You are on page 1of 10

Mr M D MAKSIMOVIC bsc

LANDING GEAR in PPT Serbia

The landing gear is one of our main products manufactured for the
first time in 1949 for the airplane S-49, piston trainer, since when
we have designed, developed and manufactured the landing gear
for 14 types of airplanes.
Today, we produce the landing gear for the aircraft: Galeb, Jastreb,
Kraguj, Utva-75, Super Galeb, Orao, Lasta 2 and Lasta 3.

LANDING GEAR DESIGN

The company's design office house over 30 highly qualified


personnel of which approximately one third is engaged on work with
aircraft landing gear.
The SDRC software system I-DEAS at PPT Landing Gear Division was
selected specifically to embrace the requirement of landing gear
design and is capable of:
• 2D drawing
• Wire framing
• Solid modeling
CAD/CAM techniques are employed to explore design alternatives
then to supply optimum production configurations.
Design work on landing gear covers the following:
• aircraft requirements
• suspension options
• shock absorber techniques
• materials ethnology
• steering controls
• retraction mechanisms
• associated hydraulics
DESIGN APPROACH
The determination of the pivot
Landing gear design
axes is
fordependent, not only on the type of aircraft,
three-dimensional
but also on the requirements for its usage and intended operational
geometry
role. The choice of suspension and the shock absorber arrangement
often result from the matching of runway conditions with those of
aircraft structure leading to optimum passenger comfort.
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
The design of aircraft
landing gear equipment
involves the application
and dissipation of energy
within the various
mechanisms, not only for
the main function-that of
landing-but also for
retraction, lowering,
steering and other
associated mechanisms.
Over the year Landing
Gear Division has
developed comprehensive
analytical techniques to
determine the
performance of such
mechanisms.
These analyses insuring
Nose L.G. Main L.G.-right that loads generated are
Aircraft Lasta 3 well within the strength
and performance parameters. Upon request the airplane
manufacturer we are able to suggest the solution with the most
suitable kinematics, minimal weight, minimal space requirement,
simple maintains and long life-time.
SHOCK ABSORBER
The oil-air shock-absorbers
are designed to absorb the
vertical component of the
kinetic energy of the airplane
with high efficiencies
approved by the drop test.
We are producing double
stage, single stage and shock
absorber with use of needle.

Aircraft Lasta 3 - Nose L.G.


MATERIALS
The basic material used for the main elements of the landing gear is
high strength steel and high resistance aluminum alloys.
The landing gear components manufactured of these high resistant
materials are permanently under control during the entire
manufacturing procedure starting from forging, machining, heat
treatment, final surface treatment and installation.
Typical aluminum alloys include 3.4354, 3.4364, 2024, 7010 and
7075, while the steels cover 300M, 4330 and 4340, also 35NCD
THQ.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
PPT carries out all its research and development on landing gear
units and associated actuation system.
Test applicable to landing gear include:
• element testing of mechanisms
• stress evaluation
• dynamic testing of prototype units
• qualification testing for certification
PPT is capable of meeting all test requirements as laid down by the
relevant civil and military authorities.
LANDING GEAR TEST
The engineering development department covers every aspect of
landing gear qualification and is fully equipped for:
•drop testing
•strength testing
•fatigue testing
•functional testing
•vibration testing
•environmental testing
Aircraft Lasta 2: Main L.G. Drop test result
PPT has available test equipment designed in compliance with MIL
specifications for testing of landing gear of aircraft.
The testing facilities available at PPT for the Landing Gear Division
consist of: drop test, strength test, fatigue test, durability test and
impact test machinery.
In PPT testing Facilitates is possible to test the landing gear of the
wheel vertical force up to 25t.
The PPT landing gear test facility is computerized so that results are
available for engineering assessment.
• DROP TEST
The PPT possesses two towers for testing of landing gears to vertical
reaction on the wheel of 25t.
Measuring of vertical reaction on the wheel is carried out by three-
axial force indicator while acquisition and processing of the
measuring results are computed. It is possible to acquire testing
data on 32 channels.
Shutting of wheels is carried out by a mobile equipment that can
rotate two wheels at the same time to 400km/h.
• DURABILITY TEST
The durability test system carries out simulation of the runway
profile.
Both horizontal and vertical actuators can be used simultaneously.
The horizontal actuator can attain the force of up to 10t and the
vertical one 25t.
• IMPACT TEST EQUIPMENT
The system enables duplicating of the drop test by application of the
simulation system.
The hydraulic impact simulation system uses the basic hydraulic
system with a shoot loop operating on the shifting control unit. The
control signal to servo actuator is realized with an analog computer
known as collision simulator. The test parameters such as simulated
mass, wing lift and impact speed are electronically adjusted on
calibration dials.
The collision simulator duplicates the ideal mathematical impact
model between two masses. It determines the shifting links as a
function of an unknown shock absorber run and controls SHA to
move toward the appropriate shifting in #t# time.
It is possible to simulate smaller drop of 100 to 5000 kg wing lift
from 0 to 100%, and the impact speeds up to 4.5 m/s.
• FATIGUE TEST EQUIPMENT
The fatigue test system with three channels is available including
three actuators for the vertical, lateral and horizontal inlet as
required servo-regulators.
Servo-controls possess both force and run indicators. The equipment
can test the landing gear with a vertical force on the wheel to 25t.
AIRCRAFT WHEELS
All our wheels are virtually of the same type as that illustrated here.

4 5
1. Control Room
2. Landing Gear Durability/Impact Test Equipment
3. Small Drop Tower
4. Tyre/Brake Test Machine
5. Large Drop Tower
The various existing alternatives differ in size only.
To make tire mounting and removal esier, these wheels consist of
two wheel halves assembled by tie bolts and self locking nuts of
high strength steel. The two wheel-halves are interchangeable. They
are made of die forged aluminum alloy and they are protected by
anodizing and hot polymerized paint resisting to shocks, oxidation
and hydraulic fluids.
The wheels are fitted with taper roller bearings protected from
external projections by flanges. They are provided with fuses
preventing tires from bursting in case of abnormal overheating.
All our wheels can accommodate the tachometer driving device
used in our brake control systems.
BRAKES
These brakes have been designed for the simplest possible
maintenance, at the most reasonable price and for the best
possible weight. Aircraft manufactures have been attracted by the
ease with which faulty parts can be replaced. The brakes consist of
three main parts:
THE BRAKE SUPPORT mounted freely on the wheel axle and
remaining fixed to it. THE HYDRAULIC UNIT which provides pressure
for the disc linings, by means of its pistons, whose backward
movement is controlled by automatic wear compensation devices.
These devices are incorporated in brake cylinders, and there fore
retain the same efficiency at all times, and are impervious to
outside conditions. THE OPERATIONAL UNIT, integral
with structural parts, by means of serration in the torsion tube,
which makes it possible to transmit the braking torque to the brake
bar. This torsion tube and its functional components which include
rotary discs and supports carrying the friction linings. Supports and
rotary discs are segmented to prevent thermal distortion.
Our brakes are characterized by:
• short braking path
• long life-time
• simple maintenance
EQUIPMENT FOR TESTING WHEELS, TYRES AND
BRAKES
Machines for testing of small diameters of tires and wheels are
available. The machine can be used for development testing of tires
and brakes for airplanes with the wheel dynamic load of up to 10
000 kg and the maximum speed up to 400 km/h.
ACTUATION MECHANISMS
For lowering and retraction of landing gear, Landing Gear Division
offers suitable equipment to provide a total system. Depending on
the geometry, most our landing gears are capable of emergency
free fall lowering. Typical system components are:
• hydraulic actuators
• folding stays
• up/down locks
• door locks
Hydraulics is a PPT specialty and the company is ideally suited to
produce hydraulic system coordinated with the landing gear.
• INTERNAL LOCKING ACTUATORS
The hydraulic actuators produced by PPT may be provided with
mechanical locking system of the claw-type.

Aircraft G-4 Main L.G. Retracting Actuator


The most attractive features of this device are, on the one hand, its
compactness i.e. its capability of taking up significant loads when
compared with its reduced overall dimensions and, on the other
hand, its extreme reliability proven by forty years of experience in
aviation.
The automatic locking of the actuator rod at the end of travel is
made possible by the #claw# flexible fingers trapped between a rod
shoulder and locking piston.
Consequently, locking is achieved through the effect of the
actuating pressure, other wise, through a low external load.
Unlocking is hydraulically controlled, the locking piston moving back
under the effect of the pressure. These actuators are used for
landing gear leg bracing, for door and air brake.
They include mechanical switches which allow to know whether the
mechanism is locked or not.
According to the applications required, locking can be achieved
with rod retracted or extended as well as in both positions in a few
cases.
• UPLOCKS
Our uplock units, the design of which is based on a common
principle are intended for various installations. They ensure the
automatic uplocking of a landing gear unit. They consist of a box
incorporating a switch and a hydraulic actuator. The box encloses
the locking device mainly consisting of a hook and a link connected
by an extension spring which during locking holds the link roller on
the hook path. These uplock units incorporate switches of different
types (microswitches or proximity switches) which indicate whether
the landing is locked or not. The single or double piston actuator
ensures the gear hydraulic unlocking with NORMAL or EMERGENCY
system.