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P6 FOOTING ON CLAY

Question:
A public building consists of a high central tower which is supported by four widely spaced
columns. Each column carry a combined dead load and representative sustained load of 2500 kN
inclusive of the substructure (gross load). Trial borings showed that there is a 7.6m of stiff fissured
Ankara clay (cu=85 kPa, Eu = 30 MN/m2 and mv = 1x10-4 m2 /kN) followed by dense sand which
is relatively incompressible. Determine the required foundation width (assume square foundation)
and allowable bearing pressure for the tower footings.

Assume
wet = sat = 18.6 kN/m3 (above and below GWT)
w = 10 kN/m3
Consider immediate and consolidation settlements. Divide the clay layer into 4 equal sublayers.

The foundation depth can be taken as 2m.


⇒ D=2.0m, cu = 85 kPa, Skempton-Bjerrum factor: µ=0.5, Dw = 1.2 m, F.S. = 2.5

Solution:
 Assume B=2.0m
Df / B=1 ⇒ Nc = 7.7 (Skempton)
qnf = (qult)net = cuNc = 85x7.7 = 654.5 kPa

for FS = 2.5

(qnet)safe = 654.5/2.5 = 261.8 kPa

qnet = 2500 / (2 x 2) – 2 x 18.6 = 587.8 kPa

OR
qnet = (2500 / ( 2 x 2) – 0.8 x 10) - (1.2 x 18.6 + 0.8 x 8.6) = 587.5 kPa
(qnet)safe << qnet NOT ACCEPTED

15 

 Assume B=3.0m
Df/B=0.67 ⇒ Nc = 7.4 (Skempton)
qnf = (qult)net = cuNc = 85x7.4 =629 kPa for FS=2.5 (qnet)safe = 629/2.5 = 251.6 kPa qnet =
2500/3x3 – 2x18.6 = 241 kPa (qnet)safe  qnet OK  B=3.0m Settlements B=3.0m Eu = 30000
kPa Df=2.0m Compressible layer thickness H=7.6-2=5.6m H  1.87 B D  0.67 B ⇒ 0  0.95 1
 0.57 S  0.57x0.95x 241x3 i  0.013m  13mm 30000 2

P7 RAFT FOUNDATION
Solution:
Total weight of the building (dead + live + raft) = Qgross=90000kN

qgross= 90000/(15 x 30) = 200 kPa

Stage 1 (GWT is lowered to the foundation level)

Uplift = 0

o’ = 4 x 18 + 4 (20 - 9.8) = 112.8kPa

qnet=(200 - 0) - 112.8 = 87.2 kPa (net foundation pressure)

Stage 2 (GWT is raised to its original position)

Uplift= 4 x 9.8 = 39.2 kPa

o’ = 4 x 18 + 4 (20 - 9.8) = 112.8 kPa

qnet = ( 200 - 39.2) - 112.8 = 48 kPa

qnet = 87.2 kPa is MORE CRITICAL

Net bearing capacity of the foundation: qnf = qf - D = cuNc + D - D = cuNc

cu = 40 kPa

Df/B = 8/15 = 0.53 (Nc)square = 7.1

(Nc)rect. = (Nc)square (0.84 + 0.16B/L) = 7.1(0.84 + 0.16 x 15/30) = 6.5

qnf = 6.5x40 = 260 kPa

Safety factor against shear FS  qnf / qnet  260/ 87.2  3.0 OK

Settlement Analysis:

Total settlement = St = SI + Sc

Consider the compressions of the soil within 20m distance from the foundation level.
𝑞𝐵 87.2 𝑥 15
Initial settlement : Si 0 1 𝐸𝑢  0.95 x 0.5 x  3.1cm
2000

Consolidation Settlement: Sc = mv  H
For consolidation settlement; consider 5m thick sublayers.

n = B/z m = L/z Ir  = 4qIr mv (m2 / kN)


7.5/2.5 15/2.5 0.245 47 0.025 x 10-2
7.5/7.5 15/7.5 0.2 38.4 0.025 x 10-2
7.5/12.5 15/12.5 0.145 27.8 0.015 x 10-2
7.5/17.5 15/17.5 0.102 19.6 0.015 x 10-2

Sc = 0.025 x 10-2 x 47 x 5 + 0.025 x 10-2 x 38.4 x 5 + 0.015 x 10-2 x 27.8 x 5 + 0.015 x 10-2 x
19.6 x 5
Sc = 0.142m = 14.2cm

⇒ =0.75 (Skempton-Bjerrum)

Sc = 14.2 x 0.75 = 10.7cm

St = 3.1 + 10.7 = 13.8 cm