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Substation Automation System – Value Additions in

Condition Monitoring

This paper discusses the value The stations, where BCUs are
additions made by automation not available (ie., stations
system in the area of condition without SAS) logics can be built
monitoring of CVT, imbalance in numerical relays ie., on
bay/feeder currents which protection core of CVT and
shows the intactness of primary annunciation may be wired to
circuit and monitoring of RTU through a binary output of
measuring system. numerical relay.

CVT Condition Monitoring Logics for feeder CVTs, are


implemented in main bay BCUs
One of the best methods of and for Bus CVTs, it is
monitoring the healthiness of implemented in BCUs supplied
CVT is by monitoring drift for measuring Bus CVTs. Logics
between phase secondary for Bus CVT become difficult for
voltages. As per POWERGRID the station without SAS. For
O&M guidelines, drift between such stations, alternatives may
CVT secondary Ph-E voltages be explored for the availability
should not be more than 2V. of spare analog channels in any
Accordingly, there was schedule numerical relay available in the
of monitoring the same station.
quarterly. Now a days,
numerical relays/BCUs have The logic implemented in the
facility of logics to be BCU has been shown in Fig.1.
implemented on real time SET UP

conditions. This opportunity has


R-N VOLT Abs Sub Abs I/P LIMIT
1
I/P Y
Y
2 LIMIT

been grabbed and logics Y-N VOLT


SET UP Alarm to HMI

implemented at Kalivanthapattu
Abs Sub Abs I/P LIMIT or BO of the
1
I/P Y relay
Y
2 LIMIT

SS as a sample basis. The B-N VOLT


SET UP

concept considered to
Abs Sub Abs I/P LIMIT
I/P 1
Y
Y
2 LIMIT

implement this monitoring is as


follows: Fig.1 Logic for measuring CVT
Secondary Drift.
Only one core per CVT is
considered for monitoring of Equivalent threshold value of 2V
secondary, preferably metering can be set in Set Upper Limit
core due to higher accuracy. gate (This gate is available in
Hence logics are written onto Siemens supplied IEDs –
respective BCU (metering core equivalent gate available may
always connected to BCU) that be used incase of other
was supplied along with SAS. suppliers).
Why Current Imbalance
The logics were implemented at Monitoring
Kalivanthapattu SS for all the
CVT metering cores and tested When imbalance current due to
successfully at HMI and Remote the aforementioned reasons left
HMI alarm for the set drift limits. unnoticed for a longer durations,
it may cause disastrous
Unlike knowing the drift in consequences particularly, when
monthly or quarterly one of the parallel paths, is
measurement, the drift violation under shutdown. Further, with
is known instantaneously at HMI this remote operation/SCADA
and Remote HMI. This will help concepts, unlike manual
in preventing sudden recording, analog data is being
failure/blasting of CVTs and logged into soft records
hence reducing line outage due automatically. Due to lesser
to such unwarranted manual intervention, there is
occurrences. This information high chance for unnoticing of
speeds up taking such incidences for longer
durations. These conditions
cause the need of monitoring
decisions for the replacement of current imbalance in the
faulty CVTs and hence the bays/elements of switchyard,
replacement. particularly in remote stations.

Current Imbalance Concept


Monitoring
Logic concept is same as used in
Current in EHV circuit is CVT secondary drift
generally balanced one with measurement. Metering core of
small variation. Imbalance in the CTs preferred wherever
primary circuit may happen due feasible due to more accuracy.
to the following reasons The concept at Kalivanthapattu
Substation uses,
• Mis – alignment of
isolators feeder current imbalance (both
• Loosely connected 400kV and 230kV), ICT current
jumpers and terminal imbalance (both HV & IV) and
connectors of primary 400kV Tie bays,
circuit.
230kV Bus Coupler and Transfer
• Carbonization of terminal Bus Coupler.
connectors of primary
Except for 400kV tie bays,
circuit.
metering core CTs are available
to BCUs for all the
aforementioned cases. For Tie balanced. MW derived from in
bay measurement, the logic is elements and out elements can
built in LBB relay ie., on be verified for the balance
protection core CT. And Tie LBB condition. Imbalance condition
relay is not connected to LAN as may arise due to following
there is no LAN port available on reasons.
the relay. The logic built on LBB
relay initiates its Binary output • Unhealthy CT secondary
and is wired to near IED and circuit
from IED, event is routed to HMI.
I-R PH I/P
Abs
1
Sub Abs
SET UP
I/P LIMIT
• Unhealthy CVT secondary
circuit including Fuse
Y
Y
2 LIMIT

I-Y PH I/P
Abs
1
Sub
Y
Abs
SET UP
I/P LIMIT
Alarm to HMI
or BO of the
failure and non switching
over CVT circuits during
Y relay
2 LIMIT

I-B PH I/P Abs


1
Sub
Y
Abs
SET UP
I/P LIMIT Bus-shut downs.

• Faulty Measurement Units


Y
2 LIMIT

Fig.2 Logic for measuring


Current Imbalance.
or errors in configuration
Equivalent threshold value can
be set based on the experience Incidentally, there is no
of the feeder past history. supervision/monitoring system
Generally this value ranges from available for such occurrences
4% – 8% of the rated current ie., unless it is detected by the
40 to 80A for a 1000/1A CT. manual intervention or else
during SEM data uploading etc.,
As discussed earlier, this is most
important parameter to be Concept
monitored especially for remote
operated stations. The event of The real time MW of incoming
imbalance current for the said and outgoing feeders are routed
bays/elements has been routed to logics and compared for more
to local HMI at Kalivanthapattu than 3% error. Incase difference
SS and remote HMI at between in and out MWs
Sriperumbudur SS. becomes more than 3%,
corresponding event will be sent
to HMI and RHMI also. Two ways
of MW balance modes are being
implemented at Kalivanthapattu
Measurement Monitoring SS.
System - MW Balance
Measurement • MW balance of incoming
and outgoing feeders
For a substation MW of incoming • MW balance of HV and IV
and outgoing feeders are circuits of ICTs
With this entire measurement
system comes under
monitoring.

The logic implementation is


done using different available
gates similar to CVT drift
measurement and Current
imbalance measurement. As
analog values are derived from
different IEDs, logic has to be
written in station level devices
ie., at gateway/PAS. SICAM PAS
is a powerful tool that is
supplied by M/s. Siemens at
Kalivanthapattu to read all the
station data from all IEDs and
switches and sending them to
HMI/RHMI/RLDC. Logics can also
be written at station level ie., at
SICAM-PAS. All analog values
are available at PAS, which can
be tagged to logics and logic
output to be sent to HMI as
alarm.

Solutions for day to day


problems can be easily arrived
at automated substations. This
proves cost effectiveness of
automated substation in O&M
era and thus it always adds
value to the existing system
without costing much.