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Christian Leborg

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II, A DESIGN PRIMER

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95 ge Pr,inceton Architectural Press 37 East Seventh Street

New York, New York 10003

For a free catalog 01 books, call 1.800.722.6657. Visit our Web site at www.papress.com ..

First published in Norway by Abstrakt Forlag

in 2004

CopYlightEnglish edition It:' 2006 Princeton Architectural Press 10 09 OB 07 06 5 4 3 2 1 First edition

NO pari of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner

without written permission from the publisher, except in the context of reviews.Every reasonable attempt has been made 10 identify owners of copyr.ight. Errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent editions.

For Princeton Architectural Press:

Projeclediting: Nicola Bednarek Design: Christian Leborg Teanstation: Diane Oaltey

Special thanks 10: Nellie Atjian, Dorothy Ball, Janel Behning,Becca Casbon, Penny (Yuen 'Pik) Chu, Russell Fernandez. Jan Haux, Clare Jacobson, John King. Mark Lamster, Nancy Eklund Later, Unda Lee. Katharine Myers, Lauren Nelson. Scott Tennent, Jennifer Thompson, Paul Wa.gner, Joseph Weston, and Deb Wood of Princeton Archilect.ural Press -Kevin C. Uppert, publisher

Library ·of Congress Cataloging·in·PublicalionData Leborg. Christian.

{Visuall grammatikk. EngJishJ Visual grammar I Christian Leborg.

p. em,

Includes bibliographical. references. ISBN-IS: 978+56898-581·7 (alk. paper) ISBN·W:I·56898·581·9 (alk. paper)

1. Visual perception. 2. Visual communication in art I,. Tille. N7430,5.L39132006

701'.8-dc22

2005034807

Christian Leborq Visual Grammar

Activit es Rela\ ons

Princeton Architectural Press New York

To Marianne

VISUAL GRAMMARI PREFACE

Preface

Every day we are confronted with vast amounts of visual messages, but without 8. basic understanding of visual language many of these messages remain incomprehensible to us, and a productive dialogue between producers and consumers of visual communication cannot take place.

Knowledge of visual concepts is often acquired through physical experience and applied

wltl out tile use of written or spoken language: there are, however, a number of underlying processes before and after the act of creation where verbal language has an important function. Reflection about what one is going to create or what one has created alters the creative process: we think diiferently when we have a language to describe something. This book is a ccntribution towards establishing such a language, It intends to be both a primer on visual language and a visual dictionary of 1he fundamental aspects of visual communication.

The eason tor writing a grammar of visual language is ,he same as for any language: to define i-s basic elements, describe its patterns and processes, and to understand the re.ations between the individual elements i the system. Visual language 'las no 'orrnal syntax or semantics, but the visual objects themselves can be classified. Accordingly, the book is divided j to four parts: abstract objects and structures, concrete objects and structures, activi-

ties, a d relations, The irst chapter deals 'NI,11 abstractions such as dimension, format. and volume; the second concerns concrete objects and structures such as form, size, color, and textu rs: the til i I'd part des cri be s th e act iviti e s that can take place ina co m pos iti on s u en as repetition, mirroring, and movement, and the fourth chapter deals with the relations between several objects in a composition.

Wrlll 9 this book I have stood 01 the shoulders of a number of the greats \'.'10 have thought a d written about visual lanquaqe. They are listed in the selected bibliography at the back of the book. I would also like to thank Anette Wang, who gave me resistance when I needed it and my Norwegian publisher Einar Plyhn, who gave me no resistance whatsoever. Yngve lien and Bjarn Kruse contributed co structtve criticism. In addition, 1 received valuable feedback from professionals and laymen, friends and family.

I hope tha this book will nelp you soeak and write about visual objects and their creative pot.enlial and enable you to better understand II-e graphics thai you encounter every day,

Oslo, November 2005 Christian Leborg

VISUAL. GRAMMARI CONTENTS

Abstract

Concrete

Abstract Objects

10 Point

11 Line

12 Surface

13 Volume

14 Dimensions 16 FOrmat

Concrete Objects

28 Form

30 Size

32 Color

Concrete Structures

Abstract Structures

19 Formal Structures

20 Gradation

21 Radiation

22 Informal Structures

23 Visual Distribution

24 lnvi si b lei I nactive Structu res

24 Structural Skeleton

35 Visible Structures 35 Active Structures 36 Texture

VISUAL GR.~MI'..I.~RI CONTENTS

Activities

Relations

40 Repetition
40 Freq ue ncy I Rhythm
42 Mirroring
43 Mirroring against a Volume
44 Rotation
46 UpscalinglDownscaling
48 Movement
48 Path
49 Direction
49 Su pe rord inate! Su bord i nate
Movement
50 Displacement
50 Direction 01 Displacement 55 Attraction
55 Static
56 Symmetry I Asymmetry
57 Balance
58 Groups
60 Fine/Coarse
61 Diffusion
62 Direction
63 Position
64 Space
65 Weight
66 Am ountl Dom i nance
68 Neutral
69 Backg round /Foreq rou nd
70 Coordination
71 Distance
72 Parallel
73 Angle
74 Negative! Positive
75 Transparent/Opaque
76 Tangent
78 Overlapping
79 Compound
80 Subtraction
81 Coincidence
82 Penetralion
83 Extrusion
84 Influence
85 Mod iii catio n
86 Variation
89 Glossary
96 Bibliography VISUAL GRAMMARI ABSTRACT

5

10 POint! S rface 6J
11 Lne 12 13 Voume

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VISUAL GRAMII1ARI ABSTRACT I OaJECTS

Abstract Objects. Abstract objects are ideal shapes that cannot be physically created. When you try to draw a point, for example, you do not end up with a point but with a surface.

The above ulustra: JI1 may leck uke a point, but it is o:,ly the reoresentatro-i of a point. It's acti.al'y a do: ~1''''lth a surface. Its size is O.1?t of -:'lat 0': the jI'LJstration below.

"The abstract CO·-l'.·eys the essential meaning~ cutti ng tt~ rcuqh the conscious tc the urcor.sclcus. trom experleice of the substance i 1 tile sensory 'field ojl redly 10 tll~ nervous systerr I from the event to perception." DOI~ is A. DOldis~

A Primer o! Visual Literacy. (Cambridge: MIT P'8SS, -1973), 8-1.

I

VISUAL GRAMMARI ABSTRACT I OBJECTSI 'POINT

iPoint. -¥ett-s-a~ or feel a point; it is a place without area, :he point has a pOSttt~at can be defined by coordinates (numbers on one, f 0, or three axes),

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The cce 'dio1sles '~, this ~'<l;rl ''''a ~"Q,69f)~ehe~, uceer eic'nar:d cc nerol ilw oa;;e.

A ~c1erica, O:::<lro'irlllh:; ~,s;err s J'stle ..... hen,:) war.t~ ~C' indo . a;e. fe' olXillllO'S ·"'IIl,e 01'\ the e<;llt a ee ~I '5 ocalec. T'le ~Ja~r (lnd till) ~e.'o·dc9·l1e""e· ar re:;;';:$l:nl mol2clo ce nts at '"IOrl~/S¢ul~ ~rc cMt/weSI. ·e$po~li·"" .

10

TRACT I OSJ rcrs ILl N E VISUAL GRAM MARl ASS

ber of points that

d • s anum. h ve two

be understoo a be 'Infinite or av

I· can I' _ can. , .'

Line. A me other, A rne points IS a

one ana ' .. teen two

are adjacent to . t st distance be w

. The shor e

endpoints.

straight line.

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VISUAL G~AMMARI ABSfRACT I 0 GJECTSI SURI'A,CE

Surface. A surface is defined by two lines that do not coincide or by a minimum of three points that are not located on a line, If the two lines have one coinciding pomt, the surface will be a plane.

I, t~e s~"'e way tha; e ir ocan be dese, ieee as a rcw 01 ad'iacen: po r-ts, a su=acc car ~e oe' ned es a 'OW ci h1es, Poin:s are

S lacked in e-re o rec: on 10 101 m a I ne; a su rtace is crea led w'en a te« 01 ires is $iae~eo a~ a rig11 argle:o ·.1~t c'rect'or-, Tnese di'\1~lic1s call also ce sean as 1'.'(lS and oj me~s;~~5. Because IES u Ii ace sa pCi<1tt U· a j .s I>r~Tiie' ate d in rwo di -e cl iC"'S. " 5 ~.' ace has Iwo cjmensier-s,

'he o.rlslde of a volume is a svrtace.It ear J03 9. can: nJOUS sw'ace will' dil'ered ~vr'.<es, Of a e·~llectIQn or poi)'gono. or a muWangv ~rsu "ac,c such as th", fig u '0 on thelef1.

"Tho path 01 a Ii~e in ,~otion becomes a plans. A pla~o has length a'ld bread,", Qui 110 thrckness. II hes pes lion and diecllon. II '5 ~OUI' C oy I ncs, It e'el' nes the cxterr a I im.ts o' a VOl u ~,e." ",ue us "'le'1g, Prillciplas of Form and Design (Ne'N Yor~: \f~, Ncslra,d Reinhold, '1993). <12.

VIS UAr. to RAMMARI, ABSTRACT I: OBJECrsl. VOLU M E

I ... ;he SliMe way lhfll a s.r+ace 5 a IOvJ €If I nes, a ~olume s mace up of e number (" surtacss, Here the polnts arc c '€I i fera~d in I hree c irec t or s,

th e fig J 'e's three eli "le!"lsic ~s. A cube hA s eig h I v« rtices (the po;' Is where l~ e Ii ~¢s r ~ 'sect). On -ne ns cc 0' the scrfacas slre;chi~g cetween t~ese vertices is e"'llp~y space. Thi$ spice does no: cor ;a,r a 1)' thi ~g but is de Ii n<:d cy its edg es.

-'e· va- evs ",eomet' c vc vmes cannot be reprod",c<:d e xac tty;1 'Ilat;:y lise a~ se t1e 1" !lttm<!. we U S·C :C 'ep.e d ece the m e ~h' do es 'cl~ I c ~nr ·O! !\a"a such 3 pe-lee! cesig,·. '$co ... ·e;·'(: tie~ res Are "IIal1cr ahcal. abslracl mode s.

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Volume. A volume is an empty space defined by surfaces, lines, and points,

"The path of a plal1e ln l110tiQn (in a dirccfion ether j'anlt5i~tl'i"SiC direelon), cccornes a volume. It h~. a 'PoSi lion ir space ~nd is bound b)' planes. In \wo-dif"'"en~io·,al dc~ign, vc UIM is il usery" Wong, Principlos of Porm aMI Design, 4~,

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VISUA" I3I'l.AMMARI ABSTRACT I OBJECTSIDI M ENSI ONS

II line I' !IS one edg.e,.lwo· ··tei:li.ces, a~d' one dime'1siM, A so-face 'with iour e~·g.e" 11M tOJr vertices Mel t'Ne,

cimer stons .. r... cuee hasewefve eig~s. eignl vC"iices. s,x surfaces. and three di-nens ons, A hypercube has thirijdwo edges, six teen vertices. ',wer I~·r o~, sur lace s, and lou' c lmensior s.

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2.

Or~dimMsiC!"l

Tbree dlmensior-s

Dimensions. We, along with everything that surrounds us, have height, width, and depth-or three dimensions. Objects can have four, five, and an infinite number of dimensions, but we cannot perceive these. More or less than three dimensions are abstractions for us; we can only imagine them.

'Dimc-islcnexrsts in ,Me 'e@1 ,"Jorld. liie cannot orly fool it out w tn l'S ald. o.f cur lwo-eyed,. srereccpticcn s 9i't, 'Ne can see t," Dondis. A P,imer of visue! Literacy,. 59~60'.

14

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Four dimensions

VISUAL GRAM MARl ABSTRACT I OBJ ECTS I DIM ENSIONS



o

The sphere with its section at lui! size

The sphere rising

The sphere on the point of vanishing

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My eye

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Edwil' Abbott ,I-.bbott's book Flatland tells the story 0; a square that Ii"es in a two-d rnensioual world 'cgetr,6[ with its farni Iy of geometric fig Uf8S. 0 ne day a three-dimensional sphere cernes to visit. \t. ... hen the square tells the elsrgy about meeti ng someone trom another dirner s 'on, it IS imprisoned 'lor blasphemy, Above 'i'e, see the sphere's vistt as ',"iewed oy the square. Illustration based en Abbott's .j ra',ving Ed',vin Abbott Abbott. Fistiand (London, Seeley & Co, ,884).

15

PIt' :e'r" format call be "sed -c rcrer tc dim(!~slo~s, ccporucr-s.erc scales cf measu"ec:"'e,t.

Exampl(!s a-c :jc<Jg'"pbc mf.:"~L'e' ~'cr.ts, metric measu-eme-its (",o;er. ceil! m;,'e', mill'",n:e,), Ar~IO'Ame'I' ca~ rllcastJremeelS ('ele: a;:~ .nches), map '0.',- ars, 3'chilecton c 'Mmals. D"'pcr '0Ima1$. book lormets. r.ew~· ~nper tOfftla\s. pester ;olm"I:>. h'm lem·als. :;c''!e~ lowals. etc.

Scree") ~oN\o'l:."s a~e ;JsuaU,{ + .. tH;:aSJ~ec I~ c xe s: a pIxel (piC lure ",iement)

s U~e smai'cs; UI'i~ 04 "Iform(!:\o~ it, dig,:;,1 ill"~ges. i'ney are caacratic )'ld JOOl· O.C'l39 ircreS \ ~ SI":.

T~'pcsr"ph'C pO'~'5 (abbrevratec as et) a'" :'lC ~mallesllypogr!l:"IJC

urns, -e~$Jn~9 "c~rox'mi\~c,y 0.0'48 w:tes. T~e C,:CfO 'S :.e contral~'" of "lcas~'eme~1 , :~o :)"!X:graphc sc/sle,". <:«,'0' sir., twe: ve lypofJtaP~'<: 00 nts.

The tor-nats ;Of r: aps ;\r:; Bfcll,tc::.tval =" ans 2'0 excressed as tne 'a:,ol>cl,',aer I~e clawing arc the j>hy> ~al S ze, 'orex,,"'ple': <,0000000,' : ~o,

In =",o::e pace- lo",:,at~ '0; OW lI'Ie 01' system. w~ic<, is based 0<' Ihe fool :> ''''eter"le. and a-c ca'ied A, 6, ano C.

Most bcc« 'orlllal, arc oasec Of' the gQIOC~ section c: golder - e;. 1, ::I 1OG.:'lelnaF:: fC~-l.ola ~""1' expresses

Ii'll r~' Q ee: ,·,ccr 1'.",(> S'lCS. n II "S case !;e:t''''eon '-Ie ~e.old and w,dlh 01 a page. Tn" go'den sec",)n ,s ac-ueved whc., one di"ides ~ 'ire seg .... er.I 5~ch ~'IH :~e ratio oi :'10 shorter 'inc 10 the 'ong!!' 1 ne is :'le sarr e as thll 'a~ Q of !he lo"gcr line 10 :~,e who'e se9":c~t_ S,,;. Ire i(lrmJI'l be.ow ar o lI'c C'ooc on \:.'1~ , if.ji,-:,

;)';,; ,.~"o, ,,~. or :.618, also a.~~ca.rs

1 ,I,c so cu'led Fioor'JCC' seqaencc, where cacr ,um~or 'r n'l: seuue rce 1$ 11' 0 sum at the l .... '('l prece ~ .. r,S '\um~ers ~ I, ?, 3. b. a. '3, ~1. 34, 55. c<;". T~e '11:.0 0' adJ~cer: n.rmile, s , "'Ie

sec uence pro_gICS;,',IOI'1 appreachcs ;:',0,8,

VISUAL GRAMMARI ABSTRACT I OBJECTSI FORMAT

Ao equa,s one squa-e "'~"~', or S4' X ;'&.l"'I", T'lc 1'I~ig": o· tlape' is CaICJI3!.:d ,'I 2rar.-s basco C1 OM ~ou".(e r-ater. It :1e pape' wIl,gllS 1(10 .q, thi:; maans th:,t cr e Sq~1;<: mete' 0' Ih.s eaper, or :n'~ o-to-r-at, WI) ;)"$ 100 ~,

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WSVAL CI'I'.:AMMARI !\IBSTRACT I STRUCTURES

Abstract Structures. Placing' objects in relation to one another will establish a structure. We can only describe a st.ructureif we are able to recognize its pattern. A structure that does not have visible structure lines is called abstract.

VISUAl. GRAMMAR! A8STRACTI STRUCTUqeSI FORMAL

Formal Structures. When objects are evenly distributed in a composition I the structure is formal. The axes according to which the objects are organized are called structure lines.

$:'uCI~re 'res U~ pass tb'avgh th" C{)je.c:f certer 0.' OpilCB cenlel. ney can elso. • ~n beet",e"" ,." :>b. eels and oell~e leJ""" str~clurel elernems wi:~ • "",(;h lI"e objecls Il:C placec,

----- ------ i-----

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,

- - - - - - - -1- - - -

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___ L

A !:'uclule I~ ",~ich ell sectlons c· objects are 31 ke and equal)' dlslriouled is ::~lIed a basic sir .ictore or a grid. This ,-,re 0.1 '''pel,; ve structure is based or slr~clu-e lI~es mat 8'e l)e'Condie.Jlar 10 o~e ancthe-, uSLal'y horizortally and .ernca ')',

'9

VISUAL GRAMMAR, ABSTRACT I STRUCl'U'RESI I"ORMALI GRADATION

Gradation. A gradated structure works in the same way as a repetitive structure" but here the structure units change in size or form (or both) at an even rate.

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,
,
I
I Rad atier

Srada" on can apply to ~iS:a"C"', Ch1.1g0 in a1g e. d sc aco+ent, and CLive,

Or th,dt $o~e cf the -nos: C<; -"'Of grad\ltec .t(~c· :J"es a"e 5~e'-'"n' ~~,m"el grso;!a, c1jli,es '~'~~'~9 " :~e sa-a d"eel,e') and f"ciatie, (expand ngr.om a ce,:o").

20

VISUAL GRAMMAR ABSTRACl STRUCTUR ESt FORMALI RADIA110N

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/
\ ;/1 ///i
\
\. \',e spe~~ of concent-ic -aciation v-her II";, structu-e lines arc circles ·",th an uneqca d;st",r,~e +om the same eel' ter,

Radiation. A radiation is a formal repetitive structure with structure units that are situated around a common center.

T~e spi-al is concentric ~ that ils sr-ucture ire; have a ~ ~ -ieqca dis tarce +om the ce '1,,-. I~ is also cerr-ri ~g,,1 becai.se the ~ .. Iicall ne emelles +om a center; The spiral IS I~us a 1}'bri~ ~etwe,.r a corcer toc ar c ce,lrilL '.lal .*~~t~ re.



VISUAL GRAMMAR! ABSTRACT! STRUCTURES!INFORMAL

Informal Structures. When no regularities in the arrangement of objects in a composition can be discerned) the structure is informal. A structure is informal even if one recognizes a pattern as long as the objects do not follow straight structure lines,

It is ikely ',at pa'cs 0' the sl'uc:~'e aae-e arc lor mal ever l~oJa~ we =2rncl-ecog~ilc :1e palle'n. T~o'e are some matklcma: c equ8lioF\S 1~3.t wi"e1 rcp'<!l3 r,eo v.sva,lly de rot &.ppcil io nave a 'olm,,' s:- ~(;:J;e, T .e ::ef" t'C1S ~e'e coree'" orly It:· i$I.a aspects et Sl'uet~rcs.

22

VISUAL GRA!.111!"'-Rl A9·S1RACf, STlfUCTURES1INFQ.RMALI VISU.ALDISfRIBU1!ON

Visual Distribution. If objects are positioned in a structure judg.ing by the eye. the structure is based on visual distribution. It can also be called a similarity structure ..

-~ .. ----

-VI~J~1 cis{' butio' Should allow eachi.nr; k>Nn to :)~CJPl' a sr-uar aml)J~j 0; space as JVe:'gec Jy I~e eye:

WO'9 P'ir>r;iple.s 01 FOlm lind Design. 42.

'., .. SU."L GIl"fIIMAIlI ASSi"ACi I STRL.CiUR ESI' NFQRVALI' NVISI BLE/ INACTIVE

Invisible/Inactive Structures. Although the structure lines in an abstract structure are invisible, our brain has a tendency to fill in what is missing, so we see where they are. Inactive structures indicate the position of the objects but do not affect their form.

i1acl'-:e strvctcres car'! be 'J siblc ,11d invisiqle. (See aloe Active Slr~CI~res, p. 33.)

-,

''-....._ __

Structural Skeleton. In all compositions or objects there are forces that are bound by the limits of the surface. These varying degrees of energy follow certain axes with regard to form and proportions. These axes, or paths, can be called the format's or object's structural skeleton.

(See figure on p. 25).

"So \l1e M\ur9 of t\ visva experierce call '0" be desc- bed in ~llims 0' riches 0' si,e and c s:ance, j"'9'ccs of ansle, or ·N~·,e ~ngths of I'ue. These static +easurernerts de" ne ollly u-e 's:,mulus: 1112: is, :,e message senile the eye by the ph/sical ·Norld. But the life of a percect-us cxc-esslcn and mean 11g-derlves en: fely fro,,; the ac!i·.di,.- 01 the percs stual terees.' i'(udoll Aml"eim. AN an(/ ViS\iai Perception (8er<sls)': Uri .... ersi1y of Caliio-1ia Press. 19(4), 15.

24

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3:< S0:u'a:;o~ 133 CoI-.:r Sp"c·e

V,ISUAI. GRAMMA'RI CONC~eTel OBJECTS

Concrete Objects. Objects are perceived within defined limits. These limits are called contour lines. The contour is what defines the shape, or form,

A sunace can hMomany iorms. Forms aro def,ned by lhei,conlour$. which ean be waight Orourved. 11 tho visual lrllMition is qradaied Or has small nuances in shade or hve. '1 is diffie"'llo define the form .

• Form ("om Lat. "~coma) I. ,1 cOlTmo" USO, the exterior ef a (n'19' s. concrete: a ro~~d. sG Jare-sf ailed, etc. ' ..

3. ?Ias: c. ~a'., ns "'0 U ~ e,~. Fii!uralwely st<:~kir:;l, of 111 O·":,,'.:)II<"s o-,e'al 2po-llMP'lce as a ,,! b e ol))ec, ..... :10~: cC1sideraiic1 '0' corterc, 5. Cas: ng -011 c." e"obt"Johar5c1, Kunslofdbog, 65.

Form

Geometric forms

o

Organic forms

o

Random forms

o

Cir~lij.

As/roI09Y; Elern .1 "e. Asuo- 110my: Fu I moor. Me/corology:

C ear ",.·28.tha '. Canography: ::;":1'., ,J 'clure. Elec:ricity: Mete'. CllemiSifY: Ac c. Ml!chanics:

POI', 01 '01 uior. Biology: 5'0.

28

Georrelric forms are easee en ma:1ellla: cal iacts abc.it ~ol'ls, incs, su·'aces. a,d solids.

o

RanC':)m fo'-s are c-eatee It\r:)ug" '1I:;'od~~tior\ ~'C()'s~io'JS ~~-'" act 0'. or "IC'oo tat ir' ~e'co IrO"T'l "3;Jre.

Eq ial-arrned Cross. Asuol09Y: Matte'. the oa':, y. As/ronomy: Nort~. Alchemy:

'0 fc Jr e erner1:'. Cartography:

ChU'C1. chepe . O'.llllisric lerminology system: Posili~o pole. c U~ 519'. posItive c1.;.r~e. irerease.

A-'o,"_

Diree tion, ooieal consec ~enee. 'A2.scuh1e ,ender. """creo,%BI: ;:'osl , b~. Physics: Gra·.i:aUor a center, Cartography: Oceardc c.nrents. Runes: 8JI.

\"SUAL GRAMh;'~~1 COI'<CRETEI OlOJECTSi FORM

- .... 2 ':orlll~ cresentec he:e de some of the basic 963h.lts in \/'/esTern ideo,~r6phy (lu,:;(_.\·dirlg to Carl G, Liunqrnar (see his ccok SymboJer,. r'/Iillrr.:j: .A.ldebaran FC"'la~, 1990), Thcv are the basic sigr~.s man has ceated as co ... rplele legible entitles.

D

o

o

Square.

IvI2tAriali7.~tion, the Ear th, Meteorology: The ground. Cartography; Farm. Biology: He, Military: Soldier. Alchemy: Salt:

Household article: Stop,

Heart.

leon tor the pl~'lsical heart. l.ove, III love, ldeoqrarr tor I avatory.

29

VISU,\I. GRAMMARI CONCRETE I OBJI!CTS SIZE

30

l'his recta l[JI~ is T1c!", of a spresc n th S nook.

VISUAL GRAI',.jI_.tMl CONCRET!;;rOBJIOCTSiSIZE

31

VI$UAL GRAMMA'RI GONeRaTEI 0 SJeCTSI COLOR

Color. Colors are different wavelengths of li.ght. Concrete objects and the materials of which they are made reflect only part of the light spectrum and therefore appear as if they have color.

Hue refers 10 the w!loolengthof tho color a~d is separate from its inl'ensily' 01 saturation. Saturated hues aee these we areaccustomed 10, seeing in Ihe chrernatlc Circle, This book is printedir, two colors, but onlycnc h~e,. namoly, red. Black, gray. and white are celers without hlle.

TOM describes a coIQ('slightneS$fdaikness. The 1000. also called the &hade, is the color'seonterrt or blae!<.

SaMatiorl describes tile .elative ratio of ti'e colo's hue and white content. A colo, with little sateration conl.oios a aloe

amount 01 while. . -

·T~e sever -dnds of color contrasts are :he 'o '()Wing: 1. CorUa$t 0" h~e '2. L.9hl·g·ar~ cor-tras; 3. Co z-vr. .. rm CO":·al· <I. C.,mc eme":ary cortrast 5. Sir.cu W!cous ccot-ast €. Corl,ut::li Silt~ratior 7. Coriras, 0' ext'i!1sion:

Johi~rcs 1Ii,,1, Tile A.I of COIOf (Ne'I" YOlk: Rci~to'c P~b'iS~iI"9 Co·:oraiic "1,'967).

VISI,JAL GRAMMARI CONCA E1E' 06.JECTSI CO~OR

Pofe: white:

!ely wllite light

,: $s(ural ad and pu re

"0 u-idersta-id ,ne hue, shaca. BFa Saturation of cetors, ;IM2;1\G Ihem as \I~e CMtcnl arc' surtacec! a sp'iere where

'he Nor II' r-ole 's cG"'pleiely whil e ano tI~e South PO'e eel:' 010161) black, ihe co",pleie:y ,al'Urflted and pL're hues are .ccalec along ;'1(: equator. If ::)01.) mC~GS in ,awards tile teNer or ~'e $oiele.lI-e co O'S W II become less satu-aied and ~'"ad~ a'ly ae re~'ac~d by "ruy s~e':e$. O~ l~c surface ot !~ e S{li,:~er" 'Ic"';,so'ler'e tl1erea,e CQm~'eTe\jI ",,:~';;\ed cetcrs w ~1 ""ryin9 black cO,,",.,I1:. (See 31$:) I~wn, The All oi Colo,.)

33

VISUAl G RAM MARl CO NCRHEI STRUCTU RES

Concrete Structures. A structure is concrete when its structure lines are visible or actively influence the form of the objects in the structure. In contrast to abstract structures, which only indirectly indicate how objects are positioned, concrete structures are visual compositions in themselves.

34

VISUA~ GRAMMARI CONCREl'EI SlRUCTVRESI VIS leu

Visible Structures. A visible structure is a structure

,', t visible structure lines .. A visible structure can consist -::: structure lines and objects or of structure lines only.

Active Structures. A structure is active when the

str cture lines influence the form of the objects in the

Si. ucture. A structure need not be visible to be active.

VIS UAI. C; RAM MARl CONCR EiEI STI'\U CTU R~SI TEXTURE

Texture. A texture is a structure than can be seen and/ or felt. The texture can consist of structure lines and/or objects. Texture exists in materials and can be created through inscription and application,

@ @ @ ••.• - •. -t-,
, ,
.-.~+-.-
: I I I
, '''+-';-""f
........._
FQrmal
@ @ @ - ... --1"""\.
I ! '.
H-1~
.
I \ •
~I
iA-'
1 .. ,form.a,1
tiD 00 00 -r'.'-'
. i I
&-+-.-+
I I \ I
~-- .... - ..
- . ::t:.--.
- .--
GradaliQn
g) 9) g) ;.~
. "
'. .' I
- .... :'
, _.J
RadLilitic"
(e) (e) (e) 0\
+ .,~
\..._.
\"
Spiral VlSUA~ GRAW.iARICONCRETcl STRUCTURESI TEXTURE

Textures can have an ornamental, random, or mechanical design. The system of textures is the same as for abstract structures: formal, informal, gradation, radiation, and spiral.

· . , •••• , ...

• •

" .. \. •••• ••••

--

.I. ~ ••••

• •••

. ......

. ., ,

· .... ... ,

, • I'

. .... .. " . .. ,

-.'

· . "

• •••

• ••• \ .. ,

..

•• ••• • •

, .



· -t.



. ...

••

37

VISUAl G RAMMARI ACTIVITI lOS

•• •• I •• .e e
,
Rfifm9 '110 :.~ ~
40 40 Frequency 40 Rylr-rr Form •• ~

<10 51z

fill fill ••
<$ ~O
40 Oirectior 40 Te)!f'ure
O;---~\ 4~
, • I I :
; i <z:
4{o \~i_O~ .. __ / L5 Rolet on around
Own Axis 40 Color

_I





42 Mirr(lfi'lg

49 Suoe/ordinatel Subordinate Movemer1

36



43 Mirroring against a Vol'um

48 Movemem

,

50 O,isplacement

4g Directior

SO~Of

OisplacelT,en1

VISUAL GRAMMAR I ACTIV ITI ES

Activities. Visual reproductions are static*. What can be perceived as an activity, is a static representation or a sequence that creates an illusion of activity.

'Kinetic art-art that uses analog movement as an instrument-is the only genre within pictorial and visual art where the illusion 01 movement is not created with sequences 01 pictures or static representations. Film consists ot still images shown in a series at a high frequency.

·~'~--H.+er@ between '"e tuturists' cynarn c rncvement and Ducilamp's diagr,\mmaiic: concept of mcve nent lies ::ll1es' '~/otiGf1llne_" Scott McCloud, Understanding Comics (New York: Paradox Press. 1993), '110,

39

VISUAL. GRAMMARI ACTIVITIESI REPETITION

Repetition. When several objects with a single shared characteristic are arranged in a cornposition, the object has been repeated, even if other characteristics of the objects are different. When a multitude of objects has one particular feature in common, such as form or size, this repetition is called form repetition or size repetition, respectively. When the repeated objects have more

than one feature in common, the most dominant common feature is selected to describe the repetiti 0 n.

Frequency/Rhythm. When the distance between the repeated objects is identical, the repetition has an even frequency. When the distance between the objeots varies between several given frequencies, the repetition has a rhythm.

Eve,lr"quer:y

-

-

.. - -

.. -

40

Form

Size

Color

Direction

Texture

VISUAL GRAMlvlARI ACTIVITI ESI REPETm ON





41

VISU-\L (>'RAMMAHIA:CTIVITI ~Sl MIRRO RING

Mirroring. When light waves emanating from an object are reflected on a surface, the object has been mirrored, The light waves are reflected off the surface at the same angle they fall onto it The physical object is symmetrical.ly rendered on an axis.

'A ~'irr:>r doesr't reflect :"'gs\he wt·or" wa1·o~rd. U rellects whal i$ m .... eo aleY h treat of ~ .. Alan Fletcher, TIlo Au 01 Looking Sideways (Lon(lor.: P,aio;lor e 'us. 20e.), 229.

VISUAL GRAI~MARI ACTIVITIESI M IRRO RING

Mirroring against a Volume. When the surface on which something is reflected has several different angles, it can be defined as a volume or as part of a volume. A volume that mirrors another object distorts the mirror image because the light that meets the surface is reflected at different angles.

43

here ~'lC ",tatlo~ loll<)",~ the rnoverne-it cl the SJn ~~ti lh(, clock (clnckw se). Til S is alsn I h~ drscvon lor sc't!wi 19 ;,1 (j screw ~r fu~ninQ orr 6 :_;",Niicr,

VISUAl ail~AMMAR ACTIVITIESI ROTATION

When an object moves around a point or an axis, it rotates. The shape of the path along which a rotating object moves can be either circular or elliptic.

The rot"ti19 object

44

,

VISUAL GRAMMAR' ACT1VITIES ROTATION

If the rotating object faces the rotation point with the same side at all times,

the object will have rotated around it"elf after one revolution.

The distance lrtim the center to the object's rotation path is called the pendulum. This distance is the radius of a circle.

The rotation poinl is the center ot a circle. ln case of an elliptical movement

I he lenqth of the pendulum will vary.

The rotation point can also be inside the object. if the objecl rotates around its own axis, This is also r~t@rred to as a revolving object.

45

VISUAL GRAMMAR ACTIVITIESI UPSCALI N G/DOWNSCALI NO

U pscalingl Downscal i ng. Objects are enlarged or scaled down along the x-axis and the y-axis. These directions are called horizontal and vertical, or level and perpendicular. When an object is enlarged or scaled down proportionately, the width-to-height

ratio will remain constant.

VISUAL c> RAMMARI ACTIVITI ES MOVEM ENT

Movement. True movement (without sequences or steps) is only found in the real world. Movement within a visual composition is only a representation of movement. The positioning of an object can suggest forces that have influenced or will influence it and move it.

, ' Movement path

Path. An object in constant movement will travel along an imagined line. This line is called a path. The path can be straight or have the form of an arc.

AS

VISUAL GRB,W..IARI ACTIVIT es DIRe.CTlON

o rsct on oi movsm,mt

----------.

Direction. The direction of a movement can be defined by the line that leads from the starting point of the movement to its presumed endpoint.

Superordinate and Subordinate Movement. An

\

\ \

object can rotate) swing, or move forward and backward, while

still experiencing a superordinate movement along one path.

49

VIS UAL GRAM MAR ACTIVITIESI DISPLACEM ENT

Displacement, When only parts of an object move) a displacement of the form takes place. Displacement is

defined by an angle. Angle 01 di$~lace"'enl

Oi 'cellon and "9~e 01 <:I splacemenl

Direction of Displaceme points or lines of an

ove in a specific direction.

VISUAL G RAM MARl ACTIVITIeSI DISPLACEM ENT

51

V SUAl GRAVMARI RELATIONS

•• •• ••
55 Al'ra::lionl So Syrrrrelr{,' 57 6alarce 56 Gro\..ps
Sate ASyl'rrre ry
tIJ .:.
••
63 Pos tor .ce/

Weg,1 75 lranspare,1/ Opaque

••

70171 Coo'dlnalorl 72 Parallel Distance

..

76 langenl

,

76/79 Overla:lo;ng/ 80/61 Suet-actlcn/

Ccmpeorc Coir odence

73 Angle

I

~

84 Influcrcc

S2/S3 ~~"'etratio'/ Ext'USlor

85 MoeHl catlcn

52

Re:lations. Visual objects in a composition relate to the viewer, the format, and other elements within the composition.

"\Ilhoug~ tOIS (Pod dis: $; Is ccrr ~1"!,,,ly ...,:;lio1Ioss en :a sheet 0' paPCI. te(~es are work 19 <)~ t. The cojec, is eraw~ :o.".,.ro:l the marg;~s ,,' t~e pa.ge. The 'Ilar:; ns lecatee c oscst (Q :~e ob. ,,::;1 ~ave 11'0 g-eat"sl mpj),e~ or ,. T -us ts also Ihi! case ie- o\hl),l!' o-or!s in, ne comoo5iiior. E erner .. :s I~a~ are cosest tc eac~ Q"ar h"·,.,, ;ne g,·ea:osl allr3clic ~ (lII~ral:l,i",! force) I~""ard eacn 5ther.

VISUAl. GRAM~,i,".R I REL''I ONS I ArrRACTION

54

Attraction. Objects that are grouped together in a composition will either attract or repel one another.

Static. The object on page 54 is balanced and not in movement. The influential forces are equally strong and offset each other.

In a stationary representation an activity is only suggested, Energetic or hvely compositions seem as if they have come 1:0 a halt Or are about to initiate movement, crec.ting an rllusion cfthe activily belore or after that moment. The composition on page 54, on the ether hand, is passive Or static, It is not the representatior of a stooped movement, Ai tile sa-ne ti rr e, even in a static C~Qm position there are forces at ',', .. .ork. Note that he object must be positioned slightly above the middle of the page for the enti re com position to be absolutely balanced. This is callec the cotical center,

58

V SJAL GR."'MM';.~ I RELi,TlQN$ I SYMMETRY/ASYMMETRY

\

'.

iris tigu"e is arranged

syrn - etrically ale 19 an axis.

\

\\~ymmetry/ Asymmetry. When objects are id arr.~nged on both sides of an axis, they are sym obje'~~ can be monosymm1etric or rnultlsymmetri is symh:~.~tric while the lay I ut of the spread'

.\ ..... \ 5

lIy trical. An . This page

4

3

..... - ........ ~- ........ ,." ... ..._,

_.// -nis"9u1e has fi,;e.:~~/"elry axes.

/

:I

/ ... /'

Balance. A composition is balanced when all elements have optical equilibrium. Balance can be created between objects that have the same form but different positions, or between objects that have contrasting forms. Without this interaction between elements, a composition is static and not dynamic.

Think 0';' '(his: t ... <vo-pflge layout as a comcosnlon to be balanced. The lett arc! righl pages can 8@ compared to tr e arms of a scale on each side of the gu11.,r, ,,,hieh ads as the tipp n8 coint. He black disc on he page offsets all he Objects on :he opposite page due tc its larger size and the tact that it is located further out on tte arm and thus has I~rea,,:er optical INeight. In addition, there s ("'lOre text on this page than or the opposite page, v· ... hrch furtt er helps create balance.

57

VISUi\~ G~AMMARIRI LATIO~SIGROUPS

.,.,;;..u~~:.g When objects are repeated in a composition, they form a group. or a unit. When several units are put together. super-units are created. Groups can be named after the form of their underlying structures.

Lrnear 9'O~P. Ob. ects that are repcatee along a l.ne f",," " linear Jrif_

T,,(: objects 'I" ;j structure ce-ipesed 01 polygons as ,n the model to I~e left. whie, is f<l,med of III<I"9Ic5. are made up 01 tria~8ular units, The objects and the vis1O'e structure lines ir this group c-cate a :edure.

59

\lISU,\L GRAVM;'.R I RELATIONS I GROUPS

Triang ular gr:;>u:;>. Ocjects that are repealed i 1 a tr anqular structure loren a tr.anqula! W 1it.

Rhombic grow p. Ob: eels tbat are repeated in a. rhombic structure form a rrc'mbic ur-i I.

Circular group. The KOlill at wh.ch a unit is seen as an eqi.llatera ;lol/gon instead of a Circle is a question of dst-ru: on, A pulygor 'nust have more than tou r sides ir Or der 10 ce confused witI' a circle, A unit can also ne based on parts of a [i(rle; curved Ii nes are a par; of a circular form. Is the above grou p a seven-sided u rut or a circle-based group?

'·iISUIlL G~AI'A MAP I REL.ATIC\S I 1'1 N E/COARSE

This structure is coarser than.

..ee

;

-j----. --.-re

-------_ ;---r-----.-----

Fine/Coarse. The fineness or coarseness of a structure is determined by the distance between the structure lines. It I,S also relative to the distance of the viewer to the structure.

"". this S-" .icture. These i"NO structu-os a'~

equally saturater aut they neve dii'erel-t ceorees 0' Ii neness/coarserieS5.

60

VISIJA~ G'!i\Mbt».R I REI.ATIC\$ I AnR,/tCnON

•• • •

••• • •• •• ••• ••••• •••

~ .

•••••••••• ••••••• ••• .•• ~ •••• eee e.· •••••

• • •••• e eeee •••••. •• • •• eeee e e e ••• •••• e e eeee _ •• : •• ..• •• _ eeeee ee e •••. : ••.••• e eeee e _.. . . ..... •••••••• ~ .... ••••• ~.eee ••..••••• ••• ••••• • e •••••••

•••••••••• • ••• ••••

..... .• ' .

. ..... ...•• . ..••.•... '. • • ••• •••• •

....... : .

. . :~.: .. : .....•....

T hI'! clegree o I as:' JC lure( s salu -z: on as we I as i I s coa r SCOl'1s$ can v .. ry.

T,e coa-seness ":); 3 dispersed field of object3 is oSTIe'ln ~cd by: ~c size c! ,I'e <::Ojec:.s .'l te!aho,", to :,e ~,ewcr. lis cecree 0' sa1Jraho, ~e~end5 01 the dis:a,ee b e :-,~een the objects.

Diffusion. An irregular dispersion of objects in a cornposition is called diffusion. The structure can gradually shift from being fine to coarse, and from sparsely to highly saturated.

61

Direction. A structure can actively define a direction,

62

++ ++

Position. A group of objects can define a ositio layout, such as a corner, an edge, a center, l' an a

enter.

63

'/ISUA. GI~"MMA I RELATIO\'S I SPACE

Space. A composition dan have tense and open areas and in this manner create white~pace in he layout. The placement of objects in the str cture can reinforce this impression.

Weight~ ThroUgl. conSCi~us use of the upper and pwer Freas of r format!lhe designer can play with associftions of how we experience the world, allu mg to t e earth and the sky. The composition can create t e illusion of something being ligrt or heavy, of so ething that flies, or something

thai lIowf· I I

V SU!"IL 3RMAIIi\R I r,ELr,iIOI~S I AMOUNT/DOMINANCE

with many objects and large number of obje dominant.

66

compositibn can h with few objects.re not necessarily the m

\'lSL'F.~ G ~AI·.·I "'IAF REU·TIC,\$ I AfI/IOU NT IDOMI NANCE

£7

Neutral.

68

Backqround/Fore ived

FOREGROUND

, allv small t), 6, I\'lathem . s saturated). 8, r~-"'w·""n.' 0,1 the cepth axis). g. Mou '; for bild@f(0510: ,u.bstrak: fe,flag. 20(2)\ 3~ ..

VISUAL G RAMMARI RELATIONSI COOROI NATION

Coordination. Objects are coordinated, if their coordinates have the same value) the same focus, and are perceived from the same perspective.

RiO fig .nes above are per\;ei.ed lOS coordinated " .. Hie ;1C fi9"((!S below are' rot. Re O~ti0~, eLM 0' tim t"'o';1 usteat,ions te.ow s perceived as be.i,ng' closer :i~ space than, the vpper, WMI1 cojcc~s are .'eee no perspecttve, the elemen,~ ctosest tc "he v e'",'e' ,is ~;;ueH, plae,ed low ,'> ~'c;;'om:;osi,tior'l,

The.e : v .'0 oajec!>: are experic/"ced as be'n9 close to each othel.

70

Distance. The distance perceived between two objects can vary according to the viewer's perspective. Two figures that are perceived as being close to each other can, when seen in another format, be experienced as being remote. Closeness and remoteness are relative.

The two objects on th is page are experienced as being positioned fa' from each other, Relaiively speakinq, they are eq ually

dis:ani from each other as the two objects at the bottom of page 7Q,

71

VISUAL GRAMMARI RELATlOI~S; PARALLI:L

Two lines are parallel when they lie on the same plane and are at an equal distance from each other at all times. Regardless of how long they are, they will never intersect.

72

caject can only be situated at an ang Ie to sorrethinp else, f it has a directior-. Ths dlrec lion is nefrned by foe most Important axis in the oojecr's s lructu-

ra~ ske.etor (See sir uctural skeleton or pagE 2L.) A circle, ~c'" ins:ance. has no directro-i, a1 elhcsls. or the other hand, does.

VISUAL GRAMMARll'lElATIONSIANGLE

" acute angle is less :.'1ar go'.

11 cot",,,, B ngle is 9",,,ater than go'.

, ng ht angle is go',

A form s callec cos;t;,e Of negative ,j it's tone

i; is set on is negative. A positive 10'1"1 is extroverted ned outward)

is 1egatiye. Ii something IS extruded Irom a form. tre ori9 nallorm is

Text the:;s lighter an rna bac<gfOllne vex, A form th an be idled with a liqi, id i ive. while the new iorm IS negatiye.

74

Transpar e. A transpar

see-through. Light shines through it so that other elements behind it become visible. An opaque object is visually impermeable and prevents light from shining through.

75

VISU"L a RAMMAR. RELATI 0 NSI TANGENT

Tangent. When two ob· - cts are located next to each other and share one comma point, they are called tangents.

/

,

7'5

\IISUAL GRAMMARI RELATIONS TANGENT

------

---------- .. _----------------

.. ~ ..

',_

"""'''~, -,

-,

-----,

77

VISUAL GRAMMAR RELATIONSIOVERLAPPIN(l

Overlapping. When parts of an object lie above parts of another object, the first object overlaps the second one.

18

VISUAL GRAMMARI RELATIONSI COMPOUND

Compound. When two objects overlap each other and visually appear to be one object, the form is called a compound form.

79

VISW,l- GRAMMAR! REl-ATIONSI SUBTRACTION

Subtraction. When the part of an object that overlaps another one is deducted from the underlying object, a subtraction has taken place.

80

VISUAL GRAMMAR RELATIO S COl NCIDENCE

Coincidence. When two objects have the same form and size and are situated directly above one another) so that from above they appear to be one form, they coincide.

I

I

r f

I

I

I I

VISUAL GRAMMARI FleLATIONSI PENETRATION

Penetration. When one object is pushed through another, larger object, a penetration has occurred.

T'IC ~ylhdol' ~as creai~d a hole in the quadratic disc bl' ponetraling it WheU'er 01' no: lbe-e was a 10le in the esc oreviousl}' make. Hlle dit'<3rel·ce.

62

VISUAl GRAMMARI RiOlAiiONSI EXTRUSION

Extrusion. The process of forcing a material through

an opening in an object so that the form of the opening influences the form of the material is called extruding a profile.

If we press a rnatenal ~~IO"2~ the '1010 :1at we ne-ietra'cd on lhe previous Nge. lhe -esolt wilJ 09 a cisc 0' a c1 ir::i~·. depend Ilg Q" "e 3"1"0" 11 of m5.I~Jial.i>·'as5'ed tnl:;lusll. ""10 ~'olila aCGJ;-'~9 Ihe I:WTI oi 11le CI~e~,n;! is called me extrudale,

83

VISUAl GRAMMA'f<1 ,RE"ATIONSIINHUENCE

Influence. When an object has changed its form because of another object, it has been influenced. Objects can also mutually influence each other.

Mutw@1 iniluence

VISUAL GRAMMMI RELATIONSI MOOI,~ICATION

Modification. When an object has been slightly altered, it has been modified. A modification does not change the basic characteristics of an object.

1f.ISU~'i.GRAII1M~1<1 REi.AiIONS VARIATIO N

Variation. Repetitions with varying and minor alterations (modifications) can be called a variation.

96

VISUAL GRAMMARI RELATIONS VARIATION

07

Glossary

VISUAL GRAMMARI GLOSSARY

.A.btrot1\;ililil 0"'1 Ab$iraoliM

~nlU:ile MII'Omali, A~liM

I\C!i v ~/

Aeut •• ogl. Ai1~]r~::i::i Al:!lt~r~li;,:s An'! ~i~1~ ~'ty ;\motJnt

.<\, •• ,,,£ I,.n.iikln

A'g'"

A'n··lg, !\1i"t.271.!d

J.o:l'h:otiM "",*,

!O.rc f~~ymmel'i: ,'\tIra.c::o'" ..... 4,:(i'J1~cner:~ ;: 6~CiK~ I'OU 1":t1 6nl~I·,ce

~~'NM ~rghlr1CSS C~nt'e· C!onl,iluga Cgnl('I'~lal 0\.')1'11 Ou~~,hc Cir(:,e

eire e ;te lIT'S

De:;-k:lk-.n ::.i ar c-b1ed see- in ::-e"Spe::t ve. P:J1S :;.1 Ule Clip!(.": I e :l'I.ri_sid~ ()~ it c c:)t'I'I'PC~ ~'Cr- •

II!!;I -eel. flo:>: r5p",,,,,n1i-g sc ,,;.'";-9 i- lh • """ d U.';. ers all·r"llined. U,:Ie,}j ng ""'-'::eres Ihal delemliM Ih~ d"*it<n 01 ~-e·ythifl::J ::J::JI.J..-d us,

j~ s:~.ss$.. ErI::JIa5ize.. !~'t~dl ng rnpcflarl\:1I! to .J'JlO part (ij tl v.·hOle. (C':.r; set of OO'f)lS~ cc rr.p-rsed :If f:.r,ay 10'1\113$.

'~roC'-es.:; nf c f) ng Ih ~rl-::l:::'

In a stattc representation. activity is sugge:ii~o:":'~J, EI~el'i1ei,e;: ~r I .... el, p051!~ and r<tylltls ha'.'oZ! s-cpced or will iriti!3iG-;:'.i Il"ICV~· men l ar d are a rc :XG!S en la lion ;.j I the irlcti'J '7;/ b:".!f ore l.I.' .9.i l(::t I t- I i~ til om !!lilt.

An acu le .:int; Ie is lc ss tha --; 80 :j~gt e~:!:i.

Ir.d c~ti(}l~ 01 locelily The acd-ess C;,i": ba ex:,,:.re:ei~I!:'!: ae (;OL"J'~i"'Flt·(;':) :,J.' oer~re~~ :Jf IOI1;j a.de a-a latilude, Te;a,::o:hinqs ;:;I!')ClJt +e perceptlole rc;]lm

Eql.,,! lvocal U, ::;:1«8.1'. (.1::;'$·;; J re.

$t:rn;:lrlb;:J meesuraclc; .siler "'~!2ig'it~ numt::e'. SMwlh t-e-rs fcr.

Ox-n ng aelseee- bee st-alq-: hl~rse::.t ~ l-es.

{ry:;a ~~T:} deler-med iJ.! slr:ti::J1~ .r~~ and :J.1~et: y.,t1 c:c~,e.."S.

QrnaTo:f:"'I:ati::!ln. r:..~,~~.~,:: to 3;. ba,s.r;. :...f. :.!:, atrAt"l,

Pone' &cfde.

Not ~ymmf1.-;:::.. U~e-...-.en r ;;:;:i50~ril::~ mel eloog an axis.

Cbj;;::c.:5 ocsmoncd i~ ee a·~rr~ p'0X4m ~i b r:2dl :y. ... C' \<"..;1 alW3"fS elt"'l6- at:ra:-:i .;Y..-e:>e ore unot- er, Irnasi"e~ fine, L ne in a ~ysl.em 01 ccwd~nale::5.

R~,ooIJ::h:::m ir a ri£iht-.an;J cc ccord nate -syst'i!lIt, A pr.(:sr:~:1',113 w I!ho;,:~ 'j, -:af'j~nillg pc:;nt EI{;mf:i,1 S :i II a C'.)i:rI,pD5 :11:: 1, whcsc f1 Jt"lCti"Or"l 1t 'Si to·e r.n':;'IlC~ ~ jo.,~ n1(",-s1 im~r:.6tr.t o ejects,

'Equilibriurfl :)('!t';,'een elen.e-res. A :it~r.:ility 9.11d LIh!."qUllity a::hie'Y·~I~ l~y~" s.,~II~" pes :iQrirg objects ~vith diff(:!l.::nl wei3-~·s. il"l !i'J:1'1 a '(r,f:j)/ -t-at ihey cala-ce each ml~l:r, !3aI81\r'~Ii!II::: 1!4 l/i~~lal te.,s or 11~~1 'N:";I~k$ aga:n::.: nne with .:l:ii v it,,_

O'i'h]:na s-r.rct ... rc.

r~ni$ical er·,!ity' or structure.

FQ;;)'IQ5S .: ,;,' rJ ccnfice-rce, er-ect. \,Vitl, ~,,:e irllerlt of -="~Ilt ne ....... pti.,·~1 ')is bdi(" C I" f\.'ed, ben t, sp r·e ri :::.::::.1,

The- col or's pt'.I.~iticn :1:) :;. scale ci ' ....... ., ite to hliJCk, "-h!9 :Orv=- c f ~ color.

I\'k:tr.e pc.nt, ~ 1rn~M:}hc anc vpla c.er,tr.r. Pc1nllo,,",.aIe<l: al Ihe c·e1'to!r ofa fo'ma:.

Tt:e I '..lo":"'itil -e cs ~w·:1""i t-o-r a center.

Tta~ ~;_'''lidl tends ~oC'-;":rr;j a ccnte-,

Sl~i nne bel-""",n I''''' prot< on a oeipll~ (Of a set cf :::=Ji::J{SJ" ~;:-"'; a h ... ed sttuch."'C.

eu:"';o.;.-::j: 11:'.":8 w-e-e <:H ~ 1:"I\s tIa"~.!!!! til>! !:fJTI! ':ls.wr.a:"Of"'I:.a, g1teilit '~,ht{G~.r'ltC't~_ Ar...; f""ai1 ~t liE ,eke j mte-crcc ~t a ,a"d!".

0: ...... eter- S;ralt;hl li-te Ihl""l;h lh~ <.onte· I-cln one .id~ 0; ~t e circle 10 the ov.er. Chore: S1r:.~..,.. ire bebveer iWoC p3rl~!;; :)tI ~"e pe' phet)',

F",i:;h;erj' Lengih a""rd Ih~ wier ed.,. or Ih~ Qf()Ie,

r" Ralio belwee- the FoOf""'Y a,,~ the dl'TCI.~' (~!>l,,(),.male y 3.1~ 159). Raej ,):5:: Distance trcm th~ :!::".":'n'0i3f -:)'1 lM, Ci1 c ·e to +e pef"if) iCfy',

Seg rnervt: Pa-t of t:1 e c ir cle 'b~"':we~1'"I :iI chol~::: C\1\cl the ·;.eri p"hery,

S~C tor: Pa 1 ct t-i ~ c ircl€- between by::) r.;'Jc·1 i,

99

'/ISUAL GRAM MARl GLOSSARY

C Oi:!~ C(H';'I'~r. (";~,t":':ldr:;I"Ir.'ii'

("',..(JMt~I"a~ ~" o.~I·'Inlunlc:al!iln O:~I ~If.= ~'r:~" ~i;!?" U:""Il'l< ("A~fi-s.~I~n \..(;f'ip.."aI"''Ci a:r<""" O~~'t!t':~'1I::

Ccl"~ ~:,!:!111 ,,,,,"I~_' Ccr-:-::.-y~ Ct;I":"asl

C-t"'"A:!:'~~": ~I'I'";~"'"II:'I

C::-,'\l< (""(>;"Jf':I1";'j~r:

{.'"""

0......:

,D-,.~ 1D!:-="m3'1i;:!n 'D!I"'l!'a~!":= ~I·~~.'" L'!!pl"

o."","~* Do.~' DI'~"",,'" ll"l1:' ~!t4J1 c;ft ... !'.~ D-!TC-~~C" DI"!-::1t3fl

Di"" i)i~t.w:,: )i~!:":1"'.n~::)., J;!",~!l'-"'::r." Ji~:mr:l

L.~)I'nm (:.~ :I'~d l...:~lIIV_:'Ut Ii ~~tl o::je:::t,

l..:)t ~\t~d f'l. ~.I'\')I':' :':Ii:'"'; t~I'-:;,* Jl\'/~, ill ::rlll:!J 1.)[ )j p~1!~I;:.

1,J" rei i r: e1j, with I", '9 i.' t\~X~i, 1'11. i"Vf.i l"Ior, j'j. 0 PI,;fJ ~ ~"t I\J ( tillo!;.

W~i,,"~n ~\'iW ut;,,~.-.:t:.i ::i~tH' frr.:'i ..,. r;:.r..r,I:,i/': ,,1irll;t: 1.If-J IOt;;'!'IW:J -:.:illl:loc~ 'I i,j,t.'II,:. .... e O'll';!! ,jl"otI1¢.r,

~r I~W" tl~ttll~~I;::lI, Jtt!J\ C:.'II:.l r~ol~r!.i C~I,r'1 ~r. FlIi~.C'!(, flt~~t 'N:"" I:;,......., tltJrnl~I:II$I,t\,JI ~!:i, CI:~l'.'IIn, ~~f:r:l'::'.l,

Hue ~~~'''I~'~'<'j·l ~1~f~V:J~I·k C:.,'ltl~tlJ,.tl~t :::!i.)k:hl'iJ.r~ '::Orlm'.L:".t ~~~~.·Vr.l\::tr,cr:'iLry' ';":1.:.nlr~flJ.l, srru :Urle1.llJ~ • .:, ..... jnltM!, '_':;:f:hJ'lIti.o~"I: ::,oflk::;::~, ~ t·~":'I'I!,I~":.1"'1 eo."tr:9.~ I-

H~. C I":;~,cnt li:J"" i w .. W(I:3 fWr::~plilJlt'! 1.cJ t'UrlWI:'t.,;, ~M 'l,!)f nr, ~ mM ~ ~ :ir ~') mll~;::t;:)"l' Ir:>" tr ::;1..' t,:.i..ij~(~ ·.r..:.t,. CO O~ pi9"1'1 C,o;-:_\ ~t ~C(ZLJ~,.(:- il"!l.":; Ilflhl h~S b!J{ln ~11t.."'I~~1 t:"1I.;,)~I\I~' ~\ oCQ!o'fld g~:!'. -!'.Ir !'i.I1:':lrlirlfl:""t.": ~1"'P::J boc(,:II'L'.;' (.:v t;1~~t r.~;1. Dt-i Md rvj ~"'rl":\":; "~~u",!h C q. ... 1" :d!\'::!Ii: f1Ut11CO. ;B~lut:.iiliQ ... "tu vJ :Qfl~.

CC .... 'lDc6:)t1 ~.m~~1·~~~COr., iu -a- or.:nnni -:l :"It-tr<:fAlI !~i"'''l~ .'1 :::c. i:I!!'JllJl :.111:". E~'~""!'J'l 01 '"""""lW' "~tw.." Q ,e-<I<l, MI: , "'''', '1(0",

S JP';C1e"i"a .... -:...l!')t 1..1 m~"'(nOl :e f,O-'f'i":t 'J1 :;Qk'lf~ : •• ~ ~ 91,"Je en l"i"p"';:~='.~:"JI" :"If \'~~-¢ ~.'johe"" :.ltr,..t.,."r:;:I ".IE:': -nIh-!- ~te :!'i .,.. • .If.;,.,~;. ,,"'itf. C(,::·r~ ~d of !:('N·<.:ml r. ':=1·':="'1;-::- ~,·"'d -oQl·:.":v.='. "i~ J~I~"j ntti-:;at¢ 1\ :i:il. :tcno th..,t :"~ :,:i~f t:! lit te <.I "::.l:31rl, ::,'It IJ '·d>1::t~~a.

M'.<.! .. '~ .. ~.M.:~'la:o-. cr9-,,-I: rr. (hff:"lrr:."~ ~.L~! ~Jt1"~~.Ih": j..'~JI';':' vA' • .:JI~.

1.'\11'20 -:-,.-,a 00. ei;h: h:tl!3 a co t""1'!W,:r, (. r.:~;r'r.I-"v:~C+

':-.u-i'(.:d-of t;)'. ... ~J 1""U:.u:.:. :':C'I;',~.::Ii-~-ad ('J:)p.'jI(, ~(Io~ ~~~t:J: A «f~ 4".iI:·~ ~ IP;I!t';i :-.u.n ,!f.;Q." 1;:I,1t 'L tJ ~ ... ~~ 1'Il'r.:)"I" t~,,, :et.

;.. I;u<TP;::$- ~·C" ~:::a'l"lI'~7M t.-f t.n.f"(I'rl:::~1)1: 4i'.I"t.~" ~1\l'~lli::r~~ 1..:~:"!":a..nll~,i"·9 f:1S1."·g ..... b"'C~c .. ·cn.~· ....... ;)o;.s.,

0 .. ~ i" e III~ i··1e: l·IJ: ~'1: e~!'# "lh~ rt~ -r ,

Th~ ';;~I~:"!' Oilloq,w ~I 'I F.r..'1· l:''ilitn.".:J u~~ t;J;;e ~d d I::";\": ........ : il "I"I.I .. ··I\..Y-t t- d~'J;.w' :d"t;~ l'1;1~ sl.:i .... ~!::U! Ir' ~, n Liik',n-".1- ~f~~'11 "I:}:':I~ I"~ ~l·lI}I.:o: '''$ ~).i:'·ti!nl~::trc rrUt .. ~ i ..::e:.e"l~t":;~·· 1y=';~I'-:; :::onlt:a;U..::; ~'.l;ij :-r-ok&1" ,:;:::::r.,...,n .nh": ':f'r~,,:; M~i; t"!~1;. -:-.:.nJ'.:.(-r.r.~,11"(1-()O""\.

ITS::·e$~~:lfe~..-.:-"" O"t' .. nc:;: ':Jj .)i:l"1':t.1'~ t~:.t'')': ~~~,...!d p"·.:.I1.:I.~-'" Ih..~ :'. ........ 11::"'(:, }l'o!.Ii",..:r,.:,:: en It..;; d'=t;lh e.).1s., ~y.- -, ~~ (l'i t,..,.t:<J, 0_ -<f."r.rtt Ar..h~ I: .. t op~i~ ',J!, .r..~f'(';"Y'~ 1\ o:n-~ at'iifk: I;:" • .1""t~::;"(.;f 'r;::;., Is.:.~.

t-l' .. ~' (;;D.1 qJ!Ui'lltyl'!fio:=t:h 0: C~('I .. r.-.",:"\ tit ~~'" i,-~ ,J'~:I:'1I'·III'1 h~~ ll'~, X'"...:!I1krf" 0: ~ ee n.t,

~~~,:'1: .'., _'·;t'f"&:C- t:1!~'t'!fl. t ... ,::I~",;~ 1:. ~t.:.~ ~1'''.'":I rn.::- «fr~lJ .. tb t:l ··,f;!btan be~-e.en.lil~ F",-:;~ .r.. .. ~~lC~;,.'f(~ ~ 'S:.). \'qwr \" .... '$'C' S¢ .. ~~~ ,::~. f'~~·W~ ...

G""."" I~, 3'<1\ ,,,,,-4

.M:h~'~.'" Ig":,

~M ... t1~·~·· ·~·ll"llal~t! ;,:1 U~ .'~m.) fer -r , V .. "l ~:"loVi.y, ~"I

C.~~I·:'I. 01101'" IhM·' o,:.·!:::'t!ltLI·f..-';··~·./Jisl ;;,-;::1 j,I·tJ~., d"il' ~.II';;" :.!":':¥."(.~'I"I c=- ........ ..:r ..• ~: .r:.1-:",I~hl~ V.a~1i (:'&1 ~"i'.·LI"')I.": AI~ ;;';:;r'~'S 11; r:}'.,.J.~ ::'i,'I"~~~:)"'II UI~I:;)"Le'-""l:lCl:~:i,r:":;, i., ~ pi~lu·e~. ':i:o$I~·.

~"J' ... !.::t -; ~ ••• :rJ 11,.:1i'IC!l' ·Ih-=-·, :.:. ee 3:.. •• ~~~ ".."'fl91 UI't h!ll::) 0.: ~':!'.-::.cr.u·o!'f:. :=='Ph 1';1.0 lise l.J'f ~.l:I~~ ttj cclcr d!:p;h -:~

le-e ::'C:;;"' •... r.".I,. .... p.1~.r,;I'il.-: 1":.,.11 ·'1;: 1I!4\ ~~:...., tl W··(,,~ (::lh-=w~ CUI d!.C c:t::,.Q·:r:- Ih:: 111;;;i~:)1 e...,~~··.

:"""'i-i e .. s ..... If!, a co "I"pw.:i ~ (;1" '1h...11 \":~rt M ."I'l t II ~ I t"i.I..Il.~ II'~or~ " •• ii.1 10'~ tn:ll

AtlloDn. fH:U~:~"'. ard ","(;: ... :'1:. ::0"4"I!l;kpTle'~ M "' ... t.;f~.:':f~/::,:~:.j;:.:,) • IVI~'ll~lIl:' t1.:¢:I"~ns ~~ t/H,· n~fSt'I' :'I"'~ S,'~ gt., I'''''' I'M' ~", C;""'" I~ U .. ~,""",\. :-:'t\¢' .In ''''''''''-f,Io,

,:,~~,"",gl'! fM :.r,."t.: .. nr I hoi':' eer:» 'f~""i'I ~·'tl;t~·.r.,.:' .. ~ '.1.; c ~ :te :1\00',

~u at tJ~~~~:)l) of ~~ ikrr"..r.r~~~ ~ tnt.

F- ~ te- So 0"'" III ~ a:.: ~ w"d : I~~!. Sail!: ':T::';(~,

Oh-N,t~.i' & ~(.'lII.~:>U!il!l~:>'I' wi :,wlf,.-r.;.-tj(co~ ;w\M4·"f:"/.f.t(':.;;ro(\!e·ed.li'I:;r~:;ar.M 8 <~·C" v t\I..,t'lI1.1 n e.,·t:lfffl." .. !irA O~~~seal" SIlt,., ~!)::.oo :f'I'I :""'~ I '1-0' ~ •• 'v •• : , •• 1-(3 11~1IC1" 10 :)thr;. :l:"~:";"ij..:h:C:: ~CiC:1 ~ t .i·'·~ bl!tl·!·~ ~ ;V'6C~ Co"" _ A"I 0*='"1 :".r'.Ior. P)1.StI il'l::l~~ i ,dl~ .. 1;er, ~ I ~ •• e .l>.tu-~t,:. 1,,'; Itt:: cy, .... :;:.sn {M,IJ(:~I~ !"kr.- r,"'.:~.m1

it .. r. 1 r-~ r.rll": re ... ftd fl)tl:s;!.U !I~ ""II!;. dud IPPii;.I.,·:S 1:) =:lC' h .. rJ.,oi.":"I .... ,I'!: ... =1.lI".:rf)l, hi Q:,~::I (u Ilj.)1~ m (j~ • ·~t 1 i!C .!'V\'l'1.I :ttvr.~y I-·c·. ~!.:. ~ op!t plZirh~ S,. ",,";,,~, d'.I, i""lIoo',

SMJ(':t. I~~h\'et.:w· hw ::;..;)Inl~ or :L."t~:- ... Slfj;';il'll ~I ... (';h.'W~"i';·lhy. :"!4~.ur'~I.l,

Dls-ort C'i:::.:; b.rtoDorni,anl

Economfca

Edge [br:'16nl Endpcinl EI"I·i?_rn-e:lTlc:nt Ep sod c Eve-

Exlr cver ; btru·:::;:Jte Eyelevel Fine

Fe-mat

F,,,d,1

F,aSfTI~rlla·y Fra-r-a Frcctc-r

F re-qu-==nc:,' Ft.sicn

l3est:.lit (n)

Ge::ta:~ (,;) Glcsey

G 01 de f"' section

Gr8dali·:)n

Grar-m-a-

Gravity Grid

'~~(CI"IP Ha'f-to-ic Har.d-r ade

Har-rc-y

He:-::aqra:'ll H gr,li~~ht H·::.rizcr, H:,ri:;::c"f",t:;.1

l-Iyp6r"ul~

'.'1 SUAL GRAM MARl G WSSARY

;~ush: t,.vi::,~: or tW.1 ii:-::i\i.f. out. Appc -tion To e-r; drf ~ ~ ic •.

"an ::::.ularl~' p-orn nenl. r » (ekes its pre.:;er··ce -elt c ..... er that oi ethers.

--e8!ci'.i,',us 2JJ~~ulltle .nover-enl cf bod es .rnder the i- iluence o- e··e(sy, Creates ar.d reduces te-rs c- between oqects tr, a ·,;i sua I ·:::CI"I :)usi lion.

=ru;~r:.1 i ~ .::'0:: r:~ 01 ern oits tr, er-r pha si;re: :)'J(il/ an j si I' p :i·::: ~y. "ransttlon -rom one area to ancther. T~:::: (:·nc. nsu-c of an ohcct.

One c·i :';e units ::':':"lnlpri.:;if",g a CULnt :;.', Ccmpcne-:s contributinq to the creation oi a whole. "he eid o! (-I.I:n":'- (et-c-d).

A r2Vc·:::\di·:)n ~--:a~ is :8irr~er lha·' the c- qinal

(Of -r--cntton ·'Ni~~ fr8q:_.8~r;/' a rBr-s:~;tic," that varies: r8:::,elilion \'.'i~--: tr-eak::.

By -erncvlnp or ceereas n;~ the df(""!ct:-:: -r-nt can CrL:r-lTr:.: (:c:!-~ (r:.:;r:,:)(!cti·,,{:·, lirht.:'sr,a.:1(·:, tr;:Jnsq;::rl?n(:y}. c- e , .... ,:1 a-rive at sc meth ·ng thai apcea -s e ... -on

D'Jl"·i:::.r~ily oriented.

TI1-9 [(nil l:!'ouphl «tout Ly lo·cinS a male- iii :;·r:)Jgrl an coe :i·,} L:Rh: ~··!fJ·, ... es that 1'8e~ t;,8 sy.s at ~ r:[lhl ::.tn~l:e,

Ref I ed p...l re, th on: :, mal 1-] ';:)1 nc d. 0 opes :-:7 c": cca -s 8.

Strenq+. cower. e1ers:/.

A contour c- an object in a pla-te oef nes lts -orm. 1\1 tcr-r-s are def-ned by contccrs created by ntr-ttc --mhnatrons oi .s lr:iii; h l «r d curvec i- es.

1-18·';i·~!:1 ~o d·:) ·,· .. ilh ··'e ;orn Fer l8.i~·i'·9 :"'_., euler lcnr. 'n uccodance .vrth the lo-me. \'lilt:"·I:)ut conte-rt.

Th-e: cor-crete S~lr'cundil"':?S i., (I' upon ,.',':ich tie visua .=::i.::menls S lal! I;Jnc_I(::', This can be :'·e ~iZ.8 o- L; sheet oi pa.per or tnr, tyon of mcoum, ~l·'Nhid-, .si9~8.IS 8r:? lr2.n.Sf=:or:-sd.

l--equla- form that 1i8;:, cuts ~h: of the -och- \~ . ..: classtca ~~C()110::-\". Broken t.p, drvicec Into a. nuruoer oi parts. In pieces disjcir ted, ~;:,I: U3. I he -ite S'.lrrouildin(~ (-I. ··~)rr·I~-I.l.

A fe-rn +at is :-:Ii:f curt lc C;:J:2!:]~ViL:?: ~)'(~8.n c. R:-l~-C·. <rcq .• c-rt occuvcrcc.

\'\"" en tv .. :) or m ;)!f! U ~ tts jni'l ,-:""! T ako c: r.c.

Mathematic led-::'::lifl;j'::' about pC,i~31 Ir-es, surfaces, and :::;)lid~J and their mutua re!r1ticm::,:n noacc. Fique. shs:)e,

Tc f:-!I"II: P((:·:-:uce, ri',.:::=: ifl3 ~c.

(C~ the character of a surfecc) a :-::IJrT:-lC(! tna: rs .';:0 s,lIoct:, and shinv lhfJl cl:.tj2:C1S are re'I€~Je·:_:: n n,

P'opcrticn bet-veer, hV0 e-rqths v .. here the ratio c:.·'; the :,;11(!1-:0:-::t to t-o lc:rW·:-::t is the; :,::ll~':=:- as lhal c~ +e 10np~:s: ~.:) lhe

-vhc e, Ttl is r etic is 1.618. .

Gr2,d~l::d :':·~8JIJe. U.=;t:'j n reierence lc a tone or textu-e's i:l::.:reL.-:.:::i1g or cecreasinq saturation, or to ar \~.bir.c:i':' i(lC"r'::~s.i:~j or d:?'u:?asi~~1 size, e:~"e· lh:ollGh I-===Pi:::. .cr or by N;i:;' 0; persoective.

TC8.C~i~nS 81l:)ulU·I€ 2:~'~I:.j:,I:€ cl la"!~.p_.:~~t!~ : .: .e eler-ienls c::m~p·i~'ns; ~ and the rules ct :~e~r cc-obrrcnon "orcc o:::r:-l'.\",nq nl1.(""!(j:, :()'.v.:l~(.s ~ .. r:~ :";B"ntl.3f of the EArth.

:Vec:uie syste-r., skcfetcr, :C'.J2f..W:. Dividinq thf; (.c:mr:(;.sition intc nrna ler em.pes ~il~rs +at (1:?i2:nn n~ lhe des qn oi the objector the olacer-tent c- elements ir, the fer-r-et.

.Jnit made -P :..;II eler-ienls pes.', o-red together G" \· .. ith a shared c'iarac-erts-c ;:,0 they are :-l:-:::;c:·:-:-iat(!(1 ~\'itr, one ;:Jn~;.thGr. -t.. r~ n t .. f:: X;:)·~I l:)n-e SC2.!I2!, be lv.eer I h eck ar d 'i,f II te.

Dt-e-tly nftucrccc by ,IJ1:Cln han:i:;:.

whe- several ee-ne-r.s are f~ .. : ~\!w;~r:(""!r :-:-r0r:.iin] a :-::t;:)f\: of ;)r~l::ln(:~~. Con-rast is 8 fC~CG il~ cp:::·~):JiliGn lc hal·ro··:i, bet conlrasl a-d harncny .,·,i I '-"'.I,,· .. ~>:s Lnction tcqet-rer. A harmcr.y r-an to TI.lI; oi r::1"l~';:)~t:, :-1nc. ~~n:"'-'as~s .::::I.I~ be ha'nl~~'1iGl_.s_

R-ec.il·no&ar li~liJl:=: deli-r.ilec by si;( .:;ide.:;,

The li8ht(~s:~ p8~l cJ ;:: ·~;::IH(:-I',e j: i..~oIi_:r r~ c::...re,

L n0 '.vr:CfC triG sk"~' 81"1<1 carth ·:)r sU'face (:1 the OCe&i;l r·l~el. L rl t 01 kn(_.' ... ·.,I~clSlti o· \:i5i':..:'n~ vi.::.t:i. L-::vel. Cpp:Jsite ;)f '~."7::r. cd (~!(""!f:::r.:(lji:-:-I!lar).

91

\lIS UALO'RAM'MARI GLOSSARY

1:i!i'JI'~'c~1 In$"l;t,~I~'C

ir'ct.urmc.J.turn I··IJJ~O~~

1 ... I:,,'III"n l"SClio: cIi"It~'.'j_ecti.;Jor, n'trO'iffi'~ Ir~t!t ~lt.h.l 1~·ltC:".:

K ... \l=' Lal;l. Li£lOl LI.,r,:

l~ar M<I.;;<ily V:ahl:( Vn~

~b-:)mi Mi"'o' rla~~ M,.j.l M;.:Ilioalioo Mod •• '" t-."'~'Tc··~

'C£~l"~P lc-r '\c._t .. ~

010,.,."

Cb!,~n or",',,", Cnt· .... dn\oefi~lf\t)! Opaque

0",...,

0'9"

Q- ... a

(h",'ap

Par.ah::

i~~'1 PO'I"", Pc"" F'i:rd,l,m p".-~~~,,, R:: '""9" r

Ali kn, Or"lt!' ~'; d th 0 samo, t.'Cj\ II'M 8'~ ~ (;;,:.. 1'0:: re. '.',1 li:r'CL. ~ se ~I"'; ty.

E!"~k ~ ',~I"~ IIo:V"i)Iln '46(> """ ':;00.

1'0 (~"g'!!" enc ;tiing ~tlt(l ... 91· IIw IO'ce Of QCW'~' 01 :;ro.~u::hjt·9 1I!!::It).

\!.":t o:1pp i~ Ill':'; to ~n., Tha· \'jI"llch <;IJ+.I!~ ntlt pt'C~c""tC'; 'o~m. Ol)~ite of fi::r' ..... :F'!L ,:O!lmi.-"_

IN''·c .~~ "V.~ ax ~ h~e .~ (,-0 "J:":f"'l;:'Kl 0(0 .fit \ftt;f-J. rlt',·.'r!n:ly .::rit~ Med. Cp;:~ i Ie- ~ex:r'C~'f.:""'1'r.d

I .... ill "A"'rkh :i!.n'i 01 hQ- ~~fI by l' re ~'ye

(Oi :-~si:l"'l~ *,:,1' ~n~~s::"Jn m~ l,.!"H:'x,:.:t:e:ed I) .... n.l~.IA:~"I.· ~"OJ~ ';:91 ~~,"g Ii!. (~ ...... ,~ 'Or' (:t.:lr~I~rn:i~~ r- 01."'1. (Of :a COTPOS :-t .... a~1";U'l Ii) ~rgk1 c e-re .... -:) .'(:l ~~fl:ec:: ~ (.I~r~~ ~a' ,!$!i'n ... h.

r~\,"l'1 "',?S c~ MO'o't::"r'E!"'!::'1.f/1".;JJnIt':!:.

l.·(:)st~'b'~ b:on!itiLnt, :r:"it..'€!C':lf-9, wt."k of I: Jla,'"'r."f'.;,. ,1.r~:·)I'(!:ils~r~t ~',d .;,i~tl;Jf,b/li9" oom;;:)::;'i'li.:.:."of':!. EI':!!:c~·\~rr'\Clgllr:~tt.: 'ij,iy:i to;~t r.:1l.~JoSC sons ... i'flp.:t~~I,cn:..". Ir, me hl".nlar. 'l:;Ii),f'.'Op:'Mitr:-;:.f csrk.

/ .. I n-e i" I~$ ~t>s lHt~~ I lo-rn CQ "l r,. !1,t;:;, (';~ p("ift!!o :t1 ituate-::f n.nx11r. ~i.." C sr (:.n t~. In cne d 'nt"'.tio .... II II ~e i-e ~ ~t. a ::;elliG':1 'SIal ~ itLl'ld !oM-pc" nl, : is ca lad \t ·J~~wr. f;. ti"l'::: is Ihe ~lli,ille:::.1 d ~I.j) .. r.r. b¢1 ... .ee-' I'I\"U p:.j"~s. It. it:=. o:""(:re!,1$ fcur-a l ~ IS 19: ;$u'la(,"i:I'

v ;ilh exhc e ~ Iln:!l1~ be h'lr.:c" lr.:na1h 811<.1 ~'/I-.I(h LI·h":~; r,:r !;.I'O-«,S ere :.'II !F;in LJsr:d -:.n. a .... ~sl"lC* :he chH'C;en.tJ;~ j .... lo;e: ~ ~u .. e

:.::eh .... -w.::n i 'Q 'S ... lja:.':~.

Shdl:.o!!da.'!i:i3i 1 ...... _

PI .. ral;;< -1>0 Cop<>.". te (j' ,",'rIO'.I~

O~:)~: 'v.:! TO ... !.:. n~~~ p ...... 1 At'ar~,trmcr.: nf (.:1r.~nl:S i"I IQ\',":j ~:: '''.C:~I''''·n'S \"'J:):iti:Jnlalt! an-: ~rt ~:tII,). i'\ ,sy,'f2O': ::. ... ~~t~ U..,d (~_~ (1{)1-' :.o.sp·~wJ ~I' ~,~ ~.lrl.1(.r:. Op:JQ..lii~:;,1 Sl-ls"!.;.t

;t)·c ~ ~. ~-tf"'l~r :J..,opos :,~ ~J: ",.a. C" -="1,

·N·nea~ :r:'i! a-d 'C''!],M. ::l1'1;j ;",:p;;u~ ~.~' QI"C ,r~~:j. A~ £~~~ ,j"'lll;,'C"'1f:;.l"l. T"l"riA.I:;..1 .... ~ ir..e c· ~Jri';'j.:'c. Prc'IC!'i;;Ce., pt;!~1'\

M nur ~d. usb~nt

e,."c"' .. ",n~

h '~'SJ-!I: :;:~"""'J,.i";lt::;Y1 n)"."'t'rC": i~ .r.iihtr- f~=::rl~'=nte.:: (:f:£::n iII •• 'S 13'" e: f'1C1o-e .... :e't is. O"("Ate~"t G l~J"-d;,.c,~, o"';F.j $t I f'~ '\!:f1'J::!M~t~~ t,;.: ~"'tTCA: ue ~;;. ... ~~ U'IC'";,,, «~~jtic:A af,.rJ: ~n~H\,A.'" I~Q,t I.,:r .. ~~(II' If, :fc-at~ ::>l st~"*oC'Io2 -c-b.ws "H~"" ~IS' ':'y "ten' :~h' ,,: h;r hCol: .. ~-.e,. 'SO ~te S'""je" ! ~~~ i1'l~3 ~'~1"'9 ~",i2:t ~t.c ol.'j...:!'·"""'''

-t:r ... .ng ~eJ dn::,-n;.i:"..ns-::int" ca." dei."'C' ~~~:".1S ...... :r- ~i'i;)'t!' :"i;)n :"r~ d Mct\;)ons;:.u'( ss -UT~~ ';:'~"e :31'1I1~! '!I!i! c:,:cr.:!::"'t:·f'.

, .... "Iotll-.~-t:: $h~ W-e"'l ~~tf:tij"!l is br"~hl-t'llh=n. ~..r.;I'hi1D e!~.

N l~ t!lo.~ir""g, :Q-._t')' eatre 'Y'e, looA"'cd: oot,..,~'i" ~xtreM!::1... W" r::t', 00 e\e,~~ "'':!s, iii! rc.- ~f~ r.etlt E e ...... t I"",,~ II", ~ "'" ' .. 0 '''''OCI'tioll Q< ,Jt II-

"",,>l:!us.c '-"i?In s 9'e'!" U~"9:r.

118;'1-;1'19 U'"iilb eu,,"r.:"~I(' ..... lh S 'i!.- a- "'::>''':'''~~ :i101e OOC.,9i ... S~ al p"'Y~i~ ('.!b.N.is: t-,a--.-"$ thJe:. dime"'li!'. D"'tS, :)""' ..• ,,,. ,·,,,,,·m,,,,,",,,,. Op"'-':;;IO 01 1""lIPilJent

lex!> nr." ~boul .~"\ !IflQ " o.oJ pnI)(lOl'l'I"~

~11. or cc:-mr;: ... re. ... w·~lion bolwr:<::'" :'X'Il$.

QI::\:wgci·cle.

..,,,"t-¢"" r~aJl.s c~ an .,t':jr. .... .t it .}~(fie ::.rJlt!o o~ ~n"m(H ;:.b.~lCL U.II:I' (Jd",e cbi~ ..... "oCria.::)S: lne ,;:,:~:te~.

Rurn~ n the 5oaTi1! ~j~ 0'. OO"curlt:'i~ :; rJ~:r.y :s.kH::, OltY'I':'_ r-es e.r p I!Jk".:";j i\"~l ne';IS:' rllle2i. M l'rHlll~' hcf~"i la' lhe:rr ">":tllsio<1,

rrnagr:"« I'ht.'! ale-~'I$ ""/hr~" ~,"1 :O':':;fG'ct:b r11:;r~ ng, "he 'pnth, Ci',.I"I, 00 S'lHiJ~:'t 0.' ,euroi1".:d. OI .. ~r:rt1~¢l'a'~!e·~:;'!V: :~ilt .. ,r::1. cf ~~"i"g.

Zt!!""ilh 0'1;0" ;;)"tfJ'e 'ool ...... ~o ("ItO cr Mo."II'r.:- i-cs Of n1~~e:s. A b:.dy lh3l co. :Si~~ ¥ on ~ li~ M!o.

~~o:: • ... f".)U~'I. e'-~,erj :)F!,"~ n,''!).

R~L.!ar' ~."c~i<ledll~r'I!'

1\l,F""'Y ~ic.i:J· ='.f:f~'~lfl& ""',<>M J~~!.IC

VISUAL GRAMMARI GLOSSARY

Ci"CJJT i:;te,.ee" cuter ed~ o ... :sk It&. e"':llh lUO Jrd t-II': ~ of '! O"f; E. .At' a':9€ :lf~")_

V.lI'_"\1'4'" ~,' ~-E;?kd:'i.:3r1 th3..l":~ ~ -."'c i'Y!p',e ~Itt.n -01 4opth. To. ii:fft;:' fI ~ sperjfk; :p ace,

P.c:~i "'~Iith l .... ree-d ~·lcr'T.

~ nt Ar. abst -a.:-t ;t::e;o"Je~:o ~ j,'-d ta:ng a. fT,eeic~ l!tx',a.t'")"L PI:.l ze lM11lCU! &."ea S'T;:" \cd 1J'~~¥i(:a IJf'it ol m e.a.;.!. .... ~. II: 2 :C;o;;:'!Q.. /~ ~br,~C"~te.c as j";. f1.~ r: {IIC~t ~ ~t4s.. !"(:fIe"

~:;'M d <lepa:!ute :l1!lC'.

'"olyg"" v.. ,i;,"~"I"'. mut lateoal

""-,,,,+or. r~I!9:;..i~iol:["j

1'>11 m~ ')' "0, o·~ !=rL'l1 Lie lion f!1ropor:ir.r R~L4i,~tl :In ,:au:Ji~l!j:

Rliror.(l'r

I<~<!," R~'''''!]C RIo~b'91o

'1~; e-:Iioo

K~'"$'tj :Re:I!~Q"_

Rod.""

R",.,.,.oe

RtMEfi"Q ~OOlil;(>tO Repr""omlali,"' R~pol"'M l~l'¢lrl)

R~yll\m

R~t~lion

~lJbrlc $nl~'ali"n SC~ltld dow, ~.on<la'l'c<lIo' Sc<:1'"

s.,g"""'1

S~MO'cgy S n *df Sh.>:Ie" .. s..,.~",

SOn", "'".,.,. s,~

S.eI~1(lI\

st·"" SJ·",,'e

Sl',' 9.1

M:trn'!:, ::.i'U.sf"doo,ni, ioraaon

GcrOI'G1H representecor of :)1".11 vi.s:ual 5\Ji"mIJI"'I:jIl~g~: II:u~~r~1C:;; thl-Rl t:d e-bj~r.-"~ "'li?;v~ an Ir-natc wealth ::;.f c(;:1;:l;i1. Bas lc .:olc-r!>. Cn 10 rs lhat ceo ret I~~ CI eeted by mix ill @ [Jtl"l~ r L,';")lor:).

Dcoicliun of one n- iY'i(;I<;i! pOi"':';:!:'; on a title, RCP'il"~(:litRt'Q'1 of 11 ~C'.!O:::.1 on So f.i"1~,.,e, Ro!l~ti\)n :jl, one thir,g to' a'itiltler, Com~ :;.)tiOf"l -n :.iCo..CI,

L~gi"l.t~rni$s.io·i. ema- enoe. D~tl ib~ ~Ie,,: Iro"t';' a ct'lnte~.

Otsl...1."cs f-om lhe cente- G~ a (Jr:::re ~ the rw.ri,:)II(j:'Y.

(or '''''9'''' -ar aoo,",) net "" QvIi"9 ""I)' ~y<:1<! 0' Io"'l~ Q<lll<:,,, A :'iitru<:lu'~ ·11,iTt "JoOnts (}.I'!jb'tQUtoo! Oi"",a, 'S,.Itfa:a.

T~ ,~';:crl" mm8fr"'!<.

:ou~· 5 00:1 i qu ... e ¥."rt-; fe_.r ~hl3."\9~s..

Re=lu~!' cr ~ • ..... tese-r-ose-re-n ':r:or'i a w .. ~ tdi."'tO:'lr~.

0.. es g" _. rq en r,.-", e'e-neus; ~$ 9" • s "9' a t;:.'J<: ~!a~ e- I"'r-c<" Rii!.-o.~f"eEu.:..n.

~n itJ reis.:c- 1.3 ~met-':tfJ !5!li.e.. O)TIMiJN ~ ::.onrt:h"g t:'-"!'C!'. Lc.:ai:Q: ~~ a~af in Ih·e fJIt ~!!!.

roCO';~ U~, s.~'i3.:Oe QI a tltr~""1'1'Wf~~ cbj_lX"" ..

W" en an e.e-ne-n I$CUi5 ~~."eta:'1 Urnes. t-"d"l IN' ,n AI CO ..... ~ ~ic r .CJ crier tim=. Oroc ini"~ sl",,:Jir~ 10- ar"'th ....

Fe,,,,, iO"""';"9 ti"e dislanc,", ~",,,~n o;>j~ct .. OtIp:"lIo ..,1 aU, K:~O".

Pllr'~II(~'ICrrarn '.'i,jih srdes :)', e;uallan~1h, h\.:l1 wh';''r::;;e ij"'9'1~t<: r.ee-d ~\ot b~ rffl'11 M9 es. '~~C'0errtent 'l'G!.Els"lr~d if] tlme. I~*pe( ~iOf" III grC'Jllps,

A-.n o~jo:-:::t's r(O.!'<i·:1luliCI~ around ~i) .roci:::,

1\ (:F.lt~goly or column,n a hble,

T,.,e ntc%iti cf a color's htJe. fn, un!l~turat.i3j (Qlor.!i • .c.OMt o-f th~ coler Ii~$ tMt~ repl'::J.csd hv '.';rite-:J( ~1'tJ.Ck. A reptiOd.jr.;(,.001 lhat is vral'e- G"I;)II .. Ino- (lr!!;I"':aI,

A (_~ d~-rr.,~-d by nlixi 1;:) ~.'r.) ;)I'irra,y «Iktr'~ ..

7hc pa-t e' e oeoa :·~t lie.;, ""t-."""" tv", ,~d L

n,~ pili ('i ~ circe tna: is-tl'~f~j'K t.y ~ t+,o'1J ~~:thc lWf~hI=ry. Sh>"Y 01 ~;gr.>.

Seedi C 0":'0'" tc-rl€ 0- ¥i:oneS. Ca. .. ~$O dt!'!::!1 ~ 0 ~ ... rc. \~~ta i?'i c~~.-.;,;-t -.aJ u~ ~ o~

C\~.:!'.:i a I"Id '8: 'eTIe:~Lt:U:.~. til; , .. ~5!IP -Eft ~twee n {OIIT ~ d"o.&'·a<:h~:1!.U<1i b'l ,o·d~. V'!SW ,~:Ii!:-mef~s * ~-~ 3U'I cts1~IIIC""S: c· itM~ ';uIl.:ons c;., becajeds 'n!ll<>.

A-.. ~"Ii~ s;a.e t.roe,

[tot: r-cla_i:r~"C a roo {'!IIleagth Q~ 3-= (:~ n-et~ure¢ .e:stul"4.~ lH-CV"e,r lJb;~t 0.' a, $~~ cf rno.::;;.s1."ffl'rl85i:IL O'ga·liz5t~ :~1iI!\ th;~1'". :;-~.'!t(ltk .I,per 't--t.d' (fit ~~ bul:t

Three-::fi! r el~ic:r.al ~ectll"i{ric. telR\ ~u;n~ ce i"l"i1cr. ty ~ ~L-r=i1cp' ('.If surli5..CC~

P~~I er.~i!i ;-'~TIf::fC all r..-oj'iu:. on 1hr: .w·la~ ore D~ i'U~ !Mud dl:!;.l.n.nt.-o rro ...... U'fC ce-rer, G oce, S:c-3pr:-j r~iI?;IT. w· ·elJilch!l$, Curv~ ff::rI.[:I-':d~g a-ounc .a pc;nt ~li':ere' limeS! as 1 <jj',j!{!.nC".oo .t-self l.an ~i.B· p~rn,

VIS UAL GRAM MAr,1 GLOSSARY

V'.~th r)i:":viuLI~ lack c~ pl~,n ;jl' ~11~h~'''l, ~1!rf~U~jtl':l.l, imp'~IIJI"'o!', M~J ',,,,,ith(~i~lt ri"i:;.ilil.)rt p:) f\ t r.f :il~ j')®rlur~, 1~1f:I ~J n- i i"I~,

~H::l~orliJ.l"y .o.r,d: I . ., :::J:;':-:Iol'.,~e li;Ii.iuil tJljl"lm

I "I~·. Ii art ••

Start n9 :)(1 nl SIO:" :Sl~j,j,t...url

Shcke =h'i~i(;al, f,;U··CI ~~!" Ii e. EX:~\':n'll~~ I\.:'~.¢of".' ~ JI i~=:,tI!.

S-~ ... d.II"iI }:..:,~~~-:.::m t vr r.btr.c:!.s: 11·~!t·.:s.b ~C~l".rC'. S~, ~~t .Im j -o ,__:o. n a lu-n-

S-f.l;:.t ... U~

$~I _1::,Jurc i;c: s~· J-:::tlJ .~: -lIrif

CoMp::.f1ihon. j"'IP:'1 I.:.dJr'!: t-ie w:!y ~ \'~Mk: is pyl w':::!;!llholJr c_~ of ciiM~t.:rl! ~'1fI.

ilw Ql'1"! (""t n •. Mnr=).IS ~~i::i=J1-::o co ~rvi~i'Ol~} 11I1-:'Y.i ':t"~1 tl at ~ u :;t:i- lt~ md r..-"Id.lal ~in.'(~"!.re I,,:Il rs ~·",,'n ':::In~ a-::l~r_ Ar~3 j •• ...:!1 'Sib'uc.i\.1'\".: ;:"'a~ t:r.:n f-o d '!!tl :to'!n1e".t

S<.JO!I" Rei "" ~ • cd "'IJ. ·i.:".le<:

Suctrcc- Tc :ilke ;Jv."'"l-

~I,..p.::r-u"'it A.fll I:)"tit; :-""t i!i r:'i"H""'It;r1:"k~~ ..... er S.t"'i~·.;."I; .In ,.c,

':')I"nl;:~ l"'l(":"wt:s-u,= c: I:!! ':.!'~·u·"i.!"ri'lr :::,1-1 ~~jJ3:t

~~·n:;1,;: Obj:.:C'i·. s gn, QI irl·~t re~ re~\'!'nU"'l n M')(';e-:r ir 9-

S-~nYneh·rj;~ Th~~ v:hl(:h ~":Iin :"1::: :J1"¥i-r.:e-O ir~.fJ. }.r..i:") n!'.IJ:>J: t-:(trl;E- .... "t,;PI I). 't:: nl':l rr n-er l-r :;.'4:("$ O' i!.itCi I :.lo1l"F.1. IV· a"·g:".:m(".;nl ~) (1 .... 9 gil ~X~.

T"''',IC F.!!I~: 11£ I~ he 1>3-! e o· 1.",,,1,

T3i'tg',"'!:r: 1:.>.1:;·· b":M'~r r. .. , :'lo.:z,h ,~~a'f~~ ultw~ ob.C(.I;:". * ... n ::{)f"llrC·- :JQlnl (~i"": (;,r tnng,¢tC';).

Iexlare ICXllji"! (..~·I b! :hc C~""I:=-:rn~=': <:Xr.·41S~:.,'Ili ul i.t sru :.Iu·.;: A Ir:-,.d •• ft!o :S::8 cis!1 b.::t :0 1 c~ :It:tt::''.I;:''1 it .a (::""if'IIJ(::";; : c- lh<lt ~. ~..rl <::*-"1 Ih ~i II ~ oI:'~:':i!!'I'!n-:~d iI::". pa-t t!:r -q $0: 1:a .... "M TotII~~ .. '0 -:i;JI- b::-: r.~;"lfl-.i'i~::J 00:·1 :a:::blo!:tl iili1::! \,,""I.:".u .... ~

I h·~~...;,;i·.·~··'=i[c":! :-18 ... 1 .... :) i .... ra~ :Jinl:'n!FJn!;;' /, I oh-f-'. t":I'J O:)jtC"..s .. :a"l': :·IUle d r'k"'.ln~km ~

T:iflt.o C .. 3.~ ~5:k".: 0' 0:1'" c;)ja-c:: 1N:s~ c'" ":r..; Inll(".h hn"'lt l.a h Qfl it a -d tC'o(; ~ 1.Ij "d OCI:eu. TlJnl:' ts ~. -r-es - i"·p·Jr _.fir-:

• ·I:,,;t ~'5 :0'" ('.:~ !lin =*-" CCl~ 1::.)"f"1 ~~,(I1. un.: ,::n:'iilit.1{' .... t(lO~ e: :a"1 ~1k.1~

t:MCSo-::lo ~Jt. lrll".nA.

"lsar-spa-ent tIC:::!. ::;I:·'rfl!!;;l::.l.!. Clp~:it~, ~f ;ep.il<: .... ~.

-;~' .. I;J1 e T"rcc-s~~: :~'Ijj~,!

. r ."~A,· r -."",,, '~i!<l

T~,,:"(r"::Jr.eI\:;i:.:-n.l'l E-::!.~. ne ~ i11"'~eU~:)IiI~ Th ~ i~~" "")5(.1"',i."X'.1 ::··#Ji!C il)ij::::t.W., i,iI I=~~~:'ill :".I:,~.ts .l\i"oi'F:: UI·~e -:i.,.,c··::;; 10·:":-

Jrd-_~rsl:'l:":f'n(!(ll C;o:llJ;::tII:J5 51~~:-:nt;lI·~""I:;)".l~ 1".I~le ~M.,l.f'i"II ~~XI"'Se he-r ~ 'I"~MI ~"':".iY:l'" mni.'''I'UJl'11 U~ cl ~:~::.t~

Uvilcr-r ':!.~:-':en ~'""!:!l·3 e-b.!X=:. ~ ~ -:<"I!1t~""i]:" ., :n.chi:.t *::tj ~ 10 ='~:r: =-.;:J1I:1!C'J ~rl:; ::e :.e·Coi!:P~"(:;::I!l~ :21~1&1 ~

V'''il O::.i~ ~ :;1:) J~) ~~,! c~ ec:~ =.-r='.!'!iI..-nf:o:1 -o ::::e: ::.ot~ l:)Io!:':-: I'" .;.-d :!if itH".!n se -.."(!s,

V.111C I"V' -:bjx:'sv:e.I.t..t;= ~lf;"'~ If-:,):TI ~ ~.oiN::': ... "\": :F'::,.sC:$S .... 'E'tltQ~ it::: c;:h3::..:t~ .. ~.tl:.~

Va· ~h Po' ::J .. ~'ti\i' ¥"~. (.,h..''''!l~;'j:309 <,,'fj!,!it'

Va-:l~ 0'" -:::!t'q.i~::!:;'t 0- ~I"~t (fu'''n~ ,,DI""'C .. 'i''!oC ~oj :,:or,::',rir3it t,~,:,,:",

Vi:,ltex s.~"",,t :;li' T'!-!: rI-;J' ~ :~'It.

Vl:=I ti;:ai =-~:I"fi'C'r<l W~, C~~rte rA n.~O-.".;rri\1 ~ftJ'o!'fn.

V"$c ~ ~:!I :oi"'i"'!! h e b"!" : -e I!:rfll:".

V ~I.:"I I'i • eierel"l::=': In S (ihl

V sunl ~.;-'i"rlru-.: I h~ ~"1I:!C~:.')' rf. :--..h eels.

Va d V~:;I.V1".

VO 1}1IIe T"'c :!,,~:::l);".:1'- ,,~;1,t11l"1 :t5. U'l"~C·¢ITC""~. O"':J h:"l!.1~

""".r":lTI W: - Ii!. ""'Ig'h ·(':i"'r.-~·.al',,·~ ..... -Q·rq co o-s , .. n I~~ .... ~::tCi09t~:J \"~;UI II gt te-rpemr .. rr.-s \"'i~::."'U:::. iaMcl, CpPrK,il~;:.1 0:::1d

'i'ic fit-=- I~~ h.:1!! 7 ~I· nn .. or. ... ~.: 1I't13 "!l1\'j~ If} ~I :o*-=t .md U;:". !l .. .avil"llC"Li":d·d~ the Eer: .... ·!'. mni-cr.

lerilh V!SI:oI9,.

94

B ibl iography

Aro ~ei - , 'Rucloll. Ba,~ClOlI. T '10"'" 5 F. Berger, .Johr, 8roby-.!ohansen, R. O~ 1bolt, Gnnr ar,

O,.,,,cis A. Do1<.1i~. Fletc're', ,".Ian, Garrett, L'II ao, C;lIttU. Tor, se,

U:6: "':I~ .lcna niles. tien-,,-~, C'I'lile,. Hn'~,Ro,,"rl. H~mb),. p.., S., e~.

K3ndir,sky. WasSily.

Kra'J5Se, J_. ed,

K -ess, Gur the" ~'<J. Kn.gH, Anna, ed, LiJngman, CMI C, Tveleras, £gil. ed. Wir'l:e-s, Na:~a".

VISUAL GRAMMARI BIBLIOGRAPHY

Flall a nd. New vo·~: New A'1lC"ric~fl l.iorary, 100;1. ~irs: pi.blisbee ~"j L" 1dofl: S<~" 61 & Co. 1884.

An and Vi"'UIII ~e,cepliol). 'Ber~ riff: u'ri,'Crsity cl ::111 'coni!; Press, '95d. Beyond ,he /hi,d Dimensio", Now Y:)fk; Sclerv 'ie A.."e,ican L,~ra')'. 1990, 'Ways 01 Seeing, London: Pen~ul' Book:;,197~.

i<unslordbog. V bo'\): Forl?ge, Sesam, 2000,

81ikk 1m hilder. Oslo: A~glr8~1 forla~, 2C02.

Grllfisk Ildndbok. O~II,): WkeSllppl!f',:,~g. '995.

A Primer QI Visual WerBey. Car-b' age: MIT Press, '9',3· The Art of Lookin9 $i"ew~ys, Lo"dcoc P~laidol1 ",I'CSS. ~()~1. Visu,.1 Desigll. New "or~: R"irilo O. '961.

Norsk ()r<iboi<. Os.o: KU1nskap~fcc,:ag,e. 19·98.

Th» Arl 01 COIOf. New YO'~: Reirho,d. 1;)61.

8okUtl'l,m" ord:el; lCX1QII. Slo;:k'lolr.-: Ol<li'On; lo"as- '99;;. Vis(J2f hngu"Be.Sao, eridqels 9 ~d: M2,cRO'(~ 'Inc, 199::!·

Advanced L<JfllIle':s Dictionary of C!Jf!enl Eng/i.sh O~i",~: O"IOfd' \Jrti~ersily Press, '9'M.

Point and Unc /0 PI/me, New' York: 00 .. ",1', 1919. F 1'51 puol shed al Baul'uus, ~g2B

The' Act of CrMlion. Lr>ndcn: HJlcrin,on & CC, 1964.

Yo", Pri'/8./o Sky, R. 8IJckmins!ar Fuller. Ba(Hl1: L?rs I,tijIJ".,Ullisl·'e's. ;,,99,

Reading Images. Tho Grammar 01 Visual Desig". Louden: Rou:'ec9~. '996, i=aktikofl. O~ID: Gyldenda'., '901,

SymbolM, Mall''1i1: Aldebaran Fi.\rlag '99C, Ellbindslek:;ikon. Oslo: Kl,n~sk.;lpslo' agel, 'lg6~. ilrchi/eclure ill E/flmcnMry. Layror: Gibbl! \;I, Sm (", IgS6.

Principles 01 FOIfI! and Desigll. Ne'~' York: Van \os:-;;nd R",'nho d. ;;'93.

96

'1 Line

Abstract

10 ",oint

16 Formal

T 2"- h.i$i~ e:/hac-;we St'~tlules I

I

19 Formal Stru Clu res

Abstract Structures

'2. Racialion

'23 Vis~al! Olst,icJlior

'2"- StructJ'a Skeleton

$5 Active Structures

36 Texlure

30 SilO

32 Colo'

ze Form

40 RepetitiOn

42 Mirronng

46 Upscaling/Oownscaling

: J 0 recnor 0' Oisol!lcerrenl

60 Fine/Coarse

• 62 Oifeclion

58 Groups

57 Balance

86 Varia IOn

55 I,' cdilicauon

80/81 Subtraction/Coincidence

82 Penetration!Extrusion

44 Rotation

89 Glossary

95 Bibliography

49 Dueclior

La Path

64 SpacoiWeigh1

66 Amounl/Dominance

69 Baokground/Foreground

71 Distance

74 Negative/Posi1ive

75 Transparent/Opaqv

18 Overlapping/Compound

Other titles available in this series:

Life in the image world has made us all voracious, if not always deliberate, consumers of visual messages. Easy access to computer graphic tools has turned many of us into either amateur or professional image producers. But without a basic understanding of visual language a productive dialog between producers and consumers of visual communication is impossible. Visual Grammar can help you speak and write about visual objects and their creative potential, and better understand the graphics that bombard you 2417. Itis both a primer on visual language and a visual dictionary of the fundamental aspects of graphic design.

Christian Leborg is a designer and design educator. He is

a founding partner of K, a knowledge and communications consultancy in Oslo, Norway.

Geometry 61 Design Kimberlv EIi1m

IS6 N !--b6898-249-6

Elements: of Design Gad Greet Hannah ISBN 1-56898-329-8

Grid SysieJJiS Kimbell)' Elarn

ISBN 1-5689lH 65-0

Thinking witt: Type Ellen Lupton

ISBN H56898-448·Q

DJ Y Design It Yourself Ellell Lupton

I SSN 1-56898-552-5

IS8H 1-36698-58 - -s

075-185(;:.898-581-7 $19.95

51995

~~ -~

DESIGN BRIEFS Ii

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