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Session

1 Introduction
General Instructional Objectives:

At the end of this course, the students generally are expected to be able
to write texts based on the genres of writing.

Specific Instructional Objectives:

At the end of this course, the students specifically are expected to:
 To know the basic theory of the genres of texts: recount, report,
analytical exposition, news item, anecdote, narration, procedure,
description, hortatory exposition, explanation, discussion, review, and
commentary.
 To be able to analyze the social function, schematic structure, and
significant grammatical patterns of texts.
 To be able to write texts based on the genres.

The Four Stages in the Teaching-Learning Cycle:

Building knowledge of the field:


Step 1 CLASS  TEACHER STUDENTS  STUDENTS
 Cultural context
 Shared experience
 Control relevant vocabulary
 Grammatical patterns

Tasks and Activities:

 Use of visual—photographs, filmstrips, video—to build context.


 Do activities such as cooking, going for a vacation, interviewing an
informant, listening to guest speakers, etc.
 Reconstruct and discuss activities done when back in the classroom.
 Design activities in order to share, discuss, and argue about aspects
of the topic.

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 Set language lesson focused on vocabulary or grammatical patterns.
 Study a broad range of written texts related to the topic, such as
school brochures, notes, newsletter, labels, leaflets, and enrolment
forms.
 Develop reading strategies appropriate to the texts, including
predicting, skimming, scanning, or identifying the logo.

Modeling of Text:
Step 2 CLASS  TEACHER
 Cultural context
 Social function
 Schematic structure
 Linguistic features

Tasks and Activities:

 Study the model text shown by the teacher or read it yourself or


collectively in the references.
 Develop an understanding of the social function and purpose of the
text:
 Why are such texts written?
 By whom are they written and read?
 What is the context in which they will be used?

 Analyze the schematic structure of the text (distinguishing and


labeling stages within the schematic structure of the genre).
 Analyze the grammatical pattern or language features of the text
(use of tense, technical language, specific or generic participants).

Joint Construction of Text:


Step 3 STUDENTS  STUDENTS TEACHER  CLASS
 Schematic structure
 Linguistic features
 Knowledge of field

Tasks and Activities:

 Revise and discuss the purpose, context, and structure of genre/text.


 Explore further field building activities where necessary.

Genre-Based Writing/Dr. Rudi Hartono, S.S. M.Pd./Unnes 2


 Negotiate the beginning, middle and end construction of text
between teacher and students, and between students, draw on
shared knowledge about the genre.
 Re-draft and edit the text, draw on shared knowledge about the
genre together in groups (between teacher and students, and
between students).

Independent Construction Text:


Step 4 STUDENTS  STUDENTS TEACHER  STUDENTS
 Schematic structure
 Linguistic features
 Knowledge of field

Tasks and Activities:

 Build and develop knowledge of the field through activities such as


reading, information gathering, and note taking.
 Write your own text with appropriate schematic structure and
grammatical patterns.
 Consult with other students or with teacher regarding the
appropriateness of the text.
 Re-drafting and editing where necessary.
 Discuss any difficulties with students or teachers in writing texts.
 Focus on language lessons (spelling, punctuation, layout of text,
handwriting).
(Hammond, 1992)

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The Model of Language:

(Derewianka, 1990)

Terms:

 The term “genre” is used to refer to particular text-types, not to


traditional varieties of literature. It is a type or kind of text, defined in
terms of its social purposes; also the level of context dealing with
social purpose.
 “Text” is a unit of meaning which is coherent and appropriate for its
context.
 “Register” is the level of context comprising field, mode and tenor.

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 “Field” is the register variable focussing on what is going on (the
social activity), with subject matter as a special instance when texts a
re describing rather than being part of these activities. It is the
subject matter of the text.
 “Mode” is the register variable focussing on how the language
relates to its context: is the text monologic or dialogic and is it part
of what is going on (e.g. the talk during fottbal training), or
constitutive of what is going on (e.g. a news story on the week-end’s
fixtures)? It is the channel of communicatiob being used; written or
spoken.
 “Tenor” is the register variable focussing on interpersona
relationship: status relations, degree of familiarity and attitudes. It is
the relationship between the participants: speaker/listener;
writer/reader.
 “Schematic structure” is the dsitinctive beginning-middle-end
structure of a genre.
 “Participant” is the people, places and things which can be related
experientially to a process without preposition.
 “General participant” is a partisipant constructed by the grammar
as referring to all member of a class.
 “Specific participant” is a participant constructed by the grammar
as having specific identifiable referent in the context.

A Range of Story and Factual Genres:

Story Genres Factual Genres

 Narrative  Procedure
G  Explanation
 News Story
E  Report
 Exemplum  Exposition
N
 Discussion
 Anecdote R  Description
 Recount E  Review
S  News Item
 Spoof

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Social Functions:

Story Genres Social Function


To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or
Narrative
various experience in different ways.
News Factual text which informs readers events of the
Story/Items day which are considered newsworthy or important
To dealt with incidents that are in some respects
Exemplum out of the usual, point to some general value in the
cultural context
To share with others an account of an unusual or
Anecdote
amusing incident
To retell events for the purpose of informing or
Recount
entertaining
Spoof To retell an event with a humorous twist

Factual Genres Social Function


To describe how something is accomplished
Procedure
through a sequence of actions or steps
To explain the processes involved in the formation
Explanation
or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena
To describe the way things are, with reference to
Report arrange or natural, manmade and social
phenomena in our environment
Analytical To persuade the reader or listener that something is
Exposition the case
Hortatory To persuade the reader or listener that something
Exposition should or should not be the case
To present (at least) two points of view about an
Discussion
issue
Description To describe a particular person, place or thing
To critique an art work or event for a public
Review
audience

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Schematic Structure:

Story Genres Schematic Structure


Orientation, evaluation, complication, resolution, re-
Narrative
orientation.
News Newsworthy event(s), background event(s),
Story/Items sources.
Abstract or synopsis, orientation, incidents(s),
Exemplum
judgment(s), re-orientation.
Anecdote Abstract, orientation, crisis, reaction, coda.
Recount Orientation, events, reorientation.
Spoof Orientation, event(s), twist.

Factual Genres Schematic Structure


Procedure Goal, materials, step 1-n.
A general statement to position the reader, a
Explanation sequenced explanation of why or how something
occurs.
General classification, description (parts, qualities,
Report
habits or behavior (if living); uses (if non-natural).
Analytical
Thesis, arguments, reiteration/summing up
Exposition
Hortatory
Thesis, arguments, recommendation.
Exposition
Issue, arguments for and against or statements of
Discussion differing points of view, conclusion or
recommendations.
Description Identification, description.
Orientation, interpretative recount, evaluation,
Review
evaluative summation.
General statement to position the reader,
Commentary
sequenced explanation: Evolutionary step 1-n.

Linguistic Features:

Story Genres Language Features


 Focus on specific participants
 Use of past tense
Narrative  Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal
circumstances
 Use of material (or action) processes

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 Use of relational and mental processes
 Short, telegraphic information about story
summarized in one-sentence headline
 Use of material or action processes to re-tell story
News
 Use of projecting verbal processes in source
Story/Items
stage
 Focus on circumstantial meanings
 Often dramatic use of participant structure
 Use of exophoric reference
 Use of conjunctive relation both, temporal and
logical
Exemplum  Material and action processes to explore incidents
 Relational processes to explore judgments
 Text reference and lexical ties to point to values
suggested by events
 Use of exclammative, rhetorical questions and
intensifiers to point up the significance of events
 Use of temporal and continuative conjunctions
Anecdote  Use of material or action processes (in present or
past tense)
 Use of relational and mental processes to
evaluate events
 Focus on individual participants
 Use of past tense
Recount
 Focus on a temporal sequence of events
 Use of material (or action) clauses
 Focus on individualized participants
 Use of material processes
Spoof
 Circumstances of time and places
 Use of past tense

Factual Genres Language Features


 Focus on generalized human agents
 Use of simple present tense
Procedure
 Use of mainly temporal conjunctive relations
 Use of mainly material (action) clauses
 Focus on generic, non-human participants
 Use of simple present
Explanation  Use of temporal and causal conjunctive relations
 Use of mainly material or action clauses; some
passives to theme right
 Focus on generic participants
Report
 Use of simple present

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 No temporal sequence
 Use of “being” and “having” clauses
 Focus on generic human and non-human
participants
Analytical  More use of modality and modulation
Exposition  Few temporal conjunctive relations
 Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns
 Use of material, relation and mental process
 Focus on generic human and non-human
participants
Hortatory
 Use of mental processes, material processes,
Exposition
relational processes
 Use of simple present tense
 Focus on generic human and non-human
participants
 Use of modality and modulation
Discussion
 Use of logical conjunctive relations
 Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns
 Use of material, relational and mental process
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of attributive and identifying processes
Description  Frequent use of epithets and classifier in nominal
groups
 Use of simple present
 Focus on particular participants
 Direct expression of opinions through use of
attitudinal lexis
Review
 Use of elaborating and extending clause and
group complexes to package the information
 Use of metaphorical language

(Gerot, 1995 & Macken, 1990)

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