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Objectives of Charts and Diagrams

Charting and Diagramming Used in Methods Engineering

Techniques for Operations Analysis 1. To permit work processes to be communicated and


comprehended more readily
Sections:
Chapter 9 1. Overview of Charting and Diagramming Techniques 2. To use algorithms specifically designed for the particular
diagramming technique
2. Network Diagrams
3. To divide a given work process into its elements for
3. Traditional Engineering Charting and Diagramming analysis purposes
Techniques
4. To provide a structure in the search for improvements
4. Block Diagrams and Process Maps

Gantt Charts ? 5. To represent a proposed new work process or method

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

How to Create / Develop the Chart or


Diagram? How to Analyze the Chart or Diagram
 Analyst is intimately familiar with the process and  Algorithmic analysis
develops a graphic to represent it  Line balancing, critical path methods

 Analyst observes and records information about the  Checklists


process  General questions applied to the particular process to
assess whether they can be applied to the problem of
interest
 One-on-one interviews with those familiar with the
process
 A graphic model of the process is developed based on  Brainstorming
these interviews  Team activity in which participants contribute
recommendations
 Group meetings with personnel familiar with process
 The analyst records the discussion of the meeting.  Separating value-added and non-value-added operations
 A graphic model of the process is developed based on the  Value added steps:
group meetings 1. Important to customer
2. Physically change the product or service

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Checklist of Questions - Example Categories of Charts and Diagrams


 What alternative starting material could be 1. Network diagrams
used?
2. Traditional industrial engineering charts and
 Should the part be produced or purchased? diagrams
 Operation charts
 Can this operation be eliminated, combined, or  Process charts
simplified?  Flow diagrams
 Activity charts

 Could a different joining method be used? 3. Block diagrams and process maps

 Could the inspection task be automated? 4. Gantt charts


Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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Network Diagrams Network Diagram - Precedence Constraints
 Consist of:
 Nodes representing operations, work elements, activities or other
 Restrictions on the order in which work
entities elements can be performed
 Arrows connecting the nodes indicates relationships among the
nodes
 Direction of work flow between nodes
 Precedence among nodes

 Used to represent
 Work elements in assembly line balancing Precedence
 Work activities in CPM and PERT
diagram
 Two-way flows (movement of materials):
Maximum number of arrows = n(n -1)

 One-way arrows (precedence):


n(n − 1)
Maximum number of arrows =
2

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Traditional IE Charts and Diagrams Operation Charts


 Graphical and symbolic representation of the operations used
to produce a product
 Operation charts
 The time to accomplish the operation is sometimes also
included.
 Process charts  Two types of operations:

1. Processing and assembly operations


 Flow diagrams  Changing the shape, properties or surface of a
material or workpart
 Joining two or more parts to form an assembly
 Activity charts
2. Inspection operations
 Checking the material, workpart, or assembly for
quality or quantity

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Operation Chart

Component

Subassembly

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2
Checklist of Questions Used to Analyze an
Operation Chart Operation Charts
 The focus of the operation chart is on the materials of a product
and the operations on them

 Questions related to material


 What alternative starting material could be used?
 Make or buy decision: should the part be produced in the
factory or purchased?

 Questions related to operations


 Is this processing operation necessary?
 Can this operation be eliminated, combined, or simplified?
 Could a different joining method be used?

 Questions related to inspection


 Is this inspection necessary?
 Could the inspection task be automated?
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Process Charts Flow Process Chart


 Graphical and symbolic representation of the processing
activities performed either on something or by somebody.  Uses five symbols to detail the work performed
on a material or workpart as it is processed
 The chart consists of a vertical list of activities using symbols through a sequence of operations and activities:
to represent operations, inspections, moves, delays and
storage and other activities.

 Principal types of process charts:  Operation – processing of a material


1. Flow process chart – analysis of a material or workpiece being
processed  Inspection – check for quality or quantity
2. Worker process chart – analysis of a worker performing a task
3. Form process chart – analysis of the processing of paperwork  Move – transport of material to new location
forms
 Delay – material waiting to be processed or
 All these charts are used to examine for possible moved
improvements of operations
 Storage – material kept in protected location

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Process Charts


 If the processing operation combined with an inspection
at the same workstation: combine symbols - a circle
inside a square

 Provides more detail about the steps required to process


a material than in the operation chart:
 is used to study a single work part rather than the
multiple components of an assembly

 The chart also indicates distances for move activities


and time values for other activities

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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Checklist of Questions Used to Analyze a
Form for Flow Process Chart Flow Process Chart
 Questions Related to Material
 Make or buy decisions: Should the part be produced in the factory or
purchased from an outside vendor?

 Questions Related to Operations and Inspections


 Is the operation time too high?
 Is the inspection operation necessary?

 Questions Related to Moves


 How can moves be shortened or eliminated by combining or eliminating
operations?
 Can the level of mechanization in material handling be increased?

 Questions Related to Delays


 Is the delay avoidable?
 What is the reason for the delay? Can the reason be eliminated?

 Questions Related to Storage


 Is the storage necessary?
 Why can’t the material be move immediately to the next operation?

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Process Chart Flow Process Chart

Unplanned
vs.
Planned
stoppage
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Worker Process Charts Form Process Charts


 Used to analyze the activities of a human  Used to analyze the flow of paperwork forms
worker as (s)he performs a task that requires and office procedures
movement around a facility.

 Also known as process chart- person analysis

 The symbols are the same as flow process


chart
 Storage activity is omitted since it is difficult to
interpret in the context of human work activity

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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Flow Diagram Flow Diagram
 Drawing of the facility layout with the addition of lines  The flow diagram reveals problems in the work flow that
representing movement of materials or workers within may not readily be identified using the process chart
the facility alone.

 Arrows on the lines represent direction of movement  For example, if the work flow involves considerable
backtracting, this can be identified in the flow diagram,
whereas it is indicated only as distances in the process
 Often used in conjunction with a process chart
chart.
 Operations, inspections, delays, and storages at specific
locations are identified by numbers referenced to the
activity number  Thus, it can be used to detect excessive backtracking
(which might be missed in a process chart), excessive
travel, possible traffic congestion, points where delays
typically occur and inefficient layout.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Diagram Activity Charts


 A listing of the activities of one or more subjects (e.g.,
workers, machines) plotted against a time scale to
Flow diagram for worker indicate graphically how much time is spent on each
activity
setting up a milling
machine:
 These activities are generally repetitive.

 Types of activity charts:


Note the large number of
 Right-hand/left-hand activity chart (a.k.a. workplace activity
trips back and forth chart)
between the milling  Worker-machine activity chart
machine and the tool crib  Worker-multimachine activity chart
 Gang activity chart (a.k.a. multiworker activity chart)
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Shading Formats for Activity Charts Activity Chart


 Instead of using symbols for the work activities, as in the other Activity charts usually have more than one time scale
charts, the activities are indicated by vertical lines or bars e.g., activity time and cumulative time

 When bars are used, they are shaded or colored to indicate


the kind of the activity being performed. Activity chart for a worker performing a repetitive task:

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

5
Multiple-Activity Charts Right-Hand/Left-Hand Activity Chart
 Used to track several participants working  Shows
together  contributions of the right and left hands
 balance of the workload between the right and left
hands
 They consists of multiple columns, one for  Remember the example with pegs
each participant.  Task involves placing pegs into a peg board
 Note that left hand is used as a workholder
 Objective: to analyze how the workload is
coordinated and shared among the entities.
 Right-hand/left-hand activity chart
 Worker-machine activity chart
 Worker-multimachine activity chart
 Gang activity chart (a.k.a. multiworker activity chart)
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Worker-Machine Activity Chart Worker-Multimachine Activity Chart


 Shows how work elements are allocated  Can be used to indicate machine interference
between a worker and a machine (when a machine must wait for service
because worker is currently servicing another
 Help to identify opportunities for cycle time machine)
improvements e.g., replacement of external
work elements by internal work elements

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gang Activity Chart Block Diagrams


 This chart indicates activities in which two or  Graphic consisting mostly of blocks and arrows
more workers performing together as a team to portray the relationships among components
of a physical system
 Also known as multiworker activity chart
 Commonly used in linear control theory, where
 Can be used to analyze the operations of  Arrows represent the flow of signals or variables in
different stations in the the same chart the system
 Blocks contain transfer functions that define how
 Objective: To better coordinate the activities input signals are mathematically transformed into
and balance the workload among the workers output signals

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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Block Diagram Process Maps
•Used to depict flows and interrelationships  A process is a sequence of tasks that add value to inputs
among components in complex systems to produce outputs
 Basic process map is a block diagram showing the steps
•Block diagrams are commonly used in linear in a process
control theory, as shown below for a feedback  Widely applied to business processes
control system  Also applicable to production, logistics, and service
operations
 Levels of detail:
 High-level process map – macroscopic view of
Output y AB process and includes only the most important steps
= =
Input x1 1 + AC  Low-level process map – used to map each of the
x2 = x1 − Cx3 , x3 = Ax2 x3 = Ax1 − ACx3 steps in a high-level process map

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Symbols in the Basic Process Map Basic Process Map


Process map symbols:
(a) beginning/ending point of the process,
(b) task or activity step,
(c) decision point
Symbols are connected by arrows to indicate
sequence

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Alternative Forms of Process Maps Relationship Map


 Relationship process map – block diagram that  Block diagram that shows the input- output
shows the input- output connections among connections among departments (or other
departments (or other functional components) functional components) of an organization
of an organization
 Cross- functional process map – block diagram
showing how the steps of a process are
accomplished by various departments
 Departments listed as rows separated by
dashed lines
 Also called a swim
- lane chart

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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Cross-Functional Process Map Gantt Charts
 Block diagram showing how the steps of a  A graphical display of schedule project
process are accomplished by departments activities on a time axis

 Project activities are listed on a vertical axis

 Activity time durations are shown as horizontal


bars with starting and ending times

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gantt Chart: Planned Activities Gantt Chart: Progress


Shows actual work accomplished at some
Shows planned activities for a construction project point during week 7

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gantt Chart Showing Precedence


Arrows can be used to indicate precedence
relationships among activities

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.