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K.M.C.

T COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
MUKKOM
CALICUT

Certificate

This is to certify that the project report entitled FEASIBILITY STUDY OF AN


ALTERNATIVEFUEL – BIODIESEL is a bonafide record of the project presented by
Mr.JerinJose(CTAFEME019),ManasAntony(CTAFEME023),Jeevanand.M(CTAFEM
E055),Lijo George.K(CTAFEME056) of the sixth semester B-Tech. in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of B-Tech. Degree in Mechanical
Engineering from University of Calicut

Mr. Suresh Kumar M.R Prof P. Kunhammed


Guide & Lecturer HOD
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Kallanthode
19-09-2008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all we would like to thank the Almighty without whose help we could not
do this project successfully. We would like to express our gratitude to thank our Head of
the Department Prof. P. Kunhammed for his hearted and kind cooperation without
which, this project could not have seen the dawn of the day.
Our sincere end heartfelt thanks to our staff in charge Mr. Suresh for his
commitment to this project. We would like to thank him for his dedication in guiding us
over the past few months.
We also wish to extent our thanks to all teaching staff and non-teaching staff of
the Mechanical Department for their motivation and invaluable support towards
completion of our project.
Finally a word of appreciation to our friends and families whose constant stream
of suggestion made sure that, ideas were never in short supply.
ABSTRACT

Efforts are under way in many countries, including India, to search for suitable
alternative diesel fuels that are environment friendly. The need to search for these fuels
arises mainly from the standpoint of preserving the global environment and the concern
about long-term supplies of conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. Among the
different possible sources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils) present
a promising alternative to substitute diesel fuels. Bio diesel, derived from triglycerides by
transesterification with methanol has received the most attention. The project is to study
the feasibility of Biodiesel, and finding out the most feasible way of installation of an
alternative fuel to public.
CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2 . STUDY PROCEDURE
CHAPTER 3 . WHAT IS BIODIESEL .?
CHAPTER 4. PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL
CHAPTER 5. PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL
CHAPTER 6. PERFORMANCE CHARECTERISTICS
CHAPTER 7. COMPARISION OF BIODIESEL AND DIESEL
CHAPTER 8 . ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL
. CHAPTER 10 ENGINE MODIFICATIONS TO USE BIODIESEL
CHAPTER 11. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER 12 . ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF BIODIESEL
CHAPTER 13 CONCLUSIONS
CHAPTER 14 SUGGESTIONS
CHAPTER 15 REFERRENCE
CHAPTER 1.
INTRODUCTION

Diesel fuels have an essential function in the industrial economy of a country.


These are used in trucks, city transport buses, locomotives, electric generators, farm
equipments, underground mine equipment etc. Compared to the rest of the world, India’s
demand for diesel fuels is roughly 6 times that of gasoline. Consumption of diesel fuels in
India in 2007-2008 was 52.5 million tones which was 62% of total consumption of
petroleum products. Rapid depletion of petroleum fuels and its greater demands day by
day necessitates the search of alternate fuels. It is going to be happen a “full stop” in the
case of petroleum after the very next 40 years Moreover the exhaust gases of engine are
causing environmental pollution. Hence it is essential to develop a clean and economic
substitute for diesel as early as possible. In this context, alternative fuels produced from
renewable energy sources have more advantages. In India agriculture sector consumes
more amount of power. Production of alternative fuels from agriculture improves our
economy and energy security, so renewable fuels like bio-diesel can be used in engines as
supplementary fuels. The alternative diesel fuel must be technically acceptable,
economically competitive, environmentally acceptable and easily available. From the
view point of these requirements, triglycerides (vegetable oils and animal fats) and their
derivatives may be considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels. As far as
environmental considerations are concerned, alike hydrocarbon based fuels, sulphur
content of vegetable oils is close to zero and hence the environmental damage caused by
sulphuric acid is reduced.
CHAPTER 2
STUDY PROCEDURE

We followed the basic concept of a study. That is selection of a problem, collection of


data, analysis of data, conclusion, and suggestions. For this we referred textbooks,
searched in internet, consulted concerned authority etc. after collecting the data we
analyzed it and tabled the values. On the basis of this we reached in a conclusion. Some
suggestions are also given on the basis of the study.
CHAPTER 3
WHAT IS BIODIESEL?

Bio diesel (or biofuel) is the name for a variety of ester-based fuels (fatty esters)
generally defined as the monoalkyl esters made from vegetable oils, such as jatropha oil,
soybean oil, coconut oil, palm oil, sunflower oil or sometimes from animal fats through a
simple transesterification process. This renewable source is as efficient as petroleum
diesel in powering unmodified diesel engine. It can be used in compression-ignition
(diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Bio diesel is simple to use, biodegradable,
nontoxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. Bio diesel has lower volumetric
heating values than diesel fuels but has a high cetane number and flash point. The esters
have cloud point and pour points higher than those of diesel fuels. Bio diesel has
viscosity close to diesel fuels.

3.1 Blends and usage of Biodiesel

Blends of Biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel are products most


commonly distributed for use in retail diesel market place. Much of the world uses the
system known as the ‘B’ factor to state the amount of Biodiesel in any fuel mix. Fuel
containing 20% Biodiesel is labeled B20, while pure Biodiesel is referred to as B100.
Biodiesel can be used in the pure form or may blend with petroleum diesel at any
concentration in most modern diesel engines. Biodiesel has different solvent properties
than petrodiesel

3.2 Historical background

Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 by scientists


E. Duffy and J. patric , many years before the first diesel engine become functional.
Rudolf diesel’s prime model, a single 10ft (3m) Iron cylinder with a flywheel and its
base, ran on its own power for the first time in Agusburge, Germany, on august 10, 1893.
In remembrance of this event, august 10 has been declared ‘International Biodiesel Day’.
Interest in vegetable oils as fuel in engines is reported in many countries during the
1950’s and 1930’s and later during World War II. Belgium, France, Italy, the United
Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Argentina, Japan and China have been reported to have
tested and used vegetable oils as fuel during this time. Some operational problems where
reported due to the high viscosity of vegetable oil. This results in pure atomization in the
sparying system. And often leads to deposits and coking injectors, combustion chamber,
and valves.

Attempts to overcome these problems included heating of the vegetable oil,


blending it with petroleum-derived diesel fuel or ethanol, Pyrolysis and cracking the oils.
On august 31, 1937, G. Chavanne of the university of Brussels was granted a patent for a
‘procedure for the transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels’ this described
the alcoholysis of vegetable oils using methanol and ethanol in order to separate the fatty
acids from the glycerol by replacing the glycerol by short linear alcohols. This appears to
be the first account of the production of what is known as Biodiesel today. More
recently, in 1977, Brazilian scientist, Expedito parente produced Biodiesel using
transesterification with ethanol. An Austrian company Gaskoks, obtained the technology
from the south African Agricultural Engineers; the company erected the first Biodiesel
pilot plant I n November 1987, and the first industrial-scale plant in April 1989
CHAPTER 4
PREPERATION OF BIO DIESEL

Bio diesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the
glycerin is separated from coconut oil. The process leaves behind two products-methyl
esters (the chemical name for bio diesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually
sold). Transesterification also called alcoholysis is the displacement of alcohol from an
ester by another alcohol in a process similar to hydrolysis. This process has been widely
used to reduce the viscosity of triglycerides.

4.1 Triglycerides as diesel fuels

The use of vegetable oils, such as coconut oil and peanut oil, as alternative fuels
for diesel engines dates back almost 9 decades. Due to the rapid decline in crude oil
reserves, the use of vegetable oil as diesel fuels is again promoted in many countries.
Depending upon climate and soil condition, different nations are looking into different
vegetable oils for diesel fuels. For example, soya bean oil in the United States, rapeseed
and sunflower oils in Europe, palm oil Southeast Asia(mainly Malaysia and Indonesia),
and coconut oil in Philippines are considered as substitutes for diesel fuels. India’s total
production of oil seed is very less compared to the world’s total production. Hence the
use of vegetable oils as the source of diesel fuels in India requires additional steps to
increase the production of oil seeds. It is also necessary to develop new and more
productive plants sources whose seeds have high oil content.
4.2 Composition of vegetable oils

The basic constituent of vegetable oils is triglyceride. Figure 1 shows a typical


triglyceride molecule. Vegetable oil comprises 90-98% triglycerides and small amounts
of mono- and diglycerides.

Fig 1: Structure of a typical triglyceride molecule

Triglycerides are esters of three fatty acids and one glycerol. These contain substantial
amounts of oxygen in its structure. Fatty acids vary in their carbon chain length and in the
no of double bonds. The fatty acids which are commonly found in vegetable oils are
stearic, palmatic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic. Vegetable oils contain free fatty acids
(generally 1 to 5%), phospholipids, phosphatides, carotenes, tocopherols, sulphur
compounds and traces of water.

4.3 Fuel related properties of vegetable oils

The kinematics viscosity of a vegetable oil varies in the range of 30 to 40 cSt at


388 degree centigrade. High viscosity of these oil is due to the large molecular mass and
chemical structure. Vegetable oils have high molecular weights in the range of 600 to
900, which are 3 or more times higher than diesel fuels. The flash point of vegetable oils
is very high (above 200 C). The volumetric heating values of these oils are in the range of
39, to 40 MJ/Kg, which are low compared to diesel fuels (about 45MJ/Kg). The presence
of chemically bond oxygen in vegetable oils lowers their heating values by about 10%.
The cetane numbers are in the range of 32 to 40. The cloud and pour points of vegetable
oils are higher than that of diesel fuel.

4.4 Derivatives of triglycerides as a diesel fuel

Considerable efforts have been made to develop vegetable oil derivatives that
approximate the properties and performance of the hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. The
problems with substituting triglycerides for diesel fuels are mostly associated with their
high viscosities, low volatilities and polyunsaturated character. These can be changer in
at least four ways.

• Pyrolysis
• Micro emulsification
• Dilution and
• Transesterification
4.5 Transesterification

Transesterification also called alcoholysis, is the displacement


of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a process similar to hydrolysis, except that
an alcohol is used instead of water. This process has been widely used to reduce the
viscosity of triglycerides. The transesterification reaction is represented by the equation:

catalyst

RCOOR’ + R’’OH ↔ RCOOR’’ + R’OH


Ester Alcohol Eater Alcohol

If methanol is used in the above reaction, it is termed methanolysis. The reaction of


coconut oil with methanol is represented by the equation:

The fatty acid methyl esters (known as bio diesel) are attractive as alternative diesel
fuels.

4.6 Chemistry of tranesterification process


The overall tranesterification reaction is given by the above equation. However,
three consecutive and reversible reactions are believed to occur. These reactions are
given below.
The first step is the conversion of triglycerides to diglycerides, followed by the
conversion of diglycerides to monoglycerides, and of monoglycerides to glycerol,
yielding one methyl ester molecule from each glycerade at each step.

Catalyst

Triglyceride + ROH ↔ Diglyceride + R’COOR

Catalyst

Diglyceride + ROH ↔ Monoglyceride + R’’COOR

Catalyst

Monoglyceride + ROH ↔ Glycerol + R’’’COOR

CHAPTER 5
PROPERTIES OF BIO DIESEL

Bio diesel has higher flash point and cetane number than commercial diesel. This result
in higher combustion efficiency and smoother combustions. The viscosity of bio diesel is
slightly higher that of diesel. The bio diesel has about 10% oxygen content and its
calorific value is lower that of diesel. It has better lubricity though it possesses very less
sulphur content. Bio diesel is less toxic than that of diesel. Use of bio diesel, in a
conventional diesel engine, results in substantional reduction of unburned hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. Bio diesel has desirable degradation
characteristics, which make it the fuel of choice for environmentally sensitive areas bio
diesel in its pure form or in blends; bio diesel can be stored wherever petroleum diesel is
store

The properties of bio diesel and diesel fuels are compared in table

Property Biodiesel Diesel

Specific gravity 0.902 0.835


Calorific value (MJ/kg) 37.50 42.50
Viscosity (cSt) at 40’ C 4.2 3.8
Flash point (‘ C) 77 45
Fire point (‘ C) 87 56

The characteristics of Biodiesel are close to diesel fuels, and the fore bio diesel becomes
a strong candidate to replace the diesel fuels if the need arises. The conversion of
triglycerides into methyl or ethyl esters through the transesterification process reduces the
molecular weight to one-third that of the triglycerides reduces the viscosity and increases
the volatility marginally. Biodiesel viscosity close to diesel fuels. These esters contain 10
to 11% oxygen by weight which may encourage more combustion than hydrocarbon
based diesel fuels in an engine. The cenatne number of Biodiesel is around 50. The use of
tertiary fatty ammines and amides can be effective in enhancing the ignition quality of the
finished diesel fuel without having any negative effect on its cold flow properties. Since
the volatility increases marginally, the starting persists in cold conditions. Biodiesel has
lover volumetric heating values than diesel fuels but has a high cetane number and flash
point. The esters have cloud point and pour points higher than those of diesel fuels.
Biodiesel has virtually no sulphur content, and it is often used as a additive to Ultra Low
Sulphur diesel.

CHAPTER 6
PERFORMANCE CHARECTERISTCS
Biodiesel was tested on a four stroke single cylinder horizontal Ruston diesel engine. It
was seen that the engine performance was enhanced compared with the petroleum diesel
as fuel. From the experimental data’s it can be seen that the fuel consumption using
Biodiesel is slightly less than that of diesel. Due this fact the thermal efficiency is
increased. Brake thermal efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency shows a small
increase the power out put of the engine is same for the fuels when coconut oil methyl
ester is used there is a reduction of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate
matters

6.1 Engine specification

Horizontal, single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled diesel engine

Rated RPM - 500

Brake power - 5 (3.68 kW)

Stroke - 203.2 mm

Bore - 107.95

6.2 Comparison of various performance parameters

6.2.1 Fuel consumption

The fuel consumption of the engine using Biodiesel is slightly less than that of petroleum
diesel. This is due the fact that the specific gravity of Biodiesel is slightly greater than
that of petroleum diesel and thus the fuel is efficiently utilized

Fuel consumption (kg/hr)


Shaft power (kW) Biodiesel Diesel
0 0.500 O.54
0.235 0.550 0.56
0.46 0.624 0.672
0.69 0.773 0.796
0.90 0.811 0.890
1.10 0.935 0.945
1.31 1.110 1.043
1.48 1.200 1.120
1.60 1.290 1.370

6.2.2 Specific fuel consumption

Since the fuel consumption is less, specific fuel consumption is also less for Biodiesel
compared to petroleum diesel. That is the amount of fuel consumed per unit power
developed per hour is less. This is clear indication of the increased efficiency with which
the engine develops power from fuel.

Specific fuel consumption (kg/kW-hr)

Shaft power (kW) Biodiesel Diesel


0 0 0
0.235 2.340 2.380
0.460 1.356 1.460
0.690 1.210 1.150
0.900 0.900 0.990
1.100 0.863 0.860
1.310 0.853 0.790
1.480 0.810 0.750
1.600 0.806 0.870

6.2.3 Thermal efficiency

Thermal efficiency of the engine is increased by using Biodiesel. That means the
combustion efficiency is increased. The fuel is efficiently utilized by the engine and
smoother combustion take place in the combustion chamber

6.2.3 (A) brake thermal efficiency

The ratio of the engine in the break power to the fuel energy shows an increase for the
same power out put when Biodiesel is used instead of diesel

Brake thermal efficiency (%)


Shaft power(kW) Biodiesel Diesel

0 0 0
0.235 4.10 3.59
0.460 7.07 5.86
0.690 8.56 7.40
0.900 10.65 8.60
1.100 11.11 9.90
1.310 11.24 10.76
1.480 11.84 11.32
1.600 11.90 9.88

6.2.3 (B) Indicated thermal efficiency

The ratio of energy in the indicated horse power to the fuel energy shows an increase for
the same power output when Biodiesel is used.

Indicated thermal efficiency

Shaft power (kW) Biodiesel Diesel

0 17.28 15.87
0.235 19.81 18.90
0.460 20.92 18.62
0.960 19.74 18.29
0.900 21.31 18.29
1.100 20.21 19.00
1.310 19.02 18.68
1.480 19.04 18.97
1.600 18.60 16.14

6.2.4 Mechanical efficiency

The ratio of brake power to the indicated power shows an increase for the same power
output when Biodiesel is used.

Shaft power (kW) Biodiesel Diesel

0 0 0
0.235 20.70 19.02
0.460 33.82 31.50
0.960 43.39 40.82
0.900 50.00 47.36
1.100 55.00 52.38
1.310 59.09 56.52
1.480 62.18 59.68
1.600 64.00 61.53

6.3. Performance curves

6.3.1Brake thermal efficiency v/s Shaft power


6.3.2 Indicated thermal efficiency v/s Shaft power
6.3.3 Mechanical efficiency v/s shaft power
6.3.4 Fuel consumption v/s Shaft power
6.3.5 Specific Fuel consumption v/s shaft power
HATER 7

COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL AND DIESEL

The performance of biodiesel as a fuel compares favorably to traditional diesel.


The cetane number of biodiesel fuel, which is the ability of the fuel to resist knock (the
diesel equivalent of octane) is higher than that of petroleum diesel. Extensive testing has
revealed that biodiesel fuel produces almost identical performance numbers when
compared to petroleum diesel in the same engines. Fuel economy is also comparable.
Biodiesel has the additional advantage of increased lubricity over traditional diesel,
up to 65% greater even with conservative biodiesel blends. This better lubricity can
translate into less engine wear over the life of the vehicle. Since a diesel engine remains
mechanically identical regardless of which type of fuel it is running, it is not necessary to
stock any special parts or learn new techniques in order to service and repair engines
using biodiesel.

In cold climates, biodiesel falls victim to the same types of issues that surround
regular diesel engines. One such problem encountered during cold weather diesel
operation is fuel gelling, which can lower viscosity. B20 blends can increase the
temperature at which diesel begins to experience negative effects from the cold by
between 2 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit. B100 fuel may require petroleum diesel blending
in order to remain useable at similar temperatures, and fuel-tank heating may be
necessary to improve B100 performance in these situations.

Most of the extra costs associated with using certain biodiesel blends are made up
for via these tax breaks. In addition, more modern diesel engines include pollution
equipment already designed to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, removing the expense of
installing extra catalytic converters. Biodiesel is still in its infancy in terms of fuel
additive development, and new additives which promise to increase efficiency and further
reduce emissions are on the horizon.
CHAPTER 8

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVATAGES OF BIODIESEL

Advantages

1. Engine Emissions

Generally Fewer Harmful Emissions


Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide 48 percent less
Nitrogen Oxide – 10 percent more
Carbon Dioxide – 60 percent Less

2. Storing Biodiesel

It can be stored for 6-12 Months


High Solvency – Loosens Tank Deposits

* Biodiesel is an excellent solvent and enhances removal of deposits in fuel


systems, which in turn can plug fuel filters or cause deposits to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Filters generally do not continue to plug after the initial use of biodiesel.
* Biodiesel may cause fuel lines, gaskets and fuel pump seals on older engines to
deteriorate. Seals made from materials more biodiesel-tolerant are readily
available.

Prevent Water Contamination

3. Excellent Fuel for Diesel Engines


4. Fewer Harmful Emissions
5. Good Lubricating Qualities
6. Biodiesel (B100) provides excellent lubricity in diesel engine fuel systems.
7. The cloud point is the temperature of the fuel at which small, solid crystals can be
observed as the fuel cools. The cloud point of soybean biodiesel is about 30 F Addition
of anti-gel additives or No. 1 diesel fuel, to prevent filters from clogging. Biodiesel made
from various crop oils have unique
cold-weather characteristics that can vary up or down by as much as 5 degrees

8. Hydrocarbon emissions from engines operated on B100 were about 67 percent less
than petroleum diesel fuel emissions. Hydrocarbon emissions from engines contribute to
ozone formation and are a key component of smog. Particulate matter and carbon
monoxide emissions from engines using biodiesel were 48 percent less than petroleum
diesel.

Disadvantages

• Store in Dark Conditions

• Analyze if Stored for Longer Period

• 8 % Less Energy

• Serious Cold Weather Issues

• Higher Viscosity

• Some Solvency Problems

• Viscosity has an influence on the atomization of biodiesel fuel when it is injected


into the engine combustion chamber.
The viscosity of biodiesel is about 5.7 CP
• The high viscosity of raw or partially refined vegetable oil may result in
excessively high pressure in the injection system and Cause poor atomization of
the fuel in the combustion chamber, which can cause deposits around the piston
rings, valves and injectors.
• Biodiesel should be stored in dark
conditions that do not have any danger of water contamination.

• Nitrogen oxide emissions are about 10 percent higher using biodiesel.Most


biodiesel will begin to solidify if stored in cold conditions lower than 32 F.


CHAPTER 9

ENGINE MODIFICATIONS TO USE BIO DIESEL

Introduction to use Biodiesel in a diesel engine, simply pour it in the fuel tank and
use the engine as normal. No modifications, no second fuel tanks, no heat exchangers,
just pour it in and go.Biodiesel can also be blended with petrodiesel in any ratio. Pure
Biodiesel is belled B100 (the number representing the percentage of Biodiesel), when it's
blended, it's labelled with the percent of Biodiesel after the B. For example, B90 is 90%
Biodiesel, 10% some other fuel (typically petrodiesel).

The modifications to run pure B100 fuel are not extensive. Biodiesel is capable of
eating away at some types of rubber compounds and other elastomers (plastic and other
elastic fittings). This means that in certain engines, it is necessary to refit fuel delivery
tubing, gaskets and seals with more modern materials. B20 fuel does not require any
engine modification and can be run in any type of diesel engine.

*FUEL FILTERS

When first using Biodiesel it is recommended to replace the fuel filter on your
engine. Because of the solvent properties in Biodiesel, it may cause the release of
accumulated deposits inside the fuel tank and fuel lines from years of petro diesel use.
These deposits can flow down the fuel line and may plug the fuel filter. Most of the time
the filter's don't plug all at once, but slowly, causing slight hesitations in engine
acceleration, missing (cylinder's not all firing), or other sluggish behavior.

A good rule of thumb to follow is to replace the fuel filter before beginning to
use biodiesel and then replace it again after a few thousand miles of Biodiesel use,
especially if using percentages of Biodiesel of 30% or greater. Think of it this way,
Biodiesel is not only good for the environment, but it actually acts as a fuel system
cleaner, cleaning the injectors, fuel pump, fuel tank, and fuel lines. In fact, it's solvent
properties are so widely known that many fuel additive manufacturer's use it as an
ingredient in several of their
additive products.

* EMISSIONS

One of the benefits of using Biodiesel in a diesel engine is that it can help to
reduce the amount of tailpipe emissions. In fact, studies have shown that there is a
substantial reduction in the amount of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon
dioxide and particulate matter over emissions that Petro diesel emits. It also has a nice
effect of changing the smell of the exhaust. Most people say that it tends to smell like
French fries. Kind of a nice swap over the petrodiesel smell--that is unless you like that
smell. Biodiesel emission benefits begin with the use of a relatively low blend of
biodiesel. Studies have shown that a noticeable difference has been measured with even a
20% mix of Biodiesel in Petro diesel (B20). Continued use of Biodiesel overtime will
also help the engine to run better due to the fuel system becoming cleaner.

* ENGINE WARRENTIES

Several diesel engine manufacturer's will warrant the use of Biodiesel that is
commercially made up to B20 and some even beyond that. Check with the manufacturer
for specific details.

* ENGINE PERFORMANCE

Biodiesel has been shown to produce similar performance when compared to


Petrodiesel. One noticeable difference, fairly quickly after using it, is that the noise
emission of the engine goes down. Sometimes drastically, depending on the engine it's
used in. this is due to Biodiesel having a higher lubricity than Petro diesel. Think of it
like this. It's slipperier" than Petro diesel. There's lots of chemical stuff that can explain it,
but for the average user, the noticeable difference is a quieter engine, easier starts, and
less vibration. The effect increases as the percentage of Biodiesel used increases per
gallon of fuel.

There has been documented evidence that shows there to be a slight decrease in
power, somewhere between 5% to 10%. This is due to several factors, but essentially, it
has to do with the BTU equivalent of Biodiesel when compared to Petro diesel. Most
users don't notice this small of a decrease in power while gaining all of the benefits.
Individual results may vary
CHAPTER 10

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

The use of biodiesel has more than doubled in the past 3 years. There are several
reasons for its popularity. Many blends of biodiesel can be less expensive than standard
diesel, making it a good choice for fleets, such as buses or city vehicles. Municipalities
also appreciate the fact that pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends produce cleaner
emissions than conventional diesel fuels. This can require some vehicles to be outfitted
with specific catalytic converters in order to reduce the release of this gas.
CHAPTER11
ECONOMICALFEASIBILITYOF BIODIESEL

India has rich and abundant forest resources with a wide range of plants and
oilseeds. The production of oilseeds can be stepped up many folds if government takes
the decision to use them for producing diesel flues. Also non cultivated waste land can
used to produce oilseeds because the plants like jetropha have no need of any irrigation.

Economical feasibility of Biodiesel depends upon the price of crude petroleum


and the cost of transportation. It is certain that the price is bound to increase due to the
increase in demand and limited supply. Further, the strict regulations on the aromatic and
sulphur contents in the diesel fuels result in higher cost of production of diesel fuels as
removal of aromatics from distillate fractions requires capital-intensive processing
equipment and continuous high cost operations. Similarly decreasing of sulphur is also a
big challenge.

The processing of oilseeds for the production of edible vegetable oils generates
by-product streams containing triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids. In many
cases these streams are of considerably lower value than the finished oil. Successful
development of a scheme for ester synthesis from low-value lipids could address the
economic barriers to a wider adoption of Biodiesel. The cost of Biodiesel can be reduced
if we consider non edible oils, used-frying oils and acid oils instead of edible oils.

11.1 why Jatropha

Food quality vegetable oil has become so expensive, there is no longer a profit
viability for its use. None food grade vegetable oils are under use or consideration for
used to make Biodiesel and have been so during the entire use of Biodiesel. Here arise
the proposal that fuel only be made from non edible vegetable oil like jatropha oil.
Jatropha is an important feedstock for the production of Biofuels its widespread use in
India is gaining popularity as a quick growing source of oil-bearing nuts that can be
pressed to produce Biodiesel products, and have hand-pressed oil for using generators,
sewing machines and small motors. Glycerin a by product of jatropha oil, can also be
used to produce soap. Jatropha seeds contain a higher proportion of oils. Its oil is non
edible de-oiled cake is important and strongest bio-insecticide. Lackhs of sustainable self
employment opportunities can be generated with little bit of investment. Foreign
exchange for petroleum import can be reduced up to a lion share.

Jatropha oil can be availed through traditional expellers. Because of its higher
flash point, it can be easily transported, handled, and stored. Its lower carbon percentage
leads to smokeless exhausts in engines. In normal conditions the average consumptions
of jatropha oil is just 80% of diesel. Also farmers can directly use the oil in their engines.

11.2 Cultivation of Jatropha

Jatropha plant can be cultivated in waste lands. Jatropha is a fast growing and
long lived plant, easy to propagate up to 3600m above sea level, not browsed by animals
and seeds not eaten by birds. It can successfully withstand the super cyclone and
subsequent drought. . Jatropha has also been proven to have strong anti erosion qualities.
The plant not requires any fertilizers and irrigation. It can be cultivated any type of soil
having no water logging. Cultivation can be done in many methods like Fencing,
Cropping, Dense cropping, Inter cropping. To prevent the switching from producing food
crops to producing Biofuel crops, waste land management have to be done. In India states
like Tamilnadu, Punjab, Chatheesegur, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Utharanchal
holds cultivation of jatropha. Indian Railway offers abundant free space for cultivation of
jatropha for promotion the production of Biodiesel. The surge of interest in Biodiesel has
highlighted a number of environmental benefits associated with its use. These include
reductions in green house gas emissions, deforestation, pollution and the rate of
Biodegradation.
11.3 Energy security

One of the main drivers for the adoption of Biodiesel is energy security. This
means a nations dependence on oil is reduced, and substituted with use of locally
available resources. Thus significant benefits can be accruing to a country from adoption
Biofuels. A properly managed Biofuels have the potential to reinforce the security of
supply through diversification of energy sources. Its amazing that in India with about 50
Acre per Panchayath cultivation of jatropha in 2.5 Lakh Panchayaths can attain energy
security.

.
CHAPTER12
CONCLUSION

Alternate fuels for diesel engines have now become increasingly important due to
decreasing petroleum reserves and the environmental consequences of exhaust gases
from petroleum-fueled engines. A number studies have shown that triglycerides hold
promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines. However the high viscosity, low volatility
and poor cold flow properties of triglycerides, which result in severe engine deposits,
injector coking and piston ring striking, have prevented triglycerides from being used
directly in diesel engines. One way to improve the fuel properties of triglyceride is the
catalytic transesterification of triglyceride with alcohols to form monoalkyl esters of long
chain fatty acids, known as Biodiesel which is quite similar to hydrocarbon-based diesel
fuels, and provides similar engine performance with attractive emission levels.
From the reported literature on Biodiesel, several conclusions have been
recognized as valid. This includes:

 Conventional diesel engines can be operated with out much, if any, modification
on Biodiesel

 Biodiesel can be used pure or in a mixture with hydrocarbons-based diesel fuels

 By implementing jatropha cultivation promotion we can attain energy security


in case of diesel fuels

 Biodiesel is nontoxic, safe to handle and biodegradable and no evaporation of


low-boiling components takes place

 On account of production of Biofuel in India it is more feasible to accept


jatropha oil
 Many environmental benefits can be attained by promotion of Biofuel crop
cultivation.
 Usage of Biofuel is more eco-friendly.

 The economical gain from the Biodiesel crop cultivation is high, and the firm
can provide more employment.

 The direct source of energy content of Biodiesel is solar energy, which is a


renewable resource.
CHAPTER13
SUGGESTIONS

 Promote preparation of Biodiesel from non edible oils like jatropha oil, rubber
seed oil etc.
 Promote the cultivation of jatropha, more preference should be given to waste
land.
 Do studies on engine performance, emissions, durability testing in a variety of
engines available now and do required manipulations.
 Studies to reduce the production cost, develop low-cost feed stocks and identity
potential market in order to balance cost and availability.
 Co-product development like the recovery of glycerol at reduced cost.
 Research on the effect on glycerol on engine durability, emission and material
compatibility.
 Development of additives for improving cold flow properties and prevention of
oxidation in storage
 Compel the public to maintain emission standards by strictly enforcing the laws.
CHAPTER 14
REFERENCE

 Renewable and sustainable energy reviews - A. Srivasthava, R. Prasad


 Biofuels for IC engines- application and its effect on environment-A.S. Ramadhas
Feb 2005
 Fueling direct injected diesel engine with 100% neat Biodiesel, A final report to
the National Biodiesel Board – Leong, Shumacher and William B Wetherell 1996