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Akshay Sharma Nachiket Sharma Nikhil Tyagi

EEE, ADGITM EEE, ADGITM EEE, ADGITM

New Delhi, India New Delhi, India New Delhi, India

akshaysharma2aug1997@gmail.com nachiketsharma1997@gmail.com nikhil.tyagi003@gmail.com

EEE, ADGITM EEE, ADGITM EEE, ADGITM

New Delhi, India New Delhi, India New Delhi, India

nishantsingh.kush@gmail.com varun0155@gmail.com ajit.sharma@adgitmdelhi.ac.in

Abstract — In this paper various techniques for maximum In recent years, in order to make the PV system have faster

power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are discussed speed and better accuracy in the MPPT process, many

and compared to obtain the maximum efficiency. These all methods have been used for MPPT control, such as P&O

techniques are taken from the literature dating back to the [6], the incremental conductance (INC) method [7], and

earliest methods. It is shown that twelve distinct methods have

fuzzy Logical control [8], as well as a variety of bionic

been introduced in the literature, with many variations on

implementation. This paper may be serve as a convenient

algorithms [9], etc. Among all these methods, the P&O has

reference for future work in PV power generation. the advantages of being easy to implement and low cost,

which is mostly used; however, the P&O has some

Keywords — Photovoltaic Array (PV), Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT).

drawbacks such as slow tracking speed, and the operating

point oscillating around the maximum power point leading

to the waste of power [10]. Therefore, this paper proposes

a variable step size P&O. When the working point of the

I. INTRODUCTION

PV system is far away from the maximum power point, a

With the increasing energy crisis and environmental larger step size is used to quickly track to near the

pressure, the development and utilization of renewable maximum power point. When the operating point of the PV

energy has received more and more attention. As a kind of system crosses the maximum power point once the

new energy, solar energy is developing into an important disturbance step size is reduced by half until the minimum

green energy source because of its renewable nature, disturbance threshold. Finally, by setting up a two-stage

cleanliness, and inexhaustible characteristics [1]. photovoltaic Load-connected system, a comparison is

Photovoltaic Array is one of the main forms of utilization made between the variable step size P&O and fixed step

of solar energy by converting solar energy into electricity size P&O.

and delivering it to the Load [2]. Maximum power point

This article is organized as follows. Section I presents

tracking (MPPT) control is one of the most critical

background and the purpose of the study. Section II

technologies in photovoltaic systems [3].

explains problem overview. Section III expounds about

Tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array. Section IV contains the different MPPT

photovoltaic (PV) array is usually an essential part of a PV techniques. Section V embodies conclusion followed by

system. As such, many MPP tracking (MPPT) methods references.

have been developed and implemented. The methods vary

in complexity, sensors required, convergence speed, cost,

II. II. PROBLEM OVERVIEW

range of effectiveness, implementation hardware,

popularity, and in other respects. They range from the The problem considered by MPPT techniques is to

almost obvious (but not necessarily ineffective) to the most automatically find the voltage 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 or current 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉

creative (not necessarily most effective). In fact, so many at which a PV array should operate to obtain the

methods have been developed that it has become difficult maximum

to adequately determine which method, newly proposed or power output 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 under a given temperature and

existing, is most appropriate for a given PV system at irradiance as shown in fig. 1. It is noted that under partial

certain load. shading conditions, in some cases it is possible to have

multiple local maxima, but overall there is still only one

true MPP. Most techniques respond to changes in both

irradiance and temperature, but some are specifically more

useful if temperature is approximately constant [11]. Most

techniques would automatically respond to changes in the

array due to aging, though some are open-loop and would

require periodic fine-tuning. In our context, the array will

typically be connected to a power converter that can vary

the current coming from the PV array.

Characteristics Specifications

Fig. 1. Characteristic PV array power curve

Short circuit current 8A

III. PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY

A mathematical model is developed in order to simulate the Open circuit voltage 261 V

PV array. Fig. 2 gives the equivalent circuit of a single solar

cell, where 𝑉𝑉𝑉 and 𝑉𝑉𝑉 are the PV array’s current and Voltage at peak power 230 V

voltage, respectively, 𝑉𝑉𝑉 is the cell’s photocurrent, 𝑉𝑉

represents the nonlinear resistance of the p-n junction, and Current at peak power 7.1 A

𝑉𝑉𝑉 and 𝑉𝑉 are the intrinsic shunt and series resistances

of the cell[12]. Temperature coefficient 0.008 A/C

functions of irradiance and temperature curves are

nonlinear and are crucially influenced by solar irradiation

and temperature. Furthermore, the daily solar irradiation

diagram has abrupt variations during the day [14], as

shown in Fig. 4. Under these conditions, the MPP of the

PV array changes continuously; consequently, the PV

system’s operating point must change to maximize the

Fig. 2. PV Panel Circuit Model energy produced. An MPPT technique is therefore used to

maintain the PV array’s operating point at its MPP [15].

Since 𝑉𝑉𝑉 is very large and 𝑉𝑉 is very small, these terms

can be neglected in order to simplify the electrical model.

The following equation then describes the PV panel [8].

(1)

connected in series and the in parallel, q=1.602· 10−19 C

is the electron charge, k=1.3806· 10−23J·K -1 is

Boltzmann constant, A=2 is the p-n junction’s ideal

factor, T is the cell’s temperature (K) [13]. Fig.4 Solar Irradiation graph on sunny day

A. INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE

voltage is always adjusted according to the MPP voltage it

is based on the incremental and instantaneous conductance

of the PV module. Fig-5 shows that the slope of the P-V

array power curve is zero at The MPP, increasing on the

left of the MPP and decreasing on the Right hand side of

the MPP [16].

Positive Negative Negative

Negative Positive Negative

Fig. 5. Basic idea of incremental conductance method on a P-V Curve of

solar module Negative Negative Positive

C. C. OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE CONTROL

𝑉𝑉 / 𝑉𝑉 = − 𝑉 / 𝑉 at MPPT (2)

𝑉𝑉/ 𝑉𝑉 > − 𝑉/ 𝑉 Left of MPPT (3) The open circuit Voltage algorithm is the simplest MPPT

control method. This technique is also known as constant

𝑉𝑉/ 𝑉𝑉 < − 𝑉 / 𝑉 Right of MPPT (4) voltage method. VOC is the open circuit voltage of the PV

panel. VOC depends on the property of the solar cells. A

Where I and V is P-V array output current and voltage commonly used VMPP/V(oc) value is 76% This

respectively. The left hand side of equations represents relationship can be described by equation

incremental conductance of P-V module and the right hand

side represents the instantaneous conductance. When the V (max) = k1 ∗ V(oc) (5)

ratio of change in output conductance is equal to the

negative output conductance, the solar array will operate at Here the factor k1 is always less than unity. It looks very

the maximum power point. simple but determining best value of k is very difficult and

k1 varies from 0.71 to 0.8[19]. The common value used is

B. HILL CLIMBING ALGORITHM

0.76; hence this algorithm is also called as 76% algorithm.

The hill climbing algorithm locates the maximum power The operating point of the PV array is kept near the MPP

point by relating changes in the power to changes in the by regulating the array voltage and matching it to a fixed

control variable used to control the array. This system reference voltage V(ref). The V(ref) value is set equal to

includes the perturb and observe algorithm [17]. the VMPP of the characteristic PV module or to another

calculated best open circuit voltage this method assumes

Hill-climbing algorithm involves a perturbation in the duty that individual insulation and temperature variations on the

ratio of the power inverter. In the case of a PV array array are insignificant, and that the constant reference

connected to a system, perturbing the duty ratio of power voltage is an adequate approximation of the true MPPT

inverter perturbs the PV array current and consequently [20].

perturbs the PV array voltage. The process is repeated

periodically until the MPP is reached. The system then

oscillates about the MPP. The oscillation is minimized by

reducing the perturbation step size [18].

signal is provided here which will modify RT and the RT

will change VT, and VT will keep changing till this

become zero under such conditions when under such

conditions VT = VM error is zero, then we have maximum

power point tracking. In the neighbourhood of this panel

which is delivering power to the load we will place a small

cell called the reference cell, and that reference cell is kept

open circuited there is no load connected across the

reference cell. So this reference cell is going to provide

open circuit value of this cell. And we will take this open

circuit value to be same as this cell provided both the cells

are identical. And then you start to obtain the open circuit

voltage. Now this open circuit voltage is given as input to

this scaling block, and this scaled value will provide BM

and this will become the reference for making the VIT of

this try to reach VM, and thereby achieve maximum power

point tracking. So this is the voltage scaling method

Fig. 7. Flowchart of Open Circuit Voltage

reference cell method of maximum power point tracking.

SCALING

power point transfer using the reference cell. Our objective Fig. 8. Comparison Model of Voltage Cell Method

is to make VT the terminal voltage across the panel is as

close to the VM value as possible, so that MPPT can be

achieved. Now VM is the reference we want VM here to

be the reference and VT is the feedback signal. So we can

sense the terminal voltage across the panel and give it as

feedback and ultimately VT should become same as VM in

such a case when this error is zero VT is same as VM and

we observe that maximum power is being transferred to the

load. So let us assume that VT is less than VM then error

is positive and output of the controller increases. Once the

output of this increases there is this duty cycle a pulse with

modulation wave form coming in here, because this DC

compares with this carrier and use a duty cycle. Now this

duty cycle will change by going from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 Fig. 8. Block Diagram of Voltage Cell Method

depending upon which type of converter and appropriately

modulate the input resistance seen from the PV panel

which will appropriately position the load line. And

therefore, change the value of VT. So the value of VT willE. E. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (ANN) METHOD

F.

keep changing and try to reach VM such that error here

G. An ANN is a collection of electrical neurons connected

becomes zero. The job of the controller is to always see that based on various topologies. The most common application

the error here becomes zero, the error here is zero VT will of an ANN involves identification and modelling of the

be same as VM. And hence we have achieved maximum system using nonlinear and complex functions.

power point tracking, but how to get VM we have to add a i.

block let us say that is K, and then we will submit as input ii. a. Fuzzy Logic (FL) Method

VOC.

This system implements the fuzzy logic control in three

So we provide VOC gets multiplied scaled by K and we stages: fuzzification, decision-making and defuzzification.

have VM becomes the reference, this is reference section During fuzzification, crisp input variables are converted

VT which is measured gets compared with VM the error is into linguistic variables based on a membership function In

controlled by this controller, and the pulse with modulated the decision-making stage, the rules which are specified by

a set of IF-THEN statements define the controller

behaviour.

TABLE III. Comparison of Various MPPT Technique

Algorithm ensed parameters Efficiency Current Voltage (V) Power(W) Installation Cost Controlling

(A)

Open circuit voltage Voltage Low (=86%) 2.3 195 450 Low Difficult

Short circuit current Current Low (=89%) 2.8 190 425 Low Difficult

Artificial neural networks Can be both Low (=89%) 2.6 193.8 437.5 High Easy

Fuzzy logic Can be both High 2.31 194.5 450.8 High Easy

P&O (variable perturbation Voltage& current High (=96%) 2.37 194.7 463.2 Moderate Moderate

size)

P&O (Fixed Perturbation) Voltage& current Low 2.38 194.8 463.7 Moderate Moderate

Incremental Conductance Voltage& current High 2.93 226.9 666.1 Moderate Moderate

output is converted from a linguistic variable to a

numerical variable still using a membership function.

MPPT control method. The operating point of the PV array

is kept near the MPP by regulating the array voltage and

matching it to a fixed reference voltage 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 . The 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉

Fig. 9. Block Diagram of Constant Voltage Method

value is set equal to the 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 of the characteristic PV

module or to another calculated best fixed voltage. This

V. CONCLUSION

method assumes that individual insulation and temperature

variations on the array are insignificant, and that the

In this study, for a fixed resistive load and photovoltaic

constant reference voltage is an adequate approximation of

system various MPPT techniques are studied & compared.

the true MPP. Operation is therefore never exactly at the

Based on given specification of PV module the most

MPP and different data has to be collected for different

suitable technique is P&O (Variable perturbation size). As

geographical regions. The CV method does not require any

shown in comparison table P&O (Variable perturbation

input. However, measurement of the voltage 𝑉𝑉𝑉

size) gives maximum efficiency and minimum installation

is cost.

necessary in order to set up the duty-cycle of the dc/dc

SEPIC by PI regulator, as shown in the block diagram of

Fig. 8.

insulation conditions, the CV technique is more effective

than either the P&O method or the IC method (analysed

below) [13].

[16] C.-C. Hua and J.-R. Lin, “Fully digital control of distributed

photovoltaic power systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Ind. Electron.,

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