319
A C
SOURCE I 360 HZ
TUNED
1 R E 
Fig. 1: Threephase acdc diode rectifier with proposed passive filter topology
RC SOURCE
Fig. 2: Threephase acdc diode rectifier with conventional passive filter topology
Moreover, the input threephase ac rms phase voltage, E, is 1.0 vious section. However a large filter inductor ( L i ) is r e q u i d
pu and the rated output power is 1.0 pu. in the continuous conduction mode to yield a high input power
The dioderectifier waveforms (Figs. 35) in the steady factor. The input power factor of the diode rectifier is C d C U 
state condition are determined by using a digital computer lated from the following expression.
simulation package (SPICE). Depending upon the value of Li
the rectifier operates in one of the modes described in the pre
320
(a)
2 rJ [) ,J      +  .
 +. _..__
+ _______ t
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..
.+
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..
..
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. ...
i.......+......+.......+......c......+......+......+ .......t......1
"5 2101s 21 214M 216.5 21es 2 2228s 2248s 2 m n
TIME TIME
rect'tiCr
Lld\e!llme run 06/24/90 11.27;21
80A .......+......+ .......+......+.
......+......+......~ ~ ~ ~
1 ~4 0 A~ run: 
u~L*,/llm 
05/24/90 ~ 11:27:21
~ . 8
'hreCphasC rcct'fisr Temcrnturc: 27.0
. . . 7
I i. a I
40A!
OA f I
I
I  (
I
'
'
, '
I
~ D; iq;
 4 y
;
;
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. '.
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I
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'
. . . . .
i u t , ut, "l,
a ~ d t e . ~ i i m pun
e 06/24/90 11: 27: 21 Threephsse rectifier lemerature: 27.0
321
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20A/ j
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+
FREQUENCY
~H
'O0*'0,6
CO =
fi*VLaO* 6* W* (Ripple %)
Id.rm 
 =0.243 p u (7)
4
322
l0Ai
30Ai . . . . . ..........
I
20A ...............
10A ii
il . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
FREQUENCY
i t I L T I N
~~
P . U .
and the total VA (TVA) is
Fig. 6: Variation of input power factor and dc bus voltage
(V,) withLi.
323
The VA rating of the filter inductor, Li, and the value of Value : 0.06 * 306.65 = 18.4 pF
the output filter capacitor (assuming 5percent ripple) are cal
culated using (9) and (5). The variation of total VA (TVA) of
the reactive components with respect to L . is shown in Fig. 7. 2.5 Experimental Results
From Fig. 7 the value of TVA required to deliver 1.0 pu output
power (P,)when Lihas a value of 0.8 is 0.513 pu.
To verify the predicted results, a 900 watt experimental
rectifier has been implemented with the following circuit
parameters:
. AC input rms phase voltage (Ebcrm,) = 115 Volts. = 1.0
PU

I
1 .1 .2 .3 . 4 . 5 .E .7 . E . S
,
1
. Angular frequency of the ac source = 377 rad./sec. = 1.0
PU
A  f I N P.U. . Output power = 925 watts = 1.0 pu
Fig. 7: Variation of total VA with Li. . Filter inductor (Li) = 5 mH. = 0.132 pu
Experimental waveforms of the typical rectifier topology
2.4 Design Example shown in Fig. 8 are in good agreement with the simulated
results shown in Fig. 5. The input power factor is calculated as
follows:
To illustrate the significance and validity of the theoreti . AC input rms current (I, (rm)) = 2.88 Amps. = 0.358 pu
cal results obtained in the previous sections, the following . Load dc voltage (V,) = 272 Volts. = 2.32 pu
design example is presented. The threephase rectifier has the
following specifications . Load dc current ( I o ) = 3.4 Amps. = 0.422 pu
V , = 208 rms E 1 pu Volts. Using the above information the input power factor is given by
272* 3.4
P, = 5,000 W = 1 pu Watts. Power Factor = = 0.912 (12)
Output voltage (V,) ripple = 5 % 3* 115*2.88
From these values which is in good agreement with the simulated results shown in
5 ,000 Fig. 6.
1 pu Current = = 24.04 Amps.
208 3. Proposed Passive Waveshaping Method
208
1 pu Impedance = = 8.65 Ohms
24.04 As shown earlier the input current of a conventional
diode rectifier (Fig. 2) has fifth and seventh harmonic com
8.65 ponents which are becoming increasingly difficult to tolerate.
1 pu Inductance = = 23 mH Consequently, the proposed diode rectifier system (Fig. 1) con
377 sists of an input parallel resonant tank whose inductor and
1 capacitor values are selected so that the input filter presents an
1 pu Capacitance = ~ = 306.65 pF infinite (theoretically) impedance to the sixth harmonic input
8.65*377 current component so that both the fifth and seventh harmonic
components are attenuated simultaneously. The resulting
1 pu Angular frequency = 2rcf = 377 rad./s advantages over the conventional diode rectifier (Fig. 2)
From Fig. 6 the value of the inductor, Li required to include:
deliver 1.0 pu output power is 0.8 pu which is equal to 18.4 (i) high input power factor;
mH. Using the pu values shown in section 2.3 the voltage and
current ratings of the rectifier diode and filter capacitor COare (ii) low input current distortion
as follows: (iii) high efficiencybecause of the low rms value of the
input current;
Rectifier Diode (iv) reduced reactive component sizes;
Average current, Id,o : 0.142 * 24.04 = 3.4377 Amps. (v) improved reliability against short circuit.
RMS current, Id,rm : 0.243 * 24.04 = 5.842 Amps.
3.1 Input Filter Analysis
Peak current, Idped:0.451 * 24.04 = 10.84 Amps.
Peak forward voltage : 6 * 4 * 208 = 509.5 Volts. The nfh harmonic component of the equivalent
impedance of the input parallel resonant filter is given by
DC Filter Inductor Li
xcm
Value of the inductor : 0.8 * 23 = 18.4 mH a,_*
R M S current :0.43 * 24.04 = 10.337 Amps.
Peak current : 0.45 1 * 24.04 = 10.84 Amps.
=C
DC Filter Capacitor CO j a L mi
n
Peak voltage : 2.33 * 208 = 484.64 Volts. where
360 Hz ripple current, Io.a: 0.027 * 24.04 = 0649 Amps.
324
X,, is the impedance of the input resonant inductor (Lr,)
at the fundamental frequency.
Xc, is the impedance of the input resonant capacitor
(C,,) at the fundamental frequency.
From (13) the sixth harmonic impedance of the input resonant
filter becomes infinity (theoretically) when
or
1
L , = ___ (14)
A m p . : 2 A/Dlv. 3602cr,
50 \'/Dlv. where w is the angular frequency of the input ac source (Eh).
Based upon the instant at which the rectifier output current
goes to zero the rectifier system shown in Fig. 1 has three pos
sible modes of operation:
(i) Discontinuous mode I : The bridge rectifier operates
in the discontinuous mode I if the steady state output
current (I,) is discontinuous and goes to zero before
A
wr = .
t  HERTZ
&
3
(ii) Discontinuous mode I1 : The bridge rectifier
operates in the discontinuous mode I1 if the steady
state output current I , is discontinuous and goes to
A
zero at Of > 7 .
(iii) Continuous mode III : The bridge rectifier operates
in the continuous mode if the steady state output
current (I, ) never falls to zero.
Depending upon the rectifier operating mode either two or
three diodes will be conducting at any given time. In the con
tinuous mode the maximum conduction period of the diode is
more than 120,. Moreover the rectifier operating mode
depends upon value of the filter inductance (Lra)and the DC
bus voltage (V,).
3.2 Rectifier Analysis
325
I
................................ i
..................................
t
................................ i
.. . .i .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIME F il E 3 U E:l CY
6 O A +..................................+.................+............... .
Fig. 9: diode rectifier (Fig. 1) simulated
waveforms in discontinuous mode I.
(a) Input ac phase voltages.
(b) Input ac line voltages.
(c) Rectifier input current ( I k )and its spectrum.
(d) Rectifier output current ( I o ) and its spectrum.
3.4 Component Ratings
 2 0A3&0 1 ~
326
. . . . . . .
loom 110m
TIME
~..++
40A;
i R EQ U i i d C Y
FR E Q U E i l i Y
Fig. 10: Proposed diode rectifier (Fig. 1) simulated
waveforms in discontinuous mode 11.
(a) Rectifier input current (I,) and its spectrum.
(b) Rectifier output current (Io) and its spectrum.
Table I
The capacitor rating is Comparative Component Ratings of Threephase Waveshaping
= Ic(rm~Vc,~rm) (19) Methods
and the total VA (TVA) is
Proposed
TVA = LVA + CVA (20) Conventional Method Passive Method
where ) is the rms value of the current through the capa (Fig. 2) (F1g. 1)
citor and I is the rms voltage across the capacitor. The Inductor
VA rating o/tK)filter inductor (Lra) and the value of the out 0.8 0.4
4ilLra 0.339
put filter capacitor (assuming 5percent ripple) are calculated I . 0.345
(rm ) 0.476
using (19) and (5). The variation of TVA of the reactive com 0.479
u1.1
ponents with Lla is shown in Fig. 13. From Fig. 13 the value of 0.1 0.04
I , .5 0.019
TVA required to deliver 1.0 pu output power (P,) when L, I. 0.07
has a value of 0.4 is 0.404 pu whereas in case of convention3 Rating 0.513 0.404
diode rectifier its value is 0.513 pu (Fig. 7). Evaluation of Figs. Rectifier
8 and 13 show that the proposed passive diode bridge rectifier Diode
(Fig. 1) requires a smaller total reactive VA to deliver 1.0 pu 0.142 0.15
power. Comparative component ratings in pu of the proposed 0.243 0.240
passive waveshaping method, for the standard diode bridge 0.45 1 0.482
rectifier are summarized in Table I.
Evaluation of Table I shows that the proposed passive Capacitor(Co) 0.06 0.086
rectifier yields a significant reduction in the fifth and seventh 0.027 0.08
l o ,b
input current harmonics and also maintains a higher input Power (PJlphase 1.o 1.oo
power factor, a lower input current distortion factor, a lower Power factor(1) 0.95 0.986
filter inductor value, a lower input rms current, and a lower Distortion factor(2) 0.1418 0.066
total VA rating of the reactive components than the conven
327
.s o p ; ..................+..................................+.................
smrj Tim
TIME
loom 10%
4 0 4 ........+.......+.......+........*..............*........+.......
.
110n
ANA; _.
95a
TIME
t 10n loom
A+
1

3 0 A ,........+.......+.......+........*...............+........+.......
I
f
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' , .+
3041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
j
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i
i '
. . . . : . .
.
. . . i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
t
A
FiliQUENCY
FREOUENCY
Fig. 11: Proposed diode rectifier (Fig. 1) simulated
waveforms in continuous mode.
(a) Rectifier input current (I,) and its spectrum.
(b) Rectifier output current ( I , ) and its spectrum.
+ .1 .2 .3 . 4 .5
L,,
.s
I N
.7
P.U.
.e .9 1
Ym+f.;i.: .2 .3 . 4 .s .6 .7 .e .9 1
L,, I N P . 'd. Fig. 13: Variation of total VA with L,,
 . 5 I Dlscontlnuous mode I tional diode rectifier. However, the proposed method also has
1 11 the disadvantage of increasing the average and peak currents
(b) I
&
~ 1 1, Conrlnuous mode
3.5 Design Example
> i l l
To illustrate the significance and validity of the theoreti
cal results obtained in the previous sections, the following
design example is presented. The threephase rectifier has the
following specifications
i
V , = 208 rms = 1 pu Volts.
Fig. 12: Variation of input power factor and dc bus voltage Pr = 5,000 W = 1 pu Watts.
(V,) withL,,.
Output voltage (V,) ripple = 5%
From these values
5,000
1 pu Current = 208 = 24.04 Amps.
328
the simulated results shown in Fig. 11. The power factor of the
208 proposed rectifier is calculated as follows:
1 pu Impedance = = 8.65 Ohms
24.04 . Input ac rms phase voltage (Eh(rm))= 115 Volts. = 1.0 pu
8.65 . Input ac r m s current (lia(rmr))
= 13.6 Amps. = 0.35 pu
1 pu Inductance = = 23 mH . Load dc voltage (V,) = 248 Volts = 2.157 pu
377
. Load dc current (lo)= 16 Amps. = 0.476 pu
1
1 pu Capacitance =  = 306.65 pF Using the above information, the input power factor is given
8.65* 377 by
1 pu Angular frequency = 2xf = 377 rad./s VL *lo
PowerFactor = = 0.978 (21)
From Fig. 12 the value of the inductor, Lra required to 3*Eia (rmr ,*'io ( r m
deliver 1.0 pu output power is 0.4 pu which is equal to 9.2 mH.
Using the pu values shown in section 3.4 the voltage and which is in good agreement with the simulated results shown in
current ratings of the rectifier diode and filter capacitor COare Fig. 12(a).
as follows:
4. Conclusions
Rectifier Diode
In this paper an improved passive input current
Average current, Id,o : 0.151 * 24.04 = 3.63 Amps. waveshaping method suitable for threephase diode rectifiers
RMS current, Id,rmr : 0.241 * 24.04 = 5.794 Amps. has been presented and analyzed. The analysis has shown that
Peak current, Idped: 0.482 * 24.04 = 11.587 Amps. the proposed waveshaping method (Fig. 1) has the advantages
of higher input power factor, lower input current distomon fac
Peak forward voltage : 459.88 Volts. tor, lower input rms c m n t , and a lower total reactive com
ponent VA rating than the conventional threephase diode
Filter Inductor Lra rectifier (Fig. 2). Relevant input and output current waveforms,
Value of the inductor : 0.4 * 23 = 9.2 mH component ratings and power factor values have been derived.
Finally, key predicted results have been verified experimen
RMS current : 0.36 * 24.04 = 8.678 Amps. tally on a 5 kVA laboratory prototype unit.
Peak current : 0.51 * 24.04 = 12.28 Amps.
References
Filter Capacitor Cra
Value of the capacitor : 0.046 * 306.65 = 14.196 pF A.W. Kelley and W.F. Yadusky, "Phasecontrolled
rectifier linecurrent harmonics and power factor as a
RMS current : 0.059 * 24.04 = 1.418 Amps. function of firing angle and output filter inductance," in
Peak current : 0.084 * 24.04 = 2.02 Amps. Conf. Rec. 1990 EEE Applied Power Electronics
Conference and Exposition, pp. 588597.
DC Filter Capacitor CO S.B. Dewan, "Optimum input and output filters for a
Peak voltage : 2.33 * 208 = 484.64 Volts. singlephase rectifier power supply," IEEE Trans. on Ind.
Appl., Vol.'IA17, No. 3, May/June 1981, pp. 282288.
360 Hz ripple current, $,a :0.08 * 24.04 = 1.9 Amps.
Value : 0.086 * 306.65 = 26.4 pF S.B. Dewan and A. Straughen, Power Semiconductor cir
cuits. New York: Wiley, 1975.
Power Electronics Group, California Institute of Technol
3.6 Experimental Results ogy, "Input current shaped ACtoDC converters," Final
report prepared for NASA.
V.R. Stefanovic, "Power factor improvement with a
TO verify the predicted results an 4.5 kVA experimental modified phasecontrolled converter," IEEE Trans. on Ind.
rectifier has been implemented with the following circuit Appl., Vol. IA15, NO. 2, M m h / A p d 1979,pp. 193201.
parameters:
A.R. Prasad, P.D. Ziogas and S. Manias, "A novel passive
. AC input rms voltage = 115 Volts. = 1.0 pu waveshaping method for singlephase diode. rectifiers," in
. Output power = 4588 Watts = 1.0pu Conf. Rec. 1990 E E E ECON.
. Resonant Inductor Lra = 3 mH. = 0.392 pu
. Angular frequency (a)of the ac input voltage = 377
rad./s = 1.O pu
Using (14) the value of the capacitor ( C r a )is given by
1
Cra = = 65.15 pF.
36* a2*Lra
3 29
Tlme : 2 ms/Dlv.
i HERTZ
Tlme : 2 ms/Dlv.
Amp.: .50 V/DIv

+
1.
HERTZ
330