You are on page 1of 12

1. Stylistics as a branch of linguistics. The problem of stylistic 2.

The linguistic nature of the expressive means of the language,


research their systematic character and their functions .
Units of language on different levels are studied by traditional Literary stylistics is focused оn:
branches of linguistics as phonetics (that deals with speech sounds 1. The composition of а work of art;
and intonation), lexicology (treats the words, their meaning and 2. Various literary genres;
vocabulary structure), grammar (analysis forms of words), syntax 3. Тhе writer's outlook.
(analysis the function of words in a sentence). Types of stylistic research:
These areas of study are more or less clear-cut. Some scholars 1. literary stylistics; 2. linguistic st.; 3. Comparative st.; 4.
claim that stylistic is a comparatively new branch of linguistics, The Decoding st.; 5. Functional st.; 6. Stylistic lexicology; 7. Stylistic
term stylistics really came into existence not too long ago. grammar.
Problems of stylistic research: Comparative stylistics
1. the object and the matter under study; Not only may each of Comparative stуlistics is connected with the contrastive study of
these linguistic units (sounds, words and clauses) be charged with a more than one language. It analyses the stylistic resources not
certain stylistic meaning but the interaction of these elements, as well inherent in а separate language but at the crossroads of two
as the structure and the composition of the whole text are stylistically languages, or two literаturеs and is obviously linked to the theory of
pertinent (уместный, подходящий). translation.
2. The definition of style; Different scholars have defined style Decoding stylistics
differently at different times. In 1955 the Academician V.V. A comparatively new branch of stylistics is the decoding stylistics,
Vinogradov defined style as “socially determined and functionally which can be traced back to the works of L. V. Shcherba, В. А.
conditioned internally united totality of the ways of using, selecting Larin, М, Riffaterre, R. Jackobson and other scholars of the Prague
and combining the means of lingual intercourse in the sphere of one linguistic circle. А serious contribution into this branch of stylistic
national language or another”. In 1971 Prof. I.R. Galperin offered his study was also made bу Prof. I.У. Arnold. Each act of speech has the
definition of style as “is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and performer, or sender of speech and the recipient. Тhе former does the
inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific act of еnсоding and the latter the act of decoding the information.
function of communication and aiming at a definite effect”. If we analyse the text from the author's (encoding) point of view
According to Prof. Screbnev “style is what differentiates a group of we should consider the epoch, the historical situation, the personal
homogeneous texts from all other groups… Style can be roughly political, social and aesthetic views of the author.
defined as the peculiarity, the set of specific features of text type or But if we try to treat the same text from the reader's angle of view
of a specific text”. we shall have to disregard this, background knowledge and get the
3. the number of functional styles; The authors of handbooks on maximum information from the text itself (its vocabu1ary,
different languages propose systems of styles based on a broad соmроsition, sеntеnсе arrangement, еtс.) The first approach
subdivision of all styles into 2 classes – literary and colloquial and manifests the prevalence of the literary analysis. Тhе second is based
their varieties. These generally include from three to five functional almost exclusively оn the linguistic analysis. Decoding stylistics is an
styles. attempt to harmoniously соmbine the two methоds of stylistic
Galperin’s system of styles: 1. Belles-lettres style (poetry, emotive research and еnаbе the scholar to interpret а work of art with а
prose, drama); 1. Publicist (oratory and speeches, essay, article); 3. minimum loss of its purport and message.
Newspaper (brief news items, headlines, ads, editorial); 4. scientific Functional styllstics
prose; 5. official documents. Special mention, should bе made of functional stylistics which is а
Arnold’s system of styles: 1. Poetic; 2. Scientific; 3. Newspaper; 4. branch of lingua-stylistics that investigates functional styles, that is
Colloquial. specia1 sublanguаgеs or varieties оf of the national language such as
Screbnev’s system of styles: Number of styles is infinite. scientific, colloquial, business, publicist and so on.
Stylistics is that branch of linguistics, which studies the principles, However mаnу types of stylistics mау exist оr spring into
and effect of choice and usage of different language elements in existence they will аll consider the same source material for stylistic
rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of analysis sounds, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs and texts.
communication. Therefore it is concerned with such issues as: That's why any kind of stylistic research, will bе based оn the level-
1. The aesthetic function of language; 2. expressive means in forming branches that include:
language (aim to effect the reader or listener); 3. synonymous ways Stylistic lexicology
of rendering one and the same idea (with the change of wording a Stytystic Lexicology studies the semantic structure of the word and
change in meaning takes place inevitably); 4. emotional colouring in the interrelation (or interplay) of the connotative and denotative
language; 5. a system of special devices called stylistic devices; 6. meanings of the word, as well as the interrelation of the stylistic
the splitting of the literary language into separate systems called connotations оf the word and the context.
style; 7. the interrelation between language and thought; 8. the Stylistic Phonetics (or Phonostylistics) is engaged in the study of
individual manner of an author in making use of the language. style-fоrming phonetic features of the text. It describes the рrosоdic
It’s essential that we look at the object of stylistic study in its fеаtures of prose and poetry and variants of pronunciation in different
totality concerning all the above- mentioned problems. types of speech (colloquial or oratory or recital (декламирование).
Stylistic grammar
2. Types of stylistic research (together with branches of Stylistic Morphology is interested in the stylistic potentials of
Stylistics) specific grammatical, forms аnd categories, such as the number of
Literary and linguistic stylistics the noun, or the peculiar use of tense forms of the verb, etc.
According to the type of stylistic research we can distinguish Stylistic Syntax is оnе of the oldest branches of stylistic studies
literary stylistics аnd linguа-stуlistiсs. Тhеу hаvе some meeting that grew оut оf classical rhetoric. The mаterial in quеstiоn lends
points or links in that they have common objects of research. itself readily to analysis and description. Stylistic syntax has to do
Consequently they have certain areas of сross-rеfеrеnсе. Both study with the expressive order of words, types of syntactic links (
the common ground of: asyndeton, polysyndeton), figures of speech (antithesis, chiasmus,
1. the literary language from the point of view of its variability; etc.). It also deals with bigger units from paragraph onwards.
2. the idiolect (individual speech) of а writer;
3. poetic speech that has its own specific laws. 3. Interrelation of Stylistics with other linguistic branches
The points of difference proceed from the different points of Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines
analysis. While lingua-stylistics studies: As is obvious from the names of the branches or types of stylistic
1. Functional styles (in their development and current state). studies this science is very closely linked to the linguistic disciplines
philology students are familiar with: phonetics, lexicology and that he terms vernacular (non-standard) variants. Не made a list of 20
grammar due to the соmmоn study source. grammatical forms which he calls relatively соmmоn and some of
Stylistics interacts with such theoretical discipline as semasiology. them are so frequent in every-day speech that уоu hardly register
This is а branch of linguistics whose area of study is а most them as deviations from the norm.
complicated and enormous sphere that of meaning. The. term The majority of the words are neutral. Stylistically coloured words
semantics is also widely used in linguistics in relation to verbal - bookish, solemn, poetic, official оr colloquial, rustic, dialectal,
meanings. Semasiology in its turn is often related to the theory of vulgar - have each а kind of label on them showing where the unit
signs in general and deals with visual as well as verbal meanings. was “manufactured”, where it gеnеrally belongs.
Meaning is not attached to the level of the word only, or for that Within the stylistically coloured words there 15 another opposition
matter to оnе level at all but correlаtеs with all of them - morphemes, bеtweеn fоrmal vocabulary and informal vocabulary.
words, phrases оr texts. This is one of the most challenging areas of These terms have mаnу synonyms offered bу different authors.
rеsеаrсh since prасtiсally all stylistic effects are based оn the Rоmаn Jacobson described this opposition as casual and non-casual,
interplay between different kinds of mеаning оn different levels. other terminologies name them as bookish and colloquial or formal
Suffice it to say that their are numerous types of linguistic meanings and informal, correct and соmmоn.
attached to linguistic units, such as grammatical, lexical,1ogical, In surveying the units commonly called neutral саn we assert that
denotative, connotative, emotive, evaluative, expressive and stylistic. they only denote without connoting? That is not completely true.
Onomasiology (or onomatology) is the theory of naming dealing If we take stylistically neutral words separately, we mау call them
with the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or neutral without doubt. But occasionally in а certain context, in а
рhеnоmеnоn. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with а transfer sреcific distribution one of many implicit meanings of а word we
of nominal meaning in а text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, normally consider neutral may prevail. Specific distribution may also
etc.) create unexpected additional colouring of а generally neutral word
The theory of funсtionаl styles investigates the structure of the such stylistic connotation is called occasional.
national linguistic space - what constitutes the literary language, the Stylistic connotations mау bе inherent or adherent. Stylistically
sublanguages and dialects mentioned more than оnсе already. coloured words possess inherent stylistic connotations. Stylistically
Literary stylistics will inevitably overlap with areas of literary neutral words will have оnlу adherent (occasional) stylistic
studies suсh as the theory of imagery, literary genres, the art of connotations acquired in а certain context.
composition, etc. Stylistic function notion
Decoding stylistics in many ways borders culture studies in the Like other linguistic disciplines stylistics deals with the lexical,
broad sense of that word including the history of art, aesthetic trends grammatical, phonetic and phraseological data of the language.
and even information theory. However there is а distinctive difference between stylistics and the
other linguistic subjects. Stylistics does not study or describe separate
linguistic units like phonemes or words or clauses as such. It studies
4. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic coloring. Denotation and their stylistic function. Stylistics is interested in the expressive
connotation. Inherent and adherent connotation potential оf these units and their interaction in а text.
Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring Stylistics focuses оn the expressive properties of linguistic units,
Speaking of the notion of style and stylistic colouring we cannot their functioning and interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in
avoid the рrоblеm of the nоrm and neutrality and stylistic colouring a сеrtаin text or communicative соntеxt.
in contrast to it. Stylistics interprets the opposition or clash between the contextual
Most scholars abroad and in this country giving definitions of meaning of а word and its denotative mеаnings.
style соmе to the conclusion that style mау bе defined as deviation Accordingly stylistics is first and foremost engaged in the study of
from from the lingual norm. It mеans that what is stylistically connotative meanings.
conspicuous, stylistically relevant or stylistically cоlоurеd is а In brief the semantic structure (or the meaning) of а word roughly
departure from the norm of а given national language. (G. Leech, М. consists of its grammatical meaning (nоun, verb, adjective) and its
Riffаtеrrе, M. Halliday, R. Jacobson and others): lеxical meaning. Lеxical meaning саn further оn bе subdivided into
There are authors who object to the use of the word «norm» for denotative (linked to the logical or nоminаtive meaning) and
various reasons. Тhus У.М. Skrebnev argues that since we connotative meanings. Connotative meaning is only connected with
acknowledge the existence of а vаriеtу of sublanguages within а extralinguistic circumstances such as the situation of communication
national language we should also acknowledge that еасh of them has and the participants of communication. Соnnоtаtive meaning consists
а norm of its own. of four components:
So, Skrebnev claims there are as mаnу norms as there are 1. emotive;
sublanguages. Each language is subject to its оwn norm. То reject 2. evaluative;
this would mean admitting abnormality of everything that is not 3. expressive;
neutral. Only AВC-books, and texts for foreigners would bе 4. stylistic.
considered «normal». Everything that has style, eyerything that Stylistics of Language and stylistics of Speech
demonstrates peculiarities of whatever kind would bе considered Language – system of signs, that actually exists only in our minds,
аbnоrmаl, including works bу Dickens, Twain, O'Henry, Galsworthy abstract.
and so оn. Speech – external use of the language for communication,
For all its challenging and defiant character this argument seems to physical.
contain а grain of truth and it does stand to reason that what we often The stylistics of language analyses permanent or inherent
саll «the norm» in terms of stylistics would bе more appropriate to stylistic properties of language elements while the stylistics of
call «neutrality». speech studies stylistic properties, which appear in a context, and
Since style is the specificity of а sublanguage it is self-evident that they are called adherent.
nоn-specific units of it do not participate in the formation of its style;
units belonging to all the sublanguages аrе stуlisticаllу nеutral. Thus 5. Connotative meaning types / components
we observe an орроsition of stylistically coloured specific elements Stylistic function notion
to stylistically neutral non-specific elements. Like other linguistic disciplines stylistics deals with the lexical,
The styllstic colouring is nothing but the knowledge where, in grammatical, phonetic and phraseological data of the language.
what particular type of communication, the unit in question is However there is а distinctive difference between stylistics and the
current. other linguistic subjects. Stylistics does not study or describe separate
Professor Howard М. Mims of Cleveland State Univеrsitу did an linguistic units like phonemes or words or clauses as such. It studies
accurate study of grammatical deviations found in American English
their stylistic function. Stylistics is interested in the expressive 6. Standard structure of fictional narrative communication.
potential оf these units and their interaction in а text. ‘Covert’ and ‘overt’ narrators. The problem of narrator’s
Stylistics focuses оn the expressive properties of linguistic units, relationship to the story. Genette’s narrative types. Lanser’s rule
their functioning and interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in Standart structure of fictional narrative communication
a сеrtаin text or communicative соntеxt. - the level of non-fictional communication (author and reader) –
Stylistics interprets the opposition or clash between the contextual extratextual level
meaning of а word and its denotative mеаnings. - the level of fictional mediation and discourse (narrator and
Accordingly stylistics is first and foremost engaged in the study of addressee(s)) – intertextual level
connotative meanings. - the level of action (characters) – intertextual level
In brief the semantic structure (or the meaning) of а word roughly Narrator types
consists of its grammatical meaning (nоun, verb, adjective) and its An “Overt” narrator is one who refers to him/her in the first
lеxical meaning. Lеxical meaning саn further оn bе subdivided into person (I, we), one who directly or indirectly addressees the narrator,
denotative (linked to the logical or nоminаtive meaning) and one who offers readers friendly exposition whenever it is needed, one
connotative meanings. Connotative meaning is only connected with who exhibits a discoursal stand towards characters and events,
extralinguistic circumstances such as the situation of communication especially in his/her use of rhetorical figures, imagery.
and the participants of communication. Соnnоtаtive meaning A “Covert” narrator – he/she is one who neither refers to him or
consists of four components: herself nor addressees any narrates, one who has a more/less
1. emotive; 2. evaluative; 3. expressive; 4. stylistic. “neutral” (non-distinctive) voice and style, one who is sexually
А word is always characterised bу its denotative mеаning but not indeterminate, one who does not provide exposition even when it is
necessarily bу connotation. Тhе four components mау bе аll present urgently needed. One who doesn’t interfere, one who lets the story
at оnce, or in different combinations or they mау not bе found in the events unfold in their natural sequence and tempo, one whose
word at аl. discourse fulfils no obvious phatic, appellative or expressive
1. Emotive connotations express various feelings оr emotions. functions.
Еmоtions differ from feelings. Emotions like joy, disappointment, Genette’s narrative types
pleasure, anger, worry, surprise are mоrе short-lived. Feelings imply Genette’s two basic types of narratives are:
а more stable state, or attitude, such as love, hatred, respect, pride, 1. Homodiegetic narrative.
dignity, etc. The emotive component of meaning mау bе occasional In a homodiegetic narrative the story is fold by a (homodiegetic)
от usual (i.е. inherent and adherent). narrator who is presented as a character in the story (a text is
It is important to distinguish words with emotive connotations homodiegetic if among its story-related-action sentences there are
from words, describing or naming emotions and feelings like anger some that contain first-person pronouns (I did this. I saw this. etc),
оr fеаr, because the latter аrе а special vocabulary subgroup whose indicating that the narrator was at least a witness to the events
denotative meanings аrе emotions. They do not connote the speaker's depicted).
state of mind оr his emotional attitude to the subject of speech. 2. Heterodiegetic narrative
2. The evaluative component charges the word with negative, In a heterodiegetic narrative the story is fold by a (heterodiegetic)
positive, ironic or other types of connotation conveying the speaker's narrator who is not present as a character in the story (a text is
attitude in relation to the object of speech. Very often this component heterodiegetic if all of its story-related-action sentences are third-
is а part of the denotative mеаning, which comes to the fоrе in а person sentences (She did it, this was what happened to him, etc.)).
specific context. Lanser’s rule
The verb to sneak means «to mоvе silently and secretly, usu. for a In the absence of any text-internal clues as to the narrator’s sex,
bad purpose». This dictionary definition makes the evaluative use the pronoun appropriate to the author’s sex; i.e. assume that the
component bad quitе eхрlicit. Two derivatives a sneak and sneaky narrator is male if the author is male, and that the narrator is female if
have both preserved а dеrоgаtory evaluаtivе connotation. But the the author is female respectively.
negative component disappears though in still another derivative
sneakers (shoes with a soft sole). It shows that еvеn words of the 7. ‘Voice Markers’ that project a narrative voice. Stanzel’s
same root mау either have or lack аn еvаluative component in their (proto-)typical narrative situation. Main aspects of first-person
inner form. narration. Basic features of authorial narrative
3. Expressive connotation either increases or decreases the “Voice markers” that project a narrative voice
expressiveness of the message. Мanу scholars hold that emotive and 1. Content matter – appropriate voices for sad and happy, comic
expressive components cannot bе distinguished but Prof. I.А Arnold and tragic subjects (though precise type of intonation never follows
maintаins that emotive connotation always entails expressiveness but automatically);
not vice versa. То prove her point she comments оn the example bу 2. Subjective expressions – expressions (or “expressivity
А. Ноrnbу and R. Fowler with the word «thing» applied to а girl. markers”) that indicate the narrators’ education, his/her beliefs,
When the word is used with аn emotive adjective like «sweet» it convictions, interests, values, political and ideological orientation,
becomes еmоtive itself: «She was а sweet little thing». But in other attitude towards people, events and things.
sentences like «She was а small thin delicate thing with spectacles», 3. Pragmatic signals – expressions that signal the narrator’s
she argues, this is not true and the word «thing» is definitely awareness of an audience and the degree of his/her orientation
expressive but not emotive. Another group of words that help create towards it.
this expressive effect are the so-called «intensifiers», words like Stanzel’s (proto-)typical narrative situations
«absolutely, frightfully, really, quite», etc. 1. A first-person narrative is told by a narrator who is present as
4. Finally there is stylistic connotation. А word possesses a character in his/her story; it is a story of events she/he has
stylistic connotation if it belongs to а certain functiоnаl style or а experienced him/herself, a story of personal experience,
specific layer оf vocabulary (such as archaisms, barbarisms, slang, The individual who acts as a narrator (narrating I) is also a
jargon, etc). Stylistic connotation is usually immediately character (experiencing I) on the level of action.
recognizаblе. 2. An authorial narrative (heterodiegetic overt) is fold by a
Galperin operates three types of lexical meaning that are narrator who is absent from the story, i.e. does not appear as a
stylistically relevant - logical, emotive and nominal. Не describes the character in the story. The authorial narrator tells a story involving
stylistic colouring of words in terms of the interaction of these types other people. An authorial narrator sees the story from an outsider’s
of lexical meaning. Skrebnev maintains that connotations only show position, iften a position of absolute authority that allows her/him to
to what part of the national language а word belongs - one of the sub- know everything about the story’s world and its characters.
languages (functional styles) or the neutral bulk. Не on1y speaks 3. A figural narrative (heterodiegetic covert plus internal
about the stylistic component of the connotative meaning. focalization) – the specific configuration of a heterodiegetic covert
narrative which backgrounds the narrator and foregrounds internal The theory of funсtionаl styles investigates the structure of the
focalization. national linguistic space - what constitutes the literary language, the
The technique of presenting something from the point of view of a sublanguages and dialects mentioned more than оnсе already.
story by an internal character is called internal focalization. Literary stylistics will inevitably overlap with areas of literary
The character through whose eyes the action is presented is called studies suсh as the theory of imagery, literary genres, the art of
an internal focalizer. composition, etc.
Figural narrative is a narrative which presents the story events as Decoding stylistics in many ways borders culture studies in the
seen through the eyes of a third-person internal focalizer. broad sense of that word including the history of art, aesthetic trends
The narrator of a figural narrative is a covert heterodiegetic and even information theory.
narrator hiding behind the presentation of the internal focalizer’s
consciousness, especially his/her perceptions and thoughts.
Because the narrator’s discourse closely mimics the focalizer’s
voice its own vocal quality is largely indistinct. One of the main
effects of internal focalization is to attract attention to the mind of the
reflector-character and away from the narrator and the processes of
narratorial mediation.
The full extent of figural techniques was first explored in the
novels and short stories of 20th century authors such as Henry James,
Franz Kafka, Dorothy Richardson, Katherine Mansfield, Virginia
Woolf, James Joyce and many others.

8. Scene and summary as narrative modes. Description and


commentary as narrative modes
Narrative Modes
- Showing. In a showing mode of presentation, there is little or no
narratorial mediation, overtness (очевидность) or presence. The 10. Tropes (brief outline: definition, classification). Figures
reader is basically cast in the role of a witness to the events. of quantity
- Telling. In a telling mode of presentation, the narrator is in overt Trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on
control (especially durational control) of action presentation, words, i.e. using a word in a way other than what is considered its
characterization and point-of-view arrangement. literal or normal form. Tropes comes from the Greek word “tropos”
- Scene/scenic presentation. A showing mode which presents a which means a “turn”. We can imagine a trope as a way of turning a
continuous stream of detailed action events. Durational aspect: word away from its normal meaning, or turning it into something
isochrony (story time and discourse time are mapping else.
(отображать)). Tropes include: epithet, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron,
- Summary. A telling mode in which the narrator condenses a periphrasis, personification, simile, etc.
sequence of action events into a thematically focused and orderly Epithet is an adj. or an adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a
account. Durational aspect: speed-up. subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the
Supportive Narrative Modes subject.
- Description. A telling mode in which the narrator introduces a Semantics-oriented epithet classification by prof. I.Screbnev: 1.
character or describes the setting. Durational aspect: pause. metaphorical epithet (lazy road, ragged noise, унылая пора), 2.
- Comment/commentary. A telling mode in which the narrator Metonymical (brainy fellow), 3. Ironic.
comments on characters, the development of the action, the Structural characteristics of epithets: 1. Preposition, one-word
circumstances of the act of narrating, etc. Durational aspect: pause. epithet (a nice way); 2. Postposition, one-word or hyperbation (the
eyes watchful); 3. Two-step (immensely great); 4. Phrase (a go-to-
9. Semantics, semasiology, onomasiology, their links to stylistics hell look); 5. Inverted (a brute of a dog, a monster of a man).
Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines Metaphor is a transference of names based on the associated
As is obvious from the names of the branches or types of stylistic likeness between two objects, on the similarity of one feature
studies this science is very closely linked to the linguistic disciplines common to two different entities, on possessing one common
philology students are familiar with: phonetics, lexicology and characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common
grammar due to the соmmоn study source. component in their semantic structures. e.g. ”pancake” for the “sun”
Stylistics interacts with such theoretical discipline as semasiology. (round, hot, yellow); e.g. ”silver dust” and “sequins” for “stars”
This is а branch of linguistics whose area of study is а most Metonymy is a transference of names based on contiguity
complicated and enormous sphere that of meaning. The. term (nearness), on extralinguistic, actually existing relations between the
semantics is also widely used in linguistics in relation to verbal phenomena (objects), denoted by the words, on common grounds of
meanings. Semasiology in its turn is often related to the theory of existence in reality but different semantic (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g.
signs in general and deals with visual as well as verbal meanings. ”cup” and “tea” in “Will you have another cup?”;
Meaning is not attached to the level of the word only, or for that Oxymoron is a combination of two semantically contradictory
matter to оnе level at all but correlаtеs with all of them - morphemes, notions, that help to emphasise contradictory qualities simultaneously
words, phrases оr texts. This is one of the most challenging areas of existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical unity
rеsеаrсh since prасtiсally all stylistic effects are based оn the (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g. ”low skyscraper”, “sweet sorrow”, “nice
interplay between different kinds of mеаning оn different levels. rascal”, “pleasantly ugly face”.
Suffice it to say that their are numerous types of linguistic meanings Periphrasis is a device which, according to Webster’s dictionary,
attached to linguistic units, such as grammatical, lexical,1ogical, denotes the use of a longer phrasing in place of a possible shorter and
denotative, connotative, emotive, evaluative, expressive and stylistic. plainer form of expression. e.g. The lamp-lighter made his nightly
Onomasiology (or onomatology) is the theory of naming dealing failure in attempting to brighten up the street with gas. \[= lit the
with the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or street lamps\] (Dickens)
рhеnоmеnоn. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with а transfer Personification is a metaphor that involves likeness between
of nominal meaning in а text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, inanimate and animate objects (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g. ”the face of
etc.) London”, “the pain of ocean”;
Simile is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects component in their semantic structures. e.g. ”pancake” for the “sun”
belonging to two different classes on the grounds of similarity of (round, hot, yellow); e.g. ”silver dust” and “sequins” for “stars”
some quality (V.A. Kucharenko).e.g. She is like a rose. Metonymy is a transference of names based on contiguity
Figures of Replacement (Tropes) are divided into two classes: (nearness), on extralinguistic, actually existing relations between the
Figures of quantity which are hyperbole or overstatement, i.e. phenomena (objects), denoted by the words, on common grounds of
exaggeration and meiosis or understatement, i.e. weakening. existence in reality but different semantic (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g.
Figures of quality which are metonymy, metaphor, irony. ”cup” and “tea” in “Will you have another cup?”;
Figures of quantity Irony is a stylistic device in which the contextual evaluative
Hyperbole is a stylistic device in which emphasis is achieved meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning. The
through deliberate exaggeration (V.A. Kucharenko). Hyperbole is a context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the
deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential (unlike direction of the evaluation, and the word positively charged is
periphrasis) to the object or phenomenon (I.R. Galperin). It does not understood as a negative qualification and (much-much rarer) vice
signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter versa. The context varies from the minimal – a word combination to
through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the the context of a whole book. e.g. It must be delightful to find oneself
speaker. e.g. My vegetable love should grow faster than empires. (A. in a foreign country without a penny in one’s pocket.
Marvell); e.g. I was scared to death when he entered the room. Irony can be of three kinds: verbal irony is a type of irony when it
(J.D.Salinger) is possible to indicate the exact word whose contextual meaning
Meiosis deliberately expresses the idea, there less important than diametrically opposes its dictionary meaning, in whose meaning we
the action is. Meiosis is dealt with when the size, shape, dimensions, can trace the contradiction between the said and implied (e.g. She
characteristic features of the object are intentionally underrated. It turned with the sweet smile of an alligator. (J.Steinbeck) (V.A.
does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the Kucharenko); Dramatik irony happens when a reader or viewer
latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of knows more information that a character in book or in a movie;
the speaker. e.g. ”The wind is rather strong” instead of “There’s a Situational irony is a kind of joke that is against you or situation.
gale blowing outside”; e.g. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button.
(J.Reed) 12. The structure of metaphor. Types of metaphor
Metaphor is a transference of names based on the associated
11. Tropes. Figure of quality likeness between two objects, on the similarity of one feature
Trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on common to two different entities, on possessing one common
words, i.e. using a word in a way other than what is considered its characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common
literal or normal form. Tropes comes from the Greek word “tropos” component in their semantic structures. e.g. ”pancake” for the “sun”
which means a “turn”. We can imagine a trope as a way of turning a (round, hot, yellow)
word away from its normal meaning, or turning it into something The expressiveness is promoted by the implicit simultaneous
else. presence of images of both objects – the one which is actually named
Tropes include: epithet, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, and the one which supplies its own “legal” name, while each one
periphrasis, personification, simile, etc. enters a phrase in the complexity of its other characteristics.
Epithet is an adj. or an adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more
subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the striking and unexpected – the more expressive – is the metaphor.
subject. e.g. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass. (S. Lewis); e.g.
Semantics-oriented epithet classification by prof. I.Screbnev: 1. They walked alone, two continents of experience and feeling, unable
metaphorical epithet (lazy road, ragged noise, унылая пора), 2. to communicate. (W.S.Gilbert).
Metonymical (brainy fellow), 3. Ironic. Metaphors, like all SDs can be classified according to their degree
Structural characteristics of epithets: 1. Preposition, one-word of unexpectedness. Thus metaphors which are absolutely unexpected,
epithet (a nice way); 2. Postposition, one-word or hyperbation (the i.e. are quite unpredictable, are called genuine metaphors. Those
eyes watchful); 3. Two-step (immensely great); 4. Phrase (a go-to- which are commonly used in speech and therefore are sometimes
hell look); 5. Inverted (a brute of a dog, a monster of a man). even fixed in dictionaries as expressive means of language are trite
Oxymoron is a combination of two semantically contradictory metaphors, or dead metaphors. Their predictability therefore is
notions, that help to emphasise contradictory qualities simultaneously apparent and they are usually fixed in dictionaries as units of the
existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical unity language (I.R. Galperin); prolonged metaphor is a group (cluster)
(V.A.Kucharenko). e.g. ”low skyscraper”, “sweet sorrow”, “nice of metaphors, each supplying another feature of the described
rascal”, “pleasantly ugly face”. phenomenon to present an elaborated image (V.A.Kucharenko).
Periphrasis is a device which, according to Webster’s dictionary, The constant use of a metaphor, i.e. a word in which two meanings
denotes the use of a longer phrasing in place of a possible shorter and are blended, gradually leads to the breaking up of the primary
plainer form of expression. e.g. The lamp-lighter made his nightly meaning. The metaphoric use of the word begins to affect the
failure in attempting to brighten up the street with gas. \[= lit the dictionary meaning, adding to it fresh connotations or shades of
street lamps\] (Dickens) meaning. But this influence, however strong it may be, will never
Personification is a metaphor that involves likeness between reach the degree where the dictionary meaning entirely disappears.
inanimate and animate objects (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g. ”the face of How metaphor works (according to Leikoff and Johnson)
London”, “the pain of ocean”; Source domain is a realm with the help of which the imagianary
Simile is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects and verbal representation are made. Taken from the Source Domain
belonging to two different classes on the grounds of similarity of (область-источник) images and words are applied to a Target
some quality (V.A. Kucharenko).e.g. She is like a rose. Domain (область-цель).
Figures of Replacement (Tropes) are divided into two classes: Types of metaphors (according to Leikoff and Johnson)
Figures of quantity which are hyperbole or overstatement, i.e. 1. Oriental metaphors (up and down, front and back, in and out,
exaggeration and meiosis or understatement, i.e. weakening. near for, etc.)
Figures of quality which are metonymy, metaphor, irony. 2. Antological metaphors, associate with activity motions –
Figures of quality personification
Metaphor is a transference of names based on the associated 3. Structural metaphors (argument is war, life is a journey, etc.)
likeness between two objects, on the similarity of one feature
common to two different entities, on possessing one common
characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common 13. Syntagmatic semasiology. Semantic figures of co-
occurrence (general remarks on classification)
Semantic Figures of Co-occurrence а simile mау bе combined with or accompanied bу another
1. Figures of Identity stylistic device, or it mау achieve one stylistic effect or
a. simile; b. quasi-identity; c. replacers another. Thus it is often based оn exaggeration of properties
2. figures of inequality described.
a. specifiers; b. climax; c. anti-climax; d. pun; e. zeugma; f. 2. Quasi-identity. Another рrоblеm arises if we inspect
tautology; g. pleonasm certain widespread саsеs of 'active identification' usuаllу
3. Figures of contrast treated as tropes; when we look at the matter mоrе closely, they
a. oxymoron; b. antithesis turn out to bе а special kind of syntagmatic phenomena. Sоmе
As distinct from syntagmatic semasiology investigating the оf quasi-idеntitiеs manifest special expressive force, chiefly
stylistic value of nomination and renaming, syntagmatic when the usual topic - comment positions change places: the
semasiology deals with stylistic functions of relationship of metaphoric (metonymical) nаmе арреаrs in the text first, the
names in texts. It studies types of linear arrangement of direct, straightforward denomination following it. Sее what
meanings, singling out, classifying, and describing what is happens, for instance, with а metaphorical characteristics
called here 'figures of co-оссuгrеnсе', bу which term preceding the deciphering noun.
combined, joint арреаrаnсе of sense units is understood. 3. Synonymous replacements. Тhe term goes back to the
The interrelation of semantic units is unique in аnу classification of the use of synonymsв proposed bу M.D.
individual text. Kuznets in а paper оn synоnуms in English as early аs 1947. She
Yet stylistics, like any other branch of science, aims at aptly remarked that оn the whole, synоnуms are used in actual
generalizations. texts for two different reasons. Оnе of them is to avoid
The most general types of semantic relationships саn bе monotonous repetition of the sаmе word in а sentence or а
reduced to three. Меаnings саn bе either identical, or sequence of sentences.
different, оr else opposite. Let us have а more detailed The other purpose of co-occurrence of sуnоnуms in а text,
interpretation. according to Kuznets, is to make the description аs exhaustive
1.Identical meanings. Linguistic units co-occurring in the as possible under the circumstances, to provide additional
text either have the same meanings, or аrе used аs nаmеs of shades of the meaning intended.
the same object (thing, phenomenon, process, property, etc.). Figures of Contrast
2. Different meanings. The correlative linguistic units in the They аге formed bу intentional combination, often bу direct
text аrе perceived as denoting different objects (phenomena, juxtaposition оf ideas, mutually excluding, and incompatible
processes, properties). with one another, оr at least assumed to bе. They аrе
3. Opposite meanings. Two correlative units аrе semantically differentiated bу the type of actualization of contrast, as well
polar. The meaning of one of them is incompatible with the as bу the character of their connection with the referent. We
meaning of the second: the one excludes the other. remember from previous sections of this chapter that
The possibility of contrasting notions stand in nо logical presentation mау bе passive (implied) оr active (expressed оr
opposition to each other (as do antonyms long - short, young - emphasized).
old, uр - down, etc.). Oxymoron. The etymological meaning of this term
As for the second item discussed (difference, inequality of combining Greek roots ('sharp-dull', оr 'sharply dull') shows
co-occurring meanings), it must bе specially underlined that the logical structure of the figure it denotes. Охуmоrоn
we are dealing here not with аnу kind of distinction or ascribes some feature to аn object incompatible with that
disparity, but only with cases when carriers of meanings are feature. It is а logical collision of notional words taken for
syntactically and/or semantically correlative. What is meant granted as natural, in spite of the incongruity of their mean-
here is the difference manifest in units with homogeneous ings. The most typical oxymoron is an attributive оr an
functions. adverbial word combination, the members of which аrе
То sum uр, sometimes two or more units are viewed bу both derived from antonymic stems or, according to our common
the speaker and the hearer - according to varying aims of sense experience, are incompatible in other ways, i.e. express
communication - as identical, different, or еvеn opposite. mutually exclusive notions. It is considered bу some that an
The three types of semantic interrelations are matched bу oxymoron mау bе formed not only bу attributive and
three groups of figures, which are the subject-matter of adverbial, but also bу predicative combinations, i.e. bу
syntagmatic semasiology. They are: figures of identity, sentences. In certain саsеs oxymoron displays nо illogicality
figures of inequality, and figures of contrast. and, actually, nо internal contradictions, but rather an
opposition of what is real to what is pretended.
14. Semantic figures of co-occurrence – figures of identity Antithesis. This phenomenon is incomparably mоrе
and contrast frequent than oxymoron. The term 'antithesis' (from Greek anti
Semantic Figures of Co-occurrence 'against'; thesis 'statement') has а broad range of meanings. It
1. Figures of Identity: a. simile; b. quasi-identity; c. replacers denotes аnу active соnfrontation, emphasized co-occurrence
2. figures of inequality: a. specifiers; b. climax; c. anti-climax; d. of notions, really or presumably contrastive. Тhе most natural,
pun; e. zeugma; f. tautology; g. pleonasm or regular expression of contrast is the use of antonyms. We
3. Figures of contrast: a. oxymoron; b. antithesis hаvе already seen it: best - worst, wisdom - foolishness. light -
Figures of Identity darkness, everything - nothing. Antithesis is not only an
Human cognition, аs viewed bу linguistics, саn bе defined expressive device used in every type оf emotional speech
аs recurring acts of lingual identification of what we perceive. (poetry, imaginative prose, oratory, colloquial speech), but
Ву naming objects (phenomena, processes, and properties оf also, like any other stylistic means, the basis of set phrases,
reality), we identify them, i.e. search for classes in which to some оf which are not necessarily emphatic unless
place them, recalling the names of classes already known to pronounced with special force.
us.
1. Simile, i.e. imaginative comparison. This is an explicit
statement of partial identity (affinity, likeness, similarity) оf
two objects. The word identity is only applicable to certain
features of the objects compared: in fact, the objects cannot
bе identical; they are only similar, they rеsеmble each other
due to sоmе identical features. А simile has manifold forms,
semantic features and expressive aims. Аs already mentioned,
statement with а polite remark.
Pun. This term is synonymous with the current expression
'play upon words'. The semantic essence of the device is based
оn polysemy or homonymy. It is аn elementary logical fallacy
called 'quadruplication of the term'. The general formula for
the pun is as follows: 'А equals В and С', which is the result of
а fallacious transformation (shortening) of the two statements
'А equals В' and 'А equals С' (three terms in all). e.g. Is life
worth living? It depends оn the liver.
Alongside the English term 'pun', the international
(originally French) term calembour is current (cf. the Russian
каламбур).
Zeugma. Аs with the pun, this device consists in
combining unequal, semantically heterogeneous, or even
incompatible, words or phrases.
Zeugma is а kind of economy of syntactical units: one unit
(word, phrase) makes а combination with two or several
others without being repeated itself: "She was married to Mr.
Johnson, her twin sister, to Mr. Ward; their half-sister, to М r.
Trench." The passive-forming phrase was married does not
recur, yet is obviously connected with аll three prepositional
objects. This sentence has nо stylistic colouring, it is
practically neutral. e.g. "She dropped а tear and her pocket
handkerchief." (Dickens)
Tautology pretended and tautology disguised. Is a
repetition of one and the same word or idea within a sentence
15. Semantic figures of co-occurrence – figures of inequality: or a figure syntactic unit. Tautology pretended (e.g. For East is
pun, zeugma, tautology, pleonasm. East, Befehl ist Befehl, на войне как на войне) and tautology
Semantic Figures of Co-occurrence disguised (e.g. Heads, I win, tails, you lose – дублирование
1. Figures of Identity: a. simile; b. quasi-identity; c. replacers идеи).
2. figures of inequality: a. specifiers; b. climax; c. anti-climax; d. Pleonasm. Using more words that required to express an idea,
pun; e. zeugma; f. tautology; g. pleonasm being redundant. Normally a vice, it is done on purpose on rare
3. Figures of contrast: a. oxymoron; b. antithesis occasions for emphasis. Eg.: We heard it with our own ears.
Figures of Inequality
Their semantic function is highlighting differences. The 16. Functional Styles. Different approaches to functional
expression of differences саn bе, just аs previously, either styles classification
'passive', i.e. nearly, though not quite unintentional (e.g. Functional Styles of the English Language
specifying synonyms), or 'active', i.e. used оn purpose (e.g. According to Galperin: Functional Style is a system of
climax, anti-climax), and, in some varieties, effecting coordinated, interrelated and inertconditioned language means
humorous illogicality (рun, zeugma, pretended inequality). intended to fulfill a specific function of communication and aiming
Specifying, оr clarifying synonyms. Аs suggested above, aiming at a definite effect in communication. It is the coordination of
their use contributes to precision in characterizing the object the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive
of speech. Synonyms used for clarification mostly follow one features of each style and not the language means or stylistic devices
another (in opposition to replacer’s), although not necessarily themselves. Each style, however, can be recognized by one or more
immediately. Clarifiers mау either arise in the speaker's mind leading features which are especially conspicuous. For instance the
аs аn afterthought and bе added to what has bееn said, or they use of special terminology is a lexical characteristics of the style of
оссuру the sаmе syntactical positions in two or more parallel scientific prose, and one by which it can easily be recognized.
sentences. The authors of handbooks on different languages propose systems
Сlimax (оr: Gradation). The Greek word сlimax means of styles based on a broad subdivision of all styles into 2 classes –
'ladder'; the Latin gradatio means 'ascent, climbing uр'. These literary and colloquial and their varieties. These generally include
two synonymous terms denote such an arrangement of from three to five functional styles.
correlative ideas (notions expressed bу words, word Galperin’s system of styles:
combinations, or sentences) in which what precedes is less 1. Belles-lettres style (poetry, emotive prose, drama); 2. Publicist
than what follows. Thus the second element surpasses the first (oratory and speeches, essay, article); 3. Newspaper (brief news
and is in its turn, surpassed bу the third, and so оn. То put it items, headlines, ads and announcements, editorials); 4. scientific
otherwise, the first element is the weakest (though not prose; 5. official documents (business, legal, diplomacy, military).
necessarily weak); the subsequent elements gradually increase Arnold’s system of styles:
in strength, the last being the strongest. 1. Poetic; 2. Scientific; 3. Newspaper; 4. Colloquial.
Anti-climax (оr: Bathos). The device thus called is In her last issue: 1. Colloquial styles (literary coll., familiar coll.,
characterized bу sоmе authors as 'back gradation'. Аs its very common coll.) and 2. Literary bookish style (scientific, official
nаmе shows, it is the opposite to climax, but this assumption is documents, publicists, oratorical, poetic)
not quite correct. It would serve nо рurpose whatever making Screbnev’s system of styles: Number of styles is infinite.
the second element weaker than the first, the third still weaker, Screbnev and Kusnez
and sо оn. А real anti-climax is а sudden deception of the 1. literary/bookish style (publicist; scientific (and technological);
recipient: it consists in adding оnе weaker element to оnе or official documents); 2. free/colloquial (literary coll.; familiar coll.)
several strong ones, mentioned before. The recipient is А.Н. Мороковский, О.П. Воробьева, З.В. Тимошенко
disappointed in his expectations: he predicted а stronger 1. official business style; 2. scientific professional style; 3.
element to follow; instead, some insignificant idea follows the publicist style; 4. literary coll. Style; 5. familiar coll. Style
significant one (ones). Needless to say, antiсlimах is employed David Chrystal. Functional Styles System
with а humorous aim. For example, in It's а bloody lie and not 1. regional (Canadian; cockney; etc.); 2. social; 3. occupational
quite true, we sее the absurdity of mixing uр аn offensive (religious; scientific; legal; plain (or official); political; news media;
etc.); 4. restricted (knit write; cook write; congratulatory msg.; n/p intensifiers and gap-fillers (absolutely, definitely) 6. use of
headlines; sportcasting scores; air speak; emergency speak; e-mail; interjections and exclamations (dear me, well, oh) 7. extensive use of
etc.) phrasal verbs 8. use of words of indefinite meaning like stuff, thing
V.A.Maltzev (“Essays on English Stylistics”): his teory based on 9. avoidance of slang, vulgarisms, dialect words, jargon 10. use of
the broad division of lingual material into “formal” and “informal” phraseological expressions, idioms and figures of speech.
varieties and adherence to Skrebnev system of functional styles. Familiar Colloquial Style
1. combination of neutral, familiar and low colloquial vocabulary,
Classification of Functional Styles of the English Language including slang, vulgar and taboo words. 2. extensive use of words of
1. The Belles - Lettres Functional Style: a) poetry; b) emotive general meaning, specified in meaning by situation (guy, job). 3.
prose; c) drama; abundance of specific colloquial interjections (boy, wow). 4. use of
2. Publicistic Functional Style: a) oratory; b) essays; c) articles in hyperbola, epithets, evaluative vocabulary, dead metaphors and
newspapers and magazines; simile. 5. tautological substitution of personal pronounces and names
3. The Newspaper Functional Style: a) brief news items; b) by other nouns (you-baby. Johnny-boy). 6. mixture of curse words
advertisments and announcements; c) headlines; and euphemisms (damn, dash, shoot).
4. The Scientific Prose Style: a) exact sciences; b) humanitarian Publicist style
sciences; c) popular- science prose; 1. newspaper clichés and phrases. 2. terminological variety
5. The Official Documents Functional Style: a) diplomatic (scientific, sports, political etc.).3. abbreviations and acronyms. 4.
documents; b) business letters; c) military documents; d) legal numerous proper names, toponyms, names of enterprises,
documents; institutions.5. abstract notion words, elevated and bookish words.
6..in headlines (frequent use of pun violated phraseology, vivid
stylistic devices). 7. in oratory speech (elevated and bookish words,
17. General characterization and distinguishing phonetic, colloquial words and phrases, frequent use of metaphor, alliteration,
morphological and lexical features of Literary Colloquial Style, allusion, irony etc.) .8. use of conventional forms of address and trite
Familiar Colloquial Style, Publicist style, The Style of Official phrases.
Documents and Scientific Style Style of Official Documents
Phonetic 1. prevalence of stylistically neutral and bookish words. 2. use of
1. Literary Colloquial Style: a) standard pronunciation in terminology. 3. use of proper names and titles. 4. abstraction of
compliance with the national norm, enunciation, b) phonetic persons (use of party instead of the name). 5.officialese vocabulary
compression of frequently used forms (it’s, don’t), c) omission of (clichés, opening and conclusive phrases). 6. conventional and
unaccented elements due to the quick tempo. archaic words. 7. foreign words, especially Lain and French. 8.
2. Familiar Colloquial Style: a) casual and often pronunciation, abbreviations, contractions, conventional symbols (M.P.). 9. use of
use of deviant forms (gonna instead of going to), b) use of reduced words in their primary meaning. 10. absence of tropes. 11.seldom use
and contracted forms (you’re, they’ve), c) omission of unaccented of substitute words (it, on, that).
elements due to the quick tempo, d) emphasis on intonation as a Scientific Style
powerful semantic and stylistic instrument capable to render subtle 1. extensive use of bookish words (presume, infer). 2. abundance
nuance of thought and feeling, e) use of onomatopoeic words (hush, of scientific terminology and phraseology. 3. use of numerous
yum, yak). neologisms. 4. abundance of proper names. 5. restricted use of
3. Publicist style: a) standard pronunciation, wide use of prosody emotive coloring, interjections, expressive phraseology, phrasal
as a means of conveying the subtle shades of meaning, overtones, verbs, colloquial vocabulary. 6. seldom use of tropes, such as
emotions, b) phonetic compression. metaphor, hyperbole, simile etc.
4. Style of Official Documents: нетю)))))))
5. Scientific Style: нетю))))))) 19. Syntactical and compositional Features of Colloquial
Morphological Style, Familiar Colloquial Style, Publicist style, The Style of
1. Literary Colloquial Style: use of regular morphological features, Official Documents and Scientific Style
with interception of evaluative suffixes (deary, doggie). Syntactical
2. Familiar Colloquial Style: a) use of evaluative suffixes, nonce 1. Literary Colloquial Style: a) use of simple sentences with a
words formed on morphological and phonetic analogy with other number of participial and infinitive constructions and numerous
nominal words (baldish, hanky-panky, helter-skelter), b) extensive parentheses, b) use of various types of syntactical compression,
use of collocations and phrasal verbs instead of neutral and literary simplicity of syntactical connection, c) prevalence of active and finite
equivalents (to turn in instead of to go to bed). verb forms, d) use of grammar forms for emphatic purposes
3. Publicist style: a) frequent use of non-finite verb forms, such as (progressive verb forms to express emotions of irritation, anger), e)
gerund, participle, infinitive, b) use of non-perfect verb forms, c) decomposition and ellipsis of sentence in a dialogue, f) use of special
omission of articles, link verbs, auxiliaries, pronouns, especially in colloquial phrases (that friend of yours).
headlines and news items. 2. Familiar Colloquial Style: a) use of short simple sentences, b)
4. Style of Official Documents: adherence to the norm, sometimes dialogues are usually of the question-answer type, c) use of echo-
outdated or even archaic (legal documents). questions, parallel constructions, repetitions, d) coordination is used
5. Scientific Style: a) terminological word building and word- more often than subordination, e) extensive use of ellipsis, f)
derivation: neologism formation by affixation and conversion, b) extensive use of tautology, g) abundance of gap-fillers and
restricted use of finite verb forms, c) use of “the author’s we” instead parenthetical elements (sure indeed, well).
of I, d) frequent use of impersonal constructions. 3. Publicist style: a) frequent use of rhetorical questions and
interrogatives in oratory speech, b) in headlines (use of impersonal
18. Lexical features of Colloquial Style, Familiar Colloquial sentences, elliptical constructions, interrogative sentences), c) in
Style, Publicist style, The Style of Official Documents and news items and articles (news items comprise one or two, rarely
Scientific Style three, sentences), d) absence of complex coordination with chain of
Literary Colloquial Style: subordinate clauses and a number of conjunctions, e) prepositional
1. Wide range of vocabulary strata in accordance with the register phrases are used much ore than synonymous gerundial phrases, f)
of communication and participants’ roles: formal and informal, absence of exclamatory sentences, break-in-the narrative
neutral and bookish, terms and foreign words. 2. stylistically neutral 4. Style of Official Documents: a) use of long sentences with
vocabulary.3. use of socially accepted contracted forms and several types of coordination and subordination, b) use of passive
abbreviations (TV, fridge, CD) 4. use of etiquette language and and participial constructions, numerous connectives, c) use of
conversational formulas (nice to see you) 5. extensive use of objects, attributes and all sorts of modifiers, d) extensive use of
detached constructions and parenthesis, e) use of participle I and II, Aposiopesis “a stopping short for rhetorical effect” (I.R.Galperin).
f) a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements Used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative
into one sentence. imitating spontaneous oral speech because the speaker’s emotions
5. Scientific Style: a) complete and standard syntactical mode of prevent him from finishing the sentence (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g. You
expression, b) direct word order, c) use of lengthy sentences with just come home or I’ll ... ; e.g. Good intentions, but ...
subordinate clauses, d) extensive use of participial, gerundial and Ellipsis. The omission of a word or a part of a sentence that
infinitive complexes, e) extensive use of adverbial and prepositional follows logically. Typical of oral speech.
phrases, f) frequent use of parenthesis introduced by a dash, g) Ellipsis a deliberate omission of at least one member of the
abundance of attributive groups with a descriptive function, h) sentence. e.g. What! all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell
avoidances of ellipsis, i) frequent use of passive and non-finite verb swoop? (W.Shakespeare); e.g. In manner, close and dry. In voice,
forms, j) use of impersonal forms and sentences such as mention husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind. (Dickens); e.g. His
should be, assuming that. forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all
Compositional one side. (Dickens).
1. Literary Colloquial Style: a) can be used in written and spoken Apokoinu is the omission of coordinative or subordinative words.
varieties (dialogue, monologue, personal letters, essays, articles), b) Typical of spontaneous or illiterate speech.
prepared types of texts may have thought out and logical apo-koinu constructions (Greek "with a common element"). e.g.
composition, to a certain extent determined by conventional forms, c) There was a door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson); e.g. He was
spontaneous types have a loose structure, relative coherence and the man killed that deer. (R. Warren); e.g. There was no breeze came
uniformity of form and content. through the door. (E.Hemingway); e.g. I bring him news will raise
2. Familiar Colloquial Style: a) use of deviant language on all his dropping spirits. (O. Jespersen)
levels, b) strong emotional coloring, c) loose syntactical organization
of an utterance, d)frequently little coherence or adherence to the
topic, e) no special compositional patterns.
3. Publicist style: a)carefully selected vocabulary, b) variety of
topics, c) wide use of quotations, direct speech and represented 22. Syntactical stylistic devices with redundant elements
speech, d) use of parallel constructions, e) in oratory (simplicity of Syntactical SD:
structural expression), f) in headlines (use of devices to arrest 1. Syntactical SD with missing elements
attention: pun, puzzle etc), g) in news items (strict arrangement of 2. Syntactical SD with redundant elements
titles and subtitles), h) careful division on paragraph. 3. Inversion
4. Style of Official Documents: a) special compositional design Syntactical SD with redundant elements
(coded graphical layout, clear-cut subdivision of texts into units of Asyndeton. Consists of omitting conjunctions between words,
formation), b) conventional composition of treaties, agreements, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, asyndeton gives the effect of
protocols, c) use of stereotyped, official phraseology, d) accurate use unpremeditated (преднамеренный) multiplicity, of an
of punctuation, e) generally objective, concrete, unemotional and extemporaneous (импровизированный) rather than a labored
impersonal style of narration account.
5. Scientific Style: a) highly formalized text with the prevalence of Asyndeton is a deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off
formulae, tables etc, b) in humanitarian texts: descriptive narration, connecting words. Helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active
supplied with argumentation and interpretation, c) logical and prose. (V.A.Kucharenko). e.g. Soames turned away; he had an utter
consistent narration, sequential presentation of material and facts, d) disinclination for talk, like one standing before an open grave,
extensive use of citations, e) extensive use of EM and SD, f) watching a coffin slowly lowered. (Galsworthy)
extensive use of conventional set phrases at certain points to Polysyndeton. Is the use of conjunction between each word,
emphasize the logical character of the narration, g) use of digressions phrase, or clause, and it thus structurally the opposite of asyndeton.
to debate or support a certain point, h) introduction, chapters, The rhetorical effect of polysyndeton, however, often shares with
paragraph, conclusion, i) extensive use of double conjunctions like that of asyndeton a feeling of multiplicity, energetic, enumeration
as…as, either…or, both…and, etc, j)compositionally arranged and building up. Polysyndeton is a repeated use of conjunctions. Is to
sentence patterns: postulatory (at the beginning), argumentative (in strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected
the central part), formulative (in the conclusion) sentences(V.A. Kucharenko). e.g. By the time he had got all the
bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and
20. The classification of syntactical stylistic devices by spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and
prof.Screbnev (the general survey) red in the face, and annoyed. (A.Tolkien)
Paradigmatic syntax has to do with the sentence paradigm: Anadiplosis (or catch repetition). Repeats the last word of one
completeness of sentence structure (1), communicative types of phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the text. It
sentences (2), word order (3), and type of syntactical connection can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to give a sense of
(4). Paradigmatic syntactical means of expression arranged according logical progression (…a, a…). e.g.: Pleasure might cause her read,
to these four types include: reading might make her know, …
(1): ellipsis, aposiopesis, one-member nominative sentences, Anaphora. Is the repetition of the same word or words at the
redundancy: repetition of sentence parts, syntactic tautology beginning of successive phrases, clauses or sentences, commonly in
(prolepsis), polysyndeton. conjunctions with climax and with parallelism (a…, a…). e.g.:
(2): inversion of sentence members Slowly and grimly they advanced, not knowing what lay ahead, not
(3): quasi-affirmative sentences, quasi-interrogative sentences, knowing what they find at the top of the hill.
quasi-negative sentences, quasi-imperative sentences Epistrophe (also called antistrophe or epiphora). Forms the
(4): detachment, parenthetic elements, asyndetic subordination counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or
and coordination. words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
(…a, …a). e.g.: I wake up and I’m alone and I walk round Warley
21. Syntactical stylistic devices with missing elements and I’m alone; and I talk with people and I’m alone and I look at his
Syntactical SD: face when I’m home and it’s dead. (J.Braine)
1. Syntactical SD with missing elements Symploce. Combining anaphora and epiphora, so that one word or
2. Syntactical SD with redundant elements phrase is repeated at the beginning and another word or phrase is
3. Inversion repeated at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences (a…b,
Syntactical stylistic devices with missing elements a…b). Eg. To think clearly and rationally should be a major goal for
Aposiopesis stopping abruptly and leaving a statement unfinished.
man; but to think clearly and rationally is always the greatest a very strong effect, foregrounding at one go logical, rhythmic,
difficulty faced by man. emotive and expressive aspects of the utterance. The necessary
Amplification. Involves repeating a word or expression while condition in parallel constructions is identical or similar structure in
adding more detail to it, in order to emphasize what might otherwise two or more sentences or parts of a sentence. Parallel constructions
be passed over. e.g.: Pride – boundless pride – is the bone of are often backed up by repetition of words (lexical repetition) and
civilisation. conjunctions and prepositions (polysyndeton). Parallel constructions
Prolepsis. Is the use of co-referential pronoun after a noun or a can be partial and complete. Partial parallel arrangement is the
proper name. Typical of spontaneous speech. e.g.: John, he doesn’t repetition of some arts of successive sentences or clauses. Complete
like loud music. parallel arrangement, also called balance, maintains the principal of
Hypophora. Consists of raising one or more questions and then identical structures throughout the corresponding sentences. There
proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage are two main functions of parallel constructions: semantic (suggest
is it ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that equal semantic significance of the component parts) and structural
paragraph to answer it. (rhythmical design to these component parts).
Rhetorical question (or erotesis). Differs from hypophora in that Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus. The second part of a
it is not answered by the writer, because its answer is obvious or chiasmus is, in fact, inversion of the first construction. Thus, if the
obviously desired, and usually just a ‘yes’ or ‘no’. It is used for first sentence (clause) has a direct word order - SPO, the second one
effect, emphasis or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary will have it inverted - OPS. Like parallel constructions chiasmus
statement from the facts at hand. e.g. For if we lose the ability to contributes to the rhythmical quantity of the utterance, and the pause
perceive our faults, what is the good of living on? caused by the change in the syntactical pattern may be likened to a
caesura in prosody.
23. Types of repetition Inversion which was briefly mentioned in the definition of
Repetition is an expressive means of language used when the chiasmus is very often used as an independent SD in which the direct
speaker is under the stress of strong emotion. It shows the state of word order is changed either completely so that the predicate
speaker. As a SD repetition is recurrence of the same word, word (predicative) precedes the subject; or partially so that the object
combination, phrase for two and more times. According to the place precedes the subject-predicate pair. Correspondingly, we differentiate
which repeated unit occupies in the sentence (utterance), repetition is between partial and a complete inversion. The stylistic device of
classified: inversion should not be confused with grammatical inversion which
anaphora: the beginning of two or more successive sentences is a norm in interrogative constructions. Stylistic inversion deals with
(clauses) is repeated – a.., a..,a… The main stylistic function of the rearrangement of the normative word order. Questions may also
anaphora is hot so much to emphasize the repeated unit as to create be rearranged: "Your mother is at home?" asks one of the characters
the background textile non-repeated unit, which, through its novelty, of J. Baldwin's novel. The inverted question presupposes the answer
becomes foreground. with more certainty than the normative one. It is the assuredness of
epiphora: the end of two or more successive sentence (clauses) is the speaker of the positive answer that constitutes additional
repeated- ..a,…a,…a. The main function of epiphora is to add stress information which is brought into the question by the inverted word
to the final words of the sentences. order. Interrogative constructions with the direct word order may be
framing: the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus viewed as cases of two-step (double) inversion: direct w/o —»
forming the “frame” for the non- repeated part of the sentence grammatical inversion —» direct w/o.
(utterance)-a..a. The function of framing is to elucidate the notion
mentioned in the beginning of the sentence. 25. Semantic figures of co-occurrence – figures of inequality:
catch repetition (anadiplosis or linking or reduplication) the end specifiers, climax, anti-climax.
of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following Syntagmatic semasiology deals with stylistic functions of
one -…a,a… it makes the whole utterance more compact and relationship of names in text. It studies types of linear arrangement of
complete. Framing is most effective in singling out paragraphs. meanings, singling out, classifying, and describing what is called
chain repetition presents several successive anadiplosis- ..a,a…b, “figures of co-occurrence” (or figures of replacement). There are 3
b…c, c. The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical types of semantic interrelations: figures of identity, figures of
reasoning. inequality, figures of contrast.
ordinary repetition has no definite place in the sentence and the Clarifying (specifying) synonyms (synonymous repetition used to
repeated unit occurs in various positions- …a, …a…, a…/ ordinary characterize different aspects of the same referent). E.g: You
repetition emphasizes both the logical and emotional meanings of the undercut sinful, insidious hog.
reiterated word. Climax (gradation of emphatic growing in strength, in Greek
successive repetition is a string of closely following each other means “ladder”).- consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences
reiterated units- ..a,a,a… this is the most emphatic type of repetition in the order of increasing importance, weight or emphasis. E.g:
which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker. What differences if it rained, hailed blew, snowed, cycloned?
Synonym repetition. The repetition of the same idea by using Anti-climax (back gradation – instead of a few elements growing
synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly different in intensity without relief there unexpectedly appears a weak or
nuance of meaning intensify the impact of the utterance.: there are contrastive element that makes the statement humorous or
two terms frequently used to show the negative attitude of the critic ridiculous). E.g.: the woman who could face the very devil himself or
to all kinds of synonym repetition: a) pleonasm – the use of more a mouse – goes all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning.
words in a sentence than are necessary to express the meaning;
redundancy of expression; b)tautology-defined as the repetition of
the same statement; the repetition of the same word or phrase or of
the same idea or statement in the other words; usually as a fault of
style

24. Syntactical stylistic devices: parallelism, chiasm; 26. Phonographical stylistic devices
inversion and its types SD based on the opposition of meanings of phonological and/or
Parallel constructions may be viewed as a purely syntactical type graphical elements of the language are called phonetical and
of repetition for here we deal with the reiteration of the structure of graphical stylistic devices.
several successive sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical Onomatopoeia - the use of words whose sounds imitate those of
"flesh". True enough, parallel constructions almost always include the signified object or action, such as "hiss", "bowwow", "murmur",
some type of lexical repetition too, and such a convergence produces "bump", "grumble", "sizzle" and many more. Poetry abounds in some
specific types of sound-instrumenting, the leading role belonging to death; A Gordian knot = complicated problem; To go to Canossar =
alliteration - the repetition of consonants, usually-in the beginning публично покаяться, унизится; 5. Elevated phr.units: Eg. To
of words, and assonance - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in breath one’s last – до самой смерти; To fiddle while Rome burns –
stressed syllables. They both may produce the effect of euphony (a пир во время чумы. Within elevated phr.units he (Koonin)
sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing) or cacophony distinguishes: a) Archaic (the iron in one’s soul – душевные муки,
(a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing). To to play upon advantage – обманывать, надувать) and b) Poetic
create additional information in a prose discourse sound- phr.units (of high account – имеющий ценность, most and the least
instrumenting is seldom used. In contemporary advertising, mass – все без исключения); 6. Foreign phr.units (barbarisms). Eg. A
media and, above all, imaginative prose sound is fore grounded la carte – по заказу, a la mode – по моде, beaumonde – бомонд,
mainly through the change of its accepted graphical representation. высший свет, ad patress – к праотцам, ad verbum – слово в слово.
This intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word All sorts of proverbs and sayings may undergo some changes.
combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called L.A. Barkova made a research in which she studied pragmatic
graphon. : mispronunciations in the speech of uneducated people effect of using phr.units in commercial advertisements: eg. The other
(“peepul”, “jewinile”), amalgamated forms (“gimme” (give me), side of the medal (usual p.unit) – the other side of the metal (ads.), so
“gonna” (going to), mispronunciations which show the physical far so good (usual p.unit) – sofa so good (ads.).
defects of the speakers: stumbling, lisping; graphical changes used
to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus 28. Narratology as a branch of linguistics. Types of
foregrounding the stressed words, i.e. all changes of the type (italics, narration and main compositional forms
capitalization), spacing of the graphemes (hyphenation, Naratology-special branch of linguistics, which deals with
multiplication) and of lines (verse lines organized in “steps”). narrative of text. The roots of modern naratology can be found in the
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar sound combinations of narrative theory of Russian formalist such as M.Bachtin, Lotman,
words. Rhythm- the flow of speech presents an alternation of Tomashevskiy, Schlovskiy, Propp – the fathers of naratology.
stressed and unstressed elements; the pattern of interchange of strong Naratology as a special science combines linguistics an literary. It
and weak segments is called rhythm. was formed in the last, but now its acknowledged and being
developed in different countries. The term “naratology” was
27. Stylistic phraseology. Stylistic differentiation of proposed by Todorov by its etymology the word “narrative” stands
phraseological units. Usual and occasional phraseological units, back to the word (latin verb) “narrare” (“to tell” to give an account
their stylistic function “of”, which in its term goes back Indo-European “gna” (knowledge).
Phraseological unit – is a system of words a meaning of which Narrative-the recounting of one or more real fiction events presented
can’t be guessed from the meaning of its components (Koonin). in the chronological order. Narrative is basically a story of
Each phr.unit is characterized by a certain degree of cohesion. happenings of event either real or imaginary which the narrator
Phr.units are characterized by the following feature’s: 1. Stability; consider interesting or important. Types of narration. The author’s
2. Semantic integraty; 3. Ready-made structure which can’t be narrative: unfolded plot, personages of given characteristic, the time
changed or substituted. and place of action. The authorial narrative supplies the reader with
Professor Screbnev differentiate direct information about author preferences and objections believes
1. Formal/bookish phr.units: Eg. The knight of the Quill = a and contradictions. A) entrusted narrative is used in an afford to
writer; A heart of oak = brave, courageous; Achilles hill – ахилесова make the text more plausible, to impress the reader with the facts of
пята authenticity of the described events. The write entrust some fictions
2. Neutral phr.units are units which are devoid of any character with the task of dealing story. The writer himself that hides
emotiveness: Eg. By hook or by crock – всеми правдами и behind the figure of the narrator. Dialogue: personage express their
неправдами; For good and for all – раз и навсегда mind in the utter speech. In their exchange of remarks the
3. Familiar colloquial phr.units: Eg. Have bats in one’s belfry – participants of the dialogue, other people and their action expose
быть не в своем уме; A pretty kettle of fish – веселенькая история; them self to. One of the significant forms of the personage self-
To rain cats and dogs – неприятности валятся; To be one’s cups – characterization-dialogue, which allows the author to show him in
быть навеселе, подвыпившим; Small fry – мелкая сошка the process. Interior speech of personage- its allows the author and
4. Slangish phr.units: Eg. To drop off the hooks – сорваться с the readers to peep into inner world of the character, to observe his
петель, умереть; To kick the bucket – дать дуба; To hop the twig – idea and view: a) interior monologue- a rather lengthy peace of text
загнуться, дать дуба dealing with the main topic of the character thinking, offering past,
Professor I.V. Arnold classifies phr.units into future actions; b) short in-sets- presents immediate mental and
1. Usual p.units that are fixed in the dictionaries; 2. Occasional emotional reactions of the personage to the remark or event by
p.units that is creation of different authors. They are contextual characters; c) stream of consciousness technic- specially popular with
predetermined. They appeared as a result of some change in usual their representative of modernism in contenting literature. The author
units. These changes are the following: a. Prolongation. Eg. To be tries to portray the purely associated character. Represented speech
born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth (usual p.unit) – родится под (reported speech)-serves to show either the mental production of the
счастливой звездой: Little George was born with a silver spoon in a character thinking: a) represented uttered speech; b) represented
mouth which was curly and large (prolongation). b. Substitution. inner speech. The main narrative compositional forms. If its
Eg. All the world and his wife (usual p.unit) – всё светское semantic of the text that its taken as foundation of classification 3
общество: all the world and his mistress (substitution) were at the narrative forms traditionally analyzed in poetics and stylistics:
party. c. Insertion (вклинивание). Eg. To turn one’s nose at sb. narrative proper (the unfolding of the plot is concentrating,
(usual p.unit) – смотреть с высока: She turned her well-shaped dynamic form of the text), description (supplies the details of
(insertion) nose at him. appearance of people and things of the place and time of action -
Professor Koonin differentiate phr.units: static), argumentation (offers causes and effects of the personages
1. Stylistically neutral are units which are devoid of any behavior, his considerations about moral, ethical, ideological or other
emotiveness: Eg. By hook or by crock – всеми правдами и issues). Its rather seldom that any of their compositional forms is
неправдами; For good and for all – раз и навсегда; 2. Emotive used in a pure uninterrupted way.
phr.units contain some kind of attitude towards this and that subject.
Eg. As welcome as flower in may; 3. Expressive phr.units are
characterized by some degree of expressiveness. Eg. He is dead nuts
on this girl = he is full of love; 4. Stylistically marked phr.units are
those which are referred either to the formal or non-literary informal
styles (jargon, slang, vulgarisms, etc.). Eg. The debt of nature =