuart Elphinstone
(3) Other factors of production must be
combined with land to secure any
636.The theory of economic drain of India output from it
during British Imperial ism was
(4) None of the above
propounded by
(1) Jawaharlal Nehru
642.The multiplier is the factor by which
(2) Dadabhai Naoroji
(1) A change in income changes saving
(3) R.C. Dutt
(2) A c h a n g e i n i n c o m e c h a n g e s
(4) M.K. Gandhi investment
(3) An increase in investment lowers
637.Where did Mahatma Gandhi first try income
the weapon of Satyagraha? (4) A change in autonomous
(1) Champaran (2) Bardoli expenditure changes income
(3) Dandi (4) South Africa
643.Given that the marginal propensity to
638.The first session of the Indian National consume is four-fifths, which of the
C o n g re s s w a s h e l d u n d e r t h e following will cause the biggest fall in
presidentship of the value of multiplier?
(1) W.C. Bonnerjee (1) R i s i n g fa m i l y a l l o wa n c e b y 2 5
percent, with no corresponding
(2) A. O. Hume
increase in taxation
(3) B. Malabari
(2) Raising the marginal propensity to
(4) Badruddin Tyabji save to one-third
(3) Lowering the marginal propensity
639.The most effective measure against to consume three quarters
injustice adopted by Gandhiji was (4) None of the above
(1) Hijrat
(2) Picketing 644.All of the following are subsidiaries of
(3) Stoppage of work the State Bank of India, except
(4) Fasting (1) Central Bank of India
(2) State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur
640.The Ilbert Bill Controversy during Lord (3) State Bank of Hyderabad
Lytton’s’ period related to the concepts (4) State Bank of Patiala
(1) Judicial equality
(2) Political representation
(3) Economic justice
(4) Revenue allocation

(142) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

645.If there is a rise in wage rates and a 650.Which of the following steps may be
person’s working time is reduced to taken by a government to check
fewer hours, this means that inflation temporarily?
(1) The person prefers leisure to work (1) Taxes should be reduced
(2) The supply curve of labour slopes (2) Wa g e s o f w o r k e r s s h o u l d b e
downwards to the right increased
(3) The person prefers work to leisure (3) Money supply should be reduced
at the margin (4) None of the above
(4) T h e s u b s t i t u t i o n e f f e c t o f t h e
change in wage rates more than 651.Stabil ity of prices can be brought
offsets the income effect about by
(1) Increasing production
646.Which of the following deductions (2) Controlling the circulation of money
should not be made from the total
(3) Devaluation of currency
revenue of a firm for arriving at its
profit for a year? (4) Both (1) and (2) above
(1) Depreciation of capital
652.Which of the following is an example
(2) D i v i d e n d s p a i d to ordinary
of credit investment?
(1) A share (of stock)
(3) Excess of the value of stocks over
their purchase (2) A draft
(4) Imputed interest on owner’s capital (3) A banker’s acceptance
left in the business (4) A bond

6 4 7. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i s n o t a 653.Which of the following would be ‘fixed

characteristic of Indian agriculture? cost’ to a manufacturing firm?
(1) Over-dependence on nature (1) Plant and machinery
(2) Raw materials
(2) Low level of productivity
(3) Replacement of load
(3) Multiplicity of crops (4) Wages
(4) Predominance of large farms
654.Change in which of the following is the
648.The unit of currency used in Germany best indicator of the change in the
is standard of living of the people of a
(1) Peso (2) Dollar
(1) Cost of living index
(3) Euro (4) Yen
(2) Index of industrial productivity
(3) Per capita income
649.The largest producer of coal in the
world is (4) Wholesale price index
(1) Russia (2) Canada
655.It is impossible for a factor of
(3) UK (4) USA production to earn economic rent if it
(1) Is in perfectly inelastic demand
(2) Is in perfectly elastic supply
(3) Is not a fixed supply
(4) Has more than a single use

IC : PTpnsgk01 (143) of (202)

656.Which of the following is the most 660.Which of the following amounts of
likely to cause an immediate increase transfer from the divisible pool of
in the size of the working population? resources has been recommended by
(1) A r i s e i n t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f the 12th Finance Commission as States’
share in Central taxes?
(1) 590.17 thousand crore
(2) An increase in the birth rate
(2) 603.28 thousand crore
(3) A fall in the death rate of the over
60-year-olds (3) 613.11 thousand crore
(4) More favourable tax treatment of (4) 712.64 thousand crore
the earnings of married women
661.In which of the following situations is
there no need to calculate a weighted
657.Which of the following will tend to
average price index?
raise the market rate of interest in the
long run? (1) A l l p r i c e s c h a n g e i n t h e s a m e
direction and by the same amount
(1) A fall in the marginal productivity
of capital (2) Every family has exactly the same
expenditure pattern
(2) A n i n c r e a s e i n t h e a m o u n t o f
savings by individuals (3) When prices rise, no single price
falls and vice versa
(3) A rise in consumer demand for
(4) All of the above
present over future consumption
(4) None of the above
662.If the satisfaction of each individual
in a community depends exclusively on
658.Public Sector consists of those the collection of goods and services
enterprises in which the State owns which he consumes, it follows that
(1) 50 percent of the capital (1) There are no external economies or
(2) 66 percent of the capital diseconomies in production

(3) 85 percent of the capital (2) There are no external economies or

diseconomies in consumption
(4) 100 percent of the capital
(3) Social benefits are greater than
private benefits
659.If a firm in a perfect competition has (4) Competition is perfect
a U-shaped average cost curve in the
short run, it implies that
663.When did the Reserve Bank of India
(1) At least one factor of production become a State-owned institution?
must be subject to diminishing
returns (1) 1943 (2) 1947
(3) 1949 (4) 1952
(2) The firm must have some element
of monopoly power
(3) Diseconomies of scale apply in the 664.Which of the following terms
industry represents the co-existence of private
and public sectors in an economy?
(4) The firm must have a choice of
plants of different size (1) Controlled economy
(2) Capitalism
(3) Joint sector
(4) Mixed economy

(144) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

665.On which of the following did the 670.If the production possibility curve for
Mahalonobis Model lay greater two goods shifts so that it moves
emphasis for planned development in further from the origin throughout its
India after Independence? length this could be due to
(1) Agriculture (1) An increase in productivity of one
(2) Development of heavy industries factor of production
(3) Generation of power (2) A d e c l i n e i n the level of
(4) Science and technology
(3) An increase in consumers’ demand
for both goods
666.Which of the following agricultural
(4) All of the above
holdings have the largest percentage
in India?
(1) Marginal holdings 671.Which of the following vitamins is
helpful for coagulation of blood?
(2) Small holdings
(1) C (2) D
(3) Medium holdings
(3) E (4) K
(4) Large holdings

672.For purifying drinking water alum is

667.Which of the following policies is likely used
to cause the least conflict for a country
which enjoys a surplus in the balance (1) for coagulation of mud particles
of payments, but is in danger of rising (2) to kill bacteria
unemployment? (Assume that demands (3) to remove salts
are elastic in international trade.)
(4) to remove gases
(1) Reducing government expenditure
(2) Budgeting for a deficit
673.A weather balloon is not fully inflated
(3) Budgeting for a surplus on the ground because
(4) Devaluation (1) if the balloon is fully inflated, it may
not remain stable in a storm
668.Which of the following is not a function (2) the air inside the balloon expands
of money? as it rises and may burst
(1) It is a medium of exchange (3) it cannot withstand the outside
(2) It increases the purchasing power pressure if fully inflated
(3) It is a standard measure of value (4) None of these
(4) It is a hedge against inflation
6 7 4 . V i t a m i n B 1 2 i s m o s t u s e fu l f o r
669.Free economic goods are those
(1) anaemia (2) goitre
(1) Which are not important
(3) night blindness(4) rickets
(2) P r o v i d e d t o the people by
(3) Available freely in nature 675.The volume of which of the following
materials decreases when it is heated
(4) Given to us by our parents from 0°C to 5°C?
(1) Air (2) Copper
(3) Water (4) Mercury

IC : PTpnsgk01 (145) of (202)

676.On a night when the sky is clear, the 683.Radioactive substances can be
temperature may dip considerably; on produced readily in
a cloudy night the temperature will (1) an electron gun
usually dip much less. The reason for
(2) an atomic pile
this difference is that
(1) the clear sky allows radiant energy (3) a transistor
to escape readily from the earth (4) a Wilson cloud chamber
(2) on a cloudy night the clouds are warm
and therefore retard the cooling 684.The method of estimating the age of
(3) the clear sky allows the cold of the crust of the earth, which is now
outer space to reach the earth believed to be the most accurate,
(4) currents of air carry the heat away makes use of the rate of
from the earth on a clear night
(1) accumulation of sedimentary beds
677.Which of the following chemicals is (2) accumulation of salt in the ocean
useful in photography? (3) a t o m i c disintegration
(1) Aluminium hydroxide (radioactivity)
(2) Potassium nitrate (4) loss of heat by the earth
(3) Silver bromide
(4) Sodium chloride
685.When a given amount of air is cooled
678.The purest form of water can be (1) the amount of moisture it can hold
obtained from decreases
(1) a deep tubewell (2) its absolute humidity decreases
(2) a running stream (3) i t s r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y r e m a i n s
(3) a hot water spring constant
(4) a heavy shower of rain
(4) its absolute humidity increases
679.Which of the following vitamins is
stored in the liver? 686.With the present-day advance in
(1) Vitamin A (2) Vitamin C medical techniques, transplants are
(3) Vitamin E (4) Vitamin K possible in all of the following except
(1) artery (2) bone
680.Which of the following is needed by
(3) cornea (4) kidney
a person suffering from diabetes?
(1) Antibiotics (2) Insulin
(3) Penicillin (4) Streptomycin 687.A transistor is most likely to be found
in a
681.An element common to all acids is (1) f u s e
(1) oxygen (2) hydrogen (2) fluorescent lamp
(3) sulphur (4) chlorine
(3) hearing aid
682.Which of the following statements (4) wrist watch
relating to sound and light is true?
(1) Light is a form of kinetic energy, 688.A person born with the inner ear
whereas sound is a form of missing
potential energy
(1) would not have the Eustachian
(2) Light can be reflected but sound
cannot be
(3) Light travels faster in air than does (2) would never be able to hear sound
sound (3) would be able to hear only with an
(4) Sound travels in waves but light electronic hearing aid
does not (4) could only hear a loud explosion
(146) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
689.The possibility of hereditary variation 696.Which of the following is a physical
is greatest when change?
(1) self-fertilisation occurs, as in some (1) Oxidation
plants (2) Reduction
(2) an abundant amount of food is
(3) Decomposition
provided for the egg
(4) Sublimation
(3) organisms reproduce sexually
(4) organisms reproduce asexually
697.Pressur e cooker cooks rice faster
690.Steel is more elastic than rubber because
because (1) it always lets the steam escape
(1) its density is high (2) high pressure crushes the hard
(2) it is a metal covering of rice grains
(3) ratio of stress to strain is more (3) it does not let the heat energy
(4) ratio of stress to strain is less escape easily
(4) high pressure raises the boiling
691.Free surface of a liquid behaves like
point of water
a sheet and tends to contract to the
smallest possible area due to the
(1) force of adhesion 698.The isotopes of an element contain
(2) force of friction the same number of
(3) centrifugal force (1) neutrons and protons
(4) force of cohesion (2) protons but different number of
692.If speed of rotation of the earth (3) neutrons and protons but different
increases, weight of the body number of electrons
(1) increases (4) n e u t r o n s a n d e l e c t r o n s b u t
(2) remains unchanged different number of protons
(3) decreases
(4) may decrease or increase
699.The reaction which converts sugar
693.The buoyancy depends on solution into alcohol is an example of
(1) the shape of the body (1) saponification
(2) the mass of the body (2) hydrogenation
(3) the mass of the liquid displaced (3) fermentation
(4) the depth to which the body is (4) hydrolysis
700.The greatest value of bees to
694.The working of a rocket is based on
mankind is in
the principle of
(1) electricity (1) supplying of food for birds
(2) Kepler’s Law (2) insuring pollination of certain crop
(3) Newton’s Law plants
(4) conservation of momentum (3) storing honey for man’s use
(4) f u r n i s h i n g b e e s w a x n e e d e d i n
695.Friction can be reduced by changing certain specialised industries
over from
(1) sliding to rolling
(2) rolling to sliding
(3) potential energy to kinetic energy
(4) dynamic to static

IC : PTpnsgk01 (147) of (202)

Objective key
General Awareness – Quiz
1.(4) 2.(2) 3.(2) 4.(4) 5.(4) 6.(1) 7.(3) 8.(1) 9.(3) 10.(3)
11.(3) 12.(4) 13.(2) 14.(3) 15.(3) 16.(3) 17.(4) 18.(1) 19.(2) 20.(1)
21.(4) 22.(4) 23.(4) 24.(4) 25.(3) 26.(1) 27.(2) 28.(4) 29.(2) 30.(3)
31.(3) 32.(4) 33.(3) 34.(3) 35.(2) 36.(3) 37.(2) 38.(1) 39.(2) 40.(2)
41.(1) 42.(3) 43.(2) 44.(3) 45.(4) 46.(2) 47.(2) 48.(3) 49.(2) 50.(1)
51.(4) 52.(2) 53.(3) 54.(2) 55.(4) 56.(3) 57.(2) 58.(1) 59.(1) 60.(1)
61.(4) 62.(4) 63.(3) 64.(4) 65.(2) 66.(2) 67.(1) 68.(3) 69.(4) 70.(1)
71.(1) 72.(4) 73.(2) 74.(1) 75.(1) 76.(3) 77.(1) 78.(3) 79.(4) 80.(4)
81.(3) 82.(2) 83.(4) 84.(1) 85.(1) 86.(1) 87.(1) 88.(3) 89.(1) 90.(1)
91.(4) 92.(3) 93.(1) 94.(3) 95.(1) 96.(2) 97.(4) 98.(2) 99.(4) 100.(1)

101.(1) 102.(4) 103.(3) 104.(2) 105.(3) 106.(1) 107.(3) 108.(3) 109.(2) 110.(1)
111.(1) 112.(4) 113.(2) 114.(1) 115.(2) 116.(3) 117.(1) 118.(1) 119.(4) 120.(4)
121.(3) 122.(1) 123.(3) 124.(3) 125.(1) 126.(2) 127.(1) 128.(4) 129.(3) 130.(2)
131.(1) 132.(1) 133.(3) 134.(2) 135.(1) 136.(4) 137.(4) 138.(1) 139.(1) 140.(3)
141.(1) 142.(4) 143.(1) 144.(4) 145.(1) 146.(3) 147.(2) 148.(2) 149.(2) 150.(4)
151.(2) 152.(1) 153.(2) 154.(2) 155.(3) 156.(2) 157.(3) 158.(2) 159.(3) 160.(1)
161.(2) 162.(2) 163.(4) 164.(2) 165.(4) 166.(4) 167.(3) 168.(1) 169.(4) 170.(1)
171.(3) 172.(4) 173.(3) 174.(4) 175.(3) 176.(1) 177.(1) 178.(2) 179.(1) 180.(1)
181.(1) 182.(1) 183.(4) 184.(1) 185.(3) 186.(1) 187.(2) 188.(4) 189.(1) 190.(3)
191.(4) 192.(3) 193.(2) 194.(3) 195.(1) 196.(2) 197.(1) 198.(4) 199.(1) 200.(3)

201.(2) 202.(4) 203.(1) 204.(3) 205.(4) 206.(2) 207.(3) 208.(4) 209.(2) 210.(2)
211.(3) 212.(2) 213.(3) 214.(3) 215.(2) 216.(2) 217.(2) 218.(1) 219.(1) 220.(1)
221.(1) 222.(2) 223.(4) 224.(4) 225.(4) 226.(3) 227.(2) 228.(2) 229.(2) 230.(3)
231.(4) 232.(1) 233.(2) 234.(3) 235.(2) 236.(2) 237.(3) 238.(2) 239.(2) 240.(3)
241.(1) 242.(2) 243.(1) 244.(4) 245.(2) 246.(1) 247.(3) 248.(3) 249.(3) 250.(1)
251.(3) 252.(1) 253.(1) 254.(3) 255.(3) 256.(2) 257.(4) 258.(3) 259.(3) 260.(1)
261.(4) 262.(4) 263.(4) 264.(4) 265.(1) 266.(1) 267.(3) 268.(4) 269.(1) 270.(2)
271.(3) 272.(2) 273.(4) 274.(3) 275.(1) 276.(3) 277.(1) 278.(1) 279.(4) 280.(2)
281.(3) 282.(1) 283.(4) 284.(1) 285.(3) 286.(3) 287.(1) 288.(2) 289.(4) 290.(1)
291.(2) 292.(1) 293.(3) 294.(3) 295.(3) 296.(1) 297.(4) 298.(1) 299.(2) 300.(1)

301.(2) 302.(4) 303.(2) 304.(4) 305.(4) 306.(2) 307.(2) 308.(2) 309.(3) 310.(1)
311.(3) 312.(4) 313.(2) 314.(4) 315.(3) 316.(1) 317.(3) 318.(3) 319.(1) 320.(2)
321.(4) 322.(2) 323.(4) 324.(1) 325.(2) 326.(3) 327.(1) 328.(1) 329.(3) 330.(3)
331.(3) 332.(3) 333.(3) 334.(2) 335.(4) 336.(3) 337.(2) 338.(3) 339.(3) 340.(3)
341.(4) 342.(1) 343.(4) 344.(4) 345.(3) 346.(1) 347.(2) 348.(1) 349.(3) 350.(1)
351.(2) 352.(1) 353.(2) 354.(1) 355.(3) 356.(1) 357.(4) 358.(3) 359.(1) 360.(1)
361.(2) 362.(4) 363.(1) 364.(1) 365.(4) 366.(3) 367.(2) 368.(1) 369.(4) 370.(1)
371.(1) 372.(1) 373.(1) 374.(3) 375.(2) 376.(3) 377.(1) 378.(2) 379.(2) 380.(3)
381.(1) 382.(1) 383.(1) 384.(2) 385.(3) 386.(2) 387.(2) 388.(1) 389.(1) 390.(4)
391.(1) 392.(3) 393.(2) 394.(1) 395.(1) 396.(2) 397.(1) 398.(1) 399.(1) 400.(1)

401.(2) 402.(1) 403.(2) 404.(4) 405.(2) 406.(3) 407.(1) 408.(4) 409.(1) 410.(3)
411.(1) 412.(3) 413.(3) 414.(4) 415.(2) 416.(3) 417.(4) 418.(1) 419.(1) 420.(3)
421.(2) 422.(2) 423.(1) 424.(2) 425.(2) 426.(3) 427.(3) 428.(2) 429.(1) 430.(1)
431.(3) 432.(2) 433.(1) 434.(1) 435.(4) 436.(4) 437.(2) 438.(4) 439.(1) 440.(3)
441.(3) 442.(1) 443.(1) 444.(3) 445.(2) 446.(3) 447.(2) 448.(4) 449.(2) 450.(3)
451.(4) 452.(4) 453.(3) 454.(3) 455.(1) 456.(3) 457.(1) 458.(1) 459.(2) 460.(2)
461.(2) 462.(3) 463.(3) 464.(3) 465.(3) 466.(2) 467.(2) 468.(1) 469.(3) 470.(4)
471.(2) 472.(1) 473.(3) 474.(2) 475.(2) 476.(1) 477.(3) 478.(3) 479.(1) 480.(2)
481.(1) 482.(1) 483.(1) 484.(3) 485.(1) 486.(2) 487.(2) 488.(3) 489.(2) 490.(3)
491.(4) 492.(4) 493.(2) 494.(1) 495.(3) 496.(1) 497.(3) 498.(1) 499.(3) 500.(3)

(148) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

Objective key
General Awareness – Quiz
501.(3) 502.(2) 503.(4) 504.(3) 505.(1) 506.(3) 507.(2) 508.(a) 509.(3) 510.(2)
511.(3) 512.(1) 513.(2) 514.(4) 515.(1) 516.(2) 517.(3) 518.(1) 519.(3) 520.(2)
521.(2) 522.(1) 523.(3) 524.(4) 525.(3) 526.(3) 527.(4) 528.(2) 529.(1) 530.(1)
531.(1) 532.(1) 533.(1) 534.(1) 535.(1) 536.(2) 537.(2) 538.(2) 539.(2) 540.(1)
541.(4) 542.(2) 543.(3) 544.(2) 545.(3) 546.(1) 547.(3) 548.(4) 549.(1) 550.(1)
551.(3) 552.(1) 553.(3) 554.(4) 555.(4) 556.(3) 557.(1) 558.(1) 559.(2) 560.(4)
561.(2) 562.(1) 563.(3) 564.(4) 565.(1) 566.(3) 567.(3) 568.(2) 569.(3) 570.(1)
571.(2) 572.(3) 573.(3) 574.(2) 575.(2) 576.(2) 577.(4) 578.(3) 579.(1) 580.(2)
581.(2) 582.(1) 583.(2) 584.(1) 585.(2) 586.(1) 587.(2) 588.(2) 589.(2) 590.(3)
591.(4) 592.(4) 593.(4) 594.(3) 595.(2) 596.(4) 597.(3) 598.(4) 599.(4) 600.(1)

601.(4) 602.(1) 603.(1) 604.(1) 605.(2) 606.(2) 607.(3) 608.(1) 609.(4) 610.(3)
611.(2) 612.(2) 113.(3) 614.(4) 615.(1) 616.(2) 617.(4) 618.(3) 619.(2) 620.(4)
621.(4) 622.(4) 123.(2) 624.(4) 625.(2) 626.(4) 627.(3) 628.(2) 629.(2) 630.(3)
631.(2) 632.(1) 133.(4) 634.(3) 635.(2) 636.(2) 637.(4) 638.(1) 639.(4) 640.(1)
641.(1) 642.(4) 143.(2) 644.(1) 645.(2) 646.(2) 647.(4) 648.(3) 649.(4) 650.(3)
651.(4) 652.(4) 153.(1) 654.(3) 655.(2) 656.(4) 657.(3) 658.(4) 659.(1) 660.(3)
661.(1) 662.(2) 163.(3) 664.(4) 665.(2) 666.(1) 667.(2) 668.(4) 669.(3) 670.(1)
671.(4) 672.(1) 673.(2) 674.(1) 675.(3) 676.(1) 677.(3) 678.(4) 679.(1) 680.(2)
681.(2) 682.(3) 683.(2) 184.(3) 685.(1) 686.(2) 687.(3) 688.(2) 689.(3) 690.(3)
691.(4) 692.(3) 693.(3) 194.(4) 695.(1) 696.(4) 697.(4) 698.(2) 699.(3) 700.(2)

IC : PTpnsgk01 (149) of (202)

This is a collection of the key terminologies and concepts used in modern business. If
you have a comfortable grasp over these, you will definitely fare well in GK, Group
Discussions, and Personal Interviews. A vast range of terminologies has been compiled
painstakingly just for YOUR benefit. Use this seriously.

 ABC METHOD ABC is a method of Since high prices are often paid to
stock control in which each item is acquire shares of the target company,
designated by the letter A, B or C clever investors often make a neat profit
depending upon its value relative to the by exploiting the situation. Example :
total expenditure of production Acquisition of TOMCO by HLL.
materials. A goods are low-volume,  ACTIVE MARKET A market in which
high-cost items and C goods are the there is a lot of buying and selling. It
numerous low-cost items. Also called generally indicates investor confidence
split inventory method, it is a simple and high liquidity conditions. The market
& effective method of inventory could be of stocks, metals, grains, etc.
 ACTIVE PARTNER A part-owner in a
 ABSOLUTE MONOPOLY The business partnership who is actively
exclusive control of the output of a involved in the normal working
commodity or service, for which no operations of the business. Also called
substitute is available, vested in a g e n e ra l p a r t n e r. O n e w h o d o e s n ’ t
single product or supplier. This will participate is a Sleeping partner.
create an unfair advantage for the
producer who can charge exorbitant  ACTIVE SHARES Shar es in which
premiums, render poor services and there ar e frequent and day-to-da y
still exploit the hapless consumers. An dealings, as distinguished from partly
advantage of a free market economy active shares in which dealings are not
is the creation of competition with so frequent. Most shares of leading
lower chances of absolute monopolies companies would be active, particularly
g e tt i n g a s t r o n g h o l d . E x a m p l e o f those which are sensitive to economic
present day absolute monopolies – and political events and are, therefore,
Indian insurance sector which is a subject to sudden price movements.
monopoly of the government. Some market analysts would define
active shares as those which are
 ACCOUNTING PERIOD The period of bought and sold at least three times a
time covered by business, financial and week. Easy to buy or sell.
management accounts. Financial
accounts are generally prepared once  ACT OF GOD A sudden or violent act
or twice in twelve calendar months, but of nature which is neither caused by,
the interval for management accounts n o r c a n b e p r e v e n t e d b y, h u m a n
must be much shorter in order to intervention and cannot reasonably be
ensure adequate management control e x p e c t e d t o h a v e b e e n fo r e s e e n .
over the regular operations. Contracts are frequently not
enforceable where failure to perform
 ACCUMULATED PROFIT Profit which is due to an act of God.
is not paid as dividend (to the
shareholder) but is carried into the  AFFIDAVIT A sworn statement made
accounts of the following year. before a commissioner of oaths. It is
sometimes needed by a company when
 ACQUISITION Big fish eating little a deed of transfer is signed by power
f i s h ; o n e c o m p a n y t a k i n g ov e r of attorney.
controlling interest in another company.
(150) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
offer of company shares to the public. meeting of the members of a business
After the public has applied for the organization held once every calendar
shares, they are allotted to them by year to consider the general state of
the company. If the share issue has the organization, including its financial
been oversubscribed, various criteria position. Matters discussed at such
may be used for the allotment, such meetings include the financial accounts
as by ballot, to small investors or to o f t h e c o m p a n y, t o g e t h e r w i t h
employees. Applicants who are allotted directors’ and auditors’ reports, the
shares are advised in allotment letters. appointment of directors & auditors, &
 AMALGAMATION The combining of the declaration of dividends. In recent
all or some of the assets and liabilities times, the small shareholders’ conduct
of two or more businesses into a single at AGMs has been a problem for most
organization. This is accomplished by managements!
the formation of a single new business  ANNUITY A type of pension in which
or by the absorption by one business an insurance company pays an annual
of the other. income in return for a lump-sum
 AMERICAN DEPOSITORY payment. This annual income may be
RECEIPTS Public offerings by non-US f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o n l y, f o r t h e
companies (and we're most concerned individual’s lifetime, or in perpetuity.
with Indian companies) in the US are  APPLIED ECONOMICS A branch of
called American Depository Receipts. economics which relates the principles
ADRs are negotiable receipts issued to of economic theory and the techniques
investors by an authorized depository, of economic analysis to the practical
normally a US bank or depository, in problems of business, government, etc.
lieu of shares of the foreign company,  APPRECIATION An increase in the
w h i c h a re a c t u a l l y h e l d b y t h e value of an asset over its purchase
depository. ADRs can be listed and price or book value. (Also - the process
traded in a US-based stock exchange of valuing an asset.)
and help the Indian company to be
known in the highly liquid US stock  ARBITRAGE 1. Profiting from
exchanges. ADRs also help the US- differences in price of the same share
based and other foreign investors to traded on two or more stock exchanges.
have the twin benefits of having An arbitraguer makes money by buying
shareholding in a high growth Indian in the lower market and immediately
company and the convenience of thereafter or simultaneously selling in
trading in a highly liquid and well- the higher market, thereby making a
known stock market. profit. 2. Buying shares in companies
whose share price is likely to rise
 AMERICAN STOCK EXCHANGE because of possible takeover deals. 3.
(AMEX) At 86 Trinity Place, New York, The moving of funds from one market
the second largest stock exchange in t o a n o t h e r t o b e n e f i t fr o m p r i c e
America. Till 1921, it was known as the differentials. The price differential must
Curb (= Brit. Kerb) Exchange. be large enough to cover any
 AMORTIZATION The gradual transaction costs. Arbitrage ensures
extinction of a debt or liabi li ty b y that currency exchange rates are in
means of periodic repayment or harmony throughout the world, since
redemption, usually through the otherwise there would be wholesale
operation of a sinking fund. movements of capital between the
 ANNUAL DEPRECIATION The world’s financial centres.
reduction in book value of an asset at  ARBITRATION Arbitration is an
a certain percentage rate per annum. alternative dispute resolution

IC : PTpnsgk01 (151) of (202)

mechanism provided by a stock  ATTACHMENT ORDER 1 . A c o u r t
exchange for resolving disputes order obtained by a creditor whereby
between the trading members and money due to the debtor by third
their clients in respect of trades done parties becomes the property of the
on the exchange. This process of creditor. The order may also prevent
resolving a dispute is comparatively the disposal of the debtor’s goods
faster than other means of redressal. which are held by third parties. 2. An
 ASSESSMENT The valuation placed on order for the imprisonment of a person
property for rating purposes. Example who is in contempt of court.
- Income tax assessment.  AUCTION The sale of property by
 ASSET 1. Any business resource - competition. Subject to a possible
both tangible and intangible - acquired reserve price, the property is sold to
at a monetary cost and which is that party making the highest bid, the
expected to be of benefit to the contract being binding upon the fall
business for a period of time, such as of the hammer. Ex - Property auctions
buildings, machinery, etc. Intangibles by the IT department.
include goodwill etc. 2. Any resource  AUDIT The systematic examination of
of a deceased or insolvent person from the records, books of account and
which claims may be met. financial documents of a business in
 ASSET LIFE The time period during order to determine the accuracy of the
which an asset is expected to contribute recording of transactions and to
value to the operations of a business. verify the statements and reports
prepared during the period under
 ASSET STRIPPING The taking over review. This facilitates honest and
of a company with share values below proper tax payments.
their asset value, usually for the
purpose of closing it down and selling  AUTHORIZED SHARE CAPITAL The
off the assets. maximum number of shares that a
company may issue, stated in the
memorandum and articles of
(NAV) Term used by MUTUAL FUNDS,
a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e c o m p a n y. A
MASTERSHARES, and other investment
company may initially issue fewer
trusts, to indicate the net tangible asset
shares. The authorized capital can be
value of each share. Calculated by
increased with the consent both of the
taking the total value of an investment
shareholders and the SEBI.
portfolio on market rates on a certain
date and dividing it by the number of  BACKWARD INTEGRATION The
outstanding shares. The net asset merger of one firm with another that
value of a mutual fund share indicates is nearer the beginning of the
how well or badly the fund managers manufacturing process. Examples are
have played the stock market. a brewery with a hop-grower or a
publishing company with a paper
 AT A PREMIUM At a price higher than
manufacturer. Backward integration
that printed on the share certificate, i.e.,
may ensure constant supplies in a time
above par. When a well-established
of crisis but cannot add to the
company issues new shares, either as
organization’s monopoly power. Refer
rights or to the public, it may ask for a
Horizontal Integration.
higher price. The difference between the
face value and the price at which a share  BAD DEBT A debt which is
is now being issued is called the premium. irrecoverable and is therefore written
off as a loss in the accounts of a
 AT PAR A price equal to the face company / bank etc.
value of a share, i.e., if the face value
of a share is Rs 10 or Rs 100 it is being
issued or selling at Rs 10 or Rs 100.
(152) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 BAD DELIVERY A situation in which faced by India forced the Narsimha
an invalid transaction has taken place Rao govt. to embark on a bold
as a result of faulty documentation economic reforms programme.
and good title of ownership is not  BALANCE OF TRADE The difference
transferred. Bad delivery occurs b e t w e e n t h e v a l u e o f a c o u n t r y ’s
where documents are not genuine, or exports and imports, including both
where they are damaged or where the goods and services, but excluding the
coupons attached to a bond or share movement of capital and currency.
certificate are not in order.
 BANKRUPT A person who has been
 BALANCE SHEET Statement of the declared by a court not to be capable
financial position of a company on a of paying his debts, and whose affairs
particular date, showing the nature and are put in the hands of a trustee.
amount of a company ’s assets and
liabilities on a particular date, usually  BARRIER TO ENTRY Any
the end of the accounting year. The phenomenon which hinders or prevents
assets include fixed assets (GROSS new firms entering an industry. Its
BLOCK less D E P R E C I AT I O N ) , existence reduces competition (at least
investments, current assets (which potentially) and so encourages higher
include INVENTORIES, sundry debtors, prices than would otherwise occur.
cash and bank balances) and loans and There are six major types of barrier:
a d va n c e s . T h e l i a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e government prohibition (for example,
shareholders’ fund (equity capital plus by rationing airwav es to a specific
reserves). Loan funds (secured and number of television stations); patent
unsecured loans) and current liabilities restrictions; exorbitant initial costs of
and provisions. The assets and creation; resistance on the part of
liabilities must balance. existing firms (for example, by typing
c o n t r a c t s w it h c u s t o m e r s a n d t h e
 BALANCE OF PAYMENTS (BoP) A threat of unprofitable price wars);
comprehensive set of accounts established consumer preferences; and
recording a country’s transactions with economic restrictions (such as the
other countries and with international unavailability of a scarce resource).
organizations. It can be divided into
two parts : the current account and  BATCH PRODUCTION It is the type
the capital account. The current of production in which identical articles
account is composed of visible trade a re m a n u f a c t u re d o r p ro c e s s e d i n
(the import and export of tangible groups rather than singly. Thus, shoes
g o o d s s u c h a s ra w m a t e r i a l s a n d are generally produced in batches.
machinery) and invisible trade  BEAR A stock market operator who
(services such as banking, insurance expects share prices to fall and keeps
and tourism). The capital account deals selling (to pick up the shares later a
with the flow of funds out of and into lower price for actual delivery), causing
the country through investment abroad selling pressure and lowering the prices
and internal investment b y foreign f u r t h e r. Te r m d e r i v e d f r o m t h e
countries and organizations. If the attacking posture of the bear, pushing
balance of payments is persistently in downwards.
deficit or in surplus the exchange rate  BEAR HAMMERING Persistent selling
of the country’s currency will be liable pressure by bears, bringing the price
to fall or rise accordingly. In recent down. A bit of a mixed metaphor.
times, Japan ran a trade surplus in
 BEAR MARKET Prolonged period of
excess of $ 60 billion with the US which
f all ing share prices, dominated by
in turn led to a surge in Yen’s value
selling pressure in the market place,
a g a i n s t t h e D o l l a r. In d i a h a s n o t
brought about by BEARS, or adverse
registered any trade surplus in recent
economic or political factors, e.g., a
times. In 1991, the massive BoP crisis
IC : PTpnsgk01 (153) of (202)
change in the industrial policy of the  BOMBAY ON-LINE TRADING
government, imposition of price SYSTEM (BOLT) Fully computerized
control, drought or flood, free screen-based trading system fully
i m p o r t s , e t c ., o r a c h a n g e i n t h e operational at the Bombay Stock
government, income Tax raids. etc. Exchange that has resulted in
 BEATING THE MARKET Getting a transparency, speed and ac cura c y.
return on investments which is higher Other stock exchanges have also
than the market average. Possible, but followed suit and Delhi and Chennai
difficult, as the market beats you, more also have one of their own.
often than not.  BOND An instrument of loan raised by
 BELOW PAR A price lower than the the government or a company, against a
face value of a share. Thus face value specified interest rate and a promised
Rs 10 or Rs 100, below par Rs 6.50 or date of payment. Company bonds are
Rs 87. called DEBENTURES, which are secured
by mortgage against company assets, as
 BENCH MARK 1. A known point of distinguished from fixed deposits
reference against which accepted by companies, which are
characteristics may be measured, unsecured.
especially used for testing computer
programs and equipment. 2. A  BONUS ISSUE When a company’s
selected job against which others may FREE RESERVES are high, it may
be assessed. choose to capitalize part of it by
issuing bonus shares to existing
 BILATERAL TRADE Trade between shareholders in proportion to their
two countries to the exclusion of holdings, to convert the reserves into
others. For instance, a developing equity. Bonus shares are issued free
country may buy machinery from the of cost, but since the number of
US on condition that the payment shareholders remains the same and
received is used by US to buy that their proportionate holdings do not
country’s produce rather than buying change, bonus shares do not improve
elsewhere. The formation of WTO is the shareholder’s ownership of the
to promote multilateralism rather than c o m p a n y. A f t e r a n i s s u e o f b o n u s
bilateralism. shares the price of a company’s share
 BLACK ECONOMY An illicit system of drops, more or less in proportion to
trade running in parallel with normal the issue. However, since the dividend
trade but operated in order to avoid rate is often maintained, the
the payment of taxes, for example by shareholder gets a larger yield on the
not issuing invoices, payment normally increased holding and when the share
being in cash. price APPRECIATES, he makes further
 BLANK CHEQUE A cheque which has gains. (Ex. Recent Reliance Bonus 1 :
been signed and dated but in which 1)
the amount payable has not been filled  BOTTOM LINE 1. The last line on a
in. This is left for the payee to insert. profit and loss account, showing a
 BLUE CHIPS Shares of particularly profit or loss. 2. The most important
well-known and established companies result of a business deal, especially in
which have shown consistent growth regard to the potential profit.
over the years, have bright future  BRAINSTORMING A process in which
prospects, and are expected to a group of people, frequently from
continue sustained growth in the different disciplines, meet and discuss
future. From casino gambling, where problems, hoping to solve these
the blue chip is usually the one with problems through insights gained in
the highest value. their exchange of ideas.

(154) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 BRAND LOYALTY The attitude of  BULLION Gold and silver, usually in
customers who always buy the same bar form, which is regarded as a
brands of products. Especially strong commercial commodity at recognized
in premium products like expensive degrees of purity.
cigarettes, cars, apparel etc.  BULL MARKET Prolonged rise in the
 BREAK-EVEN POINT That level of price of shares, sustained by buying
activity of a business at which neither pressure of actual investors or BULLS
profit nor loss is incurred, total costs News of favourable economic growth,
equating with total revenue. Also decontrol, political developments, lifting
called break-even performance. of price controls, budgetary
 BROKER A member of the stock concessions, etc. can trigger off a bull
exchange who is licensed to buy or market.
sell shares on his own or on his client’s  BUYER’S MARKET A situation in
b e h a l f. H e c h a r g e s a c o m m i s s i o n which potential buyers of a commodity
(brokerage) on the gross value of the have an advantage over the sellers,
deals. Commission brokers simply because of over-production, etc., and
execute buy or sell orders against a are accordingly able to dictate terms,
commission. Full service brokers offer such as a lowering of the price,
facilities such as safekeeping clients’ favourable credit arrangements and
portfolios of investments, managing quicker delivery dates. One of the
clients’ portfolios and offering credit primary aims of the present Indian
when a client is buying on MARGIN. economic reforms process is to create
 BROKERAGE The payment charged by a buyer’s market for most commodities
brokers for their services in arranging in India. In the earlier socialistic
a contract. It is usually expressed as pattern, India largely had a seller’s
a percentage of the monetary value market and hence there was literally
of the contract. no pressure on Indian companies to
produce quality goods. Hence it was
 BUDGET 1. A forecast of the indeed ironic that the fundamental aim
government’s expenditure and of Indian socialism, i.e. to help create
revenue for the forthcoming year an equal society through state control,
together with an announcement of its was defeated through a tool of
proposed changes in taxation. The socialism (viz. excessive governmental
budget is the government’s main control leading to lower competition)
instrument of economic policy. Thus itself.
we may witness a populist (soft)
budget in an election year and a hard  CALL OR PUT OPTIONS The right to
budget in the immediate post-election buy is called a call option while the
period. 2. A financial statement which right to sell is called a put option. The
evaluates the level of activity planned buyer of the call option can call upon
by a business for future time period. the seller of the option and buy from
him, the underlying instrument, at any
 BULL A stockmarket operator who
point in time on or before the expiry
believes that share prices are going
date by exercising his option at the
to rise, and keeps buying to sell later
agreed price. The seller of the option
at a profit. From the attacking posture
has to fulfill the obligation on exercise
of the bull, giving an upward thrust.
of the option. The right to sell is called
The bull’s action causes buying
the put option where the buyer of the
pressure in the market place and
option can exercise his right to sell
pushed up share prices. Harshad
the underlying instrument to the seller
Mehta was the big bull of Indian
of the option, at the agreed price.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (155) of (202)

are issued by a company, it may not purchasing of long-lasting assets
require the shareholders to pay the which will be used in the process of
full value of the shares, but reserve a production.
certain portion for future needs so  CAPITAL GAINS 1. A realized profit
that part of the share capital may not made by a rise in the value of a capital
lie unused. Called-up capital is that asset. Such gains may be subject to
portion of the share’s full value which taxation. 2. Profit on the sale of any
the company has collected. assets which have appreciated in
 CAPACITY UTILIZATION When value. If the assets, such as land,
plants and machinery are installed they building, stocks and shares, yield a
hav e a ra t e d c a p a c i ty, i . e ., u n d e r profit on sale within a year of their
optimum utilization they can produce acquisition, it is a short-term capital
a certain quantity of goods, working gain, equated with current income and
a single shift. The rate of utilization liable to full taxation. If profits accrue
of that capacity is expressed in one year after acquisition, these are
percentage. The nature of demand for regarded as long-term capital gains
the company’s product often and qualify for rebates.
regulates capacity utilization.  CAPITAL GAINS TAX A tax paid on
Sometimes, owing to a glut of a the gains arising from the disposal
c o m m o d i t y i n t h e m a r k e t , e . g ., (whether by sale, exchange, etc.) of
fertilizers, the government regulates assets.
capacity utilization. When there are
no such controls, a low capacity  CAPITAL INTENSIVE A description
utilization is generally bad news for applied to those forms of production
the company. Under conditions of a in which a comparatively large amount
seller’s market, a company may of capital equipment is used in relation
achieve more than 100% capacity to the number of employees, e.g. in
utilization, by working more than one o i l re f i n i n g , p o w e r s e c t o r, a n d i n
shift. general, in the infrastructural areas.
Recently, India has al lowed private
 CAPITAL 1. All resources which have sector infrastructure projects to
been produced by mankind and which facilitate investment generation in
themselves are used in the process of such a crucial area. It should be noted
production. Capital is thus different from that Indian government just does not
land, since this is a natural rather than a have the kind of massive funds
man-made resource. 2. The total required for investment in such capital
resources of a person or business. 3. intensive areas. Hence public criticism
The sum of money subscribed by the of such private participation can be
members of a company, by partners or extremely counter-productive and
by an individual when starting a may actually hurt Indian long-term
company. interests rather than furthering them,
 CAPITAL APPRECIATION Increase as is often claimed.
in the capital value of shares as their  CAPITALISM An economic system in
price increases over a period-the most which there is minimal government
important reason for investing in interference in production and in which
s h a r e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y, t h e p r i c e o f the means of production, distribution
shares has always moved upwards, and exchange are largely in private
barring periodic corrections. hands. The US is the commonly
 CAPITAL EQUIPMENT The equipment acknowledged champion of capitalism.
in a factory or office which is used to According to Karl Marx, capitalism is
produce goods or to further the the stage in political development
business. following feudalism and to be
(156) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
succeeded in turn by socialism and through the establishment of price,
f i n a l l y b y c o m m u n i s m . H o w e v e r, production and marketing controls.
communism based on Marx’s theory Cartels thus hurt consumer interests
has failed miserably in its strongest badly by unilaterally increasing prices.
citadel (erstwhile USSR) itself and it is Cartels may be national or
largely acknowledged now that international, government-owned or
capitalism is a better way of managing privately controlled. One international
a n e c o n o m y. T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d cartel is OPEC. A notorious Indian
appreciate the fact that no economic cartel is the cement industry cartel.
system is perfect and a system can only  CASH COW A share which yields a
be called better than others to manage consistently high rate of dividends.
a particular economic structure. Also, a currently profitable business,
 CAPITALIZATION 1. The process of but one which does not have very
converting the reserves built up by a bright growth prospects and is
business (chiefly undistributed profits) therefore used to fund other
into paid up share capi tal. 2. The enterprises.
accounting treatment given to the  CASH RESERVE RATIO (CRR), Cash
capital expenditure of a business. reserve ratio, refers to the portion of
 CAPITAL MARKET 1. The market for deposits that banks have to maintain
long-term sources of capital. Those with RBI. This serves two purposes.
seeking loans on the capital market are First, it ensures that a portion of bank
industry, commerce and government. deposits is totally risk-free. Second,
T h e y a r e s u p p l i e d by c o m m e r c i a l it enables RBI control liquidity in the
banks, the Stock Exchange and savings system, and thereby, inflation.
institutions such as unit trusts and  CAVEAT EMPTOR “Let the buyer
pension funds. 2. Sources from which beware”, a phrase meaning that the
long-term capi tal is raised f or the purchaser is responsible for checking
setting up and sustained growth of that the goods bought are in a good
companies. The stock exchange is a condition. Usually it reflects a lack of
part of the capital market, not only faith in quality.
because it readily provides money for
new or existing ventures, but also  CB or CUM-BONUS Shares with bonus
because it helps investors to trade in entitlement. Buyers of such shares
their shares and maintains the liquidity receive the bonus shares distributed
of investments. Investment in further by a company on registration of their
public and rights issues, convertible shares before the RECORD DATE.
and non-convertible debentures,  CD or CUM-DIVIDEND With dividend.
therefore, becomes an attractive The buyer of a share at CD price is
proposition and companies are able to entitled to the dividend declared if he
raise the resources they need. The buys the share before the closure of
capital market is distinct from money the company’s books, after which the
market - banks and lending institutions price becomes ex-dividend or XD. CD
- which provide short-term finance. shares are usually sold at a slightly
higher price than XD shares, reflecting
 CARAT 1. A measurement of the purity
the value of the dividend to the buyer.
of gold. The maximum of 24 carats
If the actual date of purchase preceded
indicates 100% pure gold. 2. A unit of
the date of closure of the books, but
weight which is used in diamond
delivery came after closure was
transactions. It is equal to 0.2 grams.
announced, the stockbroker would
 CARTEL An informal association of collect the dividend from the seller and
companies which pursues policies hand if over to the buyer.
designed to reduce or eliminate
competition between members
IC : PTpnsgk01 (157) of (202)
 CENTRAL BANK A bank, usually  COMMERCIAL PAPER Commercial
state-owned whose operations are paper is a debt instrument issued by
directed by the government as an an organisation to raise short-term
instrument of financial policy. Typical funds to meet current expenditure
functions of a central bank include needs. Nearly all commercial
acting as banker to the state and the organisations borrow short-term funds
commercial banks, controlling the note from banks for working capital until
i s s u e a n d m a n a g i n g t h e s t a t e ’s they generate funds through sales.
currency and credit policies. The These loans are based on the prime
German Bundesbank and the American lending rates of banks. The
Fe d e r a l R e s e r v e a r e t h e m o s t creditworthiest borrower gets funds
autonomous of all central banks in the at the prime lending rate while for
world. The Indian RBI will surely count borrowers considered a higher risk
amongst the least autonomous ones ! there is a mark up over the PLR.
Autonomy of the central bank reduces  COMMODITIES MARKET Market for
governmental profligacies and trading bulk and basic goods like grain,
minimizes political interference. edible oil, rubber, etc., cotton, yarn,
 CHEQUE A written order to a banker jute, etc. An alternative form of
authorizing him to pay a specified sum investment fairly popular in the west,
of money to a person named in the but only in its infancy in India. Less
order, to his order or to bearer from liquid than shares.
funds deposited with the banker.  COMPANIES ACT 1956
 CHEQUE TO BEARER A cheque made Comprehensive l e g i s l a t i o n o n t h e
payable “to bearer” is one which does structure, financing and operations of
not name the payee. Anyone holding Indian companies. The Act covers:
the cheque may thus present it for types of limited companies; their
payment. If the cheque is crossed, the capital structure; share capital; issue
money payable must be entered into of shares at a premium, or in rare
t h e h o l d e r ’s b a n k a cc o u n t . I f t h e cases, at a discount; forfeiture of
cheque is uncrossed, payment may by shares; rights shares; bonus shares;
paid over the bank counter upon transfer of shares; listing
endorsement by the holder. A bearer requirements of shares; rights of
cheque does not require endorsement share-holders; dividends; reserves;
when transferring title to the cheque. and liquidation of a company. The Act
 CHEQUE TO ORDER A cheque made has been amended from time.
payable to a named person or to his  COMPANY SECRETARY The chief
order. Payment may be made into the administrative officer of a company
b a n k a cc o u n t o f t h e p a y e e i f t h e whose responsibilities include various
cheque is crossed or over the counter statutory duties such as maintenance
if it is uncrossed. A cheque to order of the minute book for board and
r e q u i re s endorsement when company meetings, maintenance of the
transferring title to the cheque. share register, and administration of
 CLEARING HOUSE A place where the payment of dividends to
f i r m s w it h m a n y t r a n s a c t i o n s & shareholders and interest to
dealings among themselves can settle loanholders.
their net receipts.  CONGLOMERATE A group of
 CLOSELY HELD COMPANY A subsidiary companies making very
company whose equity shares are held different types of products linked
by a small number of shareholders. together into an organization. An
Shares of such companies are usually example is the Mitsubishi conglomerate
not put up for sale in the stock of Japan. In India, we have Tatas as
exchange. a good example.
(158) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 CONSORTIUM A group of companies  COUNTERVAILING DUTY A d u t y
(sometimes from different countries, imposed on imports into a country as
and often offering very different a response to similar duties imposed
services) who join together to work on by other countries or to ward off unfair
a single large project, such as building competition.
a railway system or a tunnel.  CREDIT RATING 1. The amount
 CONSUMABLES Goods which are which a credit agency states a
bought and eaten or otherwise borrower is capable of repaying. Credit
destroyed in use. These include Rating can be done for stocks, bonds
foodstuf fs or household cleaning or nations themselves. Some global
products, and also paper and credit-rating agencies are Standard and
typewriter ribbons used in an office. Poors (S&P), Moody’s, etc. CRISIL is
 CONSUMER DURABLES Solid items the Indian agency rating bonds etc. 2.
bought by the general public for use Measurement of the ability of a
in the house. These may include company to meet its obligations such
washing machines, cookers and as secured and unsecured loan
refrigerators, which are likely to be in interests. CRISIL (or ICRA or CARE)
use for several years. will do such an evaluation, at the
request of companies, but credit rating
 CONSUMER GOODS Commodities or of companies accepting fixed deposits
services consumed directly to satisfy a and floating secured non-convertible
want rather than one used to produce debentures is not yet compulsory. 3. A
something else. For example : rating is an opinion of the credit rating
S oftdrinks etc. Capi tal goods (lik e agency (CRA), on the future ability and
machinaries), on the other hand, are
legal obligation of the company whose
used to generate some other goods.
instrument is being rated, to make
 CONTRABAND Goods which are timely payments of principal and
brought into a country illegally, without interest on the obligation. The rating
paying customs duty. m e a s u re s t h e p r o b a b il i t y t h a t t h e
 CONTROLLED ECONOMY An issuer will default on the security over
economic system where all business the life of the instrument being rated.
activity is planned and directed by the This is expressed by means of a
government. The erstwhile USSR set symbol.
t h e t r e n d fo r s t a t e c o n t r o l l e d
 CREDIT SQUEEZE 1. The process of
economies. India followed and shaped
restricting credit facilities or of making
its 5-year plans on those lines.
cr edit more expensive by raising
 CONVERTIBILITY The abili ty of a interest rates. The credit squeeze is
currency to be exchanged for gold or ini tiated by governments acting
f o r a n o t h e r c u r re n c y. T h e ra t e o f through monetary policies in response
exchange may be fixed at a certain to adverse economic conditions.
point, or fixed within certain limits, or Standard features of a credit squeeze
may be determined by market forces are a limit on bank lending and
of demand and supply. restrictions on hire-purchase. India had
 CONVERTIBLE DEBENTURE Fixed a taste of it in 1992. 2. The opposite
interest secured loan certificates which of CHEAP MONEY, when the Reserve
carry a provision of CONVERSION into bank restricts the money supply by
a certain number of shares AT PAR or raising the lending rates. This makes
AT A PREMIUM on a certain date. When it difficult for companies to start
only a part of the loan is converted the operations or expand business.
certificate is called a partly convertible Economics activity is slowed down and
debenture, and when the entire the stock market passes through a
amount is converted it is called a fully- recession.
convertible debenture.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (159) of (202)
 CRISIL or CREDIT RATING  CYBERSPACE A term coined by author
INFORMATION SERVICES OF William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer.
INDIA LIMITED Jointly sponsored by It represents the totality of all connected
the Unit Trust of India and the Industrial computer networks and their contents
Credit and Investment Corporation of in a future world. It has become a slang
India (ICICI), CRISIL has been term for the Internet and the information
functioning since January 1988. It rates in it. CHIT FUNDS The chit fund is one of
the safety and timely payment of India's oldest indigenous financial
interest on debt securities like institutions. By law, it is a contract
debentures and fixed deposits of public between subscribers and the foreman
and private sector companies. The of a chit company, wherein subscribers
rating, subjected to periodic review, is shall pay a certain amount in regular
given in alphabetical symbols preceded installments for a definite time period.
by D for Debentures and F for fixed The successful bidder (subscriber to the
deposits. A rating of AAA signifies chit scheme) stands to gain from the
highest safe ty, AA high safe ty, An auction amount while the other
adequate safety, B inadequate safety, subscribers gain by the discount offered
by the successful bidder.
C high risk, D default.
 CYCLICAL SHARES Shares which rise
 CROSS HOLDING A situation where and fall in price with the state of the
two companies each own shares in national economy, of such industries as
each other, as a protection against construction, automobiles, cement,
takeover bids. engineering; or those affected by
 CROSS RATE In inter-bank international economy, such as shipping,
transactions, all currencies are aviation, and tourism; also shares which
normally traded against the US dollar, are affected by natural phenomenon,
which becomes a frame of reference. like fertilizers and tea. Non-cyclical
So if one is buying with rupees a shares would be drugs, insurance, basic
currency X which is not normally foodstuffs and many consumer products.
traded, one can arrive at a rupee-X  DTH DTH is the short form for direct-to-
exchange rate by relating the rupee- home television services. It means that
$ rate to the $-X rate. This is known the satellite television signals are directly
as a cross-rate. ‘delivered’ to the viewer as opposed to
the current cable-delivered signals. In
 CUM-RIGHTS or CR The buyer of a
India, we currently receive various
cum-rights share is entitled to satellite channels through cable
subscribe to the forthcoming rights operators who in turn receive the
issue announced by the company. The satellite signals on their big dish antennae
date up to which a share can be bought and then transmit them via their cable
cum-rights is announced by the networks to our TV screens. The DTH
company. After this date the share service cuts out the cable operator.
becomes ex-rights. Cum-rights shares Unlike the current satellite channels,
are usually sold at a price higher than which are transmitted on C-Band (lower
XR shares. frequency) and which require big
 CURRENCY The money in coins and receiving dishes of at least 8 feet
notes which is legal tender in a diameter, DTH signals are broadcast on
particular country. the Ku-Band (higher frequency) which
can be received by small dish antennae
 CUSTOMS DUTY A tax which is levied
measuring 1.5 to two feet. These can
on an imported good, being be installed on rooftops or even outside
administered by the Customs and one’s window. The encrypted or
Excise authorities. The tax may be compressed signals received by your dish
specific or ad valorem. outside the window are then decoded or
unscrambled by a set-top box installed
in your home.
(160) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 DALAL STREET Popular name of the s a t i s f a c t o r y. S e r v i c i n g o r p a y i n g
Bombay Stock Exchange, which is interest on a large debt may not leave
located there. The B.S.E. is also the company with any profit or
referred to as Jeejeebhoy Towers. operating cash, which in turn will lead
 DEBIT CARDS A debit card combines to further borrowing. Unless there is a
the functions of an ATM card and a dramatic turnaround in the company’s
cheque. When you pay with your debit profits, the trap closes on it, forcing
card at a merchant establishment, the liquidation. It can also be defined as
the relationship between a company’s
merchant swipes your card through an
long-term borrowings and the value of
electronic point of sale (EOS) terminal
its share capital including reserves.
which is directly linked up with the
debit card issuing bank. When this is  DEED A written document which
done, the cardholder’s account formally sets out a contractual
immediately gets debited. Debit cards agreement. The document requires the
are issued by banks, but are used at signature under seal of the contracting
stores, not at the banks themselves. party and delivery to the other party in
order to establish a legally valid
 DEBENTURES An instrument of debt, contract.
called bond in the United States. A
 DEFICIT An excess of liabilities over
debentureholder is a creditor to the
assets or of expenditure over
company who loans funds for a period
of 7-10 years against a fixed rate of
interest. After the stipulated loan  DEFICIT FINANCING The issuing of
government securities to provide funds
period the debentures are redeemed,
to cover a budgeted excess of
i.e. the loan is paid back, sometimes
expenditure over revenue. Indian
with a very small premium. Debentures
government has, in recent times,
are generally secured against the
resorted to heavy deficit financing
company’s assets. Convertible
thereby fuelling inflationary
debentures can be either fully or partly
converted into a certain number of
shares, usually at a premium, after a  DELEGATION The practice of
stated period of time. Convertible conferring duties, powers and
debentures may carry a lower rate of responsibilities on subordinates while
interest than non-convertible retaining overall responsibility and
debentures which are redeemed after control. It leads to effective utilization
the stated period. A very conservative of time for planning out strategies.
investment; there is little risk but also  DEMAND DRAFT A bill of exchange
little prospect of appreciation. on which no acceptance is required
and which is payable on presentation
 DEBT-EQUITY RATIO Also called by the holder.
financial LEVERAGE ratio in the U.S.
 D E M A T E R I A L I S A T I O N
There are three methods of
Dematerialisation is a process by which
calculating this ratio, the last being
an investor’s physical share
more common: (1) the total liabilities
certificates are taken back by the
of a company divided by the
company/registrar and destroyed.
shareholders’ equity; (2) the total
Then an equivalent number of
long-term debt divided by
securities are credited in the electronic
shareholders’ equity; (3) the total
holdings of that investor. This is done
long-term debt plus the par value of
at the request of the in vestor. An
preference shares divided by the par
investor will have to first open an
value of equity shares. All the three
account with a DP and then request
ratios measure a company’s solvency.
for the dematerialisation of his
 DEBT-TRAP A debt trap is something certificates through the DP so that the
a highly leveraged company is likely dematerialised holdings can be
to fall into if its performance is not credited into that account.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (161) of (202)
 DEMOGRAPHY The statistical study  DERIVED DEMAND The demand which
of human populations, including their exists for a commodity because of its
birth rate, death rate, occupational contribution to the manufacture of
distribution, e t c ., and the another product. For example, the
investigation of trends and influences d e m a n d fo r s t e e l o r w o o d p u l p i s
upon their size and classifications. derived demand.
 D E M U T U A L I S A T I O N  DEVALUATION The reduction in the
Demutualisation refers to the value of a currency in terms of other
conversion of an existing non-profit c u r r e n c i e s , u s u a ll y e f f e c t e d b y a
organisation into a for-profit company. change in the official rate of exchange.
In other words, an association that is A policy of devaluation may be
mutually owned by members converts employed by a government in order to
itself into an organisation that is re c t i f y a s e ve r e i m b a l a n c e i n t h e
owned by shareholders. The company balance of payments. Deregulation of
can take different shapes and forms, currency helps the nation increase its
that is, it could be either a listed or exports because of the increase in
unlisted company which may be cost-competitiveness of its exports.
closely held or publicly held.  DEVELOPING COUNTRY A country
 D E N A T I O N A L I Z E To t r a n s fe r a whose economic activity is at a basic
nationalized industry from public a n d l o w l e ve l , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a
ownership to private ownership. concentration on agriculture, little or
 DEPOSITORY A depository is an no industrial investment, and low living
organisation where share certificates of s t a n d a r d s , w i t h h i g h f e r t il i t y a n d
a shareholder are held in electronic form. mortality rates.
This is done at the request of the  DIMINISHING RETURNS A
shareholder through a depository manufacturing situation which exists
participant (DP). If an investor wants to when production expands at a rate
use services offered by a depository, which is less than proportionate to the
he/she has to open an account with the rate of increased use of the factors of
depository through a DP - more about p roduction. This usual ly oc curs in
him later - much like opening an account conditions of maximum capacity or
with any branch of a bank to utilise its excessive use of facilities, producing
services. In fact, in many ways , a breakdowns, wastage, etc.
depository is similar to a bank.
 DIRECT TAXATION Taxation levied
 DEPRECIATION 1. The reduction in on individuals, assessed on their
the value of an asset through wear income from a variety of sources, such
and tear, obsolescence, etc. 2. An as wages, salaries, profits, and
accounting device by means of which interest. The tax may be collected from
the value of an asset is converted into the individuals personally or deducted
an expense for each of the accounting from their earnings and collected by
periods during which the asset is
their employer.
expected to contribute value.
 DEPRESSION A period of economic
Unemployment among those who want
crisis with high unemployment and
to work but who do not appear in
sharp fall in trade. The worst of the
u n e m p l oy m e n t f i g u r e s fo r v a r i o u s
depressions was the Great Depression
of 1929 in the wake of the New York statistical reasons. They include
stock exchange collapse. housewives, young school-leavers and
the handicapped. Unemployed figures
 D E R E G U L A T I O N T he reduction in invariably underestimate the number of
excessive rules & regulations. Indian unemployed but by how much is a
economy witnessed deregulation after
matter of dispute.
(162) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 DISINFLATION The process or policy simplification of work. Such
of removing pressures on the economy concentrated monotonous work
which are forcing prices upwards and a r i s i n g f r o m s p e c i a l i z a t i o n m a y,
the real value of the monetary unit however, have adverse psychological
downwards. Pressure may be removed effects on operatives.
by curtailing expenditure through  DOMICILE A country where an
credit restrictions and a dear money individual is deemed to live
policy, and by taxation. permanently or where a company has
 DISINVESTMENT Specially in the its registered office.
Indian context, it refers to the  DRY GOODS Goods such as textiles,
process of offloading of shares in a d r a p e r y, e t c ., a s o p p o s e d t o
firm by a party. The government of perishables, such as grocery articles.
India has partially disinvested its
holding in several Public Sector  DUMPING The practice of selling a
Undertakings (PSUs) with the ultimate product in different markets at different
aim of privatising them to increase prices. The term is more generally used
accountability and productivity. to describe the practice of selling goods
abroad at prices below the cost of
 DIVERSIFICATION Expansion of a production or below the competitive
f i r m i n t o a n u n r e l a t e d i n d u s t r y. price level in order to achieve some
Reasons for diversification include income. Dumping is one of the few
risk-spreading, the avoidance of practices which, it is generally agreed,
seasonal trade fluctuations, or may be protected against by the
ensuring increase of growth-rate. imposition of import duties.
Diversification, unlike vertical
integration with which it otherwise has  EASY TERMS Terms of repayment of
similarities, cannot increase monopoly a loan which is either spread over a
power. long period or is granted at a low rate
of interest.
 DIVIDEND Payment made to
 ECONOMIC CYCLE The period during
shareholders, usually once or twice a
which an economy expands, then slows
year out of a company’s profits after
down, and then expands again.
tax. Dividend payments do not
distribute the entire net profit of a  ECONOMIC GROWTH The process of
company, a part or substantial part of development and the policies designed
which is held back as reserves for the to achieve economic development.
company’s expansion. Dividend is Growth may be measured by a variety
declared on the face value or par of criteria, such as per capita
value of a share, and not on its market i m p r o v e m e n t i n li v i n g s t a n d a r d s ,
price. There is no legal compulsion on increase in the volume and value of
the company to pay a certain minimum capital investment, production, etc.
dividend on equity shares.  ECONOMIC LIFE The period ov er
 DIVISION OF LABOUR A method of which an asset is expected to
organizing the production process contribute value. It is influenced by
which involves the specialization in such factors as the rate of usage,
separate operations by different obsolescence, etc.
individuals. This assists the expansion  ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY That
of output through the development of quantity of material or items which is
o p e r a t o r s k i l l s a n d d e x t e r it y, t h e most economic to order and to stock,
minimizing of delays involved in taking into account all relevant factors.
transferring to other operations and Thus, it would reflect quantity
the potential for mechanical discounts, tied-up capital cost,
assistance arising from the spoilage, transport cost etc.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (163) of (202)

 ECONOMICS The scientific study of  ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY The extent
human behaviour relating to the of a response of supply for a product
allocation of resources in order to to a change in its price. It may be
satisfy personal and national expressed mathematically by dividing
requirements. the percentage change in supply by
 ECONOMIC SANCTIONS Restrictions the percentage change in price.
on trade with a country, imposed by  ELECTRONIC MAIL A system of
another government with the aim of sending messages from one computer
changing that country’s political terminal to another, using telephone
system or of restricting that country’s lines.
activities on the international scene.  EMBARGO A prohibition placed on
For example, the US often threatens goods or ships entering or leaving a
Japan with severe trade sanctions c o u n t r y. T h e p r o h i b i t i o n s m a y b e
unless its conditions regarding opening aimed specifically at one country or
up of the Japanese market are met. may be general in its application.
 ECONOMIC SURVEY The Economic  EMBEZZLEMENT The unauthorized
Survey is an annual commentary on appropriation of money belonging to
the state of the economy which is put an employer or his business.
together by the Union finance
m i n i s t r y. T h e s u r v e y i s t h u s t h e  EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION PLANS
finance ministry's version of economic An Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP)
developments during the course of the is an employee benefit plan, which
year. It is presented in Parliament makes the employees of a company
each year shortly before the general o w n e r s o f s t o c k i n t h a t c o m p a ny.
Budget and just after the railway Several features make ESOPs unique
budget. as compared to other employee
benefit plans. Most companies, both
 ECONOMY OF SCALE The benefit of domestic and worldwide, are utilising
an increase in production through a this scheme as a essential tool to
lower unit cost which results from reward and retain their employees.
expansion of the size either of inputs Currently, this form of re-structuring
of factors of production or of is most prevalent in IT companies
operations. where manpower is the main asset.
 ELASTICITY A measurement in  ENTREPRENEUR A person who both
economics of the degree of response manages a business and assumes the
of a change in one factor to a change financial risks involved in business,
in a related factor, expressed in a price standing to make a profit or to lose
demand, price-supply or demand- the capital he has invested. He is
income relationships. considered by conventional economic
 ELASTICITY OF DEMAND The extent theory to be the prime catalyst in the
of a response of demand for a product market system.
to a change in its price. It may be  EQUILIBRIUM PRICE The price at
expressed mathematically by dividing which quantity demanded equals
the percentage change in demand by quantity supplied. In a free market the
the percentage change in price. price is set by reference to the
Elasticity of demand is affected by such interactions of the forces of demand
factors as the availability of substitutes and supply. In this situation there is
and the nature of the product, i.e. a no impetus for the supplier to alter
necessity or a luxury. his output or for the consumers to
change their buying habits.

(164) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 EQUITIES Shares in companies, as  EUROMARKET 1. The European
distinguished from other kinds of Community seen as a potential market
investment, such as gold, real estate, for goods or services. 2. The trading
debentures, fixed deposits, units in market in Eurocurrencies.
mutual funds, government bonds, etc.  EUROPEAN CURRENCY UNIT The
 EQUITY FUNDS These are mutual unit of account used by the European
funds, which invest in equity shares Monetary System. Its value is equal
of companies. Equity funds are to the aggregated value of the
recommended by most fund houses member-nations’ currencies.
because equities, as an asset class,  EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
have historically delivered higher A customs union comprising 15
returns compared to debt funds over countries : Belgium, Denmark, Greece,
a long term. Equity funds, by their Ireland, France, Italy, Luxembourg,
very nature, tend to be volatile, that the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the
is, in the short term their value can United Kingdom, Germany, Finland,
go up or down. Therefore, they are Austria, and Sweden. The purpose of
not meant for those investors who the community is to achieve eventual
need a regular and stable stream of unification through the integration of
easily predictable income. economic and political activity. The
 EQUITY SHAREHOLDERS They are EEC is now popularly called the EU. It
the owners of the company, sharing will, one day, represent the strongest
its risks, profits, and losses. They trading bloc on Earth threatening the
have a residual claim on the earnings hegemony of the US.
and assets of a company. They are  EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION
paid their share of the company’s An association which originally
profits after all other claims are met, comprised seven countries: Austria,
and in the event of the liquidation of Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland,
the company they share whatever is Denmark and the United Kingdom. EFTA
left of the company after all its was designed to eliminate tariff and
creditors have been paid. They enjoy trade restrictions between member
limited liability, i.e., liability only to the countries, each, however, retaining its
extent of their shareholding. own trade policies in relation to non-
 ESTABLISHMENT CHARGES The member countries. The entry of the
costs of people and property in a United Kingdom and Denmark into the
company’s accounts. EEC in 1973 undermined EFTA as a free
 ESTATE DUTY A tax on the value of trade area.
property which passes to others on  EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM A
the death of a person. system designed primarily to limit the
 EURO The European nations have fluctuations of exchange rates of
decided to merge their economies in a member-countries within prescribed
historic way through the EURO, a limits. Agreement must be reached in
common currency. For more details, advance before a currency can be
check out the article given in this book revalued or devalued to a greater
elsewhere. extent than permitted under the
system, and financial support for
 EURODOLLARS Dollar funds held in
currencies is provided by the European
European commercial banks. The funds
Monetary Fund to which all members
provide a source of short-term
contribute. The EMS was formed in 1978
international loan finance and
and its original members were Belgium,
supplement the currency reserves of
Denmark, France, Luxembourg, the
the European central banks.
Netherlands and West Germany. Ireland
and Italy joined later the same year.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (165) of (202)
 EXCHANGE CONTROL The  FEMA The Foreign Exchange
governmental regulation of foreign Management Act (FEMA) is a law to
currency transactions in order to replace the Foreign Exchange
ensure the strength and stability of Regulation Act, 1973. Any offense
the national currency and to protect under FERA was a criminal offense
gold and foreign currency reserves. liable to imprisonment, whereas FEMA
 EXCHANGE RATE PARITY The fixed seeks to make offenses relating to
price relationship at which two foreign exchange civil offenses.
currencies are convertible. Parity is  FACTORS OF PRODUCTION The
determined by government policy and resources which are combined to
maintained by various measures, produce goods and services: they
including, for example, the operation comprise land, labour and
of the exchange equalization account. entrepreneurial skill.
 EXCHEQUER The government  FAIR TRADE An international trading
department dealing with public situation in which goods are
revenue. exchanged on equal terms. Thus,
 EXCISE DUTY A tax levied on duties and restrictions imposed by one
domestically produced goods at the country are met by reciprocal duties
production stage, such as beer, spirits, and restrictions by other countries.
and tobacco, or raised as fees for Duties may also be imposed on imports
licences permitting the manufacture of to nullify any price advantage they
such goods. Excise duties are collected possess over home-produced goods.
and administered by local authorities  FEASIBILITY STUDY An
and the Customs and Excise investigation of a proposed or existing
authorities. plan or project in order to determine
 EXCLUSIVE MARKETING RIGHTS its technical and financial viability.
(EMRS) If a product is approved for  FEEDBACK The passing of information
product patents and marketing prior relating to operational performance,
to January 1, 2005 in any WTO etc. back along a system so that
signatory country, the marketer will effective action can be taken to
be allowed exclusive rights on remedy any deviation of an operation
marketing the drugs in India for a from a formulated plan.
period of five years.  FINANCE COMMISSION An agency
 EXECUTIVE A senior member of a that decides on the share of Centre
business with commensurate and states in the taxes raised by the
management duties and f o r m e r. T h e b a s i c fu n c t i o n o f t h e
responsibilities. Finance Commission is to make
 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR A director of recommendations to the President
a company who works full-time in the (the Chairman and members of the
company and has the power to make Commission are appointed by the
decisions in a certain area of the President on the advice of the
company’s activities. government) regarding sharing of
taxes and the principles regarding
 EX-OFFICIO MEMBERSHIP grants-in-aid. The need for grants-in-
Membership of a committee which aid arises because even after tax
derives not from election but from the devolution, there are some states that
position which the person holds within continue to have a revenue deficit.
an organization.
 EXPORT OF CAPITAL The outflow of investment which can be traded, such
domestic currency which is used to as shares, certificates of deposit, etc.
finance investments in foreign
(166) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
Government and public corporations a business draws up its accounts. While
like the Life Insurance Corporation of normally running for 12 months, it can
India, the Unit Trust of I ndia, and be for a shorter or longer period.
other mutual funds with large  FISCAL 1. Pertaining to public
investible resources which operate in revenues. 2. Pertaining to general
the stock market, often beneficially, financial matters.
by buying large chunks of shares when  FISCAL YEAR The twelve-month
prices are falling, generally providing period, beginning on the sixth of April,
support to the market. They also which is used for central government
support, to a considerable extent, accounting and taxation purposes.
new public issues, playing an
 FIVE-YEAR PLAN A plan for a
important role in the PRIMARY
country’s economy converting a period
MARKET as well. The presence of the
of five years. Five-year plans are used
financial institutions in the stock
in planning controlled economies.
market, and their large-scale
participation in its activities, has been  FIXED ASSETS Those resources
responsible for the market behaving which are expected to be of continued
in a fairly steady fashion. value to a business over a number of
years. The cost of such assets
 FINANCIAL RATIOS Ratios of values (bui ldings, plant, etc.) is generally
obtained from a firm’s financial written off against the profits of the
statements used to study the firm’s years during which benefit is derived
health and the price of its shares. The from them.
more important among these are
 FIXED BUDGET A budget which
C U R R E N T R AT I O , P / E R AT I O,
remains unchanged during the budget
E A R N I N G S TO E Q U I TY R AT I O, period, irrespective of the level of
P AY O U T R AT I O , p r i c e - b o o k v a l u e activity actually attained.
ratio, profit before tax to sales ratio,
and QUICK RATIO. Accounting figures  FIXED COSTS Any costs which tend
which help arrive at these ratios to be unaffected by variations in
volume in output. In some cases major
changes in volume will affect fixed
costs, as when a production facility is
closed down or when extra output can
 FINANCIAL STRUCTURE Distinguished be achieved only by increasing
from capital structure of a company production facilities.
which includes only long-term debt and
equity, the financial structure of a
resources which, without being part
company is revealed on the right-hand
of the original building structure, are
(liabilities side of a company’s balance
attached to a business premises, such
sheet, which includes all the items
as piping, radiators, etc.
which finance the assets (left-hand
side of the balance sheet): current  FLAGSHIP Most important item in a
liabilities, long-term liabilities, and company’s product line. A flagship
shareholders’ equity. The financial company is the most important
structure is influenced by the growth company in a conglomerate. Ex. Tisco
and stability of sales, market in the Tata group of India.
competition, the quantum of profits,  FLEXIBLE BUDGET A budget which is
the attitude of the short-term lenders, designed to change in relation to the
and the efficiency of the company’s attained level of activity. It is therefore
management. The financial structure essential to identify and separate costs
helps take LEVERAGE decisions. which are fixed, semi-fixed or variable,
since not every cost element will change
with changes in the activity level.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (167) of (202)
rate at which domestic currency may buy or sell specific quantities of
be exchanged for foreign currency or goods, currency, of freight at a stated
gold, being determined by the price and a stated time in the future.
interactions of the forces of demand These contracts are made in trade,
and supply for the currencies and by buyers who wish to cover
gold. A gov ernment may, howev er, themselves against price fluctuations,
operate to prevent wide daily and sellers who wish to benefit from
fluctuations in the exchange rate. Also them. Forward contracts are bought
called free exchange rate. and sold in the FUTURE MARKET.
today-gone-tomorrow operators who transaction consists of a commitment
depart after trimming the investors. to buy or sell a specific amount of
Over the past 2 - 3 years, several fraud foreign currency at a later date or
promoters have floated companies within a specific time period at an
that, in fact, never existed. Thus, they exchange rate stipulated at the time
floated issues and collected huge sums the deal is struck. The delivery or
and vanished thereafter. This created receipt of the currency takes place on
a crisis of confidence in the retail the agreed upon value date. In
investor and the Primary Market contrast to spot transactions, the
suffered badly due to this. commitment (conclusion of the
 FORECASTING The prediction of the agreement) of a forward transaction
future change in a variable. Techniques and the fulfillment (delivery and
for forecasting include extrapolation of payment) are clearly separate in terms
growth curves, extrapolation of time of time.
series and regression analysis.  FORWARD INTEGRATION The
 FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES merger of one firm with another that
The reserves held by one country in is nearer the end of a production or
currencies of other countries, used to selling process. An example would be
support its own currency and pay the merger of a publisher with a
foreign debts. The Indian for ex bookshop chain or a brewer with a
reserves at present stand at nearly $ hotel group.
23 billion.  FRANCHISE An agreement by which
 FOREIGN EXCHANGE The process of a company grants to another the right
trading one currency for another. This to use the company’s name and
t a ke s p l a c e o n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l trademarks, and to market the
exchange markets where trading sets company’s goods or services in return
t h e e xc h a n g e ra t e s o f c u r re n c i e s . for a fee.
Fo r e i g n c u r r e n c y i s r e q u i r e d b y  FRAUDULENT TRADING The carrying
individuals, businesses and on of a business with intent to defraud
governments to finance the purchase creditors. Directors may be personally
of goods and services and to make liable for debts incurred without
loans to other countries. l i m i t a t i o n o f l i a b i l i t y i f, t o t h e i r
 FORTUNE 500 An annual listing by knowledge, trading has continued
FORTUNE magazine of the 500 largest without any reasonable prospect of
U.S./non U.S. industrial corporations by the company being able to pay its
their assets, net income, equity capital, debts.
EPS etc. A FORTUNE 500 company  FREELANCE An independent worker
signifies a major company. So, too, who works for several different
FORBES 500, the 500 largest public companies and is paid a fee, but is
companies. not employed by any of them.

(168) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 FREE MARKET ECONOMY An elimination of discriminatory
economic system where the preference duties, and provides for
government does not interfere in any trade conferences from which tariff
way in business activity. reductions for wide categories of
 FREE TRADE International trade goods have resulted. Some 120
unrestricted by protective duties and members representing over 80% of
prohibitions. world trade subscribe to the treaty
and it has now a permanent base in
 FREE TRADE AREA A trading Geneva. Recently approved by
arrangement entered into by a number commerce ministers of all members
of countries whereby tariffs and trade nations in April 1994 at Marakkesh
restrictions between the participants (Morrocco). Converted to the WTO.
are eliminated, each country retaining
its independent trade arrangements  GENTLEMAN’S AGREEMENT A
with other countries outside the area. contractual arrangement made orally
and without any formal legal evidence
 FREIGHT 1.The ordinary conveyance of its existence and which is therefore
of goods as by common carriers 2.The binding on two parties in honour only.
payment due for transporting goods
by land, sea or air.  GILT-EDGED SECURITIES Securities
issued by the government which earn
 FRINGE BENEFIT A payment in kind a fixed rate of interest and are dealt
in addition to remuneration for work, in on the Stock Exchange. They may
for example, luncheon vouchers, be irredeemable, e.g. Consol, or
h o l i d a y p a y, s u b s i d i z e d c a n t e e n redeemable, e.g. savings bonds. This
services, sports facilities, non- is considered a safe investment, since
contributory pension schemes, a the government is unlikely to renege
company car, etc. on its debts, but usually offers a
 FULL EMPLOYMENT T h e l e v e l o f relatively low rate of interest.
employment at which everyone willing
and able to work is employed.
GDRs are Indian securities listed in an
 FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS Scientific overseas stock exchange other than
study of the basic factors which American stock exchanges.
determine a share’s value. The analyst
 GOING PRIVATE Change from public
studies the industry and the company’s
ownership of a company to private
sales, assets, liabilities, debt
ownership either by the company
structure, earnings, products, market
repurchasing all its shares, or by a
share: evaluates the company’s
private buyer doing so. This usually
managements, compares the company
happens when the company isn’t doing
with its competitors, and then
well and the market price of its shares
estimates the share’s intrinsic worth.
has fallen below their book value, making
 FUTURES Securities or goods bought it possible to acquire the assets cheaply.
or sold for future delivery. There may Sometimes the management itself will do
be no intention to take them up but to so to fend off takeover threats.
rely upon price changes in order to  GOING PUBLIC Offer by a private
sell at a profit before delivery. company to sell its shares to the public
 GALLOPING INFLATION Very rapid by making a public issue. It does so to
inflation which a government finds expand its capital base and finance
almost impossible to reduce. growth plans. After the public issue
 GATT (GENERAL AGREEMENT ON the shares of the company may
TARIFFS AND TRADE) An become marketable, i.e., if the listing
international commercial treaty which requirements of stock exchanges are
specifies a code of conduct for met. Some notable examples are
international trade, notably the Nirma, Godrej, etc.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (169) of (202)
 GOLDEN HANDSHAKE Compensation decline in its effectiveness in recent
paid to an executive of a company on years due to the emergence of
his displacement and especially on his several powerful economies like the
retirement. east Asian ones.
 GOLD RESERVES That part of a  GROUP OF FIFTEEN (G15) The group
country’s reserves which is of fifteen developing nations as
represented by holding of gold. diverse as India, Brazil etc. Basic aim
 GOODWILL The trading benefit which to promote inter-country trade and
an existing business derives from its commerce. Has been also called the
custom and reputation. This benefit Garrulous 15 by some observers as
may be evaluated financially when little seems to have been achieved
determining the purchase price of a over the past several years through
business. G15 deliberations.
 GRATUITY A gift, generally of  GROWTH AREAS Geographical areas
money, over and above any payment with a higher than average
due for a service. concentration of industrial or
commercial enterprises, which have
 GREAT DEPRESSION The widespread developed rapidly, usually through the
failure of business, wiping out of operation of local or central
p r o f i t s , l a r g e - s c a l e b a n k r u p t c y, government incentives or following the
massive unemployment, and an provision of effective transport
abysmally depressed standard of rapidly.
living in the United States from 1929
for about a decade, triggered off by  GROWTH FUND A mutual fund which
the GREAT CRASH of 1929. invests only in equity shares which
offer chances of good capital growth.
value of goods and services produced  GROWTH MARKET A market where
in an economy. The value may be demand for product or service is
measured by aggregating market growing rapidly.
values of goods and services or by  HAMMERING Concerted selling of
aggregating incomes from shares by operators to bring the price
employment, profits, dividends, etc. d o w n , o f t e n s h o r t - s e l l i n g h e a v il y.
(i.e. factor cost, which is equivalent Term associated with bears.
to market values less purchase tax  HARD CASH M o n e y i n n o t e s a n d
plus subsidies). It is equivalent to coins, as opposed to cheques and
gross national product less the value credit cards.
of net property abroad. (GNP)
 HARD COPY A printed record of
 GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT The figures, words, etc. produced by a
total monetary value of all the goods machine. Electronic processing data
and services produced by a country frequently necessitates the use of
in a year, expressed either at factor readable output as a permanent
cost or at market prices. record.
 GROUP OF SEVEN (G7) The seven  HARD CURRENCY A currency which
major industrialized nations whose has a stable or upwardly mobile
finance ministers meet regularly to exchange rate. Consequently it is an
discuss international financial acceptable medium for international
problems. Originally the Group of Five trade.
(United Kingdom, United States,
France, West Germany, Japan), later  HARD SELL A vigorous advertising
expanded to seven by including and promotional campaign which is
Canada and Italy. G7 has witnessed a designed to increase the sales of a

(170) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 HEADHUNT To approach managers by the target company, using many
and executives in order to try to ploys like the GOLDEN PARACHUTE or
persuade them to move to jobs in POISON PILL or SHARK REPELLANT.
other companies.  HOT MONEY Funds which are
 HEDGE Action taken to reduce transferred at short notice between
exposure to risk. international financial centres in
 HIDDEN RESERVE The assets of a response to changes in relative rates
business when they are greater than of interest and in anticipation of
the valuation disclosed in the balance exchange rate movements.
sheet. This could arise when assets are  HYPERINFLATION A period of swiftly
valued at cost price in the balance rising prices, usually assumed to be a
sheet rather than market price when rate of 50% a month or more. Such a
the latter figure is higher. rate cannot be sustained and invariably
 HIDDEN UNEMPLOYMENT A state of leads to social breakdown and a return
unemployment characterized by a level to a barter economy. Perhaps the worst
of employment in an industry which is recorded case took place in Hungary in
higher than necessary or justified, 1945-46 when prices rose at an
there being no alternative employment average rate of 19,800% a month.
available.  IDLE CAPACITY The unused
 HIRE PURCHASE A contract for the productive facilities of a business,
purchase of goods, whereby in return especially plant and machinery.
for periodic payments of the purchase  IDLE TIME Any time lost from the
price the buyer immediately receives available productive working day
the article. Ownership of good is only resulting, for example, from machine
transferred when the contracted price breakdowns.
 HISTORIC COST The actual price si t u at i o n w i t h a l ar g e b u t d i st i n ct
paid for an asset or resource. The number of sellers and buyers in which
balance sheet evaluation of an asset is some of the conditions of perfect
frequently made on this basis rather competition have not been fulfilled.
than on its current market value or Characteristics of imperfect
value in present or alternative use. competition include product
 HOLDING COMPANY A company differentiation, advertising and the
which has a contro ll ing interest in formation of cartels. In this situation
another company through a majority prices will be above marginal costs and
shareholding in it. consequently resources will not be
allocated efficiently.
merger of firms with identical functions  IMPORT A product from a foreign
in an industry. There are many motives manufacturer sold in another country. To
for this including the sharing of control its balance of payments, a country
specialist facil ities, benefiting from will sometimes restrict imports by means
economies of scale, etc., but it is always of prohibition, currency restrictions,
true that the greater the degree of import duties and import quotas.
horizontal integration in an industry the  IMPORT DUTY A tax levied on goods
greater the monopoly power that exists. entering a country. The rate of tax
 HOSTILE TAKEOVER Takeover of a may be ad valorem (i.e. according to
company by an individual or a group the value of the goods) or specific
or another company which doesn’ t (i.e. a specific rate for a particular
approve of the management of the type of good). Imports which are
target company or its corporate subsequently re-exported may have
philosophy. Such a takeover is resisted any duty paid refunded.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (171) of (202)
 IMPORT LEVY A tax levied on  INCREMENTAL COST The cost of
imports, especially a tax in the making one single extra unit above the
European Community on imports of quantity already planned.
farm produce from outside the  INDEMNITY An undertaking to make
European Community. good costs or losses incurred by
 IMPORT LICENCE A government another person. The undertaking
licence which permits the unrestricted takes the form of a contract with a
entry of types of good contained in third party, the indemnifier assuming
published schedules (an open general primary liability on the contract.
licence OGL) or the entry of a specific  INDEX A measurement of the trend of
type of good by a specified importer share prices. It is not just an average
(general licence). of share prices, but weighted to reflect
 IMPORT QUOTA An official maximum the number of shares outstanding for
quantity placed upon the importation an individual scrip. Thus, a 25% price
o f a s p e c if i c t y p e o f g o o d . T h e fluctuation in a scrip with a small
maximum may be related to the shareholding may have a much less
importation of a good from a particular impact on the market than a 3%
country or to the total imports of a fluctuation in a widely held scrip. The
particular good. index thus gives an idea of the value
 INCENTIVE An inducement to improve change in share prices rather than just
performance. An example would be a price change. The most widely known
bonus to an employee for extra output, share price indices are the Dow Jones
or a reduction in income tax, Industrial Average and Standard &
encouraging everybody to earn extra Poor’s 500 in New York, the Financial
income. Times Stock Exchange 100 Index or FT-
SE 100 (affectionately called Footsie)
 INCOME REDISTRIBUTION The in London, and the Economic Times,
sharing of wealth within a community Financial Express, Business Standard,
in an attempt to reduce inequality. The and Bombay Stock Exchange Sensitive
main means of redistribution available Index (SENSEX) in India.
t o a g ov e r n m e n t a re a s y s t e m o f
progressive taxation (with  INDEX FUTURES Are securities that
proportionately higher rates of tax at facilitate an agreement between a
high income levels) and expenditure buyer and a seller for the purchase and
on social services (which benefit the sale of a particular asset at a specific
poor more than the rich). future date. The asset in the case of
index futures is an index - it could be
 INCOME TAX A tax which is levied on
the S&P CNX Nifty index or the BSE30
personal income. The bases of
sensex. A futures contract involves an
assessment and collection vary for
obligation on both the parties to fulfill
dif fe re n t t y p e s o f i n c o m e a n d a re
the terms of the contract.
detailed in the various tax schedules.
of paying workers who are not actively
form which officially declares income
involved in the manufacturing
to the tax authorities.
process, such as accounts staff etc.
company registered with the Registrar taxation which is levied and collected
of Companies, having completed from someone other than the final
formalities associated with registration. recipients of the goods in question.
Incorporation secures the privileges & The tax is legally passed on by the
imposes the obligations which are payer to the final consumer by way of
specified in the Company Acts. an inflated sales price. An example is
value added tax.
(172) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN The design of that a national consensus should
products which are manufactured by emerge regarding its development.
machines, such as cars, domestic  INFRINGEMENT OF PATENT The act
appliances, etc. of illegally using or making or selling a
 INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE The action patented invention without the
of trying to find out secrets permission of the holder of the patent.
concerning a competitor ’s work or  INSIDER Not just a person working
products, usually by illegal means such in a particular company, but one in a
as bugging offices, bribing employees, key position in possession of crucial
etc. f a c t s a b o u t t h e c o m p a ny, s u c h a s
 INDUSTRIAL ESTATE An area of land contracts won, takeover bids, current
near a large town, which is especially results, etc. which the public do not
set aside for factories, warehouses and yet know. Insiders include owners,
other businesses. executives and consultants of a firm.
 INFLATION The rate at which prices It is illegal for an insider to indulge in
grow in an economy. Thus, reduced speculative trading in the company’s
rate of inflation would mean that the shares, although the proverbial ‘circles
rate at which prices will rise has slowed close to the management’ who engage
down, but not that the prices will fall. in buying or selling sprees before good
or bad news is made public, act on
 INFRASTRUCTURE It reflects the insider information.
basic backbone of any economic
system. It is the capital which has been  INSOLVENCY The state of being
invested within an economy, which is unable to pay debts or meet financial
peripheral to economic activity but obligations when they become due.
facilitates such activity, e.g. a transport  INSURANCE REGULATORY AUTHORITY
network, or which contributes to the BILL T h e I n s u r a n c e R e g u l a t o r y
social well-being of the community, e.g. Authority (IRA) Bill is a legislation that
health and education services. Other provides statutory powers to the IRA.
examples : oil, power, coal, cement, It gives the IRA powers to regulate the
telecommunication, etc. A fundamental i n s u ra n c e i n d u s t r y b y p re s c r i b i n g
difference between the developed prudential norms such as solvency
nations like the US and developing margins (minimum net worth
nations like India is related to the requirements for issuing insurance
quality of infrastructure. Infrastructure cover) and investment guidelines for
development requires massive insurance companies.
resources which the governments of  INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR Mutual
developing nations find hard to mobilise. f u n d s , U n i t Tr u s t , L i f e I n s u r a n c e
H e n c e p r i va t e s e c t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n Corporation of India, banks, and other
becomes crucial. But social thinking and institutions which in vest their
poli tical pressures can stymie such members’ money in shares and bonds,
efforts. However, the GoI has not taken are institutional investors. Since they
the drastic measures required, to attract trade in large volumes, they often play
foreign capital in infrastructure. Such a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e w h e n t h e s h a re
instances can be lethal at this stage of m a r k e t i s b e a r i s h . W h e n o rd i n a r y
development of nations like India which investors, and even speculators to a
have pathetic infrastructure. All the certain extent, shy away from the share
developed nations have extremely well- market, it is the institutional investor
dev e l o p e d i n fra s t r u c t u re s w h i c h who often accounts for the bulk of the
facilitates speedy economic trade done on the stock exchange, over
development. Infrastructure holds the a sustained period. The absence of
key to the salvation of poor nations like institutional investors in a bear market
India. Hence it is extremely important can have damaging results.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (173) of (202)
 INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS complement to the International Bank
Organizations which invest in stocks for Reconstruction and Development
and shares, etc. the major proportion in order to provide finance to
of funds deposited with them. They developing nations for a variety of
i n c l u d e t h e i n s u ra n c e c o m p a n i e s , projects in circumstances where loans
investment trusts, trade unions and from the IBRD were not obtainable.
unit trusts. They have grown steadily  INTERNATIONAL FINANCE
in significance and are now much more CORPORATION A U n i t e d N a t i o n s
important than private investors. organization which was established in
 INSURANCE A contract whereby one 1956, as a complement to the
party, the insurer, in consideration of International Bank of Reconstruction
a c e r t a i n s u m , t h e p re m i u m , and Development, in order to provide
undertakes to indemnif y the other f i n a n c e f o r p r i va t e i n d u s t r i a l
p a r t y, t h e i n s u r e d , a g a i n s t l o s s undertakings, especially in the less
resulting from the occurrence of certain developed countries. The corporation
events. The contract is always for a does not provide total finance for a
determinable period, either of fixed project.
duration or on the occurrence of some  INTERNATIONAL MONETARY
specified event. FUND An organization established as
 INTANGIBLE ASSETS Assets which a r e s u l t o f t h e B r e t t o n Wo o d s
have a value, but which cannot be Agreement, 1945, creating a fund of
seen, such as goodwill, patents, brand gold and domestic currencies
names, etc. subscribed by member countries. The
 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Intangible general objectives of the Fund are to
assets, such as patents, copyright, and promote international monetary co-
know-how. operation and thereby to encourage
international trade. Member countries
 INTEREST RATE SWAP An interest may purchase currencies from the fund
ra t e s w a p i s a f i n a n c i a l c o n t ra c t in order to finance a short-term
between two parties exchanging or balance of payments deficit. However,
swapping a stream of interest if a country borrows deeply from the
payments on a 'notional principal' IMF, the loan may be conditional on
amount on multiple occasions during a the country following the Fund’s
specified period. Such contracts advice.
generally involve the exchange of a
'fixed to floating' or 'floating to floating'  INTERNET BROOKING Internet
rates of interest. Accordingly, on each based trading on conventional stock
payment date - that occurs during the exchanges uses the Net as a medium
swap period - a cash payment based for communicating client orders to the
on the differential between fixed and exchanges through broker web sites.
floating rates, is made by one party to These sites may serve a variety of
another. The party which structures the functions from allowing full trading
swap charges a fee. We say notional through the website to features like on-
principal because it is the interest line stock quotes, information and
which is seen as the `product'. analysis, etc. The SEBI has allowed the
Internet to be used as an Order
R o u t i n g S y s t e m ( O R S ) t h ro u g h
registered stockbrokers on behalf of
(IBRD) Popularly called the WORLD
clients for execution of trades. ORS
would be compatible with existing
 INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT screen-based electronic trading
ASSOCIATION An organization which capabilities. In an ORS, a broker
was established in 1960 as a o f f e r i n g I n t e r n e t t ra d i n g f a c i l i t y
(174) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
provides an electronic template/space eliminate misleading statements when
for the customer to enter the name of promoting a company; and the Stock
the security, whether it is to be bought Exchange requirements and
or sold, and the quantity and price examination of applicant companies
specifications. Once the broker's before a quotation of a company ’s
system receives this information, it is shares on the Stock Exchange is
checked electronically against the permitted. In India, the Securities and
customer's account and is routed to Exchange Board of India (SEBI) plays
the appropriate exchange for the role of this watchdog.
execution b y the broker. After the  INVOICE A statement showing
order is executed, the customer particulars of goods sold, including
receives a message confirming the quantity, price, quality, and packing
order. The customer's portfolio and details.
ledger account may also be updated
on-line to reflect the transaction.  IRREDEEMABLE DEBENTURES
Perpetual debentures which cannot be
 INVENTORY 1. A detailed listing and redeemed ever. The issue of these has
evaluation of a business’s stock-raw been discontinued.
materials, work in process and finished
goods. 2. The value of total stocks.  ISSUED CAPITAL T h e a m o u n t o f
3. A listing of all plant, equipment, authorized capital issued by a
furniture, etc. company. A part of the authorized
capital may be withheld for subsequent
 INVENTORY TURNOVER The rate of issue, at par or at a premium.
consumption of a business’s stocks of
materials, usually expressed as a ratio  JINGLE A short, easily remembered
of the costs of goods consumed or sold tune which is used to adv ertise a
in a period and the average stock product and becomes identified with
balance held. the product in the mind of the public.
Recent famous example : “Dhoondte
(OPEN-ENDED) The only open-ended
 JOB ANALYSIS The detailed analysis
mutual funds in our country are those
of a job, breaking it down into its
run by the Unit Trust of India, and the
component parts and assessing
State Bank of India, which accept new
requirements. Job analysis is the first
depositors at any time of the year,
stage in any programme of job
except when the trust’s operations
evaluation and salary administration.
are closed for accounting purposes.
The investments of the funds are well-  JOINT ACCOUNT A bank account
diversified, to ensure low risk and owned jointly by two or more people.
good, but not spectacular, returns. It is a common arrangement for
One can become a member of the husbands and wives.
funds by buying into them, as one can  JOINT VENTURE A partnership
cease to be a member by selling out formed for a particular purpose, as a
of them. Being open-ended, the funds’ specific adventure, speculation, etc.
shares, called certificates, are not Popularly called a JV.
traded in the stock exchange.
 JUNK BONDS High-interest bonds
 INVESTOR PROTECTION A series of raised as debentures on the security
measures designed to protect investors of a company which is the subject of a
in securities from fraudulent company takeover bid. In the United States,
promotion and management. The borrowing instruments of companies,
measures include : company legislation such as fixed deposits and debentures,
which requires the disclosure of are called bonds. Investors in these are
accounting reports and related naturally interested in the safety of
information; legislation designed to their investment, the timely payment
IC : PTpnsgk01 (175) of (202)
of interest, and their prompt  LEGACY Money or personal property
redemption when the loan period is (but not land) left by one person to
over. Debt instruments which do not another in a will.
fulfil these requirements, and merit a  LEGAL TENDER The forms of money -
C or D rating of CRISIL can be called note or coin - which by law must be
junk bonds. accepted in payment of a debt or in
 KENNEDY ROUND A series of tariff exchange for a good or service.
negotiations, conducted under GATT Money must be offered in appropriate
auspices, which replaced negotiations lots, i.e. notes to any value, but coins
relating to individual tariffs by only up to a specified maximum value
negotiations relating to general according to their denomination. For
reductions on most commodity tariffs. example, cupro-nickel coins worth up
They lasted from 1964 to 1967. to ten pence are legal tender in lots
 KERB TRADING Unofficial trading up to $ 5 only.
after the normal trading hours of the  LETTER OF INTENT A letter which
stock exchange. states what a company intends to do
 LABOUR-INTENSIVE Denoting any if a certain event takes place.
operating process, firm or industry  LIMITED A word incorporated into the
which has a heavy proportion of labour name of a limited company on all
input relative to capital input. d o c u m e n t s , e t c ., s i g n i f y i n g a
 LABOUR, MOBILITY OF The restriction of the liability of the
movement of workers between areas members of the company for that
seeking similar employment (lateral company’s debts. Such liability may be
mobility) or seeking different limited by guarantee as in the case of
employment (vertical mobility). professional bodies, or by shares, in
which case the members’ liability is
 LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY An limited to the nominal value of the
expression of the input-output shares. Holders of fully paid shares
relationship achieved by an individual have no further liability.
worker, group or labour force. The
expression may be quantified in terms
limited company has quite a few
of units of output per hour of input,
characteristics, the ‘limited’ refers to
value added to products per pound of the liability of the members, which is
labour, etc. confined to the face value of the
 LAISSEZ-FAIRE (French, “free to shares they have bought. A limited
do”) An economic doctrine, developed company is a legal entity, i.e., it can
in the 18th century, which advocates enter into contracts as a person,
no government interference in the independent of its members. Most
performance of economic activities, large companies, public or private, are
whether pursued by individuals or by limited by shares, the number of which
businesses. It contends that any is stated in its memorandum of
government interference will actually association. A public limited company
hinder the best use of resources. needs a certificate of incorporation
from the Registrar of Companies.
general rule that the amount of a  LIQUID ASSETS Assets that can be
product which is available is regulated converted into cash comparatively
by the needs of potential customers. quickly. They are widely regarded as
comprising shares, short-term bills of
 LAY OFF The temporary dismissal of exchange, bank deposits and cash
a worker because there is no work to itself.
be done.

(176) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 LIQUIDATION 1. The conversion of  LISTED COMPANY A company whose
assets, e.g. stock, debtors, into cash. shares can be bought and sold on the
2. The settlement of a debt. 3. The Stock Exchange, which publishes the
bankruptcy proceedings of a limited share price.
 LISTED SHARES Shares which are
 LIQUIDATION PAYMENTS In the registered by a stock exchange for
event of the liquidation of a company trading on its floor. Listed shares have
as a result of bankruptcy, creditors the following advantages : 1.They are
are paid in the following order of traded in the stock exchange, which is
priority; 1. Court costs and lawyers’ a fair market place. 2. They are liquid.
expenses; 2. Outstanding wages of 3. The price is determined fairly 4.
workers; 3. Outstanding taxes; 4. There is continuous reporting of their
Secured loans and secured prices. 5. Full information is available
d e b e n t u r e s ; 5 . C r e d i t o r s , i . e .,
on the companies. 6. There strict
suppliers to the company; 6.
regulations for the protection of those
Preference shareholders; and finally,
who buy and sell shares on the stock
7. Equity shareholder, if anything is
left at all, which is rare. However, the
number of listed companies going into  LOCK-OUT The withdrawal of working
liquidation is few. facilities by an employer through the
 LIQUIDITY A state of having prevention of access to work
sufficient cash resources and assets premises. It is equivalent to a strike
easily convertible into cash in order by employees.
to meet debts as they fall due.  LOGO A symbol or series of letters
Liquidity, in general, r efers to the used by a company to identify itself,
ease with which any asset can be usually an adaptation of the company
encashed. Thus, Reliance shares are name.
highly liquid whereas shares of small  LUMP-SUM An amount of money paid
companies are relatively less liquid. at one time, not in several
FACILITY It is a mechanism by which  M 1 A m e a s u r e o f m o n e y s u p p l y,
the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) draws including all coins and notes in
out funds from the money market at a circulation, and personal current
time of surplus and infuses liquidity accounts.
whenever there is a temporary
 M 2 A m e a s u r e o f m o n e y s u p p l y,
shortage. The RBI achieves this by
including items covered by M1, plus
getting banks and primary dealers to
personal deposit accounts.
bid for funds if there is a shortage
and by borrowing from them if there  M 3 A m e a s u r e o f m o n e y s u p p l y,
is a surplus. including items covered by M2, plus
government deposits and deposits in
 LIQUIDITY TRAP A situation in a
currencies other than the national
period of economic depression when
currency. It is the growth in M3 that
the real rate of interest is so low that
is widely used as a parameter of
investors prefer to hold cash instead
direction of economy. High M3 growth
of bonds or other interest-bearing
rate indicates possible high inflation.
securities. In such a state of affairs
monetary policies are powerless. The  MACROECONOMICS The study of
liquidity trap was first deeply analysed aggregate economic behaviour. Topics
by John Maynard Keynes. covered by it include the overall level
of investment, the amount of
consumption, taxation, etc.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (177) of (202)

Forecasts on the nation’s economy has the largest share of a market or
and the state of industries based on the company which makes it.
such data as price levels, employment,  MARKET MAKER A person or
rate of inflation and industrial securities house which buys or sells
production. shares for clients on the Stock
 MAILING LIST A list of the addresses Exchange.
of customers or potential customers,  MARKET RESEARCH The
which is used for sending publicity determination of the prospective
material or circular letters. demand for a product through the
 MAIL ORDER A method of selling testing of consumer reactions to
which secures orders for goods products, questions about
through the circulation of catalogues preferences, and the application of
to agents and potential customers. statistical techniques in order to
Ordering procedures and delivery of evaluate responses.
goods are conducted by post.  MASS PRODUCTION The
 MANAGEMENT BUYOUT The takeover manufacture of standardized or uniform
of a company by a group of senior articles in large quantities.
employees (usually managers and Characteristically this type of
directors), supported by loans from production involves high capital
banks. investment and low unit costs of output.
 MAN-HOUR The amount of work done  MATERIALS CONTROL The process
by one employee in one hour. of ensuring the availability of the right
 MAN-MACHINE CHART A type of materials at the required time and
multiple activity chart in which the place in order to meet manufacturing
operations performed by the machine requirements, while maintaining
and its operator are shown against a minimum investments in such
common time scale. materials. It also includes measures
to prevent misappropriation and waste
of materials.
calculation of the number of workers
required in the future to satisfy  MEGA ISSUE An issue of shares or
anticipated needs, and the comparison debentures running into several
with the number who will actually be hundred crores of rupees;
available. unfortunately some companies,
without sufficient justification have
 MARGINAL PRODUCT The increase started making such issues to proclaim
in output which results from adding their giant status. The IDBI issue of
one more unit of production, whether more than Rs 2000 crores in July 1995
labour or capital. was the biggest Indian public issue.
from selling a single unit above the For public limited companies (whose
number which have already been sold. shares constitute the substance of the
 MARGIN OF ERROR 1. The number stock market) at least seven persons
of mistakes which are acceptable in a must subscribe to a memorandum of
document or a product. 2. The amount association for registration as a company.
by which a forecast or budget may  MERCHANDISE Goods which are
differ from the actual result. offered for sale.
 MARGIN OF SAFETY The difference  MERCHANT BANK 1. A financial
between the planned sales level and institution which performs a wide
the break-even level. range of activities; financing

(178) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

international trade; accepting bills of  MIDDLE MANAGEMENT The
exchange; advising companies on departmental managers who carry out
takeovers, amalgamations, flotations the policy set by directors and
and share issues; advising about organize the work of sections of the
pension funds, charities and workforce.
companies’ investment policies; and  MIXED ECONOMY An economy in
acting as trustee for unit trusts. 2. which activity is organized by a
Although historically merchant banks, combination of individual, business
as distinguished from commercial and state enterprises. Most countries
banks which deal with the general have mixed economies, although the
public, have been concerned with ratio of public to private industry
import and export trade, they have d i f f e r s g r e a t l y. In d i a i s a c l a s s i c
recently expanded their activities by example of a mixed economy which is
raising finance, at home and abroad, now slowly converting to a capitalist
for industry, including high-risk hire- form.
purchase financing. These banks also
float new debentures and shares on  MONETARISM The economic
behalf of companies, or underwrite hypothesis that the money supply is
them. They are increasingly involved the main determinant of the rate of
in takeover bids and mergers, often inflation. The best-known proponents
tendering specialized advice to the of monetarism are the Chicago School
bidders. of Economists led by Professor Milton
 MERGER 1. The amalgamation of two
or more businesses into a single entity.  MONETARY POLICY Monetary and
It is formally achieved: (a) by the credit policy is the policy statement,
dissolution of both companies and the traditionally biannual, through which
creation of a new company with the the Reserve Bank of India targets a
combined assets of the previous key set of indicators to ensure price
companies; (b) by the formation of a s t a b i l i t y i n t h e e c o n o m y. T h e s e
holding company - the existing f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : a ) M o n e y s u p p l y,
companies continue but with a commonly referred to as M3 - which
controlling portion of the share capital indicates the stock of legal currency
being taken up by the holding in the economy b) Interest rates c)
company. Example : Merger of TOMCO Inflation Besides, the policy also
w i t h H L L . 2 . A n a m i c a b l e g e tt i n g provides a platform for the RBI to
together of two or more companies to announce norms for financial bodies
form one unit, for increased overall governed by it such as banks, financial
efficiency. The shareholders of merged institutions, non-banking finance
c o m p a n i e s a r e o ff e r e d e q u i v a l e n t companies, residual non-banking
holdings in the new company, and old companies, Nidhis, primary dealers in
e m p l oy e e s a re g e n e ral l y re t a i n e d . the money markets, authorized
TAKEOVERS, which are quite another dealers in the foreign exchange
matter, generate a lot more heat and markets.
ill will. A horizontal merger combines  MONEY MARKET Financial institutions
direct competitors in the same products c o l l e c t i v e l y, i n c l u d i n g d i s c o u n t
and markets, while a vertical merger houses, commercial banks and
combines supplier and company of accepting houses, which transact
customer and company. business relating to short-term
 MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS Study finance, e.g. bills of exchange,
of individual economic units, such as treasury bills, etc. The market also
companies, industries, and incorporates the foreign exchange
households. market with transactions in
international currencies.
IC : PTpnsgk01 (179) of (202)
 MONEY SUPPLY The total quantity of number of MNCs operating from its
money in circulation at a given t e r r i t o r y. T h i s h a s l e d t o s t r o n g
moment. There are several definitions protests from several pro-poor and
of it, of which the two most commonly nationalist groups. These protests and
found are M1 and M3. apprehensions, howsoever patriotic
 MONOPOLY A n i n d u s t r y i n w h i c h they might seem, are misplaced. It is
there is only one producer and many an indisputable fact that when MNCs
consumers. To maximize its profits, the enter a sector, they put tremendous
monopoly will restrict its output so that pressure on local manufacturers to
marginal revenue equals average cost. improve quality.
T h e l i c e n s i n g s y s t e m fo l l o w e d b y  MURPHY’S LAW The general rule that
Indian government after independence in commercial life if something can go
led to the formation of monopolies in wrong it will go wrong.
n e a r l y a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e e c o n o my  MUTUAL FUNDS 1. These are
hurting Indian competitiveness. operated by investment companies
 MORTGAGE An interest in property and banks, which raise money from
which is transferred by the borrower shareholders and invest in a large
of money (mortgagor) to the lender variety of securities like shares,
(mortgagee) as security for the loan. debentures, bonds and money market
Failure to repay the loan may result in instruments set up for a limited period,
the mortgagee suing for repayment or or with no winding-up date. The
foreclosing, subject to the mortgagor’s investors thus have the advantage of
equity of redemption. owning a truly diversified portfolio
 MOST-FAVOURED NATION CLAUSE which offers attractive annual
(MFN) A clause in a commercial treaty dividends and a reasonable price
concluded by two countries whereby the appreciation, considering that the risk
signatories agree to extend to each factor is minimal. Mutual funds may be
other any benefits relating to customs aggressive in their investment or
duties which either signatory ma y conservative. The investor has to
negotiate with a third country. The consider his investment objectives and
fo r m a t i o n o f t h e W TO a f t e r G ATT choose amongst them. 2. Mutual funds
requires that al l signatory nations are collective savings and investment
extend the MFN status to each other. vehicles where savings of small (or
sometimes big) investors are pooled
 MULTILATERAL TRADE Trade which together to invest for their mutual
is conducted between numerous benefit and returns distributed
countries with or without tariff barriers. proportionately. Pooling of monies
 MULTINATIONAL COMPANY (MNC) ensures that small investors get the
Also called a trans-national corporation benefit of advice and expertise that is
(TNC), it is a company with controlling normally available only to very large
i n t e re s t s i n n u m e r o u s f o r e i g n investors. Currently, mutual funds in
c o u n t r i e s , o p e ra t i n g i n s i m il a r o r India are allowed to invest either in
d i f f e re n t a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e p a r e n t equity or debt or a combination of
company. Some of the giant MNCs are these two. While moves are on to float
Mitsubishi, Toyota, Honda, GM, IBM, funds, which invest in gold, or real
Siemens, GE, etc. It is alleged that estate etc., as of date, mutual funds
MNCs are in volv ed in poli tical and are not permitted to currently hold
economic exploitation of developing physical assets. Thus, a fund can
n a t i o n s . H o w e v e r, m o s t o f t h e s e invest in shares or debt instruments of
charges remain unsubstantiated. a gold mining company, but cannot buy
India, with the reforms policies since gold itself.
1991, has witnessed a boom in the

(180) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

 NATIONAL DEBT The total debt owed  NEGOTIATE 1. To discuss a problem
by the government to the general formally with someone, so as to reach
public, comprising both long and short- an agreement. 2. To transfer value
term loans. by delivery or by endorsement and
 NATIONAL INCOME The sum of the delivery.
value of goods and services available  NERVOUS MARKET S t o c k m a r ke t
to an economy through its economic which is reacting sharply to economic
activity in a given time period. The or political events, such as an annual
income may be evaluated: (a) by adding budget unfavourable to industrial
the incomes generated by economic growth, drought, imposition or
activity, e.g. wages, salaries, dividends, removal of price controls, change of
profits and net income from abroad; (b) government, etc.
by adding the prices of goods and  NET ASSETS Generally, fixed assets
services, less indirect taxes plus plus net current assets. It is a vague
subsidies, together with government a n d l o o s e l y u s e d t e r m , g e n e ra l l y
expenditure. Both methods produce equating with capital employed.
similar totals and the movement in the
total is indicative of economic progress  NETWORTH The value of a business
over time, once allowance is made for attributable to the ordinary
price inflation, population growth, etc. shareholders. This value comprises the
Growth of national income need not be total assets of the business less
synonymous with improvement in living liabilities to all those other than
standards. ordinary shareholders.


by the state of the ownership and Wall street, New York, Established
operation of a property, industry, or 1792, the oldest and largest, and the
c o m p a n y. Fo r e x a m p l e : t h e best-known among the stock
nationalisation of Indian banks b y exchanges of the world. Around 2300
Indira Gandhi. shares are listed there, and
approximately 60% of the U.S.stock
 NECESSITIES Goods and services trading is done at the NYSE.
vital to an individual’s existence and/
 NOMINAL PARTNER A person who,
or appropriate to the particular
though having no real interest in a
standard of living of the individual.
business, allows his name to be used
 NEGATIVE CASH FLOW A situation by and associated with the business,
where a company is spending more generally for the purpose of
money than it receives. maintaining the reputation or goodwill
document of title which can be  NON-DURABLES Goods which are
t r a n s f e r r e d b y i t s d e l i v e r y, t h e used up after having been bought, such
transferee acquiring good title as food and drink, petrol, etc.
(providing he has given valuable
consideration for it), regardless of the  NON PERFORMING ASSETS NPAs
quality of the title of the transferer. The are those loans given by a bank or
most important examples are cheques, financial institution where the borrower
promissory notes and bills of exchange, defaults or delays interest or principal
the latter requiring endorsement in payments. Banks are not allowed to
addition to del ivery. Normal ly, the book any income from NPAs. Also, they
assignment of a contractual right is have to provision for the NPA, or keep
s u b j e c t t o e q u it i e s i n s o f a r a s t h e money aside in case they can't collect
assignee will not have any better title f ro m t h e b o r r o w e r, w h i c h i m p a c t s
than the transferrer. profitabili ty adversely. According to
RBI rules, any loan repayments which
IC : PTpnsgk01 (181) of (202)
is delayed beyond 180 days has to be  OLIGOPOLY A market situation in
identified as an NPA. which a few producers/suppliers are
 NON-VOTING SHARE A c o m p a n y able to influence the market price. The
share (especially a preference share) producers are mutually dependent on
which does not carry any voting rights one another and any action by one
at company meetings or on company will lead to a reaction and counter-
resolutions. reaction by the others.
commonly encountered frequency investigates complaints by members of
distribution which, when plotted, shows the public against government
a bell curve or normal curve. Frequency departments and other official bodies.
is greatest in the middle range of values  ON-THE-JOB TRAINING Tra i n i n g
observed, measurements lying at a given to workers at their place of work.
greater distance from the average  OPEN CHEQUE An uncrossed cheque
o cc u r r i n g l e s s f re q u e n t l y. M o s t which may be presented for payment
statistical techniques assume that the over the counter at the banker on
population being studied conforms to whom the cheque was drawn.
this distribution.
 OBSOLESCENCE The diminution in COMPANY A publicly held investment
value of an asset for reasons other company with a diversified portfolio
than wear and tear. Such reasons may of investments, which can sell more
include the invention or development and more shares and become larger.
of superior techniques or equipment Its shares are issued at prices fixed
or a change in demand. from time to time and can be redeemed
 ODD LOT In the stock market shares at prices announced by it. The Unit Trust
are generally bought and sold in of India is an open-ended investment
MARKET LOTS, which are easy to trade. company.
Any number of shares less than the  OPEN-PLAN A large office with no
market an odd lot. Also, if the market internal walls, divided into working
lot of a share is 100, a single share areas by low partitions.
certificate of a different denomination
 OPEN SHOP A business or firm which
- whether smaller or bigger - is an odd
provides employment for workers
lot. Odd lots, typically, arise f rom
whether they belong to a trade union
BONUS or RIGHTS issues Apart from
or not.
the difficulty in buying or selling odd
lots, there is another disadvantage:  OPERATING COSTS The costs
you may have to sell an odd lot at a involved in the ordinary day-to-day
price 10%-15% lower than the price organization of a company.
quoted for the market lot.  OPERATING PROFIT OR LOSS The
 OFFICIAL EXCHANGE RATE An profit or loss made by a company in
exchange rate which is imposed and its normal trading, not including
maintained by a government. property or asset sales, etc.
quotations of stocks and shares showing application of scientific principles and
prices at which dealings have been methods to the problems of business
made. It is published under the authority strategy by the systematic study of
of the council of the Stock Exchange. all available resources. With the
 OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING Training increasing complexity of business
given to workers away from their place problems and the need to quantify
of work, such as a college or other diverse scientific approaches, applied
training establishment. mathematics has become an integral
part of operational research.
(182) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 OPPORTUNITY COST The cost incurred Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi
in following an alternative course of A r a b i a , Ve n e z u e l a , U A E , Q a t a r,
action : the extent of this cost Gabon.
represents the real sacrifice incurred in  OTHER INCOME Apart from income
pursuing a particular course of action. from a company’s normal activities,
For instance, the cost of building a profits may accrue on other heads, such
factory is the opportunity cost of other as interest income, investment income,
manufacturing plant which might have profit from sale of assets other than
been purchased as an alternative. INVENTORY, gain on foreign exchange
 OPTION 1. An arrangement whereby, transactions, rent income, etc.
in return for the payment of a fee, a  OUTLET 1. A market for goods or
person acquires a right to buy or a services. 2. A facility for marketing of
right to sell goods, shares, etc. at an goods or services, as a store,
agreed price, at or within a specified merchant or agent.
future time. 2. The right to buy or sell
a share or commodities at a certain  OUT-OF-POCKET EXPENSES An
price on a specified future date. 3. amount of money which is paid to an
Options are contracts which go a step employee to reimburse him for money
further than futures contracts in the he spent on behalf of the company.
sense that they provide the buyer of  OVER THE COUNTER Market for
the option the right, without the shares (usually unlisted) outside the
obligation, to buy or sell a specified control of the official stock exchange.
asset at an agreed price on or upto a
p a r t ic ula r d a t e. F o r a c q u i r i n g t h i s  OVERCAPACITY The state of having
right, the buyer has to pay a premium greater productive facilities (in terms
to the seller. The seller on the other of men, space, machinery, etc.) than
hand, has the obligation to buy or sell are required by the demanded output.
that specified asset at that agreed  OVERDRAFT An amount due to his
price. This makes options more of an bank by a customer, generally limited
insurance product where the
to a specific amount in excess of
downside risk is covered for the
moneys deposited to the customer’s
payment of a certain fixed premium.
account. Interest is calculated on the
 ORDINARY SHARE Equity share with fluctuating daily levels.
full voting rights and entitlement to
 OVERHEAD An indirect cost, such as
dividends, rights, and bonus issues.
administration expenses, selling
 ORGANIZATION CHART A pictorial expenses, distribution expense, etc.
representation of the responsibilities
and authority relationships within an
market situation in which too much
money is chasing too few shares,
 ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC leading to sharp price rises, and
COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT frequent GAPS. This is the fast phase
A body founded in 1961 which has as of a bull cycle and it usually portends
its aims the encouragement of an imminent onset of a bear cycle.
economic s t a b i l i t y, economic
 OVERMANNING The situation where
development in the Third World and
a company has more workers than is
the expansion of world multilateral
necessary to carry out the normal
trade. Members are mostly European
volume of work.
and American nations.
 OVERNIGHT LOAN A loan repayable
on the morning of the next business
day. It generally refers to a bank loan
international cartel of oil-producing
granted to a bill broker, enabling bills
nations whose members include
of exchange to be taken up.
A l g e r i a , E c u a d o r, I n d o n e s i a , Ira n ,
IC : PTpnsgk01 (183) of (202)
 OVERSUBSCRIBED Denoting a share from earnings or from secured or
issue in which the number of shares unsecured loans.
applied for exceeds the number to be  PANIC BUYING A rush to buy
issued. Applications may be refused something at any price before stocks
or scaled down pro data. run out.
there are more shares applied for than stock market in which not only
are to be issued. In such cases a inexperienced investors, but also
minimum number of shares, say, 100 stur dy bulls, tak e fright and start
shares, is allotted to lucky applicants selling. It may be caused by sudden
whose names may come up in the unfavourable news or rumour, or a
drawing of lots, where the odds RANDOM WALK by shares downwards,
depend upon the number of shares or simply, in bear market conditions,
a p p l i e d f o r, i . e ., t h e l a r g e r t h e the absence of financial institutions
application, the better the odds. In a from the market.
bull market, good public issues tend
to get oversubscribed, the record  PAPER CURRENCY Bank notes which
b e i n g h e l d b y Ta t a T i m ke n , form part of a nation’s legal tender. The
oversubscribed 4071.43 times. Only notes have no intrinsic value, their
1 in 200 applications for 100 shares value as a medium of ex change
succeeded. It is interesting to note depending on their acceptability to the
that while in India it is a matter of public. Indian paper currency notes are
pride to have an over-subscribed printed at Nasik & Dewas.
issue, in the western nations it is  PAPER LOSS A loss made when an
considered to be a lost opportunity asset falls in value but has not been
and a failure to gauge the actual realized.
market response.  PAR VALUE Par value is the notional
 OVERTIME 1. Time during which work face v alue of the shares, which a
is done outside regular working hours; company issues to investors. A
extra time. Such time is usually paid company can, however, issue shares
for at premium rates. 2. The payment above or below par value also. Par
made for such work. value is usually fixed at Rs. 10 or Rs.
100 but each company can decide its
own par value.
have caught the investors’ fancy, and
who therefore are willing to pay a  PARENT COMPANY A company which
price for them which is not justified owns or controls subsidiary companies
by their EPS or P/E ratio. Justifiably by means of owning a majority of
high-priced shares can become voting shares. A parent company
overvalued as a result of a company’s usually has a business of its own.
fall in profitability, the emergence of  PARETO PRINCIPLE The principle
competition and the loss of market which states that a relatively small
share, labour unrest etc. number of individuals have an influence
 PACKAGE DEAL 1. A transaction in which is greater than their
which several different goods or proportionate number. This may be
services are bought for an inclusive seen in a sales analysis, where a small
price. 2. The outcome of negotiations number of customers may account for
in which all parties have made a large proportion of total sales. This
concessions on various issues decided law is in general true for any system.
together.  PARETO’S LAW The number of people
 PAID UP CAPITAL Capital acquired (N) receiving a specified income (Y)
by selling shares to investors, as declines at a constant rate (b) as the
distinguished from capital accumulated specified income is increased in
(184) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
increments of one per cent. This law extent of his private assets, except
may be expressed by the formula : where a partner has limited liability.
N = aY – b, where “a” is a constant that c. The partnership ceases when the
differs for different societies. The existing relationship between the
higher the value of “b”, the more rapidly partners ends through death,
will the number of recipients decrease bankruptcy, etc.
as the income level rises, and hence the  PARTNERSHIP, LIMITED A
greater the degree of equality of partnership in which at least one
incomes. Pareto’s law applies member has limited liability for the
particularly to the highest 10% of firm’s debts, i.e. is liable only to the
incomes. extent of his capital in the firm. Such
 P A R I P A S S U 1 . Ra n k i n g e q u a l l y. a partner cannot participate in the
After CONVERSION from debentures, management of the business and
the new shares created carry the cannot withdraw his capital. A limited
same rights as the other shares of the partnership must be registered, with
company to receive dividends, rights details of the partnership’s name,
and bonus shares, and to participate nature of business and terms of the
in the company’s profit and loss as partnership.
equity shareholders. 2. (Latin, “with  PATENT 1 . A l e g a l p r o p e r t y r i g h t
equal step”) It describes the equal granted by the state, giving the
relationship which may exist between creator of an invention the sole right
persons, articles, etc. of a similar to make, use or dispose of his
nature. The most common example is invention for a limited number of
that the holders of the same type of years, usually 16. 2. An invention or
share have an equal right to dividend process which has been patented.
payments or to reimbursement if the
company is wound up.  PATENT INFRINGEMENT The action
of illegally making or selling a patented
 PARKINSON’S LAW “Work expands product without the permission of the
to fill the time available for its patent holder.
c o m p l e t i o n .” A semi-serious
proposition made by Professor C.  PATENT RIGHTS The rights which a
Northcote Parkinson. A derivative of patent holder holds under a registered
this is that expenditure rises to equal patent.
income !  PAYMENT-IN-LIEU Money paid by an
employer to an employee whose
 PARTNER A person undertaking some
employment has been terminated before
task or directing some business
the expiration of the period of notice
enterprise in combination with one or
contained in the employee’s contract of
more others.
employment. The payment is instead of
 PARTNERSHIP A form of business all or part of the notice period.
organization which is conducted by
two or more partners. The relationship
gateway is a third party network that
between the partners in terms of
acquires transactions from an e-
respective profit shares,
commerce portal and processes them
responsibilities, etc. is normally
through the banking or credit card
expressed in a partnership
system. It links the banking network
agreement. Certain common features
with the Internet. It is a link into the
of partnerships are: a Each partner
banking network and is inaccessible to
binds all other partners to any
Internet users. It uses enhanced
contract entered into in the ordinary
security features such as digital
course of business. b. Each partner is
envelopes and content keys (public
fully liable for the firm’s debts, to the
and private key encryption systems).

IC : PTpnsgk01 (185) of (202)

 PAYROLL 1. A list of employees to be  PERISHABLE ITEMS Items of food
paid, giving wage or salary payable, which will become rotten if not eaten
detailing deductions and showing the quickly.
net amounts payable. 2. The aggregate  PERKS Extra items given by a
expenditure on wages and/or salaries company to an employee in addition
incurred by a business for a given to a salary. Such items can include a
period. company car, subscription to a sports
 PEAK PERIOD A period of high club, private health insurance, etc.
activity, such as the time of highest  PERPETUAL INVENTORY A system
consumption of electricity, the highest of ascertaining the current stock
volume of sales, the highest number position of a business by the
of passengers using a transport continuous recording of stock levels.
system, etc. Receipts and issues of stock items are
 PENSION FUND A fund maintained by recorded and the balance adjusted
a c o m p a ny, t r a d e u n i o n o r o t h e r accordingly, so that at any one time
organization to provide pensions for the stock position is known.
employees or members upon  PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT The field
retirement. Contributions from the of management primarily concerned
organization and the employee/ with people at work and their
member are invested, with interest relationships within the enterprise.
accumulated, into the fund. The fund Areas of concern include recruitment
may be self-administered by the and selection, pay and conditions, and
organization as a trust or managed by education and training.
outside experts, such as a life
assurance company. Pension funds are  PETER PRINCIPLE The principle,
now one of the main purchasers of noted in many cases, that employees
stocks and shares. With other and directors are promoted until they
institutional investors, they greatly occupy positions for which they are
overshadow in importance the private incompetent.
investor.  PETRODOLLARS Funds belonging to
members of OPEC in excess of their
immediate needs and acquired as a
earned per individual, calculated by
result of the rapid increase in the price
taking the total income of a group and
of oil in the 1970s. Most of these
dividing it by the number of individuals
foreign currency surpluses are in
in the group.
dollars, hence their name. Since the
 PERCENTILE One of a series of 99 OPEC states had no immediate need
figures below which a certain for them, the petrodollars were
percentage of a total falls. largely reinvested in the financial
 PERFECT COMPETITION A market in centres of the West, and this helped
which no single individual or unit can to offset partially the inflationary
influence the market price of the effects of the rise in oil prices.
goods. For this to occur there must  PETTY CASH Cash (notes and coin)
be a very large number of producers held by a business, office or
and consumers, a totally department in order to reimburse small
homogeneous product and no barriers expenses incurred, e.g. postage
to entry. Few industries can satisfy stamps, travelling expenses.
even one of these conditions, but one
example could be the international  PIVOTAL SHARES Although all
cultivation and marketing of grain. shares are exposed to SYSTEMATIC
Perfect competition is the best RISKS, the effects of such risks on
situation any consumer can ever hope pivotal shares greatly influence the
f o r. stock market. Shares of some blue chip
(186) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
companies act as a pivot on which the than secured debentures which
market is balanced; if they turn precede them in the distribution of the
bearish the market follow; if they turn company’s funds, and in the event of
bullish, the market looks up. Shares liquidation, which are paid off before
o f T I S C O, T E L C O , A C C , C e n t u r y, preference shares. Preference shares
Hind. Lever, etc. belong to this class. are entitled to a fixed dividend, and
If, however, any of these is affected cumulative preference shares retain
by unsystematic risk, such as a labour their retrospective claim on dividend
strike or price control or decontrol, the when the company is not in a position
share’s rise or fall is not going to to declare any dividend. Sometimes
affect the market. these shares are convertible into
 PLANNED ECONOMY An economy in equity shares after a stated number
which the government sets production of years, thus enjoying assured
output targets, prices, wages, etc. earnings when the company is getting
rather than allowing them to be established, and high earnings when it
determined through the operation of has established it s e l f. When
the price mechanism. The best preference shares are redeemable, the
examples of planned economies were company pays off the shareholder on
those of Eastern Europe and the USSR. a certain date, or issues equity shares
India also had a planned economy to a of the value, but when they are
great extent. The biggest disadvantage irredeemable, the shareholder gets the
of a planned economy is the lack of fixed dividend in perpetuity or as long
free trade. as the company lasts.
 PLANNED MAINTENANCE The  PREMIUM 1. The periodic payment
systematic checking and repairing of for an insurance policy. 2. A sum in
plant or vehicles in order to prevent excess of nominal value paid in order
breakdown, as opposed to be carrying to secure a share, asset, etc. 3. A
out of repairs after faults have lump sum payable on the acquisition
disrupted production, etc. of a lease. . The difference between
the spot price paid for a currency or
 PORTFOLIO A list of investments in commodity and the price for forward
stocks, shares, etc. that a person or settlement.
institution has made.
 PREMIUM ISSUE The issue of shares
 POSITIVE CASH FLOW A situation at a price above the face value of a
where more money comes into a share. The sum charged above the face
company than is paid out. value is the premium. This premium is
 POWER OF ATTORNEY A legal supposed to be determined by the
document which gives a person the following factors: the current book
right to act on behalf of someone in value of the share, the EPS, and the
legal matters. average market price over the last
 PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE Swift action three years. Usually issued by
to prevent something happening, such successful companies whose share
as the rapid buying of shares to values are high on the stock exchange,
prevent a possible takeover. although now more and more dark
horses are appearing on the premium
because these have preference over
equity shares in the matter of  PRICE-EARNING RATIO (P/E ratio)
distribution of post-tax profit, and An indicator of how highly a share is
have a prior claim on the assets of valued in the market. Arrived at by
the company in the event of dividing the price of a share by the
liquidation. In terms of risk, these are earnings per share. The ratio tends to
less risky than equities, but more risky be high in the case of highly rated
IC : PTpnsgk01 (187) of (202)
shares. The average P/E ratio for  PRIMARY PRODUCTION The
companies in an industry group is often production of commodities used in the
given in investment journals like the manufacture of consumer and capital
CAPITAL MARKET. A high P/E ratio, goods. The exports of most
however, does not necessarily indicate development nations consist of
a bright future for the company; share primary products.
prices of closely held companies are  PRIME LENDING RATE Prime lending
sometimes pegged at very high or low rate, or PLR, is the rate at which
levels, and since these are seldom banks lend working capital to their
traded, an unrealistically high or low P/ best customers. However, very few
E ratio can be sustained over time. A companies can avail of bank loans at
low P/E where the earning per share is this rate: most of them receive funds
high, often indicates that a share is at a mark-up to the PLR of up to 3.5
underpriced. The best way to use P/E per cent. A company which is not
ratio is to assess its future possibilities. considered a good risk will, therefore,
Thus, a low P/E ratio would seemingly get working capital loans at 15.5 per
imply that the current price is low and cent even when the PLR is 12 per cent.
t h e t i m e t a ke n t o r e c o v e r t h e
investment will be low. However, if the  PRIMOGENITURE The legal principle
share’s future prospects are dim, then of inheritance by which an estate
e ve n t h i s l o w P / E i s v e r y h i g h . passes to the eldest child, specifically
Conversely, shares having very high P/ the eldest son.
E ratios and bright future prospects may  PRIVATE ENTERPRISE All business
justify investment. which are in the private sector.
 PRICE RING An association of  PRIVATIZATION The action of
m a n u fa c t u r e r s who exchange changing the status of a nationalized
information relating to their product or industry by selling shares in it to new
tender prices and, by manipulation of private shareholders. It has remained
quotations, distribute contracts among a key economic and political issue the
member firms. world over with public sector unions
 PRICE-SENSITIVE (Of a product) resisting it strongly even in
liable not to sell if the price is industrialized nations like France,
increased. Germany etc. Margaret Thatcher
initiated and successfully implemented
 PRICE WAR Price-cutting by two or large scale privatisation in UK. Even
more competitors in an attempt by in India, the government has been
each to gain a larger share of the disinvesting its equity in several key
market and/or eliminate its rival. public sector undertakings with a view
 PRIMARY INDUSTRY An industry to raising resources.
dealing with the production of basic  PROCESS PATENT A process patent
raw materials, such as coal, metals confers protection on the process: in
farm produce, etc. the above example, three companies
 PRIMARY MARKET A market for new could patent three different processes
issue of shares, debentures, and for ciprofloxacin. So if process patents
bonds, where investors apply to the are recognised and not product
issuer for allotment and pay application patents, you can make ciprofloxacin
money to the issuer’s account. without contravening any law, as long
D i s t i n g u i s h e d f ro m t h e s e c o n d a r y as you use a process which is different
market, where investors buy listed from those already patented.
shares on the stock exchange through  PRODUCT PATENT A product patent
brokers. is a patent for a product, that is,
protection given to the end product

(188) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

of a discovery process, say the anti- relevant data for the project(s) and
infective pharmaceutical molecule the calculation of the results.
ciprofloxacin. Having said that, product  PRO RATA (“at a certain rate; in
patents would be best understood if you proportion to”) A term used when
asked me what a process patent is. expenses, income, etc. are
 PRODUCTION COST The cost, or any apportioned on an inferred equitable
element of such cost, associated with basis.
the manufacture of an article from the  PROTECTIONISM A policy that
raw material to the finished state, in protects domestic producers from
its primary packaging. foreign competition by imposing
 PRODUCTION CYCLE The entire tariffs, quotas, etc.
phase of a manufacturing process,  PROXY 1. A person acting in place of
starting at the raw materials stage another with the latter’s permission,
and finishing with the output of e.g. voting for him at a shareholders’
finished goods. meeting. Normally the proxy votes in
 PRODUCTION LINE A system of accordance with the principal’s
manufacture, where each item, such as instructions, but he may have the
a car, moves slowly through the factory, freedom to vote as he thinks fit. 2. A
new sections being added to it as it document in which a member of a
goes along. company or other organization can
 PROFIT AFTER TAX or PAT This is register his vote upon a resolution to
arrived at by deducting expenditure be presented to a meeting which the
(cost of materials, manufacturing member cannot attend.
expenses, overheads, interest, and  PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY A
depreciation) from income (net sales limited liability company, whose shares
plus other income) and providing for can be bought by the public on the
taxation and inv estment allowance stock exchange. In Britain, such
reserve the on amount. However, what companies have plc after their names.
remains is not entirely distributed  PURCHASING POWER The money
among shareholders. A portion of this available to a group or sector of the
large if the company is growth-oriented population for the purchase of goods.
- is transferred to general reserve.
 QUALITY CONTROL The functions of,
 PROFIT CENTRE D e p a r t m e n t s o r and procedures relating to, the
segments of an organization which are testing and acceptance of all materials
responsible for producing profits on and components at all stages of
their own. A diversified company may manufacture from raw materials to
have separate profit centres in each finished product.
of its industries.
 P R O F I T T A K I N G Selling a share, which plots the fluctuations of a
bought when its price was relatively low, variable within prescribed limits. Time
when the market price has risen. When is plotted on the horizontal axis, while
a l a rg e n u m b e r o f i n v e s t o r s , o r the central vertical axis plots the
institutional investors who own large average value of the variable.
block of shares do this, the market drops. Accompanying it on either side are the
 PROJECT EVALUATION The process prescribed upper and lower limits of
of determining the financial results the variable (usually ± three standard
arising from a proposed investment. B deviations from the average). If
The evaluation covers the establishing these limits are exceeded then the
of criteria against which the variable is out of control.
investment may be judged, the

IC : PTpnsgk01 (189) of (202)

The application of statistical techniques computers which permits the rapid
based on probability theory to establish retrieval of data from the computer
standards of quality and to maintain store without the need for input data
adherence to such standards in an to be presented in any particular
economical manner. sequence.
 QUALITY REPORT A report on the  RANDOM SAMPLE A sample taken
condition of material received from from a population in which each unit
suppliers prepared by the inspection has an equal chance of being selected.
function of a business.  RATIFICATION The action of a
 QUID PRO QUO A concession made principal in formally binding himself to
by one party to a business transaction the terms of a contract arranged by
in response to a concession made by his agent who, in concluding the
the other party. contract, has gone beyond the
 QUORUM A minimum number required authority conferred by the principal.
to be present at the beginning of a  RATING 1. An evaluation of the
meeting of a board of directors, etc. creditworthiness of an individual or
in order for the meeting to be able to business. 2. An evaluation of the
conduct business. The number is general value of a share 3. An
specified in the organization’s assessment of workers’ performance
constitution or articles of association. used to establish the standard time
 QUOTATION 1. A written or verbal allowed for performance of the job.
statement of the price and terms on  REAL ESTATE Immovable property
which an article or service is offered such as land held on a freehold.
for sale. 2. The privilege of having  REAL INTEREST RATE Current
one’s company shares, etc. dealt in interest rate less the rate of inflation;
on a Stock Exchange and the current of relevance in decisions regarding
market price listed in the official long-term fixed interest securities.
publication. In return for this privilege Since most current interest is taxed,
the Stock Exchange requires various the post-tax interest is likely to fall
conditions to be met with regard to below double digit inflation rates, which
the disclosure of information about means a steady erosion of capital.
the company.
 RAIDER 1. A company which an investment adjusted for inflation.
suddenly buys shares in another
company before making a takeover  RECEIVABLES Sums of money due to
bid. 2. 4 RAIDER A takeover artist, a business from persons or business
who may be an individual or corporate to whom it has supplied goods or
body, who b y buying a contro ll ing services.
interest of shares in a target company,  RECESSION A reduction in the level
runs it his way, by appointing a new and volume of economic activity
management team, and formulating a occasioned by loss of business
new set of policies. The number of confidence, lack of investment, etc.
such predators is on the increase in The size and duration of the cut-back
the Indian corporate scene, although depends on the efficiency of
not so long ago takeovers used to be government’s fiscal and monetary
thought of as a special feature of the measures designed to arrest the
British and U.S. corporate jungle. downward movement.
 RALLY A recovery in the price of a  REDEMPTION Buying back a loan
commodity, security or currency following instrument by paying off the lender.
a downward movement in its price. In the case of debentures or

(190) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

preference shares redemption means fixed date. The security "buyer" in
paying back the inv estor, ei ther in effect lends the "seller" money for the
cash, or through equity shares. period of the agreement, and the
 REDEVELOPMENT The action of terms of the agreement are structured
moving personnel from one workplace to compensate him for this.
to another or from one job to another.  RESERVES Setting aside of a part of
 REDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH The a company’s earnings for expansion,
proposal to share out the wealth of a modernization, payment of future
country among the population (as by dividend, bonus to shareholders,
taxing the rich and increasing redemption of debentures and
government benefits to the poor). preference shares, and to meet any
 RED TAPE Excessive official
paperwork which delays business  RESERVE CAPITAL That part of a
development. company’s issued share capital which by
special resolution is not to be called up
 REDUNDANCY The disappearance of except in the event of a winding-up.
a job generally as a result of a
reduction in demand or the  RESERVE PRICE T h e p r i c e o f a n
introduction of equipment which article offered for sale, especially at
reduces manpower needs. an auction, below which the seller
refuses to accept any offer. The price
 REFLATION An expansion of the
need not be specified but there must
economy brought about by
be a reference in any literature
government a c t i v i t y. It is
mentioning the article and at the sale
characterized by rising employment
itself to the fact that a reserve price
and increased production.
has been placed on the article.
various components which go to make  RESTRICTIVE PRACTICE An action
up a gross wage. They may comprise which curtails competition, e.g.
b a s i c p a y, b o n u s p a y m e n t s , a n d agreed prices, production quotes,
allowances such as for dirty work, etc. allotment of markets, scale of fees,
demarcation of skills and jobs.
 RENUNCIATION Giving up the right to
subscribe to allotted shares in a RIGHTS  RETURN ON CAPITAL T h e p r o f i t
ISSUE or selling such rights for a earned by an investment, often
consideration. A shareholder who does expressed as a percentage of the
that is the renouncer, and the person investment. There is little consistency
who has got the rights from him is the in the application of the term, in view
renouncee. Prices of renounced rights of the many alternative ways of
are sometimes quoted on the stock assessing both profit and capital. The
exchange. Even with the price of criteria for measuring the return on
renunciation added, such rights shares capital may depend upon whether the
are usually cheaper than their ruling ratio is to be used as a guide to
market price. potential investors, creditors,
 REPO r e p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t o r a management, etc.
ready forward sale, are all terms for  RING TRADING A form of market
a sale and repurchase agreement in trading, especially the futures market
money markets. It is a transaction in commodities, whereby a group of
whereby banks and other financial dealers negotiate to buy and sell. The
institutions raise and invest short- prices established by the group
term funds. Under this transaction a determine the market price in the
holder of securities (generally futures market.
government bonds) sells them to an
investor with an agreement to
repurchase them at a fixed price on a
IC : PTpnsgk01 (191) of (202)
 RIGHTS ISSUE Issue of shares at par transactions, which are outstanding at
or at a premium by an existing company the end of the last trading day, are
to its shareholders in a certain required to be settled by payments or
proportion (and additional shares, if deliveries.
available) to their holdings, as a matter  ROUND LOT The minimum number of
of their right to receive preferential shares in a trading lot; 100 or 50 in
treatment. An existing shareholder, the case of Rs 10 shares, and 10 or 5
besides subscribing to such an issue, for Rs 100 shares. Any number falling
can let his rights lapse, or renounce his short of the trading lot is called an
rights in favour of another person ODD LOT, for which the selling price
(free, or for a consideration) by signing for the investor is lower than normal,
the renunciation form. The renouncer but the buying price is higher.
may or may not have the right to apply
for shares additional to his entitlement,  ROYALTY The sum paid for the right
depending upon the terms the company to exploit the property rights held by
attaches to the renunciation of rights. a n o t h e r. T h u s , r o y a l t i e s m a y b e
payable for exploitation of mines, the
 RISK AND RETURN An important use of patents or the publication of
concept in investment, which must take books. The royalty is generally based
into account risk aversion, which is a upon the extent of such exploitation,
common enough human tendency. In e.g. the quantitative use, or the income
investment, generally speaking, the yielded from such use.
less the risk, the lower the return. The
absolute risk is the insolvency of the  SALARY STRUCTURING The concept
borrower or the company whose of ensuring that salaries are consistent
shares have been bought. Government within a company and competitive with
bonds are free from insolvency risk; salaries elsewhere in the same industry
their returns are also the lowest. or in the same geographical location.
Debentures and fixed deposits with  SALES INVENTORY RATIO The
companies are not risk-free, although relationship between the value of sales
their returns are higher. Equity shares for a given period and the average
carry the highest risk; their returns can value of finished stocks held during
also be high, both from cash dividends, that period.
bonus shares, and from appreciation  SCRAP VALUE he estimated or actual
of their price. price at which an asset can be disposed
 ROLLING SETTLEMENTS A rolling of at the end of its useful life or at which
settlement is one in which trades defective goods can be disposed of.
outstanding at the end of the day have  SEASONAL VARIATION The
to be settled (payments made for fluctuation in demand or output of a
purchases or deliveries in the case of business or industry which occurs in
sale of securities) at the end of the the cycle of one year.
settlement period. In a T+5 rolling
settlement, a transaction entered into
already issued and outstanding shares
Monday has to be settled on the fifth
are bought and sold. Distinguished from
w o r k i n g d ay, w h i c h w il l b e t h e
the primary market in which the issuer
subsequent Monday, when either pay
sells shares directly to the investor.
in or pay out takes place. As opposed
to this, in a weekly settlement, the  SECURED DEBT A debt instrument,
transactions made during any of the like a bond or a debenture, whose
five trading days are permitted to be principal amount has been secured by
squared up - or purchases offset the issuer by set ting aside certain
against sales - during the same tangible assets as collateral. If the
settlement period. Only those issuer is in default the creditors can
lay claim to the assets.
(192) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 SECURITY A security is a document hoping that the price will fall by then.
that gives its owner specific claim of If the price falls, he buys the shares
ownership of particular assets. The at the lower rate, and makes a profit
two main types of securities are bonds on the difference. If the price has
& debentures, and shares. The bond risen on the other hand, he has to
or debenture holder gets an assured buy the shares at the higher price,
interest only for the period of holding, and sustains a loss.
while the shareholder is part-owner  SENSEX It is the sensitive index of
of the company and has invested in the Bombay Stock Exchange. It
its future, with a corresponding share reflects the weighted average price
in its profits or loss. of 3O most volatile A Group shares on
 SECURITIES LENDING In Securities the BSE. Widely criticized to be an
lending the legal title of a security is unrepresentative but highly influential
temporarily transferred from a lender index.
to a borrower. The lender retains all  SERVICE INDUSTRY A section of the
the benefits of ownership, other than economy which produces a service
the voting rights. The borrower is rather than a manufactured end-
entitled to utilise the securities as product. Insurance, banking and
required but is liable to the lender for tourism are all service industries.
all benefits (e.g dividends, interest or
rights).  SERVICE LIFE The estimated useful
life of an asset to a business, which
 SECURITISATION Securitisation is a may be less than its physical life.
process by which the forecast future
income (the money that's due to come  SHARE A share in one unit of
in) of an entity is transformed and ownership of a company. If a company
sold as debt instruments such as bonds has issued 1,000,000 shares, and a
with a fixed rate of return. This allows person owns 1000 of them, he owns
the company to get cash upfront, 0.1% of the company. His share of
which can be put to productive use in the company can be reduced if the
the business. company makes a further public or
rights issue and he can’t pick up
 SELF-EMPLOYED PERSON A person enough shares to maintain the
who works on his own account, either percentage of his holding.
earning fees and commissions or
 SHAREHOLDER A person or a legal
receiving a salary from his own
entity who owns equity or preference
shares of a company. The proof of his
 SELF-MADE MAN A person who is ownership is the share certificate,
rich and successful because of his own which he may hold in multiple numbers,
efforts. each certificate comprising a certain
 SELF-REGULATORY BODY An quantity of shares.
association, such as the Stock  SHELF LIFE 1. The length of time a
Exchange, which is regulated by its product remains in stock before sale.
own members. 2. The length of time during which a
 SELLER’S MARKET A market where product retains its required qualities
a seller can ask a high price for goods before deteriorating.
or services because there is a large  SHELL COMPANY A company which
demand and supply is limited. does not trade, but exists as a name
 SELLING SHORT Sale of shares, o n l y, t o a c q u i r e s h a r e s i n o t h e r
which he doesn’t possess, by a companies or to be used as the vehicle
speculator. He usually borr ows the for a takeover bid.
shares from his stockbroker, promising
to replace them at a future date
IC : PTpnsgk01 (193) of (202)
 SHOP FLOOR The place of work in a  SPAN OF CONTROL The number of
factory or office, together with the subordinates who can be successfully
employees who work there. controlled by one person. The number
 SHORT LIST 1. A list of some of the depends to some extent upon the level
better candidates for a job who are within the organization. Thus, the
asked to come to interview or to take maximum number successfully
a test. 2. To put a candidate’s name controlled by a foreman might be 10
on a list of people to be invited to take and by a managing director.
a test or to attend for an interview.  SPECIAL IMPORT LICENCE The
 SICK INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES ACT special import licence (SIL) is an
SICA is an acronym for Sick Industrial incentive given to exporters to import
Companies Act. It was enacted by goods that are otherwise restricted,
Parliament in ’85 in a bid to arrest the subject to payment of normal customs
problem of growing industrial sickness duties. This licence is freely
and ensures more efficient use of transferable.
productive resources. The objectives  SPECULATION 1. Dealing in stocks,
of SICA are to secure timely detection shares, commodities or currencies,
of sick and potentially sick industrial etc. with a view to earning profits
undertakings through market price movements such
 SIMULATION The mathematical as bull and bear transactions. 2. An
expression of business problems, and activity in which a person assumes high
their solution by the application of risks, often without regard for the
mathematical methods. safety of his invested principal, to
achieve large capital gains. The time
 SINKING FUND A sum of money set span in which the gain is sought to be
aside by a firm for the purpose of made is usually very short. The shorter
paying off a specific debt which may the term, the more speculative the
arise in future investment is.
 SISTER COMPANY One of several
 SPENDING POWER The amount of
companies which are part of the same
money which an individual or group has
available for the purchase of goods.
 SPONSOR A company paying for an
partnership who introduces finance
artistic or sporting activity, as a means
but who does not participate in the
of promotion, usually retaining the
management of the business. Unless
right to advertise the company’s
otherwise stated he is fully liable with
products at the event.
other partners for the debts of the
business.  SPOT TRANSACTION A spot
transaction is the purchase or sale of
 SOFT CURRENCY A currency which foreign currency at a fixed price, with
has an unstable value in international delivery and payment to take place
exchange, with a tendency to decline on the second business day after the
in value in the long run. This results day of the transaction. Transactions
from internal economic weakness and with value dates (dates when payment
an externally adverse balance of and delivery are made) up to and
payments. including seven business days from
 SOFTWARE In computing, the the date of trading are also
programs and documentation as considered spot transactions, subject
opposed to the machinery to agreement between the parties at
(“hardware”) itself. the time of the deal. In such cases,
 SOLVENCY The position of being able the buyer has to pay slightly more -
to meet one’s debts as they fall due an amount worked into the exchange
for payment.
(194) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
r a t e - fo r t h e f a c i l i t y. M o s t s p o t  STANDARD OF LIVING The material,
transactions are concluded over the physical and cultural well-being of an
telephone. Subsequent confirmation i n d i v i d u a l , g r o u p o r c o m m u n i t y.
by the customer is not necessary if Monetary incomes are an important
the transaction is conducted via indicator of well-being although
foreign currency accounts at the comparisons over a period of time
bank. must reflect price changes and
 SQUARING UP Settling of accounts movements in purchasing power. An
on ACCOUNT DAYS, by actual delivery overall measurement of standards
of shares or carrying forward one’s must also include the cultural, natural
transactions to the next account day, and social environment.
b y p a y i n g B A C K WA R D AT I O N o r  STANDARD TIME That time required
CONTANGO. by a normal worker operating under
 SQUEEZE A restriction on credit normal conditions to complete a piece
facilities and consumption by raising of work of satisfactory quality.
interest rates, imposing stiff purchase  STATE-OF-THE-ART A s y s t e m o r
controls, etc. The object of a squeeze technology which is technically as
is to reduce inflationary pressures and advanced as possible.
to improve the balance of payments  STATUS QUO The state of things as
position by discouraging imports. they are at present.
 STAG Fast in-and-out speculator who  STATUS SYMBOL An object, such as
is in the market to make a quick buck an expensive car, which is bought as
& is not interested in investments. an expression of the owner’s
 STAGFLATION A phenomenon in importance.
which an economy shows signs of  STATUTORY LIQUIDITY RATIO The
stagnation (high unemployment, slow proportion of their funds which banks
or negative growth, etc.) but also has are required to invest in government
a high inflation rate. This is indeed the securities as a part of their statutory
worst possible combination. liquidity ratio (SLR) requirements. The
 STANDARD HOUR A h y p o t h e t i c a l government securities are bonds issued
hour which represents the amount of by the Central government to meet its
work which should be performed in one revenue requirements. Although the
hour under standard conditions. Since bonds are long-term in nature, they are
it is a measure of work rather than liquid as they have a ready secondary
time, it is a means by which amounts market.
of different work or differing activities  STOCK MARKET INDEX Stock market
may be expressed by a common index is a barometer, which reflects the
denominator. The standard hour may overall performance of the shares in the
in some cases represent work stock market. Movements of the index
p e r f o r m e d i n l e s s t h a n a n h o u r, should represent the returns obtained by
particularly where an incentive typical share portfolios in the country.
payments system exists. When an index goes up, it is because
 STANDARDIZATION The the stock market thinks that the
determining and setting of fixed prospective dividends will be higher
dimensions, qualities, performances than previously thought. When
and nomenclature in order to facilitate prospects of dividends in the future
the interchangeability of parts, become pessimistic, the index drops.
reduce variability and size of stocks, An ideal index gives instant-to-instant
and reduce production costs. readings about how the stock market
perceives the future of the corporate

IC : PTpnsgk01 (195) of (202)

 STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT produce more than just double results.
Unemployment caused by a long-term Often described as 2 + 2 = 5.
decline in an industry rather than the  TRAI The TRAI (Telecom Regulatory
state of the economy in general. Authority of India) Act allows the body
 SUBSIDIARY A company which is to set telecom tariffs and fix terms
controlled by another company through and conditions under which operators
at least a majority shareholding. can interconnect with other. It also
 SUBSIDY A grant made b y a requires the government to seek
government agency to compensate recommendations from TRAI before
producers for setting market prices issuing a licence.
below the level which a free market  TAKE-HOME PAY The net wages or
would determine. In India, the salary remaining after all deductions
government provides massive subsidies have been made.
to farmers in the form of water, power,  TAKEOVER The acquisition of a
fertilizer etc. company by another company or
 SUNRISE INDUSTRIES New person through purchase of sufficient
industries which are coming up, growth shares to gain control
a re a s w h i c h a r e g o i n g t o p l ay a n  TANGIBLE ASSETS Assets which
important role in the country’s have material existence, such as
e c o n o my, e . g ., c o m p u t e r s , l a b o u r stocks, plant, etc.
saving domestic appliance, fibre optics
cables, animal protein substitutes, off-  TAXABLE INCOME That portion of
shore drilling, dry docking, etc. total income remaining after deduction
In v e s t m e n t i n t h e s h a r e s o f s u c h of reliefs and allowances and upon
companies is likely to be profitable in which income tax is payable by
the long run. application of the appropriate rates of
 S W O T A N A L Y S I S A ty p e o f
 TAX AVOIDANCE The legitimate
search for and adoption of devices for
o f a c o m p a n y by e x a m i n i n g i t s
the purpose of minimizing tax liability,
strengths(S), weaknesses(W), business
for example through maximizing
opportunities(O), and any threats(T) or
allowances by taking out additional life
dangers it might be exposed to.
assurance policies.
 SYNERGY 1. Greater effectiveness
which comes from joining two  TAX EVASION The illegal, wilful act
companies together, where the result of escaping a liability to tax.
is stronger than was the case when the  TAX EXEMPTION The freedom from
two companies were separate. 2. It the obligation to pay tax.
refers to the working together of two  TAX-FREE INCOME That portion of
similar agents to produce an effect total income which is not liable to
greater than the sum of their individual income tax.
effect. It is the ideal sought to be
 T A X H A V E N Any foreign country
achieved through mergers and
residence which enables people to pay
acquisitions, whereby the performance
less tax than they would do if they kept
of a combined enterprise is expected
their income in their own country. The
to exceed the sum of the separated
Isle of Man, the Channel Islands,
enterprises. This can happen because
Switzerland and Liechtenstein are all tax
the strengths of either company (one
havens to a lesser or greater extent.
strong in sales, the other in research
and development; one strong in  TAX HOLIDAY A period when a new
reserves, the other with an excellent company pays no tax, used as an
EPS, etc.) tend to make the merger incentive to attract companies to set
up in new areas.
(196) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS A method of  THIRD WORLD The countries of
prediction of share price movements Africa, Asia and South America, whose
based on a study of price graphs or economies are not highly developed.
charts on the assumption that share  THREE-POSITION PROMOTION
price trends are repetitive, that since PLAN The concept that an employee,
investor psychology follows a certain while carrying out his present duties,
pattern, what is seen to have should ideally also perform two other
happened before is likely to be functions, namely training his
repeated. The technical analyst is not successor and learning his superior’s
concerned with the fundamental job.
strength or weakness of a company
 THROUGHPUT The volume of
or an industry; he studies investor and
production or other activity going
price behavior.
through a particular department,
Unemployment cause by technological  TIGHT MONEY POLICY Government
change. policy to restrict the money supply and
 TELECOM GATEWAY A telecom consumer credit.
gateway is a switching infrastructure,  TIME-SHARING 1. A situation where
which connects the domestic telecom time on a computer system is shared
network with foreign telecom networks between several users, each with a
and ensures smooth flow of separate terminal. 2. A system of
international traffic between the two property ownership, where several
countries. For instance, an outgoing people each buy the right to use the
call could originate on one of the local property for a certain time each year.
telephone exchanges of the  TIME STUDY The recording and
department of telecommunications analysis of times and rates of work
(DoT), Mahanagar Telephone Nigam for each of the elements involved in a
(MTNL), or of one of the cellular job in order to derive a standard time
operators. It reaches a gateway for the job at a specified level of
through DoT's network, from where performance. It is thus quantitative
the call is transmitted to the desired in nature.
international destination.
 TERTIARY PRODUCTION Activities UNLOADING Bulls take the optimistic
concerned with the provision of services, approach to gain, buying in the hope
such as catering or hairdressing. that share prices will rise. There may
 TEST MARKETING The practice of b e s i t u a t i o n s , h o w e ve r, w h e n t h e
offering a new product or service for price rise doesn’t take place for a long
sale under controlled conditions in order time, or after going up a bit, remains
to obtain information from which a there for quite some time. The bull’s
decision may be taken regarding the optimism gets tired waiting, and he
product’s marketability on a wider decides to liquidate his LONG
scale. POSITION and unload, i.e., sell off his
 THERBLIGS The motion performed by shares. Prices may fall as a result of
parts of a human body. F.B. Gilbreth, such activity if too many bulls
from whom the name derives, divided participate in it.
work into 17 different therbligs, but  TOLL A charge made for the use of
this number has since been increased. some bridges, roads, docks, etc.
 THINK TANK A group of experts who  TRACK RECORD The success or
meet to discuss problems and put forward failure of a company or an individual
plans or propose solutions to a in the past.
government or to a large industrial group.

IC : PTpnsgk01 (197) of (202)

 TRADE, BALANCE OF The relationship between countries and domestic tax
between the value of exports and legislation of various countries have
imports. The balance is favourable if adopted the arm's length principle. With
the value of exports exceeds that of globalisation, transfer pricing became
imports - the difference between them an unwanted reality. Price charged by
being referred to as the trade gap. one company in Country A to another
There are two kinds of balance : the company in Country B is reflected in the
visible balance, i.e. goods, and the profit and loss account of both
invisible balance, i.e. services such as companies, either as an income or
insurance and shipping. expenditure. Thus prices charged impact
 TRADE BARRIER Any impediment to the tax paid by the two related
free trade. Tariffs and quotas are both companies. By resorting to transfer
trade barriers. pricing, related entities can reduce the
global incidence of tax by transferring
 TRADE BLOC Any group of countries higher income to low-tax jurisdictions
which try to increase trade among or greater expenditure to those
themselves. jurisdictions where the tax rate is very
 TRADE CYCLE An alternative pattern high.
in economic activity from boom to  TRAVELLER’S CHEQUE A c h e q u e
slump to boom and so on. The pattern issued by financial and banking
is induced by changes in demand and institutions which can be purchased in
in investment policies, governmental domestic currency and cashed at
economic and political actions and their various agencies abroad into local
impact on the outlook and mood of the currency. Traveller’s cheques are paid
business world. The pattern is not very for in advance and pr ovide a
regular but both long (9-11 year) and convenient and safe way of carrying
short (3-year) patterns have been money in a widely acceptable form.
discerned.  TREASURY The government
 TRADE FAIR A large exhibition and department responsible for managing
meeting, where a certain category of the national finances, i.e. revenue
product is advertised and exhibited. collection and expenditure, and also for
 T R A D E M A R K A d i s t i n c t i v e m o t i f, directing and contro ll ing economic
word, or signature generally placed on activity in accordance with government
a product, its package, advertisements policy.
or literature, indicating a trade  TRUSTEE One who holds property in
connection between the product and trust for another. Although he may hold
some person, generally the the title to the property, all benefits
manufacturer or retailer, having the belong to beneficiaries under the trust.
right to use that mark. Registration of Breach of trust may make the trustee
a trademark bestows the exclusive liable personally for any losses thus
legal right to its use on the owner. incurred.
Illegal use of the trademark is  TRUSTEE IN BANKRUPTCY The
punishable by law. administrator of the estate of a
 TRANSFER PRICING Transfer prices bankrupt. He holds the title of the
are the charges made when a company d e b t o r ’s p r o p e r t y a n d i s e i t h e r
supplies goods, services or finance to appointed by the creditors or is the
another company to which it is related. official receiver.
It is an internationally accepted principle  TURNKEY OPERATION A business
that transactions between related deal where a company tak es
parties should be based upon the same responsibility for building and fitting a
terms as between unrelated parties. f a c t o r y, s c h o o l , h o s p i t a l , e t c ., &
Thus both tax treaties entered into provides the staff to run it, so that it
(198) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01
is complete and functional when the  UNDERWRITE 1. To undertake to
purchaser takes it over. take up that portion of a company’s
 TURNOVER 1. The volume of sales, share issue which is not subscribed for
either in value or quantity, for a given by the public. This action thereby
period. 2. The frequency with which ensures the flotation of an issue and
assets, such as stocks, or personnel, is rewarded by a fee. 2. To accept
are replaced during a given period. part of the liability on an insurance
p o l i c y, e s p e c i a l l y i n m a r i n e a n d
 ULTRA VIRES ACT Any act which is aviation insurance. A banker or a
“beyond the powers” granted to a financial institution which agrees to
body corporate or incorporate, as set buy up the unsubscribed portion of a
out in the body’s constitution or in the new issue, should such a thing happen,
memorandum of association in the case and sells it later to investors at a
of a registered company. An ultra vires premium is an underwriter.
act or transaction, though legal in
i t s e l f, i s v o i d . A n a c t w h i c h i s  UNEMPLOYMENT The lack of paid
incidental to or consequential upon the work although such is being actively
authorized objects would not generally sought. Va r i o u s forms of
be ultra vires. unemployment exist. Frictional
unemployment is caused through the
 UMBRELLA ORGANIZATION A large limited demand for a particular skill in
organization which includes and a locality. Seasonal unemployment is
represents several smaller units. caused by a fluctuating demand for
 UNDER-CAPITALIZATION The state labour resulting from periodic changes
of having insufficient capital for in climate or changes in consumer
business requirements. tastes and fashions.
where there is not enough work for (USP) A particular feature which
workers in a company to do. 2. A differentiates a product from
situation where there is not enough competing products, which can be
work in a country to occupy all the emphasized when promoting the
workforce. product. Commonly known as USP.
 UNDER-MANNING The situation  UNIVERSE The total population from which
where a company does not have a sample is taken for a market survey.
enough staff for its operations to be  UNLISTED SHARE A share which is not
carried out effectively. registered with any stock exchange and
 UNDERVALUED SHARES Shares therefore does not feature on any
selling below their book value or the stock exchange list. Owners of such
price earning ratio which analysts shares are deprived of the protection
believe they deserve. There may be that the holder of a listed share enjoys
many reasons for this: the industry is from the stock exchange. These shares
out of favour, or the company has are also very difficult to sell and carry a
current labour trouble, or it is not well- large risk. Usually, the more exchanges
known enough or, this is quite common, at which a share is listed, the greater is
the company hasn’t yet caught the its liquidity.
investors’ fancy. Fundamental analysts
often identify and recommend such  USEFUL LIFE The normal operation
shares before they become fully period for an asset. This period is
priced. Companies with undervalued determined by such factors as its
shares are often targets of takeovers physical condition, extent of use and
as their shares can be acquired quality of maintenance. Technological
cheaply. developments may render an asset
obsolete before and end of its physical
IC : PTpnsgk01 (199) of (202)
 USER-FRIENDLY ( O f a c o m p u t e r diamonds expensive ? This confuses
system or program) which the user will inherent value with scarcity value.
find simple to use. Diamonds are scarce and water is not
 U S U R O r i g i n a l l y, t h e p ra c t i c e o f and their price is set by demand and
lending money in return for the supply.
payment of interest. The term is now  VARIABLE COSTS OR VARIABLE
applied to money lent at exorbitant EXPENSES T h o s e o v e r h e a d c o s t s
rates of interest. which vary directly with output.
 VALUE ADDED The difference  VARIETY REDUCTION The reduction
between the income received from the or elimination of certain products,
sale of the products or services of a product ranges, components or
business and the expenditure incurred materials which are uneconomic or
in buying materials from outside whose elimination will produce cost
sources to produce those products. benefits.
 VALUE ADDED TAX 1. A method of  VENTURE CAPITAL 1. Capital for
taxation of goods and services investment in projects which have a
whereby tax is levied on the extra high risk potential. 2. Venture capital
contribution to the value of a good or is the capital provided by firms of
service rendered through a business’s professionals who invest alongside
operation. The tax rate is applied to management in young, rapidly growing
the value added, as calculated by or changing companies that have the
subtracting the invoiced cost of its potential for high growth. Thus a
supplies from the invoice price charged venture capitalist (VC) may provide
by the business for the goods or the seed capital for unproven ideas,
services it produces. Popularly called products, technology-oriented or
VAT. 2. A form of excise taxation of start-up firms. The VC may also invest
goods which shifts the tax base in a firm that is unable to raise finance
towards the point of final consumption through the conventional means.
rather than first point sale thereby  VERTICAL INTEGRATION The
ensuring `tax neutrality' of production merger of firms engaged in different
decisions. Since each producer up the stages of production of an item.
value chain would like to claim the “Backward integration” would be used
benefit of set-off, there is automatic to describe the merging of a tyre
pressure on the producers down the manufacturer with a rubber plantation.
value chain to pay their tax. “Forward integration” would be used
Moreover, since tax collection takes to describe a merging of a brewer with
place in stages, evasion at any one a hotel chain. Motives for vertical
stage is automatically compensated at integration include the desire to
a later stage. secure sources of supply or outlets
 VALUE ANALYSIS A technique that for the finished product.
yields value enhancement by the  VOLATILE SHARES Shares which are
critical examination of a product or subject to sharp fluctuations in price,
system, with reference to its essential showing a considerable difference
function. Originally an engineering between their highest and lowest
concept, the technique has been recorded prices.
applied to systems as well as products.
 VOLUME Total number of shares, etc.
Also called functional analysis.
bought and sold during a certain
 VALUE PARADOX A classical paradox period. Volume figures are reported
in economic theory: if water is daily by stock exchanges, both of
indispensable but diamonds are not, individual shares and of the total
why is water cheap and why are amount of trading. Technical analysts

(200) of (202) IC : PTpnsgk01

use volume figures to predict rise or  WHITE-COLLAR WORKER Any
fall of share prices. Also, a large clerical or professional worker who
volume of transactions indicates a may wear conventional clothes at
bullish trend. work. Otherwise blue-collar worker.
 VOUCHER A document issued as proof  WHITE GOODS Large items of
of delivery of goods, receipt of electrical equipment for kitchens, such
money, etc. which also serves to act as refrigerators and washing
as evidence of the correctness of machines.
accounts.  WHITE KNIGHT A term used in a
 WAGE FREEZE A period when wages HOSTILE TAKEOVER context, when a
are not allowed to increase. c o m p a n y, w h i c h c a n n o t p r ev e n t a
 WAGE INCENTIVE A monetary takeover looks for a friendly rescuer
encouragement paid to stimulate who might outbid the BLACK KNIGHT
greater production, better quality of and acquire the company on amicable
work, etc. Incentives may be part of terms.
the pay structure (e.g. piece rates,  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX An index
relating earnings to output, with showing the rises and falls of prices
bonuses for extra output) or may take of manufactured goods as they leave
the form of annual awards depending the factory.
on business performance in the year  WHOLESALING Activities related to
(e.g. profit-sharing or annual bonus.) the bulk purchasing of goods direct
 WALL STREET 1. The street in New from manufacturer/producer and the
Yo r k w h e r e t h e N e w Yo r k S t o c k breaking down into smaller units for
Exchange is situated 2. The US distribution and sale to retailers.
financial world in general  WHOLLY-OWNED SUBSIDIARY A
 WALL STREET JOURNAL Published subsidiary company which is owned
five days a week by Dow Jones & Co., 100% by a parent company.
it is the most distinguished journal of  WINDFALL PROFIT Any unexpected
finance and investment. The WSJ profit, often unconnected with the
reports not only on U.S. economy and normal business of an enterprise.
finance, it also surveys world
PROTOCOL The Wireless Application
 WASTING ASSET Any asset whose Protocol (WAP) is an open (non-
value diminished with use rather than proprietary) specification that
with time, such as mines or quarries empowers mobile users with wireless
whose value, once exhausted, cannot devices to easily access and interact
be replaced. with information and services
 WEAR AND TEAR The damage caused instantly. The purpose of WAP is to
by normal use of a piece of equipment, enable easy fast delivery of relevant
not normally covered by insurance. information and services to mobile
 WEIGHTED AVERAGE An average users. Hand-held digital wireless
which takes several factors into devices such as mobile phones,
account, giving some more value than pagers, two-way radios, smart
others. phones and communicators make use
of WAP.
 WELFARE STATE A country which
provides through the central  WORKER PARTICIPATION A
government and its agencies minimum situation where workers take Bretton
standards of living for the population Woods Agreement, 1945, in order to
in terms of income, health, education, make long-term loans to governments
housing etc. to finance postwar reconstruction and
to finance development expenditure
IC : PTpnsgk01 (201) of (202)
in less advanced countries. The Bank  YIELD TO MATURITY Yield to
is backed by share capital maturity is the annualized rate of
subscriptions from member countries return in percentage terms on a fixed
and by bonds issued in the money income instrument such as bond or
markets. In addition to government debenture, taking into account coupon
lending, the Bank makes loans to rates, frequency of payouts and
private undertakings and provides capital gains or losses. It is the
technical services to governments. It composite rate of return of all
also undertakes economic surveys for payouts, coupon and capital gains. .
the long-term planning of resources. Say, you had a choice of investing in
In recent years, the bank has two bonds issued by two companies -
witnessed a steady decline in its clout one where you receive an interest
due to the emergence of newly warrant annually at 16 per cent and
developed economies like the far-east the other where the interest payout
Asian nations. is spread out over 12 monthly
 XB (EX-BONUS) The price of a share installments at a rate of 15.5 per cent.
without the benefit of the bonus On the face of it, the first instrument
declared. There is a RECORD DATE, offers you a higher return. But the
a n n o u n c e d by t h e c o m p a n y, a f t e r coupon payments alone (payouts
which the price of a share (which has through interest warrants) do not give
now fallen) does not include the a correct picture about the yield of
bonus. the instrument. This is because the
yield on an instrument will rise with
 X-THEORY A traditional view of the frequency of payouts.
human motivation that, because of an
inherent dislike of work and  Y-THEORY A theory of human
responsibility, people prefer to be motivation based on the premise that
directed, coerced and financially people are interested in work, want
induced with a closely controlled responsibility and will direct
organizational structure. themselves without the need for
coercion by manage