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Chapter 1: Business Description

1.1 Background
“To treat agro/coffee/sugar/natural rubber/pulp waste,
cattle /poultry /fishery /animal /human waste, food
/kitchen /hotel waste (including used cooking oil), leafy
garden waste, used flowers and all types of organic
waste to produce Cooking Gas, Bio-CNG/PNG &
Natural Soil Conditioner”

The Indian Urban Scenario in terms of waste management and disposal is bleak.
Traditional methods of waste disposal under the purview of municipal and civic
bodies have largely limited themselves to "collect and dispose" functions which
are becoming inadequate to cope with its increasing quantity and changing
nature. Waste has to be treated as wealth and needs to be viewed scientifically
and holistically, recognising its natural resource roots as well as health impacts.
Urban poverty is inextricably linked with waste. In India, over a million people
find livelihood opportunities in waste collection. Hence, there is an urgent need
to build upon existing systems instead of attempting to replace them blindly
with models from developed countries. Delhi generates 6500 tonnes of garbage
per day but only 5000 tonnes reach the sanitary landfills (garbage dumping
sites). The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has been actively engaged in
devising various schemes for disposal, treatment and transportation of solid
waste but is lagging behind in achieving a total solution to the problem. Even
the judiciary is pulling them up for non-compliance in providing a status report
in the matter by 2 February, 2005 (T01, 14 April 2005). The Delhi High Court
had no hesitation in observing that the capital city has become an "open-
dustbin".

Such a situation is prevalent not in Delhi alone but in most of the other towns
and cities of the country due to rapid urbanisation and lack of civic
infrastructure to cope with the problem. The municipal authorities are not
entirely culpable for this menace. There is a need to bring about attitudinal
change right from individual households to all stakeholders. Although change in
mindset is not an easy proposition but understanding one’s responsibility and
dedication to make things work would facilitate clean and healthier
surroundings. Initially, strict implementation and enforcement of environmental
laws will pave the way for compliance. We have to get out of NIMBYS (not in
my backyard syndrome) and contribute as responsible citizens living in a
community which respects and understands nature and environment.

Solid waste management is a relatively new concept in India, compared to the


west where it is a highly organized business. The typical business model
involves collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposal of waste.
And there is opportunity hidden in each step. Solid Waste Management (SWM),
which is an obligatory function of the Urban Local Body (ULB), is in a pathetic
state resulting in problems of flood, water logging, mosquito menace, sanitation
and environmental and health related problems.

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1.2 Core Activities of Proposed Business

• Collection
• Transportation
• Segregation
• Treatment
• Disposal of waste.

1.3 Location

The proposed project will be for the entire area under Dehradun Nagar Nigam
which is approximately 67.00 Sq Km. The projected population of Dehradun
city for the year 2011 is 8,23,099 approximately. After considering floating
population the equivalent projected population, is 9,05,409 for the year 2011.

1.4 Product and/or service description

Products
i. Bio-gas
ii. Compost
iii. Carbon Credits

Services
The various components of proposed project of Solid Waste Management
system is based on the assessment of the existing deficiencies and mandatory
requirement as per MSW Rules 2000.

1. Door-to-door collection of solid waste from household, industrial


units and institutions
2. Providing separate bins, at point of collection for
biodegradable/non degradable waste
3. Procurement and operation of equipments, vehicles and tools for
door to-door collection
4. Secondary storage of wastes
5. Waste transfer from primary collection equipments to light motor
vehicles
6. Collection of waste from daily sweeping of streets
7. Transportation of wastes to treatment facilities
8. Build, Operate & Maintain workshop for maintenance of vehicle/
equipments
9. Procure project vehicles, equipments and other assets required for
the execution of the project
10. Construction, Operations and Management of treatment facilities
and land fill sites

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Existing Practice

MSWM is a part of public health and sanitation, and is entrusted to the


municipal government for execution. Presently, the systems are assuming larger
importance due to population explosion in municipal areas, legal intervention,
and emergence of newer technologies and rising public awareness towards
cleanliness (Kumar et al., 2004).
Except in the metropolitan cities, SWM is the responsibility of a health officer
who is assisted by the engineering department in the transportation work. The
activity is mostly labour intensive, and 2-3 workers are provided per 1000
residents served. The municipal agencies spend 5-25% of their budget on SWM,
which is Rs. 75-250 per capita per year (Kumar and Gaikwad, 2004). Normally
a city of 1 million populations spends around Rs. 10 crores for this activity. In
spite of this huge expenditure, services are not provided to the desired level.
Community bin collection system is usually practiced in India. The collection
bin and implements used in various cities are not properly designed. It has been
observed that community bins have not been installed at proper location. This
has resulted in poor collection efficiency. Lack of public awareness has made
the situation worse. Various types of vehicles are used for transportation of
waste to the disposal site. However, these vehicles are not designed as per
requirement. In many urban centers, proper garages are not provided for the
vehicles for protection from heat and rain. Preventive maintenance system is not
adopted and as a result the life of the vehicle is reduced. Many of the vehicles
used for transportation of waste have outlived their normal life.
Manual composting is carried out in smaller urban centres. Although in 1980's
mechanical composting plants were set up in 10 cities, presently, only one plant
out of them continues to be in operation. Over the years, a few more plants have
been set up. Incineration has not been successful due to the low calorific value
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of the solid waste. Waste is disposed of in low-lying areas without taking any
precautions and without any operational control. Solid waste workers handle the
waste without any protective equipment and are prone to infection.

1.5 The Current Practice on Waste Management

• Open dumping at disposal sites


• Allows for anaerobic degradation
• No sanitary landfill for MSW disposal in India
• Existing Composting facilities do not work efficiently
• 90% disposal of waste in open and 9% composted
• Difficulties in providing the desired level of public service in the
urban centers often attributed to the poor financial status of the
managing municipal corporations

1.6 Need for change


SWM systems exist in most of the urban centres since last few decades.
However, these systems have yet to emerge as a well-organized practice.
Although, the solid waste characteristics in different urban centers vary
significantly, there is a meagre effort to tailor the system configuration to the
waste characteristics. The major deficiencies associated with the system are
described in the following sections (Kumar and Gaikwad, 2004).

Rapidly Increasing Areas to be Served and Quantity of Waste


The solid waste quantities generated in urban centres are increasing due to rise
in the population and increase in the per capita waste generation rate. The
increasing solid waste quantities and the areas to be served strain the existing
SWM system.

Inadequate Resources
While allocating resources including finance, SWM is assigned with a low
priority resulting in inadequate provision of funds. Often there is a common
budget for collection and treatment of sewage and SWM and the later receives a
minor share of the funds. The inadequacy of human resource is mainly due to
the absence of suitably trained staff.

Inappropriate Technology
The equipment and machinery presently used in the system are usually that
which have been developed for general purpose or that which have been adopted
from other industry. This results in underutilization of existing resources and
lowering of the efficiency. A few attempts have been made to borrow the
technology developed in other countries like highly mechanized compost plants,
incinerator-cum-power plants, compactor vehicles etc. However, these attempts
have met with little success, since, the solid waste characteristics and local
conditions in India are much different from those for which the technology is
developed.

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Disproportionately High Cost of Manpower
Mostly out of the total expenditure, around 90% is accounted for manpower of
which major portion is utilized for collection. Since citizens tend to throw the
waste on the adjoining road and outside the bin, the work of the collection staff
is increased. Hence, the cost of collection increases considerably.

Societal and Management Apathy


The operational efficiency of SWM depends on the active participation of both
the municipal agency and the citizens. Since the social status of SWM is low,
there is a strong apathy towards it, which can be seen from the uncollected
waste in many areas and the deterioration of aesthetic and environmental quality
at the uncontrolled disposal sites.

Low Efficiency of the System


The SWM system is unplanned and is operated in an unscientific way. Neither
the work norms are specified nor the work of collection staff appropriately
supervised. The vehicles are poorly maintained and no schedule is observed for
preventive maintenance. Due to shortage of financial resources, the vehicles are
often used beyond their economical life resulting in inefficient operation.
Further, there is no co-ordination of activities between different components of
the system. The cumulative effect of all these factors is an inefficient SWM
system.

Benefits of the change


Solid waste management is crucial, because people will continue to create
garbage and trash. In this sense municipal solid waste is a renewable form of
alternative energy, one which is much more environmentally friendly than using
fossil fuels. If the waste was not removed and taken care of, cities would
become overrun with waste, rodents, insects, and germs. Waste to energy takes
things that are already discarded, and turns these into electricity and energy that
is much needed. This benefits society and the world twice, once when the
garbage is removed and does not end up in a landfill polluting the earth and
taking up space, and the second benefit is a source of energy that is cleaner and
more eco-friendly than fossil fuels, with less pollution and contribution to global
warming and greenhouse gas emissions. Solid waste energy is the future of both
municipal solid waste management and alternative energy sources which are eco
friendly and meet the energy needs of the world. This source of alternative
energy may very well be the main energy source of the future.

1.7 Suppliers
Growdiesel
B-196, Surajmal Vihar
Delhi-110092, India
Ph: +91-11-32904064/65803335
Fax: +91-11-42404335
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E-mail: info@growdieselmail.com / growdiesel@gmail.com
Website: www.growdiesel.com / www.growdieselevents.com
The technology which is the same as that of the Maharashtra and Punjab plants
has been code named Growdiesel WTG1XG. It is a multiphase process based on
the Nisagruna technology of BARC. There are some 50 plants operating in the
country based on the BARC technology. Growdiesel has a trained team with a
combined experience of over 100 man-years to design & implement the projects
on national level.

Growdiesel shall provide 100% technical and management support for setting,
commissioning and maintaining the manufacturing plant. The cost of the plant
treating 150 metric tonnes of solid waste per day will be approximately 8 crores.

Agro Machinary & Consultancy (Pvt) Ltd – AMACON will be the alternative
supplier.

Mini Industrial Estate, Post Box No.39


Angamaly, Cochin, Kerala-683572, India
Telephone (office): 91-484-2454134
Fax: 91-484-2458580
www.amacon.in
E.mail - info@amacon.in

1.8 Ownership structure

Name Pragati Ashish Vijay Robin Neha Nupur


Sheel Jain Pandey Arora Gupta Singh

Age 25 22 25 23 23 24

Qualifications MBA MBA MBA MBA MBA MBA

Work history 3 years Nil 3 years Nil 1.5 1 year


years

Previous business Yes No Nil Nil Nil Nil


experience and knowledge

Technical expertise and


knowledge of the product or No Yes No Yes No No
services you intend to offer

Equal stake and contribution from each of the promoter.

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1.9 Legal considerations

• Statutory/legal requirements
1. MSW Rules 2000
2. JNNRUM

• Company Registration
Under the Companies Act, 1956 a new company by the name “Zero Waste
Private Limited” will be incorporated.

• Environmental permit
1. State Pollution Control Board
2. Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) guidelines

• Others
All other required approvals and permissions will be taken by Dehradun
Municipal Authority.

Note: Required permits attached in schedules.

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Chapter 2 : Project Background

2.1 Introduction

Government of India has initiated a major urban infrastructure development


project from December, 2005 to improve essential urban infrastructure in 35
one million plus cities, state capitals and certain other important cities of
India.

The Government of India has come forward to extend financial support


linked with reforms to selected 63 cities of India under Jawaharlal Nehru
National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The cities of Dehradun,
Haridwar and Nainital of Uttarakhand State are included in this list of 63 cities.

Dehradun, the state capital of Uttarakhand is one of the 63 towns listed


under the JNNURM. The city is facing a challenge of providing essential
infrastructure to keep pace with population growth. Due to urban population
growth and large tourist influx Solid waste management is one of the major
challenges faced by this city.

2.2 Project Overview

The existing Nagar Nigam Solid Waste Management system in Dehradun is


deficient in all components i.e. source segregation, primary collection,
treatment, scientific disposal of waste.

The existing Solid Waste Management system lacks adequate infrastructure


facilities to meet the norms stipulated in the Solid Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules 2000. The city of Dehradun needs to immediately augment
its Solid Waste management systems to comply with MSW Rules 2000.
Dehradun Nagar Nigam proposes to set up an integrated solid waste
management system by way of awareness campaign, segregation, collection,
transportation, storage, treatment and land fill of municipal waste.

2.3 Project Financing

The proposed project is covered under JNNURM and Uttarakhand having special
state status, the project is entitled to get 80% of the capital cost as grant from
Government of India and remaining 20% from the State.

The part of Operations &Maintenance cost would be recovered from user


charges, sale of compost & RDF, advertisement rights etc to ensure project
sustainability.

2.4 Project Location

Dehradun is the administrative centre and the capital of the newly formed state of
Uttarakhand. It is situated at the Himalayan foothills in the fertile Doon Valley.
The valley is well known for its salubrious climate and natural beauty. It is due to
this reason Dehradun has been one of the favourite residential cities. Dehradun is
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also one of the most beautiful resort centres in India, it is well known for its
scenic natural beauty, beautiful forests, waterfalls and surroundings. It is also an
important educational centre of the country. India's some of the best public
schools and convents are located here. The Indian Military Academy, Forest
Research Institute, ONGC and many more offices of Central and State Govt are
located here. Dehradun is well linked with rail, road and air routes to all the parts
of the state and the country.

2.5 Project Components

The various components of proposed project of Integrated Solid Waste


Management system are based on the assessment of the existing deficiencies and
mandatory requirement as per MSW Rules 2000.

a) Door-to-door collection of solid waste from household, industrial units


and institutions.
b) Providing separate bins, at point of collection for biodegradable/non
degradable waste
c) Procurement and operation of equipments, vehicles and tools for
door-to-door collection.
d) Secondary storage of wastes
e) Waste transfer from primary collection equipments to light motor
vehicles.
f) Collection of waste generated from daily sweeping of streets.
g) Transportation of wastes to treatment facilities.
h) Build, Operate & Maintain workshop for maintenance of vehicle/
equipments
i) Build, Operate and Maintain Integrated solid waste treatment facility
with all necessary tools and equipments as under:

S No Description Unit Value


1 Composting Plant MT/day 150
2 Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) MT/day -----
3 Inert Processing Plant MT/day ------
4 Engineered Land Fill MT/day 50

a) Storage at primary point of waste generation

It is proposed to install:
• Two (2) containers of 12.0-15.0 litres capacity at each household
for storage of separate category of waste.
• Set of covered community bins of 100 litre capacity for private society,
association of flats/multistoried buildings etc. With 20 to 25 houses
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• Larger capacity of containers– 4 cubic meters with lid for vegetable
and fruit market.
• Larger capacity of containers– 4.0 cubic meters for fish and meat
markets

b) Door-to-door collection of waste

The city of Dehradun being the capital of Uttarakhand, it is proposed to make


a beginning of turning the city into a binless city in a phased manner. To begin
with the system of direct collection of waste into transport vehicles may be
adopted in 15 out of 60 wards doing away with street bins and that area may
be designated as “binless area”.

The PPP partner would procure and deploy adequate numbers of


containerised tricycles/wheelbarrows to collect household waste. It is estimated
that one wheel barrow/tricycle would cover 150 household and thus an
estimated 840 wheel barrow/tricycles would be required for 45 wards.

The PPP partner would install containerized tricycles having detachable


containers (preferably 6-8 in number) of 40litre/30litre capacity each for 45
wards.

c) Collection of waste from street sweeping

The PPP partner would deploy suitable equipments to collect waste from street
sweeping. Out of the total metaled road lengths, 117 km high density roads and
218 km medium density roads and identified in the city. Remaining 167 km low
density roads may be further classified into development and non development
areas. The approximately 1049 sanitation workers are required to cover the
entire length of streets.

Each sweeper may be given containerized handcart having 6 detachable


containers, so 140 handcarts would need to be procured. As street sweepings
from 15 wards is to be directly collected through motorized vehicles, one
vehicle may be allotted for 2 wards, where 4 to 5 collection points may be
identified for transfer of waste from handcarts would be made into the vehicle
directly. The vehicle may shuttle between these points at an interval of 30
minutes each. The requirement of pick up vans for street sweepings in 15 wards
would be 8 and one spare vehicle may be procured for replacement during
breakdown/repairs, etc.

d) Secondary storage of waste

Dehradun Nagar Nigam has been using 85 open waste storage sites, 6 masonry
bins, 23 concrete bins and 183 metallic bins for secondary storage of waste
making a total of 297 waste storage depots in the city. The number of
locations is more than adequate but there is a need to replace all open as
well as masonry and concrete bins by metallic containers and put all the
containers on concrete or asphalted flooring to maintain appropriate hygienic
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conditions around the bins.

It is proposed to introduce pairs of green and black colour containers of


4.00cmt and 3.00cmt respectively for secondary storage of biodegradable waste
and inert street sweeping respectively.

Dehradun Nagar Nigam though has 183 metal containers of 4.5 cubic meter
capacity but most of them are in a bad shape and need replacement. The
private partner is, therefore, required to procure 203 green containers of 4.0
cubic metre and 203 black containers of 3.0 cubic metre capacities to meet the
requirement of the city.

e) Transportation of waste

The PPP partner wo uld procure adequate number and types of


vehicles for transporting different categories of waste to treatment plants and
land fill sites.

f) Work shop for maintenance

The PPP partner would set up a workshop for maintenance of vehicles


and equipments.

g) Processing of waste

The PPP partner would set up waste treatment plant and land fill facilities. The
PPP partner would select appropriate technology for treatment of waste.

In the proposed project, the following facilities would be set up by the PPP
partner.

S No Description Unit Value


1 Composting Plant MT/day 150
2 Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) MT/day
3 Inert Processing Plant MT/day
4 Engineered Land Fill MT/day 50

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2.6 Estimates of waste and category according to Population

As Dehradun started with a low population base of 4.48 lakhs only (2001) its
population growth rate in terms of percentage is expected to be faster in the
coming decades as a result of its economic factors mentioned above. On the
basis of this understanding, it is assumed that the population of Dehradun will
grow at the rate of 4 % per annum for 5 years following 2009, 3.5 % from 2010
to 2014, and 3.0 % from 2015 to 2019. As the base (population) expands, the
rate of growth in terms of percentage will gradually slow down although in
absolute numbers population will keep increasing. It is presumed that population
growth rate will stabilize at 2.5 to 2.0 % per annum for the next few decades.
Annex 3.1.1 provides year-wise projected population over the next thirty years.
The number of daily commuters to the town is believed to be quite high but no
estimate of it is available. In the absence of any other basis, the commuter
population has been taken as 5% of the permanent population.

Table 1: The estimated waste collection from various sources is:

Year 2007 2011

Projected Population including


789699 905409
equivalent floating population

Total waste from residential


areas/day in 161.89 185.61
MT/day
Commercial waste in MT/day 46.67 58.86
Street Sweepings (better SWM
systems will 48.13 48.13
reduce the quantity
Total waste of street
generation per day in 256.69 292.6
MT
Per capita waste generation Kgs/per 0.357 0.323
day

Table 2: The category wise waste is estimated :

Items/Year 2007 - Waste in Percentages


MT/day
Biodegradable waste 139 54
Recyclables 64 25
Inert materials 51 20
Construction waste
reaching landfill 3 1

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2.7 Site

The following sites have been earmarked for setting up treatment plants and
landfill.

Table 3: The Site Details :


S No Facility Hectares Location
1 Engineered Land Fill & 8.323 Sherpur
Composting Plant
2 Refused Derived Fuel (RDF)
3 Inert Processing Plant

The sites for secondary storage have been earmarked and notified to the
successful bidder.

2.8 Revenue Sources

a) The Nagar Palika Parishad, Dehradun is contemplating the imposition


of suitable user charges from households and industries towards
waste collection through amendment in the Bye-laws.
b) The user charges as approved by Dehradun Nagar Nigam for various
categories of user are attached as Appendix 1 of this document.
c) The Concessionaire is expected to generate revenue from sale of
compost, RDF or through any other source as per MSW Rules and
advertisement in the vehicles, collection containers etc.

2.9 Vehicles and Equipments

Table 4: Equipments for Primary collection of Waste

Sr No. Item of expenditure Qty Required


1 Two containers for storage of waste at source in 89021
separate manner (Two container for Low income
groups and one for Low middle income groups)

2 Motorised pick up tipper vehicles for door to 35


door collection in 15 wards
3 Containerized tricycles for door to door 840
collection of waste from 45 wards
4 Containerized handcart for street sweepers 1080
5 Litter bins 500

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Table 5: Equipments for Secondary collection of Waste

Sr No. Item of expenditure Qty Required


1 4 cubic metre green containers liftable by twin 203
bin lifter machine
2 3 cubic metre black containers liftable by twin 203
bin lifter machine

Table 6: Transportation for Waste

Sr No. Item of expenditure Qty Required


1 Dumper Placer Vehicles having twin bin lifting device 12
with hyraulic cylinders and high pressure
2 Front end Loaders 2
3 Large hauling vehicles for transporting 10
biodegradable waste and inert waste to
composting and landfill site respectively
4 Asphalt/Concrete flooring under the bins 185
5 Compost plant of 150 M.T. /day with compund wall 1
(Govt. contribution)
6 Construction of Sanitary Landfill site of 50 1
MT/Day capacity alongwith Equipments
7 Construction of Ramp Model Transfer station with 1
compactors and washing facility
8 Shifting and Upgradation of Maintainence 1
Workshop for repair and maintenance of
Vehicles

2.10.1 Quantity and Characteristics of waste generation in the city

Based on DPR data, initially 100 samples were drawn from selected
households from high income, middle income and low income groups and a
set of two bags were distributed to each household and they were asked to
store biodegradable and non biodegradable wastes separately in those bags.
These bags were collected from the door step on a day to day basis and the
composition as well as quantity of this waste was assessed. The preliminary
study revealed the quantity of waste generation and its composition as
under:-

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Table 7: Quantities of waste generated by different income groups

PLEASANT VALLEY RAJPUR - Higher Income Groups

TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS TOTAL WEIGHT OF


OPEN BAGS in Kgs
Dates
Total
Mixed
Wet Bags Dry Bags No. of Bio Non Bio
Bags
Collected Collected Houses Degradable degradable
Collected
Served
09/07/10 44 45 63 18 61 10
10/07/10 79 77 81 2 70 6
35
11/07/10 80 78 81 1 60
CHAMAN VIHAR-Middle Income Groups

TOTAL NO. OF TOTAL WEIGHT OF


HOUSEHOLDS OPEN BAGS in Kgs
Dates
Total
Mixed Non
Wet bags Dry Bags No. of
Bags Degradable degradable
Collected Collected Houses
Collected
Served
09/07/10 105 105 130 30
09/07/10 8 8 99 91 100 30
10/07/10 51 72 72 62 6
10/07/10 92 85 92 68 8
11/07/10 95 88 95 86 11
12/07/10
84 91 91 80 16.4
CHAMAN PURI BASTI-Lower Income Group

TOTAL WEIGHT OF
TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS
Dates OPEN BAGS in Kgs
Total
Mixed
Wet bags Dry Bags No. of Non
Bags Degradable
Collected Collected Houses degradable
Collected
Served
09/07/10 71 91 96 5 52 6
10/07/10 100 95 100 0 68 11
11/07/10 103 96 103 0 85 6.9
12/07/10 92 89 92 0 66 6.5

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Having carried out a random sampling as above, larger samples were drawn from
the same area:

Table 8: Higher Income Group - Vasant Vihar

Average Quanitity of
Total No. of
Dates Total Waste waste per
Households
household/Day
15-07-2010 508 577 1.14
15-07-2010 508 546 1.07
16-07-2010 508 573 1.13
16-07-2010 508 590 1.16
17-07-2010 508 672 1.32
17-07-2010 508 517 1.02
18-07-2010 508 569 1.12
Average 1.14

Table 9: Middle Income Group - Chaman Vihar

Total No. of Average Quanitity of


Dates Total Waste
Households waste per household/Day
15-07-2010 532 561 1.05
15-07-2010 532 474 0.89
16-07-2010 532 515 0.97
16-07-2010 532 562 1.06
17-07-2010 532 571 1.07
17-07-2010 532 568 1.07
18-07-2010 532 534 1.00
Average 1.02

Table 10: Chaman Puri Basti-Lower Income Group

Average Quantity of
Total No. of
Dates Total Waste waste per
Households
household/Day
15-07-2010 430 320 0.74
15-07-2010 430 343 0.80
16-07-2010 430 365 0.85
16-07-2010 430 435 1.01
17-07-2010 430 371 0.86
18-07-2010 430 375 0.87

Average 0.86

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Table 11: Average quantity of waste generated by different income group
households
Income Group Average waste in Kgs/Day

High Income Group 1.14


Middle Income Group 1.02
Low Income Group 0.86

As per CDP, more than 54.4 percent of population falls in the category of BPL
and poor income group, 28% falls in lower middle income group and rest
17.6% falls in the higher income bracket. Mean per capita income of the
families is Rs.2372 and mean household income is Rs.10461. as could be seen
from the table below.

Table 12: Characterization of waste collected from residential wards(%):


High Income
Middle Income Low Income
Waste Components (Vasant Vihar)
(Chaman Vihar) (Chamanpuri)

Wooden Pieces 0.28 0.24 3.55


Paper 5.47 0.85 5.57
Textile 7.21 1.00 4.78
Thermocole 0.67 0.21 0.15
Glass 4.00 2.6 3.62
Rubber/ Leather 1.35 2.10 2.85
Polythene Bags 11.6 8.7 6.78
Plastic 2.45 0.57 0.601
School Bags 0 0 0
Metals 0.35 4.70 2.08
Human Hair 0 0 0
Flower 0.85 0.21 0.62
Green Leaves 2 0.85 1.85
Green Matter 3.14 9.42 7.17
Vegetables 30.5 30.7 38.41
Kitchen Waste 28.1 25.2 19.2
Dead Animal 0 0 0
Dry Bone/Dry Matter 0 0.71 0
Sand/Earth/Soil 1.40 1.20 2.17
Stone 0.35 0.14 0.30
Brick 0 0.14 0

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Table 13: Composition of waste collected from residential wards in percentage
:

Middle
Type of Waste High Income Low Income Average
Income

Recyclables 33.4 31.0 30.0 31.4

Biodegradables 64.6 67.1 67.3 66.3

Inert Materials 2.0 1.9 2.8 2.2

2.10.2 Quantification of Commercial and Institutional Waste


Table 14: Estimated quantities of waste generated by shops

PALTAN BAZAR-SHOPS (Commercial Establishment)

Bio- Non Bio- Total Quanitity Percentage


No. of Degradable degradable of Waste in Kgs Biodegradable
Dates Shops in Kgs in Kgs in Kgs
15-07-2010 100 83.34 24 107.34 77.64

16-11-2010 100 65.2 27.5 92.7 70.33

17-11-2010 100 88 40 128 68.75

18-11-2010 100 101.8 50.7 152.5 66.75


Average 84.585 35.55 120.135 70.41

Table 15: Estimated quantities of waste generated by commercial


establishments
Waste
Generated by Total in
Type of Commercial Establishments Number
each unit in MT/Day
Kg/Day
Vegetable and fruit markets 22 500 11.00
Meat and Fish market 12 200 2.40
Hotels and Restaurants 420 50 21.00
Factories 58 20 1.16
Shops and Offices 6758 1.2 8.11
Institutions 300 10 3.00

Total waste generated by Commercial Establishments 46.67

Page | 18
Quantity of Biodegradable Waste (assuming 70% biodegradable in 32.66
nature) MT/day
14.01
Quantity of Recyclable Waste (assuming 30 % Recyclable in nature)
MT/day

2.11.3 Composition of mix waste transported to dumpsite

Net weight, Density of total and kitchen waste was as under:-

Table 16: Density of waste

S.No Types of Waste Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4

1 Net weight (Kg) 2691 3502 2389 3122


2 Density of Total 378 405 378 405
Waste (Kg/m3)
3 Density of Kitchen 405 432 405 432
Waste (Kg/m3)

Table 17: Recyclables

S.No Types of Waste Results (% by Mass)


Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Average
1 Wooden Pieces 0.60 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.45
2 Paper 4.57 6.80 5.20 3.17 4.94
3 Textiles 6.72 7.85 8.54 8.74 7.96
4 Thermocole 0.15 0.06 0.12 0.35 0.17
6 Glass 0.11 0.11 0.20 0.20 0.16
7 Rubber/Leather 0.85 0.26 0.63 0.40 0.54
8 Polythene bags 5.53 6.51 5.98 8.90
6.73
9 Plastics 0.96 1.63 1.17 1.06 1.21
10 School Bags 0.37 0.74 - 0.51
0.41
11 Metals 0.11 - - 0.06 0.04
12 Human Hair - - - 0.03 0.01
Total 22.60

Page | 19
Table18: Biodegradable Waste

S.No Types of Waste Results (% by Mass)


Sample 1 Sample Sample 3 Sample Average
2 4
1 Flowers 0.22 0.11 0.30 0.20 0.21
2 Green Leaves 7.24 5.48 7.16 4.67 6.14
3 Green Matter - - - - 0.00
4 Vegetables 1.37 1.31 2.97 1.02 1.67
5 Kitchen Waste 38.20 35.75 34.70 38.56 36.80
6 Dead Animals 0.30 - - 0.50 0.20
7 Dry Leaves /Dry 2.94 5.25 3.60 2.98
Matter 3.69
5 Straw/Hay 3.97 4.11 4.06 0.83 3.24
Total 51.95

Table 19: Inert Materials

S.No Types of Waste Results (% by Mass)


Sample 1 Sample Sample 3 Sample Average
2 4
1 Sand/ Earth/ Soil 23.29 21.67 21.93 24.95 22.96

Table 20: Construction Waste

S.No Types of Waste Results (% by Mass)


Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Average
1 Stone 0.96 0.63 1.08 0.96 0.91
2 Brick 0.74 - - - 0.19
3 Ceramics 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.07
4 Lime 0.70 1.20 1.84 1.47 1.30
Total 2.46

2.11.4 Chemical Composition

Following Chemical Characteristics were tested are:


1. Moisture content
2. Organic Matter
3. C/N Ratio
4. Calorific Value* in KCal/Kg

Page | 20
Table 21: Chemical test Methods and Results
Organic Calorific
Moisture Content
Samples/items Matter (% by C/N Ratio Value (K
(% by mass)
mass) Cal/Kg)
Testing USDA, Bomb
IS : 9235-1979 By Calculation
Method used Guideline Calorimeter
Sample 1 36.9 11 14.88 1947

Sample 2 38.2 9.3 20 2124

Sample 3 40.8 10.8 21.72 1828

Sample 4 36.6 9.4 17.18 2242


Average 38.125 10.125 18.445 2035.25

Note: - Calorific value of the waste seems to be high. It has to be separately


checked for biodegrdabale waste only.

Page | 21
Chapter 3 : Design and Construction Requirements of The
Project

3.1 Design and Construction Requirements for Landfill Site

3.1.1 Landfill Design Facilities

The landfill design will have to be based on geological and hydro


geological conditions, projected waste generation, and volume along with
procedures to reduce potential impacts to the existing natural and social
environment of the site.
The basic steps essential for the landfill designs are:
1. Landfill sizing
2. Site layout
3. Landfill layout
4. Leachate management
5. Landfill gas management

3.1.2 Landfill Sizing

The volume of waste to be land filled is worked out for the active period
of landfill taking into account (1) the current waste generation per annum and
(2) the expected increase in waste generation rate based on population
growth and influx of floating population. The life of the landfill site
proposed should at least be 10 - 15 years considering the hilly terrain.
The current waste generation rate is about 200 metric tonnes for 2007 of
which about 50 TPD waste would be going to the landfill.
It is also assumed that the waste generation rate would increase by 3.9% per
annum for 20 years period. This is basically due to the change in life styles of
the people. The current identified site will not last for 15 years and hence the
DNN should look for additional site for disposal of rejects into sanitary landfill.

3.1.3 Site Layout

The infrastructure facilities to be created at the proposed landfill site are as


follows:
a. Approach road
b. Site drainage facilities
c. Location of leachate collection facilities
d. Landfill gas collection/monitoring and management system e.
Weigh bridge
f. Administration building and laboratory
g. Garage and vehicle washing area
Page | 22
The waste coming to the landfill will be weighed and then brought to the site for
disposal.

3.1.4 Landfill Layout

The site allocated for sanitary landfill for MSW disposal at Dehradun is at
Sherpur, having an area of about 8.323 Ha, beyond the IMA. The site is a flat
land. The river is about 300 – 400 m away from the site.

3.1.5 Leachate Management

A proper leachate collection system will be provided to carry the leachate into the
leachate collection tank. The leachate will travel through the gravel into the
lateral pipes. These will carry the leachate to the header pipes from where it will
be taken to the tank.

3.1.6 Landfill Gas Management

The proposed system of Solid Waste Management at Dehradun will consist of


segregation of waste at source, transporting the same to composting yards for
processing. The organic waste would be converted into manure while the rejects
would go to landfill. The recyclable material would be collected separately and
given to the recycling route. The inert material collected at source mainly
comprising of soil from road sweeping would come to landfill.

With the provision of composting, only inert material will be deposited in the
landfill. Some quantity of rejects of large size organics from the compost plant
will also get into the landfill. It is expected that not more than 5 % of the waste in
the landfill would be biodegradable. As the particle size of organic rejects of
compost plant is large, its degradation will be very slow and will continue for a
long time in the Dry Tomb Landfill.

It would thus be necessary to provide passive gas vents instead of proper gas
collection system. The design of passive vents for release of landfill gas has to be
designed keeping this in mind.

3.1.7 Landfill Construction

a. Landfill Base Liner Preparation

The base liner at the Dehradun landfill will be a composite liner comprising of
GCL overlaid with 1.5 mm HDPE Liner. The leachate collection system will be
placed over the geomembrane and comprises of 300 mm thick gravel layer,
constituting smooth, round gravel, 12 – 25mm in size. Perforated HDPE leachate
collection pipes will be embedded in this gravel layer. Non-Woven geotextile is
laid over gravel layer. Protective soil layer of 300mm is laid on the geotextile.

Page | 23
b. Supply and Installation of Geosynthetic Clay Liner

A Geosynthetic Clay Liner is suggested on top of the finished soil layer at the
bottom. This is important as the base liner of the landfill must be
constructed in such a way that it should take about 25 years for any
percolated leachate to pass through it. Technical specifications are
separately mentioned.

c. Subgrade Preparation

i. Subgrade surfaces consisting of granular soils or gravel may not be


acceptable due to their large void fraction and puncture potential. In
high head (greater than one foot) applications, subgrade soils should
possess a particle size distribution such that at least 80 percent of the soil
is finer than a #60 sieve (0.250 mm).

ii. When the GCL is placed over an earthen subgrade, the subgrade surface
must be in accordance with the project specifications. Engineer's
approval of the subgrade must be obtained prior to installation. The
finished surface should be firm and unyielding, without abrupt elevation
changes, voids, cracks, or standing water.

iii. The Subgrade surface must be smooth and free of vegetation, sharp-
edged rocks, stones, sticks, construction debris, and other foreign matter that
could contact the GCL. The subgrade should be rolled with a smooth-
drum compactor to remove any wheel ruts, footprints, or other abrupt
grade changes. Furthermore, all protrusions extending more than
0.5 inch (12 mm) from the subgrade surface shall be removed, crushed, or
pushed into the surface with a smooth-drum compactor.

d. Installation

i. GCL rolls should be taken to the working area of the site in their
original packaging. Prior to deployment, the packaging should be
carefully removed without damaging the GCL. The orientation of the GCL
(i.e., which side faces up) may be important if the GCL has two different
geotextiles. Unless otherwise specified, however, the GCL should be
installed such that the product name printed on one side of the GCL faces up.

ii. Equipment, which could damage the GCL, should not be allowed to travel
directly on it. Acceptable installation, therefore, may be accomplished
such that the GCL is unrolled in front of the backwards- moving equipment.
If the installation equipment causes rutting of the subgrade, the subgrade
must be restored to its originally accepted condition before placement
continues.

Page | 24
iii. If sufficient access is available; GCL may be deployed by suspending the roll
at the top of the hill with a group of laborers pulling the material off of the
roll and down the slope.

iv. GCL rolls should not be released on the slope


and allowed to unroll freely by gravity.

v. Care must be taken to minimize the extent to which the GCL is dragged
across the sub grade in order to avoid damage to the bottom surface of the
GCL. A temporary geosynthetic subgrade covering commonly known as a
slip sheet or rub sheet may be used to reduce friction damage during
placement.

vi. The GCL should be placed so that seams are parallel to the direction of the
slope. End-of-roll seams should also be Located at least 3 ft. (1 m) from the
toe and crest of slopes steeper than 3H: 1V.

vii. All GCL panels should lie flat on the underlying surface, with no wrinkles or
folds, especially at the exposed edges of the panels.

viii. The GCL should not be installed in standing water or during rainy weather.
Only as much GCL shall be deployed as can be covered at the end of the
working day with soil, a geomembrane, or a temporary waterproof tarpaulin.
The GCL shall not be left uncovered overnight. If the GCL is hydrated when
no confining stress is present, it may be necessary to remove and replace the
hydrated material. The project engineer and CQA inspector should be
consulted for specific guidance if premature hydration occurs.

e. Anchorage

The end of the GCL roll should be placed in an anchor trench at the top of a
slope. The front edge of the trench should be rounded to eliminate any sharp
corners that could cause excessive stress on the GCL. Loose soil should be
removed or compacted into the floor of the trench.

Anchorage should be as per the project drawings and specifications.


i. In case of difficulty, the Project Manager should be contacted for his
instructions.

ii. If a trench is used for anchoring the end of the GCL, soil backfill should
be placed in the trench to provide resistance against pullout. The size and
shape of the trench, as well as the appropriate backfill procedures, should be
in accordance with the project drawings and specifications.

f. Seaming

i. GCL seams are constructed by overlapping their adjacent edges. Care should
be taken to ensure that the overlap zone is not contaminated with loose soil
Page | 25
or other debris. In some types of GCL's supplemental bentonite in granular
form may be required for seaming. This should be provided as per the
manufacturer's recommendations. Unless otherwise specified the
minimum dimension of the longitudinal overlap should be 6 inches (150
mm). End-of-roll overlapped seams should be similarly constructed, but the
minimum overlap should measure 24 inches (600 mm).

ii. Seams at the ends of the panels should be constructed such that they are
shingled in the direction of the grade to prevent the potential for runoff flow
to enter the overlap zone. End panel overlap seams on slopes are not
permissible.

iii. End of panel seams are constructed first by overlapping the adjacent panels,
exposing the underlying edge, and then applying a continuous bead or fillet
of granular sodium bentonite (supplied with the GCL) along a zone defined
by the edge of the underlying panel and the 12- inch (300 mm) Line. The
minimum application rate at which the ben-tonite is applied is one-quarter
pound per linear foot (0.4 kg/m).

g. Seaming Around Penetrations & Structures

i. Cutting the GCL should be performed using a sharp utility knife.


ii. Frequent blade changes are recommended to avoid irregular tearing of the
geotextile components of the GCL during the cutting process.
iii. The GCL should be sealed around penetrations and structures
embedded in the subgrade. Granular bentonite or bentonite mastic shall be
used liberally (approx. 2 Lbs./ln ft. or 3 kg/m) to seal the GCL to these
structures.
iv. When the GCL is placed over an earthen subgrade, a "notch" should be
excavated into the sub-grade around the penetration. The notch should
then be backfilled with granular benthick tonite or bentonite mastic.
v. A secondary GCL layer of 300 mm overlap should also be placed to
avoid any leakages. The g r a n u l a r bentonite should be applied
between the 1st and the 2nd GCL layers.
vi. When the GCL is terminated at a structure or wall that is embedded into
the subgrade on the floor of the containment area, the subgrade should be
notched as described above. The notch is filled with bentonite, and
the GCL should be placed over the notch and up against the structure.
The connection to the structure can be accomplished by placement of
soil or stone backfill in this area.

h. Construction of Synthetic Membrane Liner

A 1.5 mm thick textured HDPE liner will be laid over the GCL. This layer will
prevent any infiltration of leachate into the soil layer below. The sub base is
properly prepared for installation of synthetic membrane. The sub base
needs to be compacted as per design specifications (95% modified Proctor
Page | 26
density for clay or amended soil). It must not contain any particles greater
than 1.25 cm in order to prevent damage to the geomembrane. An organic
herbicide should be used on the sub base below the synthetic membrane to
inhibit vegetative growth. The liner will be laid according to the phasing plan
elaborated in the drawing. The geomembrane supplier will be responsible for
laying the liner and welding the liner as and where required making it an
impervious barrier. Under no circumstances vehicles will be allowed to
operate on the liner directly. Only the seaming equipment, seam testing
equipment and necessary minimum number of personnel should be allowed on
the liner. The geomembrane should be covered with soils, or select waste,
and tarpaulin, to prevent any damage. Technical specifications are separately
mentioned.

i. Leachate Management

When water comes in contact with the waste material and the product of
waste decomposition in the landfill, leachate production takes place. It gets
generated due to the permeation of rainwater and surface water into the
landfill and percolation of this water through the waste layers. The
compaction and degradation of waste over a period of time also results in
leachate production. It is a polluted liquid that contains a number of
dissolved and suspended materials. Leachate quality depends on the waste
composition, temperature, moisture and availability of oxygen.

j. Leachate Collection System

The leachate collection system (LCS) consists of three main components; a


drainage layer, a series of collector pipes, and a non-woven geotextile
separator layer. These components are discussed in more detail below.

The leachate collection system and its components will be laid over the
HDPE geomembrane. The LCS layer consists of a 30 cm thick gravel drainage
layer of 12-25 mm sized rounded gravel and perforated HDPE pipes
embedded in this gravel layer. The HDPE pipes will collect the leachate and
are connected to a LCS tank. The leachate collected should be transported to
the Sewage treatment plant for treatment.

In the proposed landfill, it has been suggested that 2 header pipes of OD 160
mm size and OD 110 mm laterals be provided for the removal of leachate
formed. The leachate collection pipes must be wrapped in Non-woven
geotextiles so as to reduce the clogging of the pipes.

k. Protective Soil Layer

A layer of 300mm thick native soil should be placed on the non-


woven geotextile. This soil layer acts as an additional filter media and
prevents any large size particles from going into the leachate collection
system. This layer also acts as a buffer layer so that vehicles can move
Page | 27
without damaging the lower system. Care should be taken while placing
this material in place, as heavy vehicles are not allowed to move on the
geotextile directly. This has to be done manually and need not be
compacted. The waste of 1m is placed on this protective layer and then
compacted with compactors.
In order to dump subsequent layers of waste, soil should be pushed gently
by a light dozer to make a path. Dumping of soil directly on the
geotextile should be avoided as much as possible. One or two main
routes with 60-90 cm of soil should be created for use by heavier
equipment for the purposes of soil moving. Damage to the membrane
due to traffic can be severe and undetectable and hence should be avoided
at all times. The first lift of waste should be spread and compacted with
light vehicles. It is preferable not to compact the first foot of waste. No
bulky items should be dumped in the first lift.
If the water enters through closure, the geonets, would drain out the water
and not allow it to come into the landfill. The Geocomposite would
be provided on the slopes prepared with geotextile for strengthening.
This would act as a protective layer to the liner and also help in
draining the leachate formed to the main pipe.

l. Waste Placement

The objective is to emplace the waste into its final position within the
landfill in accordance with the design objectives without compromising
safety, environment or the local amenity. Areas where waste is to be placed
should be set out for line and level in advance of tipping, so that the waste is
placed in accordance with the detailed construction plan.
The waste deposition in the landfill will be started at the lower end
proceeding upwards. The profile of waste will be as shown in the details.
The average height of waste is assumed as 14m with which the landfill capacity
has been worked out. The landfill capacity mentioned above has been worked
out taking into consideration the loss of volume due to daily cover as well
as temporary cover before onset of monsoon
A designated operator should visually inspect every discharged load into the
tipping area. This could be a machine driver or the landfill operator
depending upon the traffic density. Working area personnel should be
trained and competent at waste identification in order that they can
recognize waste, which may be non-confirming. In event of reasonable doubt as
to the waste acceptability the operator should inform the waste reception facility
or the site manager immediately.
The consignment should be isolated pending further inspection.Once the waste
has been discharged from the vehicle it should be consolidated and
layered to ensure that tipping areas remain well defined and tipping slopes are
maintained at the designated gradients.

Page | 28
m. Waste Compaction

It is a conventional practice to level and compact the waste as soon as it is


discharged at the working areas. Compaction offers many benefits including,
enabling the maximum amount of waste to be emplaced within the space
available, reducing the impact from litter, flies, vermin, birds and fires and
minimizing short-term settlement. The waste should be compacted to a
density of about 1 tonnes/m3 is the optimum.

n. Daily cover

The daily soil cover required would have to be stored at site in a demarcated
area. If the soil is not available from the site itself it will have to be brought
from outside and stacked. The soil of 4 to 6 inches should be applied on the
waste coming in. The advantages of using daily cover are primarily in
preventing wind blow and odours, deterrence to scavengers, birds and
vermin and in improving the site's visual appearance. Soils will give a
pleasing uniform appearance from the site boundary.

o. Intermediate Cover

Waste should be covered at the end of each working day with a daily cover. If
a stretch of waste is not to be filled over in the immediate future (for example
- for one week), it should be covered with a thicker interim cover. Prior to the
commencement of monsoon season, an intermediate cover of 40-
65 cm thickness of soil should be placed on the landfill with proper
compaction and grading to prevent infiltration during monsoon. The
intermediate cover will follow the slopes and grading of the underlying
waste. Placement of tarpaulin covers may be required at locations where
either stagnation is observed or at locations where there is a possibility of
erosion of the interim cover.

p. Landfill Closure

The landfill cover system will extend above the bunds to the top of the waste.
The Landfill will be capped as per the MSW 2000 Rules. The waste will have
to be graded to the necessary stable slopes. The various layers that will be
placed on the waste are gravel of 300 mm thick for the gas to be released to the
gas vents. Passive Gas vents will be suitably placed in this layer so that the
small quantity of gas that is formed would be released into air. The possibility
of having large quantity of landfill gases is very less as the waste going into the
landfill would be of inert nature. A geotextile of 350 gm/M2 would be placed
on the gravel layer to separate it from the soil layer. A soil layer (native soil)
of 600 mm thick compacted to 95% Proctor density compaction will be
placed on top of the geotextile. A 1 mm thick textured HDPE liner would be
provided on top of the soil layer. This is to reduce the infiltration of water into
the landfill. A 150 mm thick gravel layer would be placed as a drainage layer
over which a geotextile would be placed. A soil layer of 450 mm thick would
Page | 29
be placed on the geotextile for vegetation. The
150 mm thick gravel layer would help in draining of the excessive water
entering the topsoil layer.
The Final Closure work would have to be carried out in all cells with the
quantum of Closure differing at each phase. It is important to note that with the
final Closure in place, there would be an advantage of reducing your Leachate
substantially.

q. Gas Collection layer

The first layer to be placed over the waste is a 300 mm thick gas-venting layer
constituting 12- 25 mm sized rounded gravel. In this gravel are
embedded gas-venting pipes. The position of gas venting pipes is shown in
drawing enclosed. A gas-venting pipe has been provided for every 2500 m2 of
top cover. This is so done, as the waste going into the landfill are the rejects of
the composting process and the inert material collected from the system.

Very little gas is expected from the landfill because of its inert nature. Care is
to be taken to embed the gas collection pipes in the gravel layer

r. Placement of Geotextile

A geotextile cover will be placed over the gas-venting layer, which will act as a
barrier between the overlying soil layer and the gravel layer of the gas
collection layer. At the periphery of the landfill, this geotextile is tucked into
the peripheral trench.

s. Compacted Clay Layer

A 600 mm. compacted clay liner will be laid over the geotextile. This layer will
act as a primary barrier to prevent the infiltration of runoff water into the
sanitary landfill. The clay liner should have a permeability less than or equal to
5 X 10-7 cm/s.
The placement of clay liner must meet the following requirements:
• Modified proctor density: 95%
• Moisture content: 5-7%
While clay is being compacted, measures should be taken to avoid the
formation of cracks and fissures. A thick layer will help to maintain the
integrity of the liner against desiccation cracks. It is advisable to compact the
clay liner using a sheep foot roller, in lifts of not exceeding a maximum
compacted thickness of 30 cm, and the above parameters (proctor density and
moisture content) are monitored for each lift.
There must be effective bonding between successive lifts that includes
kneading between lifts or scarification and moisture conditioning between
successive lifts. Kneading or blending a thinner, new lift with the previously
compacted lift may be achieved by using a footed roller with long feet that
Page | 30
can fully penetrate a loose lift of clay. If the protruding rods or feet of a
sheep foot roller are sufficient in length to penetrate the top lift and knead the
previous lift, good bonding may be achieved. Another method includes
scarifying (roughening), and possibly wetting, the top inch or so of the last
lift before placing the next lift. The maximum lift thickness and number of
lifts is intended to promote uniformity within each lift and reduce the
probability that preferential flow paths may align and adversely impact on the
hydraulic conductivity of the overall liner.
If it is necessary to tie in new sections of a clay liner into an existing liner,
lateral extension should be made about 3-6 m into the existing liner in a stair
stepped manner following the individual lifts of the existing liner. Materials
forming the existing liner must be scarified over a minimum horizontal
distance of 1 m to maximize bonding.
A minimum horizontal overlap of 1m between successive layers must be
achieved to have confidence that a preferential pathway for leachate flow is not
being created. It is important to assess the integrity of the bond between different
layers of liner construction at a similar elevation.

The method used to place the clay liner on side slopes depends on the angle
and length of the slope. Gradual inclines from the toe of the slope enable
continuous placement of clay layers up the slopes and provide better
continuity between the bottom and sidewalls of the clay liner. When steep
slopes are encountered, however, the clay may need to be placed and
compacted horizontally due to the difficulties of operating heavy compaction
equipment on steeper slopes. At the side slopes, the clay liner should be laid
in swaths which are approximately 10 metres in width and the compaction of
the clay should be accomplished by running the roller up the slope, instead of
across the slope - on the grade.

3.1.8 Surface Water Monitoring

A long-term monitoring programme should be established to monitor any


impact from the landfill on the quality of surface water. Monitoring should
commence prior to and early in the construction period to establish the
baseline conditions.
Monitoring surface water chemistry at the site will be valuable for ongoing
monitoring of any environmental impacts associated with landfill operations.
Chlorides and conductivity are generally accepted indicators of leachate
contamination that can be analyzed using field test kits at minimal cost to
the operators.
Storm water collected in the storm water retention pond needs to be
monitored periodically to check for any deviations from the prescribed
standards. Given that only municipal solid waste is handled at the landfill
and that all precautions are taken to prevent runoff from coming in contact
Page | 31
with the waste, it is considered safe to use the storm water runoff for on-
land irrigation purposes. It is proposed that the quality of storm water runoff
be monitored once every quarterly, after the occurrence of any rainfall
event. Samples should also be collected after every major storm event,
particularly during the monsoon season. Since, this water is to be used for
onsite application; it should meet with standards for treated leachate for
land disposal. The surface water must be monitored for 15 years after the
closure of the landfill.

3.1.9 Closure of Landfill Site and Post- Closure Care

The post-closure care of landfill site should be conducted for at least fifteen
years and the following conditions should be continually monitored
1. Maintaining the integrity and effectiveness of final cover, making repairs and
preventing run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final
cover.
2. Monitoring leachate collection system in accordance with the standards
specified
3. Maintaining groundwater quality and monitoring of ground water in
accordance with standards specified
4. Maintaining the passive venting landfill gas collection system to meet
standards
Use of the closed landfill site after fifteen years of post-closure monitoring
can be considered for gardens, golf courses, parks apart from human
settlement.

3.2 Design and Construction Requirements for Compost Plant

T a b l e 1 : The design and construction requirements for Compost Plant of


150 TPD is given below:

Sr. No Items
CAPACITY OF THE PLANT 150 TPD
1 Concrete Yard with Laminated Plastic Sheets
2 Leachate Tank (2 Tanks)
3 Office Building
Furniture & Fittings for Office (with
4
Computers)(L/S)
5 Internal Roads & Peripheral Roads
7 Wind Break Trees (L/S)
Bore Well Water Facility with Sump Tank and Water
8
Lines
9 Security Room & Electronic Weigh Bridge
Page | 32
10 Store Room
11 Machinery Shed
12 D.G Room (With Dg Set Of 50 Kv)
13 High Roof Shed (4 Nos)
14 Processing Machineries
15 Equipments
16 Parking (Ls)
17 Compound Wall (L/S)
18 Electrical Poles With Sodium Lights & Transformer
19 Power Supply of 50hp
20 Inventory

Table 2: Equipments

Sr.
No. EQUIPMENT NO.
1 Hydraulic Excavator 1
2 Heavy Duty Loader 1
3 Medium Sized Loader 2
4 Tipper 1
5 Tractor 1
Total 6

Table 3: Abstract estimate of the processing machineries

Sl.No Particulars No
1 Apron feeder 1
2 Inclined Belt Conveyor 5
3 Rotary Screen - Without Centre Shaft 1
4 Collecting Conveyor 4
5 Inclined stacking conveyor 1
6 Rejects conveyor 4
7 Rotary Screen - With Centre Shaft 3
TOTAL 19

Page | 33
3.3 Design and Construction Requirements for Transfer Station

3.3.1 Design of Transfer Station

The design of transfer station is based on a simple ramp model transfer station
with the facility for computerized weigh bridge and compactors. The design of
the transfer station is prepared in such a way that dumper placer machines and
small hopper vehicles can go over a ramp to a higher level and directly tip in a
large tipping truck of 27M3 capacity kept at a lower level so that multiple
handling of waste can be avoided and time also can be saved in transfer of waste
from the city to the disposal site.

3.3.2 Direct transfer of waste from small vehicle to a large vehicle

It is proposed to have an office at each transfer station to maintain the records of


the waste brought by each vehicle and shifted to the treatment/disposal site.
It is also proposed to have a computerized weighbridge at each transfer station to
maintain up to date records of the waste received from various wards and the
quantity of waste brought by each vehicle.

3.3.3 Civil Work for Tar Road

Width of Road 17.00 M


Length of Road 348.00 M

3.4 Design and Construction Requirements for Workshop

3.4.1 Workshop Facility for Vehicle Maintenance

The workshop is the backbone of solid waste management system. If fleet of


vehicles and equipment are not properly maintained, the solid waste
management services would suffer substantially. The Municipal Corporation
should therefore have an efficient workshop facility where all minor repairs and
maintenance could be carried out departmentally and major works could be
outsourced by having contractual arrangements for the maintenance of fleet of
vehicles. The corporation should therefore identify a good garage within the city
which can take up major repairs of the vehicles and equipment that are
proposed to be procured in this report. It is however recommended to invest on
workshop up gradation as shown below.

Page | 34
Table 4: Details and costs of equipments and machinery proposed for up
gradation of workshop facility
S. Details Approx. Qty.
No.
1 Repairing sheds (engine / road running rep. / auto Lot
Electric / hydraulic / tyre mntc. etc.)
2 Washing / servicing ram with water tank of 10000 ltr. Capacity / One Unit
necessary structure & high pr. Water jet machine
3 Maintenance equipments:
A Welding Machines 3 Phase. 02
B Vehicle Washing Machine (Nozzle type) 01
C Battery Charger Machine ( 10 Batteries) 01
D Battery testing & other auto electric testing machine / equipment
E Misc. Smithy shop Machines Lot
F Lathe / Radial Drill / Hexo cutter Machines One Each
G Unit handling cranes. 3 Nos.
H Gear box, Differential mounting trolley. 4 o 5 No. 4to5 No.
I Overhead crane 2/3 ton capacity with structure One
J Engine cleaning machine One Unit
K Other misc. handy machines / tools like drill, grinder, cutter, riveter,
Lot
bench vice, etc.
L Air compressor 3 No. (1. of approx. 5 HP for tyre room / 1 of 2 HP
Total 3
for hydraulic repair room/ 1 of 2 HP for schedule checking / paint facility)
Units
with required attachment of Air pr./ spray / greasing/ gauges etc.

M Tube vulcanizing machine & related facilities


N Automatic tyre changer machine One
O Smoke testing machine (diesel) One
P Trolley jacks Hydraulic operated for vehicle lifting 10 /5/2 ton 3 Nos.
Capacity
4 Other necessary infrastructures & back up support facilities like
administration wing/ time recorder office / security office / data
maintenance office Fuel filling station etc. is also required
depending upon the work load & manpower strength.
Total

3.4.2 Regular/washing of containers and trucks

It is essential to maintain the fleet of vehicles and containers and make an


arrangement of their regular washing and cleaning.
High pressure water jetty for washing the containers, bins and basket and
service station for washing the lorry is recommended.

Page | 35
Chapter 4 : Plant Technology and Operations

Efforts have been made worldwide to develop a unique Bio catalysis technology that
treats all types of organic waste and converts it into useful bio fuel products that shall
replace fossil based products. A multi-product and feedstock-flexible technology
platform helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contributes to a greener
economy. The proposed technology shall allow effective management of all kinds of
organic solid wastes and produce bio fuels as by-product.

4.1 Key stages of Waste to Biofuel Multi-Phase Process:

There are following key biological and chemical stages in treatment and
conversion of waste to biogas:

a. Hydrolysis
b. Acidogenesis
c. Acetogenesis
d. Methanogenesis
e. Aerobic enrichment

In most cases biomass is made up of large organic polymers. In order for


the bacteria in Bio digesters to access the energy potential of the material,
these chains must first be broken down into their smaller constituent parts.
These constituent parts or monomers such as sugars are readily available
by other bacteria. The process of breaking these chains and dissolving the
smaller molecules into solution is called hydrolysis. Therefore hydrolysis
of these high molecular weight polymeric components is the necessary
first step in WTG1XG process. Through hydrolysis the complex organic
molecules are broken own into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids.

Acetate and hydrogen produced in the first stages can be used directly by
methanogens. Other molecules such as volatile fatty acids (VFA’s) with a
chain length that is greater than acetate must first be catabolised into
compounds that can be directly utilized by methanogens. The biological
process of acidogenesis is where there is further breakdown of the
remaining components by acidogenic (fermentative) bacteria. Here VFAs
are created along with ammonia, carbon dioxide as well as other by-
products. The process of acidogenesis is similar to the way that milk
sours.

The third stage anaerobic digestion is acetogenesis. Here simple molecules


created through the acidogenesis phase are further digested by acetogens
to produce largely acetic acid as well as carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

The terminal stage of anaerobic digestion is the biological process


Page | 36
of methanogenesis. Here methanogens utilize the intermediate products of
the preceding stages and convert them into methane, carbon dioxide and
water. It is these components that makes up the majority of the gas emitted
from the system. Methanogenesis is sensitive to both high and low pH and
occurs between pH 6.5 and pH 8. The remaining, non-digestable material
which the microbes cannot feed upon, along with any dead bacterial
remains constitutes the digestate. The digestate undergoes aerobic
enrichment and is converted to high quality soil conditioner.

A simplified generic chemical equation for the overall processes outlined


above is as follows:

C6H12O6 → 3CO2 + 3CH4

The process is set to change the dynamics of the waste management by


making waste (that would otherwise be rotting & creating foul smell) a
resource to generate cooking gas & rich garden manure using an odourless
process. By installing such a system the organization earns the satisfaction
of being a green organization.

4.2 Type of wastes treated (Waste to Biofuel Multi-Phase Process):

Solid Wastes:

• All types of organic solid waste including cattle waste, poultry


waste, human waste
• All types of agro waste including coffee/sugar/natural rubber/pulp
etc
• Dairy & food processing plant effluent
• All kind of biological waste oils, trap grease and used cooking oil
• Used flowers, leafs etc
• Agro/Gardening waste including farm waste
• Vegetable leftover & mandi waste
• Non-vegetarian food/Slaughterhouse waste
• Sewage sludge, waste water
• Office waste (including shredded paper)

Liquid Wastes

• Farm waste water


• Sewage, municipal & all types of waste water

Page | 37
4.3 Valuable Products (Waste to Biofuel Multi-Phase Process):

The principle goal of the project is to safely treat the waste with zero discharge.
However WTG1XG generate useful by-products as follows:

• Bio-CNG/PNG/Cooking Gas-GCG™ is a premium gaseous enriched


biofuel consisting of high grade methane.GCG™ burns with a clean blue
flame and is an excellent replacement of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) in
kitchens. The gas can be filled in cylinders & transported like LPG fuel.
Alternately, it can be used as a replacement of petrol in transportation
just like CNG. The complete equipment to enrich, compress & bottle the
gas is supplied with the main equipments.

• Natural Soil-Conditioner-GNS™ is a premium soil conditioner


consisting of up to 30% stable & solid carbon. GNS has following
features and benefits:

• GNS™’s presence in the soil improves microbial activities, nitrogen


fixation, water retention and soil fertility.
i. GNS™ is excellent manure for gardens & potted
plants. It is extensively used for landscaping purpose
around the globe.
ii. GNS™ can be effectively used for land restoration
and remediation.
iii. GNS™ has a potential to turn waste lands to
cultivable lands thus increasing land availability for
food production.
iv. GNS™ reduces soil emissions of GHG, leaching of
nutrients and soil acidity.
v. GNS™ when applied to soil can considerably reduce
irrigation and fertilizer requirements.
vi. GNS™ contains up to 30% solid carbon that shall
enhance soil organic carbon sequestration
contributing toward significant reduction in
atmospheric GHG levels.

• Due to its unique soil conditioning properties, GNS™ is in great demand


across the world. Production of GNS™ from the project can make the
whole project financially attractive & viable.

• Emission Reduction certificate-CER: The solid biodegradable wastes


produce methane. WTG1XG shall help to treat the waste without
releasing any methane in to atmosphere. The methane is captured and
used to switch fossil based LPG in the kitchens hence reducing overall
carbon foot-prints. GNS is used in the soil to replace petroleum based

Page | 38
fertilizers. Hence there is a potential to generate very high quality Gold
Standard carbon credits/CER from the project.

4.4 Benefits of Waste to Biofuel Multi-Phase Process:

For the first time, Growdiesel WTG1XG™ shall allow active environmental
protection as well as optimized energy production from food waste and
biologically regenerating raw materials in perfect combination. The various
benefits of this unique process are as follows-

• 100% odourless-ZERO % foul smell: Hotels sometimes have to store


the leftover food in refrigerator to prevent it from rotting & creating bad
smell. The biggest advantage of this process is ZERO% odour. The
leftover food/kitchen waste is treated on DAILY basis through an
environment friendly process that does not emit any foul smell.

• 100% recycling-ZERO % pollution: The second biggest advantage is


ZERO- discharge. 100% of input waste is treated and recycled to by-
products without any gaseous, liquid or solid discharge.

• 24X7 Continuous operations: It is a 24X7 continuous process. The


equipment is loaded once a day. Thereafter it is programmed to work
automatically round the clock.

• Local treatment of waste and recycling of nutrients: It is based on


decentralized model & is designed to promote local cycling and safe
disposal of waste.

• Think BIG, begin small: The process is scalable. The project can be
tested on a pilot scale and suitably replicated at multiple locations.

• Energy positive: The process has an overall net positive energy balance
of up to 90%.

• Safe investment & low payback period: Waste disposal is a regular


problem without any solution. Processing of waste is a crucial
requirement for every business. Investment in the project is the safest
investment in current recessionary environment because the payback
period for the entire project is 3-6 years at current crude oil prices. As
the price of crude oil is bound to rise in future, the project becomes
highly attractive.

• Tax Benefit: Petroleum fuels are highly taxed in most of the countries
around the globe. However an increasing number of governments are
now supporting the cause of renewable energy in the form of mandates
and other policy initiatives. The products generated shall be exempted
Page | 39
from all major taxes including excise-duty.

• 100% Environment friendly: The food waste is presently disposed off


via MSW route. This leads to natural degradation & production of
methane that escapes to atmosphere. Methane is 21 times more lethal than
CO2. With the process, methane is captured & used as cooking gas as a
replacement of LPG.

• 100% safe waste disposal-ZERO% health risks: Food/organic waste


acts as a breeding ground for viruses, bacteria, mosquitoes etc. that are
responsible for most of the urban diseases. Safe processing of this waste
can now reduce rising menace of waste related health hazards.

• 100% aesthetic-ZERO% waste dumping yards: Smelly waste dumping


yards can now be transformed to Bio fuel production factories paving way
for decentralized waste processing.

• 100% Energy Independence-ZERO % crude mports: Converting


all kind of urban & rural waste to valuable bio fuels can create
energy independence for the country & reduce crude oil imports
considerably.

• Help Govt. to combat global warming & earn carbon


credits: The biggest threat of present times is global
warming. Organizations can NOW play a constructive role in
helping the Govt. to combat global warming. Organizations also
generate additional revenue by converting waste to cooking gas &
enriched soil conditioner besides earning valuable carbon credits.

• Towards sustainable energy sources: The process is designed to


mimic natural systems; hence it is a sustainable process with an
element of serving & repaying nature’s debts.

• Project with a purpose: It is designed to achieve the purpose of


promoting waste recycling, carbon-sequestration, energy
independence & sustainable development. An investment in the
project shows intent to serve mother earth as a socially responsible
organization.

Page | 40
Chapter 5 : Market Competition and SWOT Analysis

5.1 Opportunity Abroad

According to a report by Credit Suisse, the total market size for solid waste
management in the US was $46.5 billion in 2007 and the industry comprised of
publicly owned corporations, privately held companies, and individual
municipalities handling their own respective waste was growing at 4.5%.
Collection of garbage brought in half of the industry’s revenue, while around
29% came from disposal services with close to two-third of that coming from
landfills. Recycling, waste-to-energy plants and other methods of disposal
brought in about 12% of the total. These figures vary region-wise. Waste
management companies like Allied Waste Industries are listed on the New York
Stock Exchange. The industry has seen mergers and acquisition in the 90s and
the period of consolidation is more or less over.

Salient Features:

• Total market for solid waste management in 2005: $46.5 billion


• Growth rate: 4.5%
• Share of listed companies: 48% in 2005
• Big players : Waste Management Inc, Allied Waste, and Republic Services
• No of listed players in top 25: 14
• Highlight: Waste Management Inc has 50,000 employees. The Texas
headquartered company posted revenues of $13.36 billion in 2006

5.2 Opportunity in India

Solid waste management is a relatively new concept in India, compared to the


west where it is a highly organized business. The typical business model involves
collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposal of waste. And there
is opportunity hidden in each step. So, while planning a business in waste
management, an entrepreneur may consider either offering end-to-end solution or
focusing on one segment.

Unfortunately, in most developing countries including India, waste management


mostly means picking up waste from residential and industrial areas and dumping
it at landfill sites. Waste collection is usually done on a contract basis. For
instance, resident welfare associations and municipal corporations pay a certain
amount of money to a contractor for collecting garbage daily and disposing it off
in a landfill.

Page | 41
Table 1: Oppurtunity across the country

Opportunity space across the country

METROS tons / day; opportunity per year


Revenue from collection
Mumbai 5,800 tons
Bangalore 2,800 tons
Chennai 2,675 tons
Kolkata 4,000 tons
TOTAL 15,275 tons
Delhi solid waste generated 6,000 tons
per day Delhi size of opportunity Rs 1,022 Crore
Size of opportunity in Delhi + Rs 3,624 Crore
Metros
OTHER BIG CITIES 12 Cities

Average solid waste generated per 600 tons


day, per city
Waste generated in next 12 big cities 7,200 tons
Size of opportunity in next 12 big Rs 1,226 Crore
cities
Other cities 25 cities
Average solid waste generated 300 tons
per day, per city
Waste generated in next 25 cities 7,500 tons
Opportunity in next 25 cities Rs 1,278 Crore
Total size of opportunity in 42 Rs. 6128 Crore
cities

Taking Delhi as a sample, estimates show that collection of the 6,000 ton every
day alone could rake in Rs 365 Crore. Out of these 6,000 tons, 60% is organic
waste, 25% is recyclable material and 15% is inert. Making compost out of
biodegradables and selling it in the open market is another Rs 657 Crore
opportunity. Selling recyclables could fetch in another Rs 274 crore. This totals
to a whopping Rs 1,022 Crore every year, waiting to be tapped!

Table 2: Opportunity in Delhi

Delhi Solid Waste Market


Solid waste generated in Delhi / day 6,000 tons
Revenue from collection
Each household monthly collection
Quantity
QuantityCollection Charge 0.06 tons
25 Rs / month

Each household yearly collection

Page | 42
Quantity 0.72 tons
Collection Charge 300 Rs / year
Yearly collection Quantity 2,190,000 tons
Collection Revenue Rs 91 Crore
Compost prepared from organic waste
1,314,000 Ton
Quantity Rs 5,000
Sale price of compost
(in rupees per ton)

Revenue from sale of compost Rs 657 Crore


547,500 Ton
Recyclable from waste Quantity Rs 5,000
Sale price of recyclables
(in rupees per ton)

Revenue from sale of recyclables Rs 274 Crore

In Delhi, landfills are in a terrible state. In fact, in our country, most landfills are
merely dumping grounds. In Delhi, following are private players:

Delhi Waste Management


Based in Okhla, the company collects approximately 1200 tons of waste every
day and cover mostly the central and south zone of the capital.

AG Enviro
It is based in Gazipur at Delhi-Ghaziabad border. The company concentrates on
areas around Noida and Indirapuram, collecting both industrial and residential
waste from selected localities around the region. The landfill site at Gazipur is
almost saturated proving unhygienic and harmful for the residents around the
area.

Metro Waste
It collects, transports and dumps waste at landfill sites, located at Bhalaswa.
Landfill site here is almost saturated. An ideal landfill has to be properly
designed depending on the type of waste being disposed of. A well-designed
landfill is hygienic while a badly designed one could be a pollutant and result in
the release of greenhouse gases. It could even pollute ground water and surface
water.

Eco Wise
Started two years ago, the company is based in Noida NCR. The company
covers the full cycle of the waste management, business, which involves solid
waste collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposal. At his
treatment plant, he converts organic waste into compost to be sold in the open
market, while recyclable materials are sold to companies who need it.

Starting by covering two housing blocks equaling 3,800 households, today


Thapar covers 20,000 houses, two malls and one hotel. This converts to about 40
Page | 43
tons of garbage, out of which, 60% is organic waste, 25% is recyclable and 15%
is inert.
With plastic bags hung loosely on their shoulders, the migrants from Bihar and
West Bengal working here criss-cross the streets collecting 40 tons of garbage,
which is only a small pie of the 300 tons of waste the city produces every day.
Loading on to 80 manual rickshaws and 8 trucks running on bio-diesel, they
dump the waste at the segregation site of Eco Wise.

5.3 City SWOT Analysis

The existing situation analysis were carried out first by using all available
information from various departments and agencies concerned with urban
services and functions. Data gaps were identified and these information gaps
were bridged and supplemented by conducting a city-wide survey. The survey
was carried out to supplement information and data available from various
departments and agencies. Simultaneously, extensive participatory consultation
with all stakeholders were carried out. Based on the analysis of existing
situation, extensive participatory consultation with primary and secondary
stakeholders, city’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)
were assessed.

Strengths

• Interim capital of the new State


• An important tourist town in north India nestled in Doon Valley
• Rich in natural resources, forests, orchards, scenic beauty
• Proximity to National Capital
• Good connectivity by train and road to important cities in North India
• Presence of many institutions of national importance including defence
• Gateway to pilgrim towns of State

Weaknesses

• Lack of economic base other than tourism


• Poor urban infrastructure and services
• Lack of development controls
• Poor public transport and inadequate road network
• Inability to meet the growing demand for affordable housing
• Growing environmental pollution, particularly air and water
• Ad hoc and unplanned urban development

Opportunity

• Fast growing city


• Tourism development, particularly eco-tourism in and around
Page | 44
Dehradun
• Growing hotel industry
• Potential knowledge hub due to a good institutional base
• Good opportunities for higher education and research

Threats

• Neglect of heritage areas could weaken tourism potential of the city


• Disaster prone area
• Lack of effective disaster management mechanisms
• Demand for economic growth and high expectation from the new
interim capital

5.4 Sectoral SWOT Analysis

Strengths:

• Sewerage master plan for the conveyance and treatment up to the year
2036 is ready.
• The downward slope prevents water logging in the city and eliminates
the need of pumping of sewage.
• Educated residents of the city.

Weaknesses

• Present sewerage coverage is for only 50 % of the population.


• No proper treatment of sewage through STP.
• existing STP
• All untreated sewage is discharges into the rivers and used for
irrigation.

Opportunity

• Savings can be possible by treatment the sewage in decentralized way


by constructing small STP.
• Sewerage could be treated and reused for recreational lakes, gardens
and nearby farms.
• Availability for generating biogas.
• Biogas can be used as a fuel for Dual- Fuel Generating sets.

Page | 45
Chapter 6 : Marketing and Sales Strategy

The city of Dehradun being the capital of Uttarakhand, it is proposed to make a


beginning of turning the city into a binless city in a phased manner. We propose
to divide our marketing plan into 2 parts:

Revenue generation-

• By advertising on waste collection trucks, bins, handcarts, uniforms of the


workers we hope to involve companies. By doing this we will promote the
companies name as well as earn profits.
• Doing industry advertising for tie ups for selling of our products i.e.
compost, biogas, CNG.
• We will also approach the local farmer’s association as well as associations
near Dehradun for selling of our product i.e. compost.
• After doing the area analysis, we found that in Haridwar there are two
plants i.e. Siliguri and Bhilwara power plants where biogas is used in
abundance and we plan to sell our product (Biogas) to these plants at
affordable rates.

Creating Awareness and Brand Building-

To promote the efficiency of solid waste management, awareness


among the residents of Dehradun about the segregation of waste into
different categories ie biodegradables, inert materials, recyclables and
construction waste; and their usefulness is necessary. We can create
this awareness through –

• Advertisements on
i. Most heard radio channels
ii. Local news channels and other local channels
iii. Local newspapers like Dainik Jagaran and Amar Ujala
iv. Display through hoardings

• Conduct campaigns in each society through active participation of the


people of the society itself on Solid Waste Management

• Organizing shows and workshops in schools and college creating


awareness among the youth and at the same time involving them in
campaigning and putting up street plays depicting how we can make
efficient use of the waste which is generated every day.

• By conducting workshops for training of MCC staffs and for the formation
of RWA (Resident welfare association) and further by awareness programs
to promote door to door collection of waste involving SHG’s & RWA’s
Page | 46
CHAPTER 7 : Financials

7.1 Balance Sheet

Particulars FY12

Assets

Cash and cash equivalents 9,940,589

Accounts receivable -

Inventory -

Portfolio investments -

Property, plant and equipment at cost -

Accumulated depreciation -

Property, plant and equipment net -

Total assets 9,940,589

Liabilities

Trade payables -

Interest payable -

Income taxes payable -

Long term debt -

Total liabilities 0

Shareholders Equity -

Share capital -

Retained earnings 9,940,589

Total shareholders equity -

Total liabilities and shareholders equity 9,940,589

Page | 47
7.2 Profit and Loss Statement

Particulars FY12

Gross Sales 228,554,134

Excise Duty 0

Net Sales 228,554,134

Other Operating Income 0

Other Income 3,259,879

Total Income 231,814,014

Total Expenditure 125,224,299

PBIDT 106,589,715

Interest 0

PBDT 106,589,715

Depreciation 0

Tax 0

Fringe Benefit Tax 0

Deferred Tax 0

Reported Profit After Tax 106,589,715

Extra-ordinary Items 0

Adjusted Profit After Extra-ordinary item 106,589,715

Page | 48
7.3 Working Capital Requirements

Receipts FY12

Sale of Biogas 1,595,632

Compost 135,629

User charges 82,881,352

Tipping FEE 0

Carbon Credit sale 3,259,879

Recycled waste sale 143,941,522

Total Receipts 231,814,014

Payments

Sanitation Worker's Salary 75,528,000

Supervisor Salary (Ward) 7,200,000

Sanitation Worker's Maintenance Cost 102,589

Vehicle Maintenance 7,519,505

Transportation Cost 17,442,908

Operation & Maintenance (Landfil) (300 *


50) 185,432

Plant Operation & Maintenance Cost 10,600,564

Other Expenses 6,645,300

Total payments 125,224,299

Net Working Capital 106,589,715

Page | 49
7.4 Cash Flow

Heads FY12

Cash Flow from Operating Activities

Cash Reciept from Customers 231,814,014

Cash Expenses from Operating Activities 125,224,299

Cash Generated from Operating Activities 106,589,715

Income Tax paid 0

Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities 106,589,715

Cash Flow from Investing Activities

Sale of Capital Asset

Purchase of Capital Asset

Capital Gains

Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities 0

Cash Flow from Financing Activities

Proceeds from Issuance of Share Capital

Proceeds from Long-term Borrowings

Payment of Finance Lease Liabilities

Dividends paid *

Paid to Promotors -100,000,000

Net Cash Flow from Financing Activities -100,000,000

Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of


Period 3,350,875

Net Cash Flow 9,940,589

Page | 50
7.5 Financial Viability

Capital Outflow -221,312,750

NPV 228,280,144

IRR 69%

Tax Rate 0.35

7.6 Sensitivity Analysis

a. Variation in Capital Cost

Capital Cost NPV@16% IRR

Capital Cost (Base Case) 228,280,144 68

Capital Cost (+5%) 239,345,781 66

Capital Cost (+10%) 250,411,419 63

Capital Cost (-5%) 206,148,869 71

Capital Cost (-10%) 217,214,506 74

b. Variation in Working Capital

Working Capital NPV@16% IRR

Working Capital (Base Case) 228,280,144 68

Working Capital (+5%) 228,613,236 70

Working Capital (+10%) 228,946,329 72

Working Capital (-5%) 227,947,051 66

Working Capital (-10%) 227,613,958 64

Page | 51
SCHEDULES

Page | 52
Project Site SCHEDULE 1

(i) Transfer Station Site Map

Page | 53
(ii) Transfer Station Khasara Number

Page | 54
(iii) Landfill Site

The site allocated for sanitary landfill for MSW disposal at Dehradun is at
Sherpur, having an area of about 8.323 Ha, beyond the IMA. The site is a flat land.
The river is about 300 – 400 m away from the site.

Page | 55
(iv) Workshop Site Map

Page | 56
Capital Grant and Tipping Fees/ Royalty Fees SCHEDULE 2

2.1. Capital Grant

DNN shall pay the amount of Capital Grant to the Concessionaire on


completion of following milestones herein referred to as the Project
Milestone and as certified by the Project Engineer.

Sr. Project Milestone Time Elapsed Percentage of


No. from the Date of Capital Grant to
Signing of be Released
Concession
Agreement
(in months)
a. On Signing of Concession Zero Month 10%
Agreement
b. On 50% Completion of Six Months 35%
Construction Works in
accordance with the
Construction Requirements as
Certified by the Project
Engineer
c. On Completion of remaining Twelve Months 25%
50% Construction Works in
accordance with the
Construction Requirements as
Certified by the Project
Engineer
d. On Procurement of Project Eleven Months 15%
Vehicle
e. On Procurement of Project Eleven Months 15%
Equipment

2.2 Tipping Fee/ Royalty Fees

a. The agreed Tipping Fee payable to the Concessionaire or Royalty Fees


payable by Concessionaire to DNN shall be paid on a monthly basis.

b. The DNN would appoint a Project Engineer for inspection and


monitoring of the project deliverables on continuous basis during the
entire Concession Period.

c. The Project Engineer would certify the quantity of waste transported to the
Page | 57
sites – Composting, land filling, RDF plant etc on daily basis.

d. Each and every vehicle used for transportation of waste would be


weighed at appropriate weigh bridge to determine the gross weight. The
vehicle would again be weighed after emptying the content to arrive at net
weight of waste transported.

e. The above activity would be carried out for each and every vehicle. No
payment would be made to the Concessionaire if any quantity is not verified
by Project Engineer.

f. The Project Engineer, DNN and the Concessionaire would reconcile the
records at the end of each month before arriving at final amount payable.

2.3 Project Facilities

2.3.1 Civil Works

Sr No. Civil Works Quantity


Required

1. Asphalt/Concrete flooring under the bins


185
2. Compost plant of 150 M.T. /day with compund
wall 1
3. Construction of Sanitary Landfill site of 50
MT/Day capacity alongwith Equipments
1
4. Construction of Ramp Model Transfer station with
compactors and washing facility
1
5. Shifting and Upgradation of Maintainence
Workshop for repair and maintenance of Vehicles
1

Page | 58
Technical Specifications of Project Equipments and
Project Vehicles
SCHEDULE 3

3.1 Project Equipments

Sr No. Project Equipments Quantity


Required

1. Two containers for storage of waste at source in


separate manner (Two container for Low income
groups and one for Low middle income groups)
89021
2. Litter bins 500
3. 4 cubic metre green containers liftable by twin
bin lifter machine 203
4. 3 cubic metre black containers liftable by twin
bin lifter machine 203

3.2 Project Vehicles

Sr No. Project Vehicles Quantity


Required

1. Motorised pick up tipper vehicles for door to door


collection in 15 wards 35
2. Containerized tricycles for door to door collection of
waste from 45 wards 840
3. Dumper Placer Vehicles having twin bin lifting device
with hydraulic cylinders and high pressure
12
4. Front end Loaders 2
5. Large hauling vehicles for transporting
biodegradable waste and inert waste to
composting and landfill site respectively
10
6. Containerized handcart for street sweepers 1080

Page | 59
3.3 Project Equipments Technical Specifications

3.3.1 POLYTHENE CONTAINERS 30 Ltr CAPACITY

Technical Specifications

ITEM : Polythene Containers

REQUIREMENT : Container to be used in wheel barrow for collection,


transportation and disposal of solid waste.

OVERALL SIZE * Top size 325 × 325 mm


* Bottom size 290 × 290 mm
Overall height 325 mm
Four holes on bottom having a 10 mm wide & 10 mm
deep.
Ribs on bottom side with 10 mm size should be
provided for easy handling.
Handle: 8 mm M.S. Bar with m.s. strip of 1.6 mm
thickness on both the sides of handle with heavy duty
suitable rivets.
Tolerance : +/- 3 mm except wall thickness. Thickness :
All side should be 3 mm thick (+/- 5%) Bottom 4 mm
thick.
Embossment. : AMC 2" width on one side of the
container.

MATERIAL : LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYTHENE (virgin) WITH


U.V. STABILISED.
ONLY VERGIN POLYMERS TO BE USED FOR
THE MOULDING OF THE COMPONENT.

COLOUR : Light Green as per approval from the Head of Dept.

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Page | 61
3.3.2 POLYTHENE CONTAINERS FOR TRICYCLE

ITEM : Polythene Container

REQUIREMENT : Container to be used in wheel barrow for collection,


transportation and disposal of solid waste.

OVERALL SIZE * Top size 325 × 325 mm Bottom


* size 290 × 290 mm Overall
height 325 mm
Four holes on bottom having a 10 mm wide & 10 mm
deep.
Ribs on bottom side with 10 mm size should be provided
for ease of handling.
Handle: 8 mm M.S. Bar with M.S. strip of 1.6 mm thickness
on both the sides of handle with heavy duty suitable rivets.
Tolerance : +/- 3 mm except wall thickness. Thickness: All
side should be 3 mm thick (+/- 5%) Bottom 4 mm thick.
Embossment. : AMC 2" width on one side of the container.
Ribs of suitable design may be provided on the outer surface to
enhance the strength

MATERIAL : LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYTHENE (VIRGIN) WITH U.V.


STABILISED.
ONLY VIRGIN POLYMERS TO BE USED FOR THE
MOULDING OF THE COMPONENT.

COLOUR : Light Green as per approval from the DNN or his


authorised representative.

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3.4 5 CU.MT. SKIP CONTAINER

5 CU.MT.CAPACITY GARBAGE CONTAINERS FOR SKIP LIFTER UNIT

A. All paneling (Side, Bottom etc.) of 5 mm thick M.S. plate.


B. There should be 2 No. longitudinal channels beneath the floor to strengthen
the floor of ISMC-125(125 x 65 MM).
C. There should be 2 No. cross members/ stiffeners along the length of the
container as per drawing with end to end. channel should be ISMC-125 (125
x 65 MM).
D. Container lifting hooks should be provided as shown in the drawing &
should be strong enough to handle the full loaded container.
E. Container locking hook should be fabricated from min 10mm thick
M.S. plate & pin should be of 35 φ mm.
F. Container outer side shall be colour with first quality paint as per our
instruction.
G. Container should be internally colour with Black anti Corrosive epoxy
paint only & bottom of container also to be colour with black anti
corrosive epoxy paint. prior painting 2 coats of primer/Red oxide shall
be applied as per the paint Mfg. Standard.
H. Colour must be of first class quality of nerolac/asian/berger/ J & N.
I. Logo should be painted by you as per our instruction.

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If any suggestion/instruction given by head of dept. or has authorized
representative during the inspection same shall be implemented by the
Concessionaire.

3.4.1 Design And Specifications Of Litter Bins Litter Bin Appx. 50 Ltr. Capacity

i. Drum should be fabricated from 20 g. CRC sheet. Corrugation as


shown in the drawing should be provided to strengthen the drum
ii. Vertical support frame should be from ISMC - 75×40×6 mm
thick M.S. 'C' Channel.
iii. Top curvature should be made from M.S. 'T' section of 40×3 mm
thick, and it should be joined properly with vertical frame support.
iv. Hinge pin should be of 16 mm φ and it should be fitted with drum
by proper riveting as per our instruction. & it should rotate in
vertical frame where extra support of 6 mm thick plate should be
provided.
v. A horizontal angle support from 35×35×5 mm, should be
provided between two vertical support as shown in the
drawing.
vi. At bottom of vertical support frame 6 mm thick, round M.S. plate
of 150 mm should be provided for proper fixing at site.

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vii. At bottom of Drum total 5 holes of 10 mm each should be provided
for drainage of water.
viii. Cradle bin should be fixed by Concessionaire at locations provided by
DNN with required material & labour as per the instruction.
ix. Cradle bin should be colour as per our instruction Prior apply of colour
anti corrosive primer should be applied.
x. Inspection of Cradle bin will be carried out by authorised representative
of DNN, & during inspection if any rectification & / or modification
suggested by DNN the same shall be carried out by the Concessionaire.

3.4.2 Design And Specification Of 4 Cu.M Green And 3 Cu.M Black Containers

CU.MT. GARBAGE CONTAINER


i. The contractor SHALL fabricate container from 3 to 3.15 mm fresh Mild
Steel sheets with four top doors, and a lockable tailgate with heavy-duty
hinges as per below mentioned techinical specification and drawing.
Material shall be of STANDARD MAKE LIKETATA / SAIL / ESSAR etc.
ii. Technical Specifications :
a. Volumetric capacity of container: 3.0 cubic meters
b. Locking arrangement: On rear door.
iii. Dimension
a. Length (Top): 2200 mm
b. Width: 1400 mm
c. Overall Height: 1100 mm.
d. Loading Height: 850 mm
e. Volume: 3.0 cubic meters
f. Sheet Thickness: 3.0 to 3.15 mm.
g. Support Channel: 75 ´ 40 ´ 6 mm. ISMC channel.

Page | 65
h. Top lids: 1.6 mm CRCA sheet with stopper, Handle and locking
arrangement and with 3 Nos. of heavy duty hinges on each lid.
i. Rear door (Tail Gate): 2.5 mm CRCA sheet with 75 ´ 40 ´ 3mm
fabricated channel framing as shown in drawing.
A lifting hook mechanism as shown with container and locking
mechanism should be provided. No garbage should come out during
transportation on locking of rear door. Rear door should be mounted on
heavy duty hinges. Party has to submit detail drawing along with tender for
approval.
iv. Painting:
The container should be painted inside with Epoxy paint with two
coatings. The outside surface shall be coated twice with primer and painted
with two coats of ICI / Asian / Nerolac / Burger make synthetic enamel
paint. Name, Logo, Numbers should be painted as directed by us.
General Engineering practice should be used in fabrication of the
container. Inspection of the container will be done by our authorised
representative & any suggestion / correction if suggested; same is to be
incorporated.

CU.MT. GARBAGE CONTAINER


i. The contractor SHALL fabricate container from 3 to 3.15 mm fresh
Mild Steel sheets with four top doors, and a lockable tailgate with
heavy-duty hinges as per below mentioned technical specification
and drawing. Material shall be of STANDARD MAKE LIKETATA
/ SAIL / ESSAR etc.

ii. Technical Specifications


a. Volumetric capacity of container: 4.0 cubic meters.
b. Locking arrangement: On rear door.

iii. Dimension
a. Length (Top): 2500 mm
b. Width: 1400 mm
c. Overall Height: 1250 mm.
d. Loading Height: 900 mm
e. Volume: 4.0 cubic meters
f. Sheet Thickness: 3.0 to 3.15 mm.
g. Support Channel: 75 ´ 40 ´ 6 mm. ISMC channel.
h. Top lids: 1.6 mm CRCA sheet with stopper, Handle and locking
arrangement and with 3 Nos. of heavy duty hinges on each lid.

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i. 9 Rear door (Tail Gate): 2.5 mm CRCA sheet with 75 ´ 40 ´
3mm fabricated channel framing as shown in drawing.
A lifting hook mechanism as shown with container and locking mechanism
should be provided. No garbage should come out during transportation on
locking of rear door. Rear door should be mounted on heavy duty hinges.
Party has to submit detail drawing along with tender for approval.

iv. Painting : The container should be painted inside with Epoxy paint with
two coatings. The outside surface shall be coated twice with primer and
painted with two coats of ICI / Asian / Nerolac / Burger make synthetic
enamel paint. Name, Logo, Numbers should be painted as directed by us.
General Engineering practice should be used in fabrication of the container.
Inspection of the container will be done by our authorised representative &
any suggestion / correction if suggested; same is to be incorporated.

3.5 Project Vehicles Technical Specifications

3.5.1 Containerized Tricycle

Technical Description

The equipment shall be rugged and durable with 6 industrial use quality sturdy
plastic containers of about 50 liters each.

(a) Type : Tricycle with sturdy bar frame, with the rider to the front. Big hubs
with sealed bearings, two standard brakes and brake with lever reaching next
to the seat to lock vehicle in position. Axle capacity of minimum 400 Kg.

(b) Cart : Dimensions about 1.35 × .710 × 0.45 m (1×b×h) to accommodate


6 bins, four at one level, made from sturdy tubular / angular frame. The rear
door on hinges, falling downwards with simple pin
arrangement for locking. the frame next to the rider raised to a hight of 0.6 m.
A closed hook of 16 mm rod for securing the tricycle.

(c) Containers : 6 Nos of bins per tricycle, rectangular in shape. Plastics,


industrial quality with necessary ribs and adequate thickness. 50 liters capacity
and adequate strength to handle 50 kg weight.

(d) Brakes :2 standard brakes and one additional brake with a lever next to the
seat to lock the vehicle in position.

(e) Tyres :Heavy duty.

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(f) Painting : Superior quality; anti corrosive primer such as Zinc
chromate etc., with painting each in two coats to ensure long lasting structure
suitable for use for handling raw refuse under corrosive conditions and
coastal climate. Color shade as per standard colors approved by the
purchaser and message on body as specified.

(g) Accessories : A bell in the front.

3.5.2 Design Specification for M.S.HAND CARTS SPECIFICATIONS:-

SR MATERIAL SIZE DETAILS FOR NO QUANTITY


NO

1 M.S.ANGLE 25X25X5 mm Top Frame ---- 332 CM

2 M.S.ANGLE 25X25X5 mm Bottom Frame ------ 330 CM

3 M.S.ANGLE 25X25X5 mm. Standing 4 100 CM.


support

4 M.S.ANGLE 25X25X5 mm. Bottom Frame 1+2 230 CM.


sect.

5 M.S.Tee 40x40x6 mm Banding wheel 2 314 CM.

6 M.S.Flat 40x6 mm Support wheel & 12 240 CM.


hub

7 M.S.Flat 20x5mm For Axle Bracket 2 70 CM

8 M.S.Flat 20x5 mm Barrow Section ---- 710 CM


Flat

9 M.S.Square bar 25x25 mm Axle 1 100 CM

10 Round Head 32x10 mm Riveting 2 12 NO


rivet wheel

11 Round Head 25x8 mm Riveting 2 12 NO


Rivet wheel

12 Round Head 20x6 mm Joing Frame & 2 Side 8 NO


Rivet Handle

13 Haxagonal Bolt 40x10 mm Axle & Bracket 2 Side 4 NO

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14 M.S.Washer 21x46mm-16G Inside and out 2 Side 4 NO
Thick side hub

15 Cotter Pin 6x50 mm Length To Joint 2 Side 2 NO

16 C.I.Hub Complete with axle Each Side 2 Side 2 NO


Hole 6 NO with
tuming etc..the
weight of each hub
3.5 K.G.

17 HDPE Wheel 8"X3"X1" Red Front side 1 Side 1 NO


Colour

18 Bearing SKF 6204 ZZ For wheels 2 Side 4 NO

19 Galvanise 20 mm B Grade For Handle ------- 66 CM


Tube

20 Black Anti Barrow should be ------- ---


corrosive Paint painted with two
coats in side & out
side

21 M.S.Bush ID=21 mm wall For two sides of 2 Side 2 NO


Thickness- 3 mm the wheel

22 M.S.Angle 25x25x05 mm For Handle 2 NO 114 CM

23 M.S.FLAT 50X6 mm Front wheel 1 NO


Clamp

24 M..S.Pin with Pin-1"φ 5"Length For Front wheel 1NO


washer 16 g. Washer ID 27 mm Fixing one side
OD 50 mm φ pin
2NO

25 Cotter Pin 6x50 mm length Fixing pin other 1 NO


side

26 Hard Rubber 40x3 mm Hard Rubber 2 nos.


lining lining should be
fixed on MS
wheel

All the MS Material used for fabrication of hand cart should be of standard
brand only.
NOTE: Every wheel borrow should be equipped with 1500 mm long 5 mm M S
Chain and 7 lever Godrej/ Jalaram Lock For each Wheel Borrows M.S. chain
should be provided with Fitting arrangement from 6 mm round Bar.
Page | 69
Page | 70
3.5.3 Design Specification For Skip Container And Lifter Hydraulic Skip Lifter
Unit
The equipment shall be mounted and integrated to the recommended truck
chassis having EURO III ( BS- III ) norms & matching all
requirements of various govt. agencies / RTO rules/ norms & the
following technical specification as the minimum requirement.

a) Power and Drive : Appx.120 HP , 6 Cylinders,

b) Gross Vehicle Weight : 16000 Kg (GVW)

c) Wheel base : Appx. 4000 to 4200 mm

d) PTO provision : With chassis.

e) Driver Cabin : In built / supplied by chassis supplier with all


facilities.

A. HYDRAULIC UNIT :
The skip lifter system shall be provided with 2 Nos. Hydraulic
cylinders, double acting for lifting dismounting & tipping of
loaded/empty container. Two Nos. Hydraulic double acting cylinders on
either side at rear end shall be provided for stabilizing operation during
lifting & tipping operation; having bottom plate with swinging mechanism
to take care of uneven site condition..

B. SUB FRAME:-
A pair of full length heavy duty box section sub frame made of 150
ISMC is mounted on to the chassis thru "U" Bolts & Nuts &
suitable balata packing should be provided between chassis & sub frame.

C. LIFTINGS ARMS:-
A pair of heavy duty booms/arms is made of minimum 8 mm MS and
reinforced with flitch plates on pin mounting points. The booms are
connected on top through a cross shaftof heavy duty.

D. SIDE PANELLING & FLOOR:-


A heavy duty grid made of ISMC is mounted on to the sub frame with
3mm MS sheet decking on top to provide comfortable seating of a
vide range of containers. The decking shall be provided keeping in
Page | 71
mind the case of maintenance for chassis & hydraulic system parts. Side
paneling on chassis is to be provided to house & mount the lifting and
tipping cylinders & booms & should be from minimum 6 mm thick M.S.
Plate.

E. TIPPING HOOKS:-
Total 2 Nos. of manually operated tipping hooks are to be provided at the rear
to hold the 5 cu.mt. skip container while tipping, as per operating system
requirement. These hooks should designed in such a way that min. effort
require to operate the same.

F. CONTROL VALVE:-
Control valve comprising of three spools of Dowty / salami / wipro etc.
standard make only should be provided to activate lifting
/tipping cylinders, stabilizers & tipping hooks & provided in the driver cabin.

G. HYDRAULIC PUMP:-
Hydraulic oil pump should be gear pump & only of DOWTY / Wipro
make having flow rate sufficient to handle 5 CU.MT. capacity skip
container with full load.

H. PARALLEL LIFT:-
2Nos quick release heavy duty tested chains on either side shall be
provided to ensure parellel liffting of the container in the boom angle to
prevent spill over.

I. SAFETY:-
Following safety device should be provided.
1. Overload protection device.
2. Lock valve to prevent accident in the event of Hydraulic Failure.
3. The hydraulic unit/mechanism shall be designed such that it should
take 50% overload @ 6000 Kgs.
4. Stabilizer jacks should be provided to prevent overload on rear axle
during operation.

Page | 72
5. A rear focus light should be provided at back side of the driver cabin for
night operation of unit.

J. COLOUR:-
Complete unit with driver cabin should be painted with two coats of synthetic
enamel after applying one coat of primer. Colour shade should be deep
orange. All the surface should be thoroughly cleaned prior applying colour.
Any instructions/suggestion made by & or his authorized representative during
inspection should be carried out.

3.5.4 Design and Specifications of Twin Bin Dumper Placer Twin Container; Side Loading
Hydraulic Dumper Placer System

A. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Dumper Placer, is utilised for collecting, transporting and discharging the garbage
contents at the preferred location (dumping yard.) The Twin Bin model shall
capable of handling (loading, transporting, unloading & tipping while
discharging) two containers bins of 3. 0 /
4.0 Cu.m volume capacity each. The unit will have two pairs of steel
boom arms linked through a tie - rod, that move about the hinged axis on the
chassis, to load and unload the container, filled with waste material.
Movement of boom arms will be in a plane perpendicular to chassis axis
plane and towards the chassis side- to load/ unload containers. The loading and
unloading of the container are done by the reverse and forward movements of
the hydraulic cylinder road connected to boom arms. The unit has the tipping
/ tilting capability for discharging material at the desired location. Two sets of side
guides are provided to facilitate the smooth entry of the container while loading
it on to the bed-frame platform. Stabiliser (outriggers) legs are provided on the
side of the chassis. the stabiliser assembly safeguards the vehicle and takes care of
the load distribution to ensure safety during the operating cycle. Engaging
/disengaging of the vehicle PTO is performed inside the cabin. Other
controls/ operating levers are also provided outside the cabin at a convenient
location, for easy operations.

Page | 73
B.TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION :
i. Model : Twin bin, side loading / unloading configuration with skip /
container suspended thro chains.
ii. Lifting capacity from ground level : 3.0 Tonnes - for each arm pair.
iii. Hydraulic system
Pump : Gear / Axial Piston type coupled to PTO. Max.
operating pressure : 140 bar
Control valve : Three spool DC type with built in relief
Cylinders : 2 Nos. double acting for boom arms
2 Nos. double acting for stabiliser
Tank : 50 Lts. capacity with accessories like filler - cum - breather,
level gauge, line, isolator valve and drain plug.

3.5.5 Design Specification of Hotel Waste Collection Van

A. The chassis (goods chassis) having EURO-III / BS-III Engine should be


provided with front & rear shock absorbers with four forward & one reverse
constant / synchromesh / sliding mesh gear box, complete original front show
with company built driver cabin, headlights , starters, alternator with batteries
and fuel tank, wipers etc.
The chassis shall have following specification . Chassis shall also be supplied
by tenderer with rear body mounting for collection of Hotel waste from various
hotels/ restaurant etc.

WHEEL BASE Appx. 2100 M.M.

GVW Appx. 1500 kgs.

ENGINE POWER Appx. 15 H.P. at rated rpm

B. DRIVER CABIN
The Driver cabin of van should be a single cabin type ready with chassis.
REAR BODY. :
Overall Dimension
Overall Length - Approx. 2100 mm
Overall Width - Approx 1400 mm

Page | 74
Overall Height (inside- centre ) - Approx 450 mm
It shall be suitable to chassis dimension & RTO rules
General Design: fabricated from mild steel.
(a) Body Structure - Heavy duty pressed / box section.
(b) Body panel (Side) : from 2 mm M.S.
(c) Body panel (Front & Rear) : from 2 mm M.S.
(d) Floor : from 3 mm M.S.
Tipper body shall have openable door at both the sides of body for
dumping waste inside the tipping body. Loading height should be kept in such a
way so that Waste can be easily dumped inside the body.
The rear body should be hydraulic operated tipping type body, fully enclosed
structure for collection & transportation of Hotel waste & also sturdy in
construction & of good appearance. It shall have rear door with heavy duty
locking arrangement for emptying of the waste. Tipper body shall have appx. 1.7
CMT volumetric capacity.

C. The general appearance and structure as per enclosed layout.


PAINTING :- A first quality synthetic paints, should be used. Two coats as
per driver cabin colour shade shall be applied after applying a proper metal
primer. Name and monogram of AMC shall have to paint as per instruction of
department.
Vehicle should be fabricated with aerodynamic shape. It should be suitable for
all kinds of terrain conditions. General engineering practice should be
incorporated during design and manufacturing. Necessary vehicle & design
approval from the R.T.O. & other govt. department / agencies is the tenderer’s
responsibility. Along with the tender tenderer has to submit detailed drawing
for rear tipping body. The structure & fabrication work when completed
shall be inspected. & during this any minor suggestion and changes if required
will have to be carryout at no extra cost as per instruction of DNN or his
representative.

Page | 75
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM SCHEDULE 4

Management Information System shall contain the following information for each
Financial Year:

1. General Information to be Collected and Updated from Time to Time

A. Area of the city;


B. Population of the city;
C. Decadal growth of population;
D. Number of wards, their area and population;
E. Ward-wise information in regard to:

• Population density in different wards;


• No, of Households, shops and Establishments
• Vegetable/fruit/meat/fish markets
• Number of Hotels & Restaurants
• Number Of Hospitals and Nursing Homes
• Number Of Industries
• Number Of slum pockets /their population
• Road length width wise
• Percentage of area covered with under-Ground sewage
system
• Percentage of area having surface Drains
• Percentage of area having no drainage Facility
• Total number of public toilets and Toilet seats.
• Number Of public urinals

2. General Information on SWM A.

Waste Collection
i. Quantity of waste collected each day
ii. Seasonal variations in daily waste collection
iii. Breakup of the quantity of wastes collected into :
• Household, shops and establishment waste ;
• Vegetable and food market waste;
Page | 76
• Meat, fish and slaughter house waste;
• Construction & demolition waste
• Hospital waste
• Industrial waste

iv. Average number of carcass removed each day

B. Staff position
i. Number of sanitation workers deployed in the city for the collection of waste
ii. Number of sanitation workers deployed for the transportation of waste
iii. Ward wise allocation of sanitation workers
iv. Sweeper population ratio in each ward
v. Sweeper road length ratio in each ward
vi. Sweeper supervisor ratio in each ward

C. Waste storage depots


i. Number of sites designated/notified for temporary of waste
ii. Type and size of Dustbin provided in each ward
iii. Ward-wise Quantum of waste collected each day

D. Transportation
i. Number Of vehicles for the transportation of waste, their type, size and useful life.
ii. Number of trips made by each vehicle in one shift
iii. Number of shifts and vehicles used in each shift.
iv. Quantity of waste transported in each shift
v. Total quantity of waste transported each day
vi. Percentage of waste transported each day

E. Waste processing and disposal


i. Number of waste processing and disposal sites in the city
ii. Their distances from the Centre of the city
iii. The area of these sites
iv. The quantity of waste treated/disposed of at each site
v. The expected remaning useful life of each land filled site

Page | 77
F. Record of trip made by transport vehicle at the processing and disposal sites
i. Sr. Number
ii. Date
iii. Vehicle Number
iv. Name of the Driver
v. Arrival time of the vehicle
vi. Trips made during the day
vii. Waste Source and Route Number
viii. Weight of Waste in M. Tones
ix. Deficiencies noticed
x. Action taken

G. Workshop performance

i. Number and percentage of vehicles on road


ii. Number and type of vehicles under repairs at workshop
iii. Nature of breakdown
iv. Duration of breakdown : under one week, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks
and over one month
v. Reasons for delay in repairs
vi. Expected date of vehicle to be back on road

Page | 78
USER CHARGES SCHEDULE 5

Page | 79
LETTER FROM VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS SCHEDULE 6

Page | 80
Page | 81
Page | 82
WARD WISE POPULATION DETAILS AS PER 2001 CENSUS SCHEDULE 7

Page | 83
Page | 84
ANNEXURES

Page | 85
Pro Forma Of Concession Agreement Annexure 1
This CONCESSION AGREEMENT made on this ---------- (insert date) day of ----
------ (insert month), ---------- (insert year) at ---------- (insert place of execution),

BETWEEN

Dehradun Nagar Nigam, Government of Uttarakhand, having its registered office at


_, Dehradun – 248 001,
hereinafter referred to as “the Concessioning Authority” or “DNN” which
expression shall unless repugnant to the context include the successors and assigns, on
the one part

AND

-----------------------------, (name of the Successful Bidder), having its


registered office at , hereinafter referred to as
“Concessionaire” which expression shall unless repugnant to the context include the
successors and permitted assigns, on the other part.

WHEREAS,

A. The Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India (GoI),


has formulated the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2000 (“MSW Rules”), which makes it mandatory for every municipal
authority to implement a scientific solid waste management system wherein
the MSW is collected in an efficient way with source segregation and the
same is duly processed and the residual inert/ non-biodegradable solid
wastes disposed in a Sanitary Landfill.

B. Solid Waste Management project for Dehradun was initiated as a part of the
JnNURM scheme. A Detailed Project Report (DPR) was prepared for the Solid
Waste Management at Dehradun project which was sanctioned under
JnNURM scheme in May 2008.

C. DNN with an objective of providing Municipal Solid Waste


Management (MSWM) services including collection, transportation,
processing and disposal of waste generated in the city, decided to set up an
integrated Solid Waste Management (SWM) at Dehradun on Build, Operate
and Transfer (BOT) basis.

D. DNN had, carried out extensive project preparation works in


connection with the Project including preparation of Detailed Project
Report(DPR) and subsequently invited proposals, through a competitive bid
process from eligible parties for implementing the parties including the
Concessionaire for implementing the Project.

Page | 86
E. Pursuant t h e r e t o , a f t e r evaluating the aforesaid proposals, DNN accepted the
proposal submitted by the Concessionaire and issued Letter of Acceptance No.
(insert Letter No.) dated to the Concessionaire requesting
the Concessionaire to execute the Concession Agreement, which the
Concessionaire has acknowledged by its Letter No. dated _.

F. The Parties hereto are required to enter into the Concession Agreement,
being these presents, to record the terms, conditions and covenants of the
Concession.

Page | 87
Performance Security Annexure 2

(Proforma of Bank Guarantee)

THIS DEED OF GUARANTEE executed on this the day of


at by
(Name of the Bank) having its Head/Registered office at
hereinafter referred to as “the Guarantor” which
expression shall unless it be repugnant to the subject or context thereof include
successors and assigns;

In favour of

Dehradun Nagar Nigam, Government of Uttarakhand, represented by Mukhya


Nagar Adhikari and having its office at Patel Road, Near Doon Hospital
Dehradun -248001, Uttarakhand hereinafter referred to as “DNN”, which
expression shall, unless repugnant to the context or meaning thereof include its
administrators, successors or assigns.

WHEREAS

A. By the Concession Agreement entered into between DNN


and , (name of the Successful Bidder), having its
registered office/ permanent address at (“the
Concessionaire”), the Concessionaire has been granted the Concession to Build,
Operate and Transfer Integrated Solid Waste Management system gram at
Dehradun, Uttarakhand for a period of 15 years (hereinafter referred to as “the
Project”).

B. In terms of Clause 5.1 of the Concession Agreement, the


Concessionaire is required to furnish to DNN , an unconditional and
irrevocable bank guarantee for an amount of Rs. 50,00,000.00 (Rupees Fifty
Lakhs only ) as security for due and punctual
performance/discharge of its obligations under the Concession
Agreement, relating to Project by the Concessionaire.
C. At the request of the Concessionaire, the Guarantor has agreed to provide
bank guarantee, being these presents guaranteeing the due and punctual
performance/discharge by the Concessionaire of its obligations relating to the
Project.

NOW THEREFORE THIS DEED WITNESSETH AS FOLLOWS :

1. Capitalised terms used herein but not defined shall have the meaning assigned
to them respectively in the Concession Agreement.

4
To be issued by a Scheduled Bank in India

Page | 88
2. The Guarantor hereby irrevocably guarantees the due and punctual
performance by M/s. (hereinafter called “the
Concessionaire”) of all its obligations relating to the Project and in
connection with achieving COD by the Concessionaire in accordance with the
Concession Agreement.

3. The Guarantor shall, without demur, pay to DNN sums not exceeding in
aggregate Rs. 50,00,000.00 (Rupees Fifty Lakhs only ), within 30 calender days of
receipt of a written demand therefor from DNN stating that the Concessionaire
has failed to meet its obligations under the Concession Agreement. The
Guarantor shall not go into the veracity of any breach
or failure on the part of the Concessionaire or validity of demand so made
by DNN and shall pay the amount specified in the demand,
notwithstanding any direction to the contrary given or any dispute
whatsoever raised by the Concessionaire or any other Person. The
Guarantor’s obligations hereunder shall subsist until all such demands are duly
met and discharged in accordance with the provisions hereof.

4. In order to give effect to this Guarantee, DNN shall be entitled to treat the
Guarantor as the principal debtor. The obligations of the Guarantor shall not be
affected by any variations in the terms and conditions of the Concession
Agreement or other documents or by the extension of time for performance
granted to the Concessionaire or postponement/non exercise/ delayed exercise
of any of its rights by DNN or any indulgence shown by DNN to the
Concessionaire and the Guarantor shall not be relieved from its obligations
under this Guarantee on account of any such variation, extension, postponement,
non exercise, delayed exercise of any of its rights by DNN or any
indulgence shown by DNN , provided nothing contained herein shall enlarge
the Guarantor’s obligation hereunder.

5. This Guarantee shall be irrevocable and shall remain in full force and effect
until _ 5 unless discharged/ released earlier by DNN in accordance
with the provisions of the Concession Agreement. The Guarantor’s liability
in aggregate be limited to a sum of Rs.
.

6. This Guarantee shall not be affected by any change in the constitution or winding
up of the Concessionaire/the Guarantor or any absorption, merger or
amalgamation of the Concessionaire/the Guarantor with any other Person.

7. The Guarantor has power to issue this guarantee and discharge the
obligations contemplated herein, and the undersigned is duly authorised to
execute this Guarantee pursuant to the power granted under 36 months
from the date of signing the Concession Agreement

Page | 89
IN WITNESS WHEREOF THE GUARANTOR HAS SET ITS HANDS HEREUNTO
ON THE DAY, MONTH AND YEAR FIRST HEREINABOVE WRITTEN.

SIGNED AND DELIVERED

by _Bank by
the hand of Shri
its and authorised official.

Page | 90
Format for Letter of Authorization Annexure 3

(To be given on DNN letterhead)

To Whomsoever It May Concern

This is to confirm that to pursuant to the Concession Agreement dated


_, entered into between the DNN and
_ (“the Concessionaire”), the
Concessionaire has been authorised to build, operate and transfer
Integrated Solid Waste Management system at Dehradun in Uttarakhand and for that
purpose, to apply for and obtain all approvals, licenses and permits required therein and
to avail the utilities such as power, water,
telecommunication and any other incidental utilities or services required in connection
therewith.

Yours faithfully,

Director

Page | 91
Pro forma of deed of Guarantee Annexure 4

THIS DEED OF GUARANTEE executed on this the day of


at _ by
(Name of the Bank) having its Head/Registered office at
hereinafter referred to as “the Guarantor” which expression
shall unless it be repugnant to the subject or context thereof include successors and
assigns;

In favour of

DNN, represented by its , having its office at


_, hereinafter referred to as “DNN”, which expression shall,
unless repugnant to the context or meaning thereof include its administrators,
successors or assigns.

WHEREAS

A. By the Concession Agreement entered into between DNN and


6
_ , (name of the Successful Bidder), having its
registered office at (“the Concessionaire”) the Company had been granted the
Concession to implement the Project, as defined under the Concession Agreement
mentioned hereinabove.

B. In terms of Clause 10.2 as the case may be, of the Concession Agreement,
the Concessionaire is required to furnish to DNN, an
unconditional and irrevocable bank guarantee for an amount of Rs.
(Rupees _only) as security for due and punctual
performance/discharge of its obligations under the Concession Agreement, relating to
handback of the Project Facility.

C. At the request of the Concessionaire, the Guarantor has agreed to


provide guarantee, being these presents, guaranteeing the due and punctual
performance/discharge by the Concessionaire of its obligations under the Concession
Agreement relating to handback of the Project Facility.

NOW THEREFORE THIS DEED WITNESSETH AS FOLLOWS :

1. Capitalised terms used herein but not defined shall have the meaning assigned to
them respectively in the Concession Agreement.

2. The Guarantor hereby irrevocably guarantees the due and punctual performance
by M/s. (hereinafter called “the

In case of Consortium both members would be included as Parties to the Agreement and
collectively referred to as ‘the Concessionaire/Consortium’ as the context may require.

Page | 92
3. The Guarantor shall, without demur, pay to DNN sums not exceeding in Aggregate Rs.
____________________within___________calender days of receipt of a written
demand therefor from DNN stating that the Concessionaire has failed to meet its
performance obligations relating to handback of the Project Facility. The Guarantor shall
not go into the veracity of any breach or failure on the part of the Concessionaire or
validity of demand so made by DNN and shall pay the amount specified in the demand
notwithstanding any direction to the contrary given or any dispute whatsoever raised by
the Concessionaire or any other Person.
The Guarantor’s obligations hereunder shall subsist until all such demands are duly met
and discharged in accordance with the provisions hereof.

4. In order to give effect to this Guarantee, DNN shall be entitled to treat the Guarantor
as the principal debtor. The obligations of the Guarantor shall not be affected by any
variations in the terms and conditions of the Concession Agreement or other
documents or by the extension of time for performance granted to the
Concessionaire or postponement/non exercise/ delayed exercise of any of its rights by
DNN or any indulgence shown by DNN to the Concessionaire and the Guarantor
shall not be relieved from its obligations under this Guarantee on account of any such
variation, extension, postponement, non exercise, delayed exercise of any of its
rights by DNN or any indulgence shown by DNN, provided nothing contained
herein shall enlarge the Guarantor’s obligation hereunder.

5. This Guarantee shall be irrevocable and shall remain in full force and effect until
_ 7 unless discharged/released earlier by DNN in accordance with
the provisions of the Concession Agreement. The Guarantor’s liability in
aggregate be limited to a sum of Rs.
(Rupees only).

6. This Guarantee shall not be affected by any change in the constitution or winding up of
the Concessionaire/the Guarantor or any absorption, merger or amalgamation of
the Concessionaire/the Guarantor with any other Person.

7. The Guarantor has power to issue this guarantee and discharge the obligations
contemplated herein, and the undersigned is duly authorised to execute this
Guarantee pursuant to the power granted under
7 30 months from the date of issue of the Handback
Guarantee in accordance with Clause 10.2 of the Concession Agreement

THE DAY, MONTH AND YEAR FIRST HEREINABOVE WRITTEN.

SIGNED AND DELIVERED


by _Bank by
the hand of Shri
its and authorised official.

Page | 93
Per forma of Bid Security Annexure 5

B.G. No. Dated:

1. In consideration of you, Dehradun Nagar Nigam having its office at


Dehradun Nagar Nigam, Patel Road, Near Doon Hospital, Dehradun -
248001, Uttarakhand (hereinafter referred to as the “Dehradun Nagar Nigam ” or
“DNN”, which expression shall unless it be repugnant to the subject or context
thereof include its, successors and assigns) having agreed to receive the Bid of _ [a
Company registered under provision of the Companies Act, 1956] and having its
registered office at
[and acting on behalf of its Consortium] (hereinafter referred to as
the “Bidder” which expression shall unless it be repugnant
to the subject or context thereof include its/their executors
administrators, successors and assigns), for the Integrated Solid Waste Management
Project at Dehradun on [BOT] basis (hereinafter referred to as “the Project”). Pursuant
to the RFP Document dated ***** issued in respect of the Project and other
related documents (hereinafter collectively referred to as “Bidding Documents”), we
[Name of the Bank] having our registered office at and one of
its branches at
(hereinafter referred to as the “Bank”), at the request of the Bidder, do
hereby in terms of Clause 1.11 of the RFP Document,
irrevocably, unconditionally and without reservation guarantee the due and faithful
fulfilment and compliance of the terms and conditions of the Bidding Documents
(including the RFP Document) by the said Bidder and unconditionally and irrevocably
undertake to pay forthwith to the DNN an amount of Rs. 10,00,000/- (Rupees Ten
Lakhs only) as bid security (hereinafter referred to as the “Bid Security”) as our
primary obligation without any demur, reservation, recourse, contest or protest
and without reference to the Bidder if the Bidder shall fail to fulfil or comply with all or
any of the terms and conditions contained in the said Bidding Documents.

2. Any such written demand made by the DNN stating that the Bidder is in default of the
due and faithful fulfilment and compliance with the terms and conditions contained in
the Bidding Documents shall be final, conclusive and binding on the Bank.

3. We, the Bank, do hereby unconditionally undertake to pay the amounts due and
payable under this Guarantee without any demur, reservation, recourse, contest or
protest and without any reference to the Bidder or any other person and irrespective
of whether the claim of the DNN is disputed by the Bidder or not merely on the first
demand from the DNN stating that the amount claimed is due to the DNN by reason of
failure of
the Bidder to fulfil and comply with the terms and conditions contained in the Bidding
Documents including failure of the said Bidder to keep its

Page | 94
Bid open during the Bid validity period as setforth in the said Bidding Documents
for any reason whatsoever. Any such demand made on the Bank shall be conclusive
as regards amount due and payable by the Bank under this Guarantee. However, our
liability under this Guarantee shall be restricted to an amount not exceeding Rs.
10,00,000/- (Rupees Ten Lakhs only).

4. This Guarantee shall be irrevocable and remain in full force for a period of 270 (two
hundred and seventy) days from the Bid Due Date inclusive of a claim period of 60
(sixty) days or for such extended period as may be mutually agreed between the DNN
and the Bidder, and agreed to by the Bank, and shall continue to be enforceable till
all amounts under this Guarantee have been paid.

5. We, the Bank, further agree that the DNN shall be the sole judge to decide as to
whether the Bidder is in default of due and faithful fulfilment and compliance
with the terms and conditions contained in the Bidding Documents including, inter
alia, the failure of the Bidder to keep its Bid open during the Bid validity period
set forth in the said Bidding Documents, and the decision of the DNN that the
Bidder is in default as aforesaid shall be final and binding on us, notwithstanding any
differences between the DNN and the Bidder or any dispute pending before any
Court, Tribunal, Arbitrator or any other Authority.

6. The Guarantee shall not be affected by any change in the constitution or winding up of
the Bidder or the Bank or any absorption, merger or amalgamation of the Bidder
or the Bank with any other person.

7. In order to give full effect to this Guarantee, the DNN shall be entitled to treat the Bank
as the principal debtor. The DNN shall have the fullest liberty without affecting in
any way the liability of the Bank under this Guarantee from time to time to vary
any of the terms and conditions contained in the said Bidding Documents or to
extend time for submission of the Bids or the Bid validity period or the period
for conveying acceptance of Letter of Award by the Bidder or the period for fulfilment
and compliance with all or any of the terms and conditions contained in the said
Bidding Documents by the said Bidder or to postpone for any time and from
time to time any of the powers exercisable by it against the said Bidder and either
to enforce or forbear from enforcing any of the terms and conditions contained in
the said Bidding Documents or the securities available to the DNN, and the Bank
shall not be released from its liability under these presents by any exercise by
the DNN of the liberty with reference to the matters aforesaid or by reason of
time being given to the said Bidder or any other forbearance, act or omission on the part
of the DNN or any indulgence by the DNN to the said Bidder or by any change in the
constitution of the DNN or its absorption, merger or amalgamation with any other
person or any other matter or thing whatsoever which under the law relating to
sureties would but for this provision have the effect of releasing the Bank from its
such liability.

8. Any notice by way of request, demand or otherwise hereunder shall be sufficiently


given or made if addressed to the Bank and sent by courier or by registered mail to the
Bank at the address set forth herein.

Page | 95
9. We undertake to make the payment on receipt of your notice of claim on us
addressed to [name of Bank along with branch address] and delivered at our
above branch who shall be deemed to have been duly authorised to receive the
said notice of claim.

10. It shall not be necessary for the DNN to proceed against the said Bidder before
proceeding against the Bank and the guarantee herein contained shall be
enforceable against the Bank, notwithstanding any other security which the
DNN may have obtained from the said Bidder or any other person and which
shall, at the time when proceedings are taken against the Bank hereunder, be
outstanding or unrealised.

11. We, the Bank, further undertake not to revoke this Guarantee during its currency
except with the previous express consent of the DNN in writing.

12. The Bank declares that it has power to issue this Guarantee and discharge
the obligations contemplated herein, the undersigned is duly authorised and has
full power to execute this Guarantee for and on behalf of the Bank.

Signed and Delivered by Bank


By the hand of Mr./Ms , its official.

(Signature of the Authorised Signatory) (Official Seal)

Page | 96
Activity Schedule Annexure 6

Sr. Months
Activity
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
N

1. Indicate all main activities of the assignment, including project delivery other
benchmarks such as government approvals.

2. Duration of activities shall be indicated in the form of a bar chart.

Page | 97
Format for Financial Proposal ANNEXURE 7

Date:

To,

Mukhya Nagar Adhikari


Dehradun Nagar Nigam
Patel Road, Near
Doon Hospital
Dehradun -248001,
Uttarakhand.

Re: Build, Operation and Transfer Integrated Solid Waste Management


system, Dehradun Nagar Nigam, Uttarakhand

We are pleased to submit our Financial Proposal for Build, Operation


and Management of Integrated Solid Waste Management, Dehradun
Nagar Nigam, Uttarakhand (the "Project").

Table 1
Sr. No. Description Amount in Amount in
Figures Words
1. Capital Grant Required from
Nigam

2. Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Tippi
ng
Fees
(Rs i
Tippi
ng
Fees
(Rs i

Royal
ty
Fees
(Rs i
Royal
ty
Fees
(Rs i

Page | 98
Note : Year 1 shall start from First Day of Operations Period as defined in
Concession Agreement.

The breakup of Capital Grant quoted above is as under : Table 2


Sr. No. Capital Grant Amount in Amount in
Figures Words
1. Landfill
2. Composting Plant of 150 MT capacity
3. Transfer Station
4. Weigh Bridge
5. Upgradation of Maintenance Workshop
6. Other Civil Works in accordance with
Construction Requirements mentioned in Draft
Concession Agreement
7. Project Vehicles
8. Project Equipments
Total 1

We have reviewed all the terms and conditions of the Request for Proposal (RFP)
Document and will undertake to abide by all the terms and conditions contained
therein. We hereby declare that there are, and shall be, no deviations from the
stated terms in the RFP Document.

……………………………………………. Name of the Bidder

…………………………………………….Signature of the Authorised Person

…………………………………………….Name of the Authorised Person

Note:

On the Letterhead of the Bidder and to be signed by the bidder or lead member.
In case of difference in amount quoted in figures and words, the lower value
would be considered for evaluation.

1
The maximum Capital Support to be provided by DNN shall in any case not exceed
Rs.2374.45 lakhs approximate

Page | 99
Detailed Financials Annexure 8

Capital Cost

Capital Cost (Figures in Rs.)


Sl. No. Particulars Cost
1 Plant 80,000,000
2 Equipment 108,262,750
3 Civil and bldg. (infrastructure) 23,050,000
4 Contingencies 10,000,000
Total Capital Cost 221,312,750

Capital Cost for Depreciation purpose


Sl. No. Particulars Cost
1 Plant & Machinery 188,262,750
2 Civil 23,050,000
Total 211,312,750

Page | 100
Infrastructure Cost

Upto 150tn
Infrastructure Required Compositing Plant Remarks
Disposal site, including
landfill area (acres) 40 + 35 Provided by DNN
Compound wall or barbed-
wire fencing 100,000

Internal and peripheral roads 500,000

Green belt along the boundry 150,000


Weigh bridge 750,000
Control room as laboratory
and office 500,000
Concrete yard with drains
Area (cubic meters) 18,000
Cost 1,200,000
Shed for processing
machinery with space for
storing and bagging 4,000,000
Processing machinery (such
as rotary screens with
conveyor belts) 8,000,000
Processing equipment 6,500,000
Vehicle shed 100,000
Leachate tank
Capacity (litres) 50,000
Cost 200,000
Water Supply (excluding bore
well cost) and lighting 200,000

Generator with panel board


Capacity (horsepower) 100
Cost 850,000
Total 23,050,000

Page | 101
Equipment Cost
SI. No. ITEM No. Cost Per Unit Amount
(A) For Street Sweeping:
Handcarts with 6 bins 180 7,000 1,260,000
Long Handle Broom 1,049 150 157,350
Total 1,417,350

(B) 100 lt. Litter bins 500 3,500 1,750,000


Total 1,750,000

(C) Primary Collection Vehicles


Handcarts with 6 Bins 900 7,000 6,300,000
Tricycle 840 14,000 11,760,000
Auto tipper 35 230,000 8,050,000
Container 89,021 400 35,608,400
Total 61,718,400

Secondary Storage Containers &


(D) Transportation
3 cum containers (Black) 203 22,000 4,466,000
4 cum containers (Green) 203 37,000 7,511,000
DP Vehicle 12 950,000 11,400,000
Front end loaders 2 1,000,000 2,000,000
LHV 10 1,800,000 18,000,000
Total 43,377,000

(E) Construction of Platforms 185 5,500 1,017,500

Grand Total 108,262,750

Page | 102
Gross Margin
Particulars Amount (Rs.)
Annual Sales Realisation 223,569,351.60
Annual Manufacturing Expenses 116,705,997.86
Incremental Gross Margin 106,863,353.74

Net Sales Realization


Sl No Revenues Units Unit Charges (Rs.) Total Amount (Rs.)
1 User Fees 127,229 6,906,779
2 Carbon Credit (0.05 * 31500) CER 131 1,500 196,500
3 Biogas(10000 * 30) 300,000 10 150,000
4 Compost (17 * 30) 510 5,000 127,500
5 Recycle (75 * 30) 2,250 5,000 11,250,000
Total 18,630,779

Annual Operation & Maintainenance Expenses


Sl No Expenses Units Unit Charges (Rs.) Total Amount (Rs.)
1 Sanitation Worker's Salary 1,049 6,000 6,294,000
2 Supervisor Salary (Ward) 60 10,000 600,000
4 Sanitation Worker's Maintenance Cost - - 8,018
5 Vehicle Maintenance 1,979 - 587,700
6 Transportation Cost - - 1,363,281
7 Operation & Maintenance (Landfil) (300 * 50) 50 300 15,000
8 Plant Operation & Maintenance Cost - - 857,501
9 Other Expences 214,375
Total 9,725,500

Page | 103
Royalty Paid
Particulars Waste Collected Royalty per ton (Rs.)
Rate 300 275
Cost per Year 109,500 30,112,500

Sanitation Workers Equipment Cost (1049 Workers)


Sl. No. Transportation using Dumper Places Vehicles Estimation (Cost per Year) Cost per month (Rs.)
1 Clinic Equipment (1100 Rs/Yr) 1153900 3161
2 Uniform (1440 Rs/Yr) 1510560 4139
3 Gum Boots (250 Rs/Yr) 262250 718
Total 2926710 8018

User Fee
Category of Beneficiary Units Unit Charges (Rs.) Total Amount (Rs.)
(A) Below Poverty Line Group Households 10,011 8 75,083
Low Income Group Households 66,362 20 1,327,240
Households Other Than Above Categories 65,427 35 2,289,945
Vegetble & Fruit Markets (440 * 20) 8,800 100 880,000
Meat & Fish Market ( 120 * 10) 1,200 180 216,000
Hotel & Resturants 420 500 210,000
Factories 58 600 34,800
Shops & Offices 6,758 600 4,054,800
User Collection Charges @ 80% collection 31807.2 1817573.5
Total (A) 127228.8 7,270,294
(B) Collection Expences 363,515
Total (B) 363,515
Net User Fee Collected (A) - (B) 6,906,779

Page | 104
Transportation Cost
(A) Transportation using Dumper Places Vehicles Estimation(Cost per Day) Cost per month (Rs.)

Average distance per trip up and down (avg. Kms.) 20


No. of trips per day 5
Total distance per day (Kms./Day) 100
Fuel economy (Km/Litre) 6
Fuel used (Litre) 17
Cost per litre 42
total Cost 714
Driver Required (1 per DPV) 1
Salary (Rs. 5000 Rs/Month) 167 5,000
Loaders Required (2 per DPV) 2
Salary (Rs. 85 Rs/Day) 170 5,100
Uniform (1440 Rs/Yr) 12 355
Gum Boots (250 Rs/Yr) 1 41
Cost per Dumper Placer Vehicle 1,067
No. of Dumper Placer Vehicles running per day 10
Total (A) 10,669 320,062
(B) Transportation using Auto Trippers Estimation(Cost per Day) Cost per month (Rs.)
Distance to Compost Plant per trip up & down (Kms.) 20-25
No. of Trip per day 3
Total distance per day (Kms./Day) 60-75
Fuel economy (Km/Litre) 4-5
Fuel used (Litre) 15
Cost per litre 42
Total Cost 630 18,900
Driver Required (1 per lorry) 1
Salary (Rs. 5000 Rs/Month) 167 5,000
Loaders Required (4 per lorry) 4
Salary (Rs. 85 Rs/Day) 340 10,200
Uniform (1440 Rs/Yr) 20 592
Gum Boots (250 Rs/Yr) 3 90
Cost per Auto Tripper 1,159
No. of Dumper Placer Vehicles running per day 30
Total (B) 34,774 1,043,219
Grand Total 45,443 1,363,281

Page | 105
Operation & Maintenance Cost
Particulars Estimation (Cost per Year) Cost per month (Rs.)
(A) Office & Laboratory Expences
Computer Maintnance (per year) 25,000 2,083
Lighting 35,000 2,917
Office & Laboratory Maintenance (per year) 50,000 4,167
Total (A) 110,000 9,167
(B) Plant Expences
Staff Salary (10 * 6000) per month * 2 1,440,000 120,000
Engineer Salary (3 * 30000) per month 1,080,000 90,000
Compositing Plant Maintenance (per year) 800,000 66,667
Segregation cost(30*6000*12) 2,160,000 180,000
Other Cost 500,000 41,667
Total (B) 5,980,000 498,334
(C) Other Expenses
Administrative expense 3,000,000 250,000
SellingExpenses 1,200,000 100,000
Total (C) 4,200,000 350,000
Grand Total 10,290,000 857,501

Other Expenses
Sl. No. Particulars Estimation (Cost) Cost per month (Rs.)
1
2 Indirect Cost 2,572,500 214,375
3 Contigency Reserve 1,029,000 85,750
Total 2,572,500 214,375

Page | 106
Initial Awareness Cost
Sl. No. Particulars Estimated Cost (Rs) TotalCost (Rs.)
1 Awareness Cost
1(A) No of Person Hired 60
Wage per Person 500
Total Cost (A) 30,000 3600000
1(B) Hoardings Cost (per hoarding) 1,000
No of Hoardings 60
Total Cost (B) 60,000 60,000
Grand Total 90,000 3,660,000
Cost per month 305,000

Vehicle Maintenance Cost


Sl. No. Category Units Unit Charges (Rs.) Total Amount (Rs.)
1 Handcarts 1,080 70 75,600
2 Tricycle 840 140 117,600
3 Auto Tipper 35 2,300 80,500
4 DP Vehicle 12 9,500 114,000
5 Front End Loaders 2 10,000 20,000
6 LHV 10 18,000 180,000
Total 1,979 587,700

Page | 107
Working Capital Requirements

Working Capital - (F12)


Receipts Cash Requirement for Working Capital ( Receipts - Payments Method)
Heads Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar FY12
Sale of Biogas 90,000 98,243 107,240 114,916 123,143 130,726 138,777 145,935 153,463 159,845 164,893 168,452 1,595,632
Compost 7,650 8,351 9,115 9,768 10,467 11,112 11,796 12,404 13,044 13,587 14,016 14,318 135,629
User charges 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 6,906,779 82,881,352
Tipping Fee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Carbon Credit sale 196,500 212,220 229,198 242,949 257,526 270,403 283,923 295,280 307,091 316,304 322,630 325,856 3,259,879
Recycled waste sale 11,250,000 11,380,313 11,512,134 11,645,483 11,780,377 11,916,833 12,054,870 12,194,505 12,335,758 12,478,647 12,623,192 12,769,410 143,941,522
Total Receipts 18,450,929 18,605,905 18,764,467 18,919,896 19,078,292 19,235,853 19,396,144 19,554,904 19,716,136 19,875,162 20,031,510 20,184,816 231,814,014

Payments 0
Sanitation Worker's Salary 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 6,294,000 75,528,000
Supervisor Salary (Ward) 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 7,200,000
Sanitation Worker's Maintenance Cost 8,018 8,111 8,205 8,300 8,396 8,493 8,592 8,691 8,792 8,894 8,997 9,101 102,589
Vehicle Maintainance 587,700 594,508 601,394 608,360 615,407 622,535 629,746 637,041 644,420 651,885 659,436 667,074 7,519,505
Transportation Cost 1,363,281 1,379,072 1,395,046 1,411,206 1,427,552 1,444,088 1,460,815 1,477,736 1,494,854 1,512,169 1,529,685 1,547,404 17,442,908
Operation & Maintenance (Landfil) (300 * 50 15,000 15,174 15,237 15,300 15,364 15,428 15,493 15,557 15,622 15,687 15,752 15,818 185,432
Plant Operation & Maintenance Cost 857,501 867,434 871,048 874,677 878,322 881,982 885,656 889,347 893,052 896,773 900,510 904,262 10,600,564
Other Expenses 519,375 525,391 531,477 537,633 543,861 550,160 556,533 562,980 569,501 576,098 582,771 589,521 6,645,300
Total payments 10,244,875 10,283,689 10,316,407 10,349,477 10,382,902 10,416,687 10,450,835 10,485,352 10,520,240 10,555,505 10,591,150 10,627,180 125,224,299

Net Working Capital 8,206,054 8,322,216 8,448,060 8,570,420 8,695,390 8,819,166 8,945,309 9,069,552 9,195,895 9,319,657 9,440,360 9,557,636 106,589,715

Notes To Adjusted Calculation


Heads Rates
Inflation Adjustment 0.100
Population Growth Adj. 0.039
Total Adjustment 0.139
Total Adj/month 0.012

Efficiency Adj Rates per month


Month Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Efficiency Rate 0 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01
Total Adjusted Rate 0.012 0.092 0.092 0.072 0.072 0.062 0.062 0.052 0.052 0.042 0.032 0.022

Page | 108
Working Capital - (FY12 - FY25)

Receipts FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 FY22 FY23 FY24 FY25

Sale of Biogas 1,595,632 2,302,401 2,622,434 2,986,953 3,402,139 3,875,036 4,413,666 5,027,166 5,725,942 6,521,848 7,428,385 8,460,930 9,637,000 10,976,543
Compost 135,629 195,704 222,907 253,891 289,182 329,378 375,162 427,309 486,705 554,357 631,413 719,179 819,145 933,006
User charges 82,881,352 82,881,352 91,169,487 91,169,487 100,286,435 100,286,435 110,315,079 110,315,079 121,346,587 121,346,587 133,481,246 133,481,246 146,829,370 161,512,307
Tipping FEE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Carbon Credit sale 3,259,879 3,910,273 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Recycled waste sale 143,941,522 174,532,300 198,792,290 226,424,418 257,897,412 293,745,152 334,575,728 381,081,755 434,052,118 494,385,363 563,104,928 641,376,513 730,527,849 832,071,220
Total Receipts 231,814,014 263,822,029 292,807,118 320,834,748 361,875,168 398,236,002 449,679,635 496,851,309 561,611,353 622,808,155 704,645,972 784,037,869 887,813,364 1,005,493,076

Payments
Sanitation Worker's Salary 75,528,000 83,080,800 91,388,880 100,527,768 110,580,545 121,638,599 133,802,459 147,182,705 161,900,976 178,091,073 195,900,181 215,490,199 237,039,218 260,743,140
Supervisor Salary (Ward) 7,200,000 7,920,000 8,712,000 9,583,200 10,541,520 11,595,672 12,755,239 14,030,763 15,433,839 16,977,223 18,674,946 20,542,440 22,596,684 24,856,353
Sanitation Worker's Maintenance Cost 102,589 116,849 133,091 151,590 172,661 196,661 223,997 255,132 290,596 330,989 376,996 429,399 489,085 557,068
Vehicle Maintenance 7,519,505 8,564,716 9,755,212 11,111,186 12,655,641 14,414,775 16,418,429 18,700,591 21,299,973 24,260,669 27,632,902 31,473,876 35,848,744 40,831,720
Transportation Cost 17,442,908 19,867,472 22,629,051 25,774,489 29,357,143 33,437,786 38,085,638 43,379,542 49,409,298 56,277,191 64,099,720 73,009,581 83,157,913 94,716,863
Operation & Maintenance (Landfil) (300 * 50) 185,432 211,208 240,565 274,004 312,090 355,471 404,882 461,160 525,261 598,273 681,433 776,152 884,037 1,006,918
Plant Operation & Maintenance Cost 10,600,564 12,074,043 13,752,335 15,663,909 17,841,193 20,321,119 23,145,754 26,363,014 30,027,473 34,201,292 38,955,271 44,370,054 50,537,491 57,562,203
Other Expenses 6,645,300 7,568,997 8,621,088 9,819,419 11,184,318 12,738,938 14,509,651 16,526,492 18,823,674 21,440,165 24,420,348 27,814,776 31,681,030 36,084,694
Total payments 125,224,299 139,404,085 155,232,221 172,905,566 192,645,112 214,699,022 239,346,049 266,899,400 297,711,091 332,176,875 370,741,797 413,906,477 462,234,204 516,358,958

Net Working Capital 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 333,904,175 370,131,392 425,579,160 489,134,118

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Cash Flow - Direct Method
Heads FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 FY22 FY23 FY24 FY25
Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Cash Reciept from Customers 231,814,014 263,822,029 292,807,118 320,834,748 361,875,168 398,236,002 449,679,635 496,851,309 561,611,353 622,808,155 704,645,972 784,037,869 887,813,364 1,005,493,076
Cash Expenses from Operating Activities 125,224,299 139,404,085 155,232,221 172,905,566 192,645,112 214,699,022 239,346,049 266,899,400 297,711,091 332,176,875 370,741,797 413,906,477 462,234,204 516,358,958
Cash Generated from Operating Activities 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 333,904,175 370,131,392 425,579,160 489,134,118
Income Tax paid 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116,866,461 129,545,987 148,952,706 171,196,941
Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 217,037,714 240,585,405 276,626,454 317,937,177

Cash Flow from Investing Activities


Sale of Capital Asset
Purchase of Capital Asset
Capital Gains
Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Proceeds from Issuance of Share Capital
Proceeds from Long-term Borrowings
Payment of Finance Lease Liabilities
Dividends paid *
Paid to Promotors -100,000,000 -110,000,000 -121,000,000 -133,100,000 -146,410,000 -161,051,000 -177,156,100 -194,871,710 -214,358,881 -235,794,769 -259,374,246 -285,311,671 -313,842,838 -345,227,121
Net Cash Flow from Financing Activities -100,000,000 -110,000,000 -121,000,000 -133,100,000 -146,410,000 -161,051,000 -177,156,100 -194,871,710 -214,358,881 -235,794,769 -259,374,246 -285,311,671 -313,842,838 -345,227,121
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of Period 3,350,875 9,940,589 24,358,534 40,933,430 55,762,613 78,582,669 101,068,650 134,246,136 169,326,335 218,867,716 273,704,227 231,367,695 186,641,429 149,425,045
Net Cash Flow 9,940,589 24,358,534 40,933,430 55,762,613 78,582,669 101,068,650 134,246,136 169,326,335 218,867,716 273,704,227 231,367,695 186,641,429 149,425,045 122,135,100

Capital Outflow -221,312,750

NPV 228,280,144

IRR 69%

Tax Rate 0.35

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Profit &Loss Statement
Particulars FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 FY22 FY23 FY24 FY25
Gross Sales 228,554,134 259,911,756 292,807,118 320,834,748 361,875,168 398,236,002 449,679,635 496,851,309 561,611,353 622,808,155 704,645,972 784,037,869 887,813,364 1,005,493,076
Excise Duty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Net Sales 228,554,134 259,911,756 292,807,118 320,834,748 361,875,168 398,236,002 449,679,635 496,851,309 561,611,353 622,808,155 704,645,972 784,037,869 887,813,364 1,005,493,076
Other Operating Income 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other Income 3,259,879 3,910,273 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total Income 231,814,014 263,822,029 292,807,118 320,834,748 361,875,168 398,236,002 449,679,635 496,851,309 561,611,353 622,808,155 704,645,972 784,037,869 887,813,364 1,005,493,076
Total Expenditure 125,224,299 139,404,085 155,232,221 172,905,566 192,645,112 214,699,022 239,346,049 266,899,400 297,711,091 332,176,875 370,741,797 413,906,477 462,234,204 516,358,958
PBIDT 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 333,904,175 370,131,392 425,579,160 489,134,118
Interest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PBDT 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 333,904,175 370,131,392 425,579,160 489,134,118
Depreciation 0
Tax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116,866,461 129,545,987 148,952,706 171,196,941
Fringe Benefit Tax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Deferred Tax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reported Profit After Tax 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 217,037,714 240,585,405 276,626,454 317,937,177
Extra-ordinary Items 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Adjusted Profit After Extra-
ordinary item 106,589,715 124,417,945 137,574,896 147,929,182 169,230,057 183,536,980 210,333,586 229,951,909 263,900,262 290,631,280 217,037,714 240,585,405 276,626,454 317,937,177

Balance Sheet
Particulars FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 FY22 FY23 FY24 FY25

Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 9,940,589 24,358,534 40,933,430 55,762,613 78,582,669 101,068,650 134,246,136 169,326,335 218,867,716 273,704,227 231,367,695 186,641,429 149,425,045 122,135,100
Accounts receivable -
Inventory -
Portfolio investments -
Property, plant and equipment at cost -
Accumulated depreciation -
Property, plant and equipment net -
Total assets 9,940,589 24,358,534 40,933,430 55,762,613 78,582,669 101,068,650 134,246,136 169,326,335 218,867,716 273,704,227 231,367,695 186,641,429 149,425,045 122,135,100
Liabilities
Trade payables -
Interest payable -
Income taxes payable -
Long term debt -
Total liabilities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shareholders Equity -
Share capital -
Retained earnings 9,940,589 24,358,534 40,933,430 55,762,613 78,582,669 101,068,650 134,246,136 169,326,335 218,867,716 273,704,227 231,367,695 186,641,429 149,425,045 122,135,100
Total shareholders equity -

Total liabilities and shareholders equity 9,940,589 24,358,534 40,933,430 55,762,613 78,582,669 101,068,650 134,246,136 169,326,335 218,867,716 273,704,227 231,367,695 186,641,429 149,425,045 122,135,100

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Sensitivity Analysis

Capital Cost (Base Case)


1 Capital Cost Rs.Cr. 221,312,750

2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 228,280,144

3 IRR % 68

Capital Cost (+5%) Capital Cost (+10%)


1 Capital Cost Rs.Cr. 232,378,388 1 Capital Cost Rs.Cr. 243,444,025

2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 239,345,781 2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 250,411,419

3 IRR % 66 3 IRR % 63

Capital Cost (-5%) Capital Cost (-10%)


1 Capital Cost Rs.Cr. 210,247,113 1 Capital Cost Rs.Cr. 199,181,475

2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 217,214,506 2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 206,148,869

3 IRR % 71 3 IRR % 74

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Working Capital (Base Case)
1 Working Capital Rs.Cr. 106,589,715

2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 228,280,144

3 IRR % 68

Working Capital (+5%) Working Capital (+10%)


1 Working Capital Rs.Cr. 111,919,200 1 Working Capital Rs.Cr. 117,248,686

2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 228,613,236 2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 228,946,329

3 IRR % 70 3 IRR % 72

Working Capital (-5%) Working Capital (-10%)


1 Working Capital Rs.Cr. 101,260,229 1 Working Capital Rs.Cr. 95,930,743

2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 227,947,051 2 NPV@ 16% Rs.Cr. 227,613,958

3 IRR % 66 3 IRR % 64

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