0 views

Uploaded by ManikiranSai

jguthf

- Content
- Solo No Id
- IRJET-Evaluation of Numerical Methods of Solution and Resistance Equations Applicable to Unsteady Flow Situation in Surge Tank
- 5 - Fusheng - A Model Calculation for Flow Resistance in the Hydraulic Transport of Sand
- Flow Similitude
- Mud Removal- NExT
- 1
- fem
- g v 3113061312
- aero_curriculum_image
- 2 phase flow
- Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering (ME) _ GATE 2013
- Fluid Mechanics and Pipe Flow Turbulence, Simulation and Dynami- By Easyengineering.net
- FLOW AND DRAG PHENOMENA OF SPHEROID BUBBLES
- 20EWA_Anand
- mor_paper
- EM08.pdf
- Optimization PSA N2
- IES Mechanical Sylladb
- Transportation and Storage Handout 4

You are on page 1of 22

journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jnnfm

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra ⇑

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the present work, the ﬂow of Bingham plastic ﬂuids past an elliptical cylinder has been investigated

Received 24 July 2013 numerically elucidating the effect of yield stress and ﬂuid inertia on the momentum transfer character-

Received in revised form 16 September 2013 istics at ﬁnite Reynolds numbers for a 100-fold variation in the aspect ratio. The governing differential

Accepted 19 September 2013

equations have been solved over wide ranges of Reynolds number (0.01 6 Re 6 40) and Bingham number

Available online 26 September 2013

(0.01 6 Bn 6 100) in the laminar ﬂow regime employing the ﬁnite element method. Furthermore, the

effect of the aspect ratio (E) of the elliptical cylinder on the detailed ﬂow characteristics has been studied

Keywords:

by varying it from E = 0.1 to E = 10 thereby spanning varying levels of streamlining of the submerged

Elliptical cylinder

Bingham plastic ﬂuid

object. In particular, new extensive results on streamline contours, shape and size of yielded/unyielded

Reynolds number regions, shear rate proﬁles, surface pressure distribution and drag coefﬁcient as functions of the Reynolds

Bingham number number, Bingham number and aspect ratio are presented and discussed. The functional dependence of

Yielded/unyielded zones the individual and total drag coefﬁcients on the governing dimensionless parameters, aspect ratio, Rey-

Drag coefﬁcient nolds number and Bingham number, is explored. The present results reveal a signiﬁcant inﬂuence of the

shape of the cylinder, i.e., aspect ratio on the detailed ﬂow patterns and the overall hydrodynamic ﬂow

behavior of elliptical cylinders.

Ó 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

knowledge on the so-called external or boundary layer type ﬂows

Owing to the wide occurrence of viscoplastic ﬂuid behavior in is very limited indeed [6]. The bulk of the available literature re-

suspensions, foams and multiphase systems encountered in scores lates to the prediction of drag and stability of spherical particles

of industrial settings including food, pharmaceutical, personal-care settling in such ﬂuids in the creeping ﬂow regime, e.g., see

product sectors, polymer composites, geological applications, etc., [7–12] or on interactions between them [13]. Detailed discussion

there has been a renewed interest in studying their ﬂuid mechan- and cross-comparisons between various numerical and/or experi-

ical behavior in various conﬁgurations [1–3]. One of the main dis- mental studies have been presented elsewhere [14,15]. Sufﬁce it

tinguishing aspects of viscoplastic ﬂuids is the fact that the ﬂow to add here that based on a combination of the experimental and

domain is spanned by the so-called yielded (ﬂuid-like) and unyiel- numerical studies, reliable results are now available on the wall ef-

ded (solid-like) regions depending upon the prevailing stress levels fects, drag coefﬁcient and the size/shape of the yielded regions for

vis-a-vis the value of the ﬂuid yield stress. From a theoretical/ spherical particles undergoing steady translation in viscoplastic

numerical standpoint, not only this aspect itself poses enormous ﬂuids in the creeping ﬂow regime. These comparisons clearly re-

challenges in resolving such regions but such dual nature of the veal that the predictions and experiments for drag on a single

ﬂow ﬁeld also has a deleterious effect on the degree of mixing sphere are in reasonable agreement in the creeping ﬂow regime.

and convective transport of heat and mass, for diffusion is the chief Indeed, the effect of ﬁnite Reynolds numbers (up to 100) on drag

mode of heat and mass transfer operating in the unyielded regions. and heat transfer characteristics of a heated sphere in Bingham

Thus, the current interest in studying the behavior of such media in plastic and Herschel Bulkley ﬂuids has been reported only very re-

complex geometries stems from both pragmatic and fundamental cently [14,15]. Broadly, while the ﬂuid yield stress acts to stabilize

considerations. Consequently, over the past ﬁfty years or so, signif- the ﬂow ﬁeld by postponing the ﬂow detachment to higher values

icant advances have been made in the behavior of viscoplastic ﬂu- of the Reynolds number than that in Newtonian ﬂuids, it obviously

ids in internal ﬂows [1,3], porous media ﬂows [4], mixing vessels increasingly restricts the size of the yielded ﬂuid-like regions close

[5], etc., though the ﬂuid mechanical aspects have been studied to the surface of the sphere where the stress level exceeds the ﬂuid

much more thoroughly than the corresponding heat and mass yield stress. On the other hand, with the increasing Reynolds

number, the ﬂuid-like domains tend to expand spatially thereby

facilitating convective transport [14,15]. In contrast, much less

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 512 2597393; fax: +91 512 2590104.

attention has been accorded to the other two-dimensional shapes

E-mail address: chhabra@iitk.ac.in (R.P. Chhabra).

0377-0257/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2013.09.006

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 33

Nomenclature

a semi-axis of the elliptical cylinder along the direction of LR length of the unyielded rigid static zone (Zr2) lR2a

a

,

ﬂow, m dimensionless

b semi-axis of the elliptical cylinder normal to the direc- Lw recirculation length lw2a

a

, dimensionless

tion of ﬂow, m m regularization parameter, dimensionless

Bn Bingham number slo ð2bÞV 1 , dimensionless n power-law ﬂow behavior index, dimensionless

B

Bnc critical Bingham number denoting the disappearance of ns unit vector normal to the surface of cylinder, dimen-

ﬂow separation, dimensionless sionless

CD drag coefﬁcient, dimensionless nx, ny x- and y-components of the unit vector normal to the

C D;1 limiting plastic drag coefﬁcient, dimensionless surface of cylinder, dimensionless

CDF frictional drag coefﬁcient, dimensionless p pressure, dimensionless

CDP pressure drag coefﬁcient, dimensionless ps local pressure on the surface of cylinder, Pa

Cp pressure coefﬁcient, dimensionless p1 reference pressurefar awayfrom the cylinder, Pa

C p modiﬁed pressure coefﬁcient, Eq. (16), dimensionless Re Reynolds number qV 1l ð2bÞ , dimensionless

B

Cpo pressure coefﬁcient at the front stagnation point, Re ⁄

modiﬁed Reynolds number, Eq. (17), dimensionless

dimensionless S surface area of the cylinder, m2

D diameter of circular cylinder, m V velocity vector, dimensionless

D1 diameter of the computational domain, m V1 free stream velocity, m s1

E aspect ratio of the elliptical cylinder, (=a/b), dimension-

less

Greek symbols

FD drag force per unit length of the cylinder, N m1

FDF frictional component of drag force per unit length of the

c_ rate of strain tensor, dimensionless

cylinder, N m1

lB plastic viscosity, Pa s

FDP pressure component of drag force per unit length of the

ly yielding viscosity, Pa s

q density of the ﬂuid, kg m3

cylinder, N m1

h angular position on the surface of the cylinder measured

lR length of the static rigid zone (Zr2) from the center of

from the front stagnation point, °

the cylinder, m

lw distance from the center of the cylinder to the point of

s extra stress tensor, dimensionless

reattachment of the near closed streamline along the

s0 yield stress, Pa

x-axis, m

L length of the cylinder in the z-direction, m Subscripts

i, j, x, y Cartesian coordinates

such as circular cylinders [16–22] and square bars [23,24]. While cal solutions of the complete Navier–Stokes equations revealed

the currently available results for a circular cylinder are restricted the results obtained in [25–27] to be grossly inadequate for

to the creeping ﬂow only (zero Reynolds number), limited results Re > 2 for unconﬁned ﬂow conditions. Since the ﬁrst numerical

for a square cylinder are available at ﬁnite Reynolds numbers up study of Epstein and Masliyah [28], numerous numerical studies

to Re = 40 [24]. Indeed, not only these studies reveal the existence pertaining to the steady ﬂow regime [29], elucidating the inﬂu-

of different types of yielded/unyielded domains, but their shapes ence of incidence [30], etc. have been reported in the literature

and sizes are also modulated by the shape of the object as well which are mutually consistent as far as the values of the drag,

as by the values of the governing parameters. The simplest devia- recirculation length, etc. are concerned. Depending upon the val-

tion from a circular cylinder is an elliptical shape which not only ues of the Reynolds number and aspect ratio, the ﬂow past a cyl-

allows the varying levels of streamlining simply by varying its as- inder exhibits a variety of ﬂow regimes, akin to that seen for a

pect ratio but it is also free from geometric singularities such as a circular cylinder. Thus, for instance, Faruquee et al. [31] have

square cylinder. Therefore, this work is concerned with the two- extensively studied the inﬂuence of aspect ratio on the wake

dimensional ﬂow of Bingham plastic ﬂuids past an elliptical cylin- characteristics at a ﬁxed Reynolds number of 40. At Re = 40,

der oriented with its long axis transverse to the ﬂow. At the outset, the critical aspect ratio was reported to be 0.34 for the onset

it is instructive to brieﬂy recount the available results on the ﬂow of ﬂow separation. Subsequently, Stack and Bravo [32] presented

of Newtonian ﬂuids past elliptical cylinders and the analogous re- the critical Reynolds number denoting the onset of ﬂow separa-

sults for viscoplastic ﬂuids which, in turn, facilitate the presenta- tion for aspect ratios ranging from 0 (plate normal to ﬂow) to 1

tion and discussion of the new results obtained in this work. (circular cylinder) by solving the complete Navier–Stokes equa-

tions. As the value of E becomes increasingly larger than unity,

1.1. Previous work the degree of streamlining increases and the ﬂow remains at-

tached to the surface of the cylinder up to much larger values

The ﬂow past elliptical cylinders denotes a classical problem of the Reynolds number than the oft reported value of Re = 5–6

in the realm of ﬂuid mechanics and transport phenomena and for a circular cylinder. The effect of conﬁnement on the vortex

has been studied widely over the past 100 years or so for New- shedding characteristics of an elliptical cylinder has been inves-

tonian ﬂuids. Early attempts at studying the ﬂow of Newtonian tigated using the lattice Boltzmann method recently [33]. At the

ﬂuids past elliptical cylinders are invariably based on the use other extreme, the high Reynolds number limit has also been ap-

of the Oseen’s linearized form of the Navier–Stokes equations proached by employing the standard integral boundary layer

to obviate the so-called Stokes paradox. This approach is exem- analysis for the prediction of skin friction and Nusselt number

pliﬁed by the works of Tomotika and Aoi [25], Imai [26] and for an elliptical cylinder [34]. More detailed reviews of the per-

Hasimoto [27]. Subsequent results [28,29] based on the numeri- tinent studies are available elsewhere [35–37].

34 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

In contrast, as far as known to us, within the framework of the i.e., Vz = 0 and @ðÞ

@z

¼ 0. The unconﬁned ﬂow condition is reached

generalized Newtonian ﬂuids, there have been only three studies here by enclosing the elliptical cylinder in a hypothetical concen-

dealing with the ﬂow of power- law ﬂuids past elliptical cylinders tric cylindrical envelope of ﬂuid of diameter D1 as shown schemat-

[35–37]. Sivakumar and co-workers [35,36] reported extensive re- ically in Fig. 1b. The diameter of the outer circular boundary D1 is

sults on the momentum and forced convection heat transfer char- taken to be sufﬁciently large to minimize the boundary effects.

acteristics in the steady ﬂow regime (Re 6 40) for shear-thinning While no information exists about the ﬂow regimes in Bingham

and shear- thickening ﬂuids. Both the drag and Nusselt number plastic ﬂuids for elliptical cylinders, by analogy with the transitions

values were found to be enhanced in shear-thinning ﬂuids and observed in Newtonian ﬂuids [37,40], the ﬂow is expected to be

these were suppressed in shear-thickening media with reference steady and symmetric about the mid plane (y = 0) over the range

to that in Newtonian ﬂuids otherwise under identical conditions. of conditions spanned here and therefore the computations have

However, these results are based on a priori assumption of the been carried out only in half-domain (y P 0) to economize on

steady ﬂow regime to prevail over the range of conditions spanned the computational effort.

in their study. Indeed, the limits of the steady ﬂow regime for ellip- For 2-D, incompressible and steady ﬂow, the continuity and

tical cylinders of various aspect ratios have been delineated only momentum equations in their dimensionless forms are given by:

recently [37]. Based on these ﬁndings, some of the results reported Continuity:

by Sivakumar and co-workers [35,36] might be less reliable than

rV ¼0 ð1Þ

initially thought. Also, as expected, for blunt shapes (E < 1) ﬂow

separation occurs at lower values of the Reynolds number than Momentum:

that for a circular (E = 1) cylinder and the critical Reynolds number

1

increases with the increasing value of E. This ﬁnding is consistent ðV rÞV ¼ rp þ r:s ð2Þ

with that of Faruquee et al. [31]. Re

Even less is known about the ﬂow of viscoplastic ﬂuids past For a Bingham plastic ﬂuid, the deviatoric part of the stress ten-

elliptical cylinders. Putz and Frigaard [38] presented very limited sor s is given by

results for a two-dimensional planar ﬂow over an elliptical cylin-

c_ ¼ 0 if jsj 6 Bn ð3Þ

der using the standard Taylor–Hood ﬁnite element method in the

creeping ﬂow regime. Similarly, in an attempt to mimic the behav-

ior of an artiﬁcial lung, Zierenberg et al. [39] have considered the Bn

s ¼ 1 þ _ c_ if jsj > Bn ð4Þ

pulsatile ﬂow of Casson model ﬂuid (blood) over a circular cylin- jcj

der. While they have considered three values of the Reynolds num- qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

where jc_ j ¼ 12 trðc_ Þ is the magnitude of rate of deformation tensor

ber (5, 10 and 40), the yield stress values are extremely small qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

(corresponding to blood) and therefore very small deviations from and jsj ¼ 12 trðs2 Þ is the magnitude of deviatoric stress tensor. In

the corresponding Newtonian kinematics are predicted in their

these equations, the two dimensionless parameters are the familiar

study. From the aforementioned discussion, it is thus fair to con-

Reynolds number (Re) and Bingham number (Bn) which are deﬁned

clude that there is only scant information available on the ﬂow

a little later in Eqs. (9) and (10).

of viscoplastic ﬂuids over an elliptical cylinder. For a given value

The rate-of-strain tensor c_ is given by

of the aspect ratio (E), it is expected that with the increasing Rey-

nolds number, the ﬂuid-like yielded domains must grow in size, c_ ¼ ðrV þ rV T Þ ð5Þ

but this tendency is countered to some extent by the ﬂuid yield

stress. Intuitively therefore, it appears that for a given Reynolds There have been several approaches developed to obviate the

number and aspect ratio, there must be a critical value of the Bing- discontinuity inherent in the Bingham constitutive equation [41].

ham number above which the ﬂow remains attached due to the However, the two such approaches have gained wide acceptance,

equilibrium between the yield stress and viscous forces on one namely that of Papanastasiou [42] and bi-viscosity [43] in the liter-

hand and the inertial forces on the other. Conversely, for a given as- ature. While primarily the former is used in this work, limited re-

pect ratio of the cylinder and Bingham number, it is expected that sults were also obtained with the latter to corroborate the

the ﬂow would remain attached to the surface of the cylinder up to reliability of our results. Papanastasiou [42] modiﬁed the classical

higher Reynolds numbers than that in Newtonian ﬂuids. This work Bingham model by introducing an exponential term for the stress

endeavors to ﬁll this gap in the literature. growth. The proposed Bingham–Papanastasiou model which trans-

In particular, the main objective of the present work is to solve forms the ‘‘solid’’ regions to a viscous one of high viscosity is given

the ﬁeld equations (continuity and momentum) numerically for by:

the ﬂow of Bingham plastic ﬂuids past an elliptical cylinder eluci-

Bn½1 expðmjc_ jÞ

dating the effect of ﬂuid yield stress and inertia on the ﬂuid s¼ 1þ c_ ð6Þ

mechanical aspects in the range of conditions as: Reynolds number

jc_ j

0.01 6 Re 6 40, Bingham number 0.01 6 Bn 6 100 and aspect ratio where m, the regularization parameter, controls the exponential

0.1 6 E 6 10. This work also reports the limiting values of the Bing- growth of the stress. Evidently, in the limit of m ? 1, this model

ham number above which the ﬂow does not detach itself from the coincides with the Bingham model. Similarly, the bi-viscosity model

surface of the elliptical cylinder. The present results are compared approach [43] postulates:

with the previous studies wherever possible.

ly

s¼ c_ for jsj 6 Bn ð7Þ

lB

2. Problem statement and formulation !

Bn

The ﬂow of an incompressible Bingham ﬂuid with uniform s ¼ Bn þ c_ for jsj > Bn ð8Þ

ðly =lB Þ

velocity V1 over a long elliptical cylinder of aspect ratio E = a/b ori-

ented transverse to the direction of ﬂow is considered here, as The relative merits and demerits of different regularization

shown schematically in Fig. 1a. Since the cylinder is inﬁnitely long methods and cross-comparisons between their predictions based

in the z-direction, the ﬂow is considered to be two-dimensional, on different regularization techniques for speciﬁc geometries like

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 35

b E = 0.1

E=1

E = 10

V∞ x

a

Cylinder

(a)

E = 0.1

No slip- wall

E=1

E = 10

symmetry x

D∞

(b)

Fig. 1. Schematics of the ﬂow past an elliptical cylinder: (a) physical model (b) computational domain.

the creeping ﬂow over a sphere are available elsewhere [41,44]. qV 21 and 2b

for the stress components, pressure and regulariza-

V1

Potential difﬁculties in locating the yield surfaces through such tion parameter respectively. Naturally, one could have chosen 2a

regularization methods have also been discussed in Ref. [44]. instead of 2b as the characteristic linear scale, but since the aspect

In order to complete the problem statement, the following ratio E is dimensionless on its own, one can convert these results

boundary conditions have been used in this work. from one format (based on the choice of 2b) to another (based on

The front-half of the ﬂuid envelope (of diameter D1) is desig- the choice of 2a). Evidently, in this case, the momentum character-

nated as the inlet and at this surface, a uniform ﬂow in the x-direc- istics are governed by the following three dimensionless

tion is prescribed, i.e., Vx = 1 and Vy = 0. parameters:

The rear-half of the surrounding ﬂuid envelope is designated as Bingham number: This represents the ratio of the yield stress

the outlet and here the disturbance to the ﬂow ﬁeld caused by the to viscous forces, i.e.,

elliptical cylinder is assumed to have subsided and thus, zero-dif-

fusion ﬂux condition for the both velocity components, i.e.,

so

Bn ¼ ð9Þ

@V x @V

¼ 0 and @xy ¼ 0 is used here on this plane. lB V2b1

@x

On the surface of the cylinder: The standard no-slip boundary Reynolds number: This denotes the ratio of the inertial to vis-

condition, i.e., Vx = Vy = 0 is used. cous forces, i.e.,

Over the range of conditions spanned here, the ﬂow is expected

to be symmetric about y = 0 plane and therefore, the symmetry qV 21

conditions are implemented here, i.e., @V x

¼ 0 and Vy = 0. Re ¼ ð10Þ

@y lB V2b1

The preceding governing equations and the boundary condi-

tions have been rendered dimensionless by using V1 and 2b as Of course, the aspect ratio, E = a/b, which describes the shape of

the characteristic velocity and length scales respectively. These,

the cylinder cross-section, is the third dimensionless parameter.

in turn, can be used to obtain the corresponding scales as lB V2b1 , The preceding deﬁnitions of the Reynolds and Bingham numbers

36 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

are based on the assumption that the characteristic shear rate is of C p ¼ C p Re ð16Þ

the order of (V1/2b) and the effective viscous stress is given simply

as lB(V1/2b) thereby disregarding the inﬂuence of the ﬂuid yield where

stress. However, the inclusion of the yield stress in estimating Re

the representative viscosity will only rescale the Reynolds number Re ¼ ð17Þ

1 þ Bn

by incorporating the effect of the Bingham number, as seen in Eq.

Recirculation (or wake) length (Lw): It is the dimensionless

(17) here and elsewhere [14,24].

distance measured from the rear of the cylinder to the point of

It is customary to present the detailed kinematics of the ﬂow in

reattachment for the near closed streamline Vx = Vy = 0 on the line

terms of the streamlines in the vicinity of the cylinder and the dis-

of symmetry (y = 0).

tribution of pressure coefﬁcient along the surface of the cylinder.

The overall gross behavior is denoted in terms of the recirculation lw a

Lw ¼ ð18Þ

length, individual and total drag coefﬁcients. In the case of visco- 2a

plastic ﬂuids, the size and shape of the yielded zones also depend

where lw is the distance from the center of the cylinder to the point

on the values of three parameters, namely, Re, Bn and E. Some of

of reattachment for the near closed streamline as shown schemati-

these characteristics are deﬁned here.

cally in Fig. 2a. In the context of Newtonian ﬂuids, this is a direct

Drag coefﬁcient (CD): This is a measure of the net hydrody-

measure of the wake length. However, in the present situation, as

namic force exerted by the ﬂuid on the immersed cylinder along

will be seen in Sections 5.2 and 5.3, there is an unyielded zone at-

the direction of ﬂow. The drag coefﬁcient is made up of two com-

tached in the rear of the cylinder which is engulfed in the recircu-

ponents, namely, friction drag (CDF) due to the shearing forces and

lating region. Therefore, it is not uncommon to introduce another

form drag (CDP) due to the normal forces acting on the cylinder.

characteristic parameter to describe the length of this static zone.

These are deﬁned as follows and are essentially evaluated by the

Length of the unyielded rigid zone (LR): It is the dimensionless

surface integrals as shown below:

length of the static rigid zone Zr2 measured from the rear of the

C D ¼ C DF þ C DP ð11Þ cylinder.

Z lR a

F DF 2 LR ¼ ð19Þ

C DF ¼ 1 ¼ ðsxx nx þ sxy ny ÞdS ð12Þ 2a

2

q V 21 ð2bÞ Re s

where lR is the length of static zone downstream of the cylinder

where nx and ny are the components of the unit normal vector, ns, measured from the center of the cylinder (Fig 2b).

normal to the surface of the cylinder given as Finally, the scaling considerations suggest that the detailed

kinematics and macroscopic momentum characteristics in the

2

ðx=a2 Þex þ ðy=b Þey present case are inﬂuenced to varying extents by three dimension-

ns ¼ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ nx ex þ ny ey ð13Þ

x 2 y 2 less groups or combinations thereof, namely, Reynolds number

a 2 þ b 2 (Re), Bingham number (Bn) and the aspect ratio of the cylinder

(E). This work endeavors to understand and develop this

The form drag is deﬁned and evaluated as follows relationship.

Z

F DP

C DP ¼ 1 ¼ C p nx dS ð14Þ

2

q V 21 ð2bÞ s 3. Numerical methodology

In Eq. (14), Cp is the dimensionless pressure coefﬁcient deﬁned The preceding partial differential equations subject to the afore-

as the ratio of the static to dynamic pressure on the surface of the mentioned boundary conditions have been solved here numeri-

cylinder, i.e., cally using the ﬁnite element method based solver, COMSOL

ps p1 MultiphysicsÒ (Version 4.2a). The computational domain was

Cp ¼ ð15Þ meshed using a non-uniform grid structure created by the built-

1

2

qV 21

in meshing function employing quadrilateral and triangular ele-

In Eq. (15), ps is the local pressure at a point which varies along ments. Owing to the expected steep gradients close to the surface

the surface of the cylinder and p1 is the reference pressure far of the cylinder and near the interface demarcating the yielded and

away from the cylinder. unyielded regions, a ﬁne mesh was used in these regions which

Further insights into the nature of this ﬂow can be gained by was progressively made coarse to economize on the required com-

rescaling the pressure coefﬁcient (ratio of the static pressure to putational effort. The resulting system of equations is solved using

yield stress) on the surface of the cylinder. The modiﬁed pressure the steady, 2-D, laminar ﬂow module with parallel direct linear sol-

coefﬁcient is deﬁned as: ver (PARDISO). The deviatoric part of the stress tensor in the

Fig. 2. Schematic representation of (a) recirculating wake and (b) static zone characteristics.

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 37

momentum equation is approximated using the Papanastasiou computational effort at a reasonable level (Table 1a). An inspection

modiﬁed Bingham model. Based on our previous studies of Table 1a suggests that the domain sizes of D1/(2b) = 300, 520,

[14,15,23,24], the relative convergence criterion of 105 for the 900 and 800 are believed to be adequate for E = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and

equations of continuity and momentum is used in this work. With- 1 respectively while for E = 2, 5 and 10, the domain size of D1/

in the framework of this criterion, the drag values had also stabi- (2b) = 1000, 2500 and 5000 respectively are seen to be adequate

lized at least up to four signiﬁcant digits. Besides, the results for the ranges of conditions of interest here: 0.01 6 Re 6 40 and

obtained using more stringent convergence criterion were virtually 0.01 6 Bn 6 100.

indistinguishable from the present results. Appropriate values of Having ﬁxed the domain size, a grid independence study has

the ﬂuid characteristics like density (q), yield-stress (so), plastic been carried out using three non- uniform grids (G1,G2 and G3)

viscosity (lB) and the geometric parameters were speciﬁed to with the increasing level of reﬁnement for a range of values of

achieve the desired values of the three dimensionless parameters, the aspect ratio, E at Re = 40 and Bn = 100. The grid used in the

namely, Re, Bn and E. However, these speciﬁc values of the physical present work is divided into two subregions. The ﬁrst zone in the

properties of the ﬂuid are of no particular signiﬁcance because the vicinity of cylinder where the mesh is highly concentrated consists

ﬁnal results are presented here in their nondimensional form. of triangular elements, as shown in Fig. 3 for extreme values of the

Finally, the yield-surfaces denoting the boundaries between the aspect ratio E = 0.1 and E = 10. Otherwise non-uniform quadrilat-

yielded and unyielded regions were located by manually reﬁning eral elements were employed for the remaining intermediate val-

the computational mesh in this region and by comparing the mag- ues of the aspect ratio. The second sub-region away from the

nitude of the dimensionless extra stress tensor with the ﬂuid yield cylinder employed non-uniform quadrilateral elements with man-

stress (Bingham number) within a tolerance of 106–107 at each ual reﬁning near the yield surfaces. Fig. 3 shows the schematics of

point. Further reduction in the tolerance criterion did not produce the grid structures used for aspect ratio E = 0.1 and 10 with their

any noticeable changes in the shape or size of the unyielded close-up view near the cylinder expanded for the three grids G1,

regions. G2 and G3 tested in this work. These results for grid tests are sum-

marized in Table 1b which clearly show that the values of the drag

4. Choice of numerical parameters coefﬁcient change negligibly as one goes from grid G2 to G3. Fur-

thermore, Fig. 4 shows the inﬂuence of grids on the velocity proﬁle

Undoubtedly, the accuracy and reliability of the numerical re- in the x- and y-directions for the extreme values of the aspect ratio

sults is strongly inﬂuenced by the choice of numerical parameters, E = 0.1 and E = 10 at Re = 40 and Bn = 100. Detailed examination of

namely, domain size, quality of grid, convergence criterion, the va- the results shown in Table 1b and Fig. 4 reveals that grid G2 is ade-

lue of the regularization parameter, m and of the yielding viscosity, quate to resolve the thin boundary layers under the extreme con-

ly. Much has been written about these aspects elsewhere ditions considered herein. Indeed, the comparison shown in Fig. 4

[14,23,24], and therefore only the salient points are recapitulated constitutes a more stringent test of the grid effects than the results

here. Bearing in mind the fact that the velocity ﬁeld decays slowly, shown in Table 1b. Thus, on both counts, G2 seems to be adequate

at low Reynolds numbers and/or Bingham numbers, several values in the present study.

of (D1/2b) were used in this study to choose its optimum value A reliable prediction of the unyielded zones also depends

without a signiﬁcant loss of accuracy and keeping the required strongly on an appropriate choice of the regularization parameter,

Table 1

Choice of computational parameters: (a) Domain effects. (b) Grid effects.

Re = 0.01 Re = 40

E Domain size Bn = 0.01 E Grid Elementsb Bn = 0.01 Bn = 100

D1/(2b) CD CDP CD CDP CD CDP

0.1 260 833.54 737.43 0.1a G1 26,878 1.6600 1.5735 61.333 58.879

300 834.01 737.47 G2 35,722 1.6596 1.5771 61.278 59.508

350 834.07 737.40 G3 40,322 1.6596 1.5773 61.267 59.567

0.2 360 836.30 686.88 0.2 G1 12,000 1.6355 1.4994 62.231 58.591

520 836.61 688.49 G2 23,640 1.6313 1.4768 61.749 58.342

700 836.70 690.14 G3 26,000 1.6303 1.4720 61.672 58.088

0.5 400 848.31 622.01 0.5 G1 12,000 1.5631 1.2335 63.031 52.856

900 848.16 573.45 G2 23,640 1.5626 1.2367 62.835 53.537

1300 848.34 578.92 G3 26,000 1.5624 1.2376 62.815 53.708

1 500 874.29 441.23 1 G1 12,000 1.5078 0.98117 66.247 49.281

800 875.50 447.36 G2 23,640 1.5076 0.98593 65.989 49.704

1800 874.64 446.33 G3 28,000 1.5076 0.98663 65.970 49.819

2 600 929.57 317.62 2 G1 12,000 1.4940 0.7237 74.920 47.333

1000 929.46 313.20 G2 23,640 1.4945 0.7185 74.286 46.000

2000 929.39 313.90 G3 28,000 1.4943 0.7186 74.260 46.006

5 1500 1076.7 183.72 5 G1 13,200 1.6515 0.4515 108.09 46.269

2500 1077.5 186.00 G2 18,200 1.6513 0.4489 107.36 45.545

5000 1077.8 187.68 G3 21,000 1.6513 0.4485 107.20 45.387

10 3000 1270.2 122.24 10a G1 7527 1.95041 0.2964 164.40 43.862

5000 1270.4 127.91 G2 16,332 1.95506 0.2802 161.53 43.700

8000 1270.3 127.50 G3 20,609 1.95338 0.2808 161.51 43.332

a

Free triangular grid in the vicinity of cylinder.

b

Refer to half-domain (y P 0).

38 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

G1 G2 G3

E = 0.1

G1 G2 G3

E = 10

Fig. 3. Schematic representation of non-uniform computational grid structure with their expanded view near the cylinder.

Fig. 4. Inﬂuence of grid size on the variation of velocity proﬁles in x- and y-directions at Re = 40 and Bn = 100.

m. Naturally, its unduly small values do not correctly capture the are based on the value of m = 107. Similarly, in the case of the bi-

behavior of the ﬂuid whereas its excessively high values lead to a viscosity model, one needs to examine the effect of the value of

very stiff coefﬁcient matrix thereby leading to oscillations in the the yielding viscosity (ly) on the accuracy of the solution. Table 2

predicted contours of the unyielded zones and convergence prob- summarizes the results showing the inﬂuence of this parameter on

lems [44,45]. In this study, the values of m ranging from 104 to the values of the pressure and drag coefﬁcients at the minimum

107 have been examined for 0.1 6 E 6 10 at Bn = 10 and Bn = 100. and maximum values of the Bingham numbers used in this work.

Fig. 5 shows the inﬂuence of this parameter on the predictions of Evidently, the value of (ly/lB) = 105 is seen to be satisfactory over

the yielded/unyielded zones for extreme values of the aspect ratio, the range of conditions spanned in the present work. Finally, the

i.e., E = 0.1 and E = 10. Evidently, the results change very little for adequacy of these choices is demonstrated in the next section by

m P 107. Based on these observations, the results reported herein presenting a few benchmark comparisons.

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 39

Fig. 5. Inﬂuence of the regularization parameter, m, on the location of unyielded zones at Re = 40 (a) E = 0.1 (b) E = 10.

Table 2

Inﬂuence of the yielding viscosity ly, on the total drag (CD) and pressure drag (CDP) coefﬁcients.

ly CD CDP

lB

Re = 0.01 Re = 40 Re = 0.01 Re = 40

Bn = 0.01 Bn = 100 Bn = 0.01 Bn = 100 Bn = 0.01 Bn = 100 Bn = 0.01 Bn = 100

E = 0.1

104 835.47 242,882 1.6633 61.525 732.17 234,144 1.5559 59.149

105 835.49 242,903 1.6644 61.531 732.16 234,164 1.5570 59.156

106 835.50 242,906 1.6652 61.532 732.16 234,167 1.5578 59.156

E = 10

104 1269.4 646,055 1.9555 161.53 98.131 174,693 0.2802 43.700

105 1269.4 646,056 1.9555 161.53 98.131 174,693 0.2802 43.700

106 1269.4 646,056 1.9555 161.53 98.131 174,693 0.2802 43.700

Table 3

Comparison of drag coefﬁcients (CD) for elliptical cylinders (E = 0.2 and E = 5) in Newtonian ﬂuids.

Re Dennis and Young [30] D’Alessio and Dennis [29] Sivakumar et al. [35] Present

E = 0.2

0.01 – – 404.53 409.97

0.1 – – 54.247 54.748

1 – – 9.806 9.839

5 3.854 3.862 3.790 3.782

20 2.119 2.140 2.065 2.062

40 1.876 – 1.621 1.618

E=5

0.1 – – 67.109 66.586

1 8.096 8.222 8.110 8.014

5 2.712 – 2.7361 2.665

10 1.765 1.848 1.768 1.730

20 1.169 1.228 1.168 1.147

40 0.789 0.794 0.786 0.774

5. Results and discussion (0.1 6 E 6 10) on the ﬂuid ﬂow around an elliptical cylinder over

wide ranges of dimensionless parameters as: 0.01 6 Re 6 40 and

In this study, the governing differential equations of ﬂow have 0.01 6 Bn 6 100. In particular, the present results endeavor to elu-

been solved numerically to examine the effects of aspect ratio cidate the role of these parameters on streamline patterns, yielded/

40 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

Table 4

Comparison of front stagnation point pressure coefﬁcient Cpo(h = 0) and drag coefﬁcient of elliptical cylinders in Newtonian ﬂuids.

E Re Cpo CD

Masliyah and Epstein [48] Present Masliyah and Epstein [48] Present

0.2 1 – – 10.810 9.839

5 1.634 1.619 3.942 3.782

15 1.212 1.226 2.586 2.309

40 1.049 1.088 1.814 1.618

2 0.5 – – 18.820 17.835

5 2.047 2.004 4.298 4.225

15 1.468 1.417 2.379 2.370

40 1.200 1.176 – –

5 5 2.649 2.408 5.019 5.037

10 2.037 1.839 3.490 3.417

20 1.656 1.481 2.424 2.350

40 1.436 1.262 1.771 1.637

Table 5 Table 7

Comparison of drag coefﬁcient between the present results for E = 0.1 and that of a Comparison of the present and literature values of drag coefﬁcient at ﬁnite Reynolds

vertical ﬂat plate in Newtonian ﬂuids. numbers for a circular cylinder (E = 1).

0.5 15.08 15.99 Re⁄ Bn = 0.2 Re⁄ Bn = 1

1 9.66 9.95

Mossaz et al. [20] Present Mossaz et al. [20] Present

5 3.75 3.81

10 2.75 2.76 0.0083 25.628 24.720 0.005 59.279 59.239

20 2.09 2.10 0.0833 25.723 24.717 0.05 59.281 59.317

30 1.82 1.82 0.8333 26.678 25.291 0.5 59.478 60.103

40 1.68 1.66 4.1667 30.921 30.879 2.5 62.920 63.593

8.3333 36.225 37.429 5 68.522 67.955

16.6667 46.834 48.732 10 78.912 76.680

33.3333 68.050 67.826 20 97.052 94.130

ature values for a few limiting cases, as this will help ascertain the

level of the accuracy of the new results for Bingham plastic ﬂuids

for elliptical cylinders presented herein.

plastic ﬂuids in a lid-driven square cavity and the resulting values

of the centerline velocities at the horizontal and vertical positions

of the vortex center were found to be within ±2% of the literature

values for Bingham plastic ﬂuids [9,46] and the results of center-

line velocities for Newtonian ﬂuids show deviations around ±3%

with those reported by Neofytou [47]. Next, as reliable results

are now available for the ﬂow of Newtonian ﬂuids (Bn = 0) past

Fig. 6. Comparison of drag coefﬁcient values for a vertical ﬂat plate and an elliptical elliptical cylinders over the range of conditions spanned here, Ta-

cylinder (E = 0.1).

ble 3 shows a comparison between the present and literature val-

ues culled from a few sources employing different numerical

Table 6 solution schemes, domains, etc. With the exception of one data

Validation of the present results (Bn = 105) for elliptical cylinders in the fully plastic point of Dennis and Young [30], the present values are within 3–

limit. 4% of the previous results [29,30,35]. Furthermore, Table 4 com-

Ref. C D;1 pares the present values of the pressure coefﬁcient at the front

stagnation point and drag coefﬁcient for the Newtonian ﬂuids

E = 0.5 E=1 E=2 E = 10

[48]. Barring the results for E = 5, the other values are seen to be

Randolph and Houlsby [53] – 11.94 – – within ±4% of each other. While no prior results are available for

Mitsoulis [16] – 11.7 – –

Tokpavi et al. [19] – 11.94 – –

an elliptical cylinder with E = 0.1, these are expected to be very

Putz and Frigaard [38] 13.1 11.94 11.56 11.35 close to that for a plane surface oriented normal to the oncoming

Present 13.205 11.939 11.581 11.331 ﬂuid stream. Table 5 and Fig. 6 show comparisons between the

present results for E = 0.1 and that for a plate with the literature re-

sults culled from several sources [49–52]. The close correspon-

dence seen in Table 5 and in Fig. 6 is particularly instructive and

unyielded zones, ﬂow kinematics and drag coefﬁcient. At the out- lends credibility to the present solution methodology. Finally,

set, it is, however, important to validate the solution methodology Table 6 shows a comparison between the present and literature

used in this study by comparing the present results with the liter- values for elliptical and circular cylinders in terms of the limiting

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 41

Fig. 7. Representative streamline proﬁles for an elliptical cylinder (a) E = 0.1 (b) E = 0.2 (c) E = 1 (d) E = 5 (e) E = 10.

drag values (Bn ? 1) while Table 7 compares the values of the in a Bingham plastic ﬂuid. Once again, an excellent match is seen

drag coefﬁcient at ﬁnite Reynolds numbers for a circular cylinder to exist in these tables. Similar extensive comparisons for the drag

42 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

Table 8

Effect of Reynolds number and Bingham number on the recirculation length.

Bn Re Lw

E = 0.1 E = 0.2 E = 0.5 E=1 E=2 E=5 E = 10

0.01 1 0.8915 – – – – – –

5 5.2663 2.0811 0.3125 – – – –

10 10.127 4.3815 1.1269 0.2106 – – –

20 21.151 9.4296 2.7842 0.8683 0.1271 – –

40 47.325 21.201 6.3974 2.1867 0.5706 – –

0.1 1 0.2940 – – – – – –

5 4.2747 1.5548 0.1121 – – – –

10 8.477 3.5784 0.8010 0.0619 – – –

20 17.786 7.8883 2.2418 0.6057 – – –

40 39.876 17.877 5.3753 1.7784 0.3886 – –

1 5 1.4640 – – – – – –

10 3.6493 1.1840 0.0552 – – – –

20 8.1874 3.1989 0.5397 – – – –

40 18.254 7.8966 1.9409 0.2825 – – –

5 10 0.5789 – – – – – –

20 2.0011 0.4853 – – – – –

40 5.1902 1.7259 0.1212 – – – –

10 20 0.5175 – – – – – –

40 2.2307 – – – – – –

Table 9

Values of critical Bingham number for elliptical cylinders.

Bn (wake) Bnc (no wake) Bn (wake) Bnc (no wake) Bn (wake) Bnc (no wake) Bn (wake) Bnc (no wake) Bn (wake) Bnc (no wake)

1 0.5 0.75 – – – – – – – –

5 4.5 4.75 1.75 2 0.2 0.3 – – – –

10 7.75 8 4.25 4.5 1.25 1.5 0.2 0.25 – –

20 13.5 13.75 8.25 8.5 3 3.25 0.8 0.85 0.075 0.08

30 18.75 19 11.75 12 4.75 5 1.4 1.45 0.30 0.35

40 24 24.24 15.5 15.75 6.50 6.75 2 2.25 0.45 0.50

Table 10

any loss of kinetic energy and thus the ﬂow remains attached to

Comparison of recirculation length Lw for Bingham plastic ﬂuid ﬂow past circular the surface of the cylinder. Similarly, the yield stress of the ﬂuid

cylinder. also tends to delay the onset of ﬂow detachment from the surface

Lw

of the cylinder. This is ascribed to the fact that away from the sub-

merged cylinder, the material is by and large unyielded which acts

Mossaz et al. [20] Present %error

as a virtual wall and it is thus tantamount to that the ﬂow occurs in

Bn Re = 20 a conﬁned geometry. This, in turn, tends to suppress the propensity

0.08 0.6310 0.6567 4.08 for ﬂow separation, in line with the available results in Newtonian

0.19 0.3793 0.4016 5.88 ﬂuids. Thus, while the tendency for ﬂow separation increases with

Re = 40 the increasing Reynolds number, it is suppressed with the increas-

0.08 1.8574 1.7954 3.34 ing Bingham number for a given shape, i.e., value of E. Naturally

0.18 1.5079 1.4857 1.47 both these mechanisms are modulated by the shape of the object.

0.28 1.2422 1.1931 3.95 Thus, for instance, at E = 0.1 which behaves like a plane surface ori-

0.39 1.0064 0.9809 2.54

ented normal to ﬂow, due to sudden changes in the ﬂow direction,

0.59 0.5980 0.6195 3.60

ﬂow separation is likely to occur at low Reynolds numbers; the

critical value being Re = 0.08 for Newtonian ﬂuids [32]. Thus, for in-

of a sphere in Bingham plastic and Herschel–Bulkley ﬂuids have stance, at Re = 1, there is a visible separated region in the form of

been recently presented elsewhere [14,15] and therefore, these twin counter rotating vortices at Bn = 0.01 which seems to disap-

are not repeated here. Based on the foregoing extensive compari- pear completely at Bn P 0.1. Intuitively, it appears that higher

sons, the new results for elliptical cylinders reported herein are be- the Reynolds number, larger would be the value of the Bingham

lieved to be reliable to within 2–3%. number needed to prevent the ﬂow separation. This observation

is clearly borne out by the results shown in Fig. 7 irrespective of

the value of E 6 1. However, for E > 1, ﬂow separation occurs at

5.2. Streamlines contours and recirculation length much larger Reynolds numbers even in Newtonian and power-

law ﬂuids [37] and with the introduction of yield stress, this trend

Representative streamline proﬁles close to the surface of an is likely to continue even up to higher Reynolds numbers, as can be

elliptical cylinder (E = 0.1, 1 and 10) are shown in Fig. 7 for a range seen in Fig. 7 and in Table 8. These trends are qualitatively consis-

of values of the Reynolds number and Bingham number. At low tent with that reported for a circular cylinder [20] and a sphere

Reynolds numbers, the ﬂuid inertia is small and therefore a ﬂuid [14]. Table 8 summarizes the functional dependence of the recircu-

element is able to negotiate the body contour without incurring lation length Lw on the Reynolds number and Bingham number for

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 43

Bn = 100 Re = 40 Mossaz et al. [20] in the limit of E = 1 and n = 1, and the two values

are seen to be in good agreement.

Finally, attention is drawn to the fact that in one case corre-

sponding to Re = 10, Bn = 0.1 and E = 1, there is a second recircula-

Zr3 tion region, smaller than the primary wake present, while no wake

was observed at Bn = 0.2 and only one recirculating region was

seen at Bn = 0.08–0.09. Therefore, it is likely that this point is just

too close to the critical point corresponding to the suppression of

the wake formation at Bn = 0.2. It is likely that the primary recircu-

Zr1 Zr2

lating region splits into smaller regions before disappearing alto-

gether. On the other hand, the presence of the second

recirculation region is not a numerical artifact because this case

was repeated at least with two different meshes and for a few val-

Zr3 ues of the Bingham number in the vicinity of Bn = 0.1. No more

explanation can be given at this stage for this effect.

Zr4

5.3. Delineation of yielded/unyielded zones

Fig. 8. Schematic representation of the rigid zones around a circular cylinder (E = 1) One of the distinct features of the ﬂow of viscoplastic media is

(ﬂow is from left to right). the simultaneous existence of the ﬂuid-like (yielded) and solid-like

(unyielded) regions, both in the vicinity of the submerged object

a range of values of E. For a ﬁxed value of the Bingham number and and far away from it, as have been reported for a sphere, circular

aspect ratio, the recirculation length shows a positive dependence cylinder and a square bar. Similarly, in the present case, three dis-

on the Reynolds number which is in line with the behavior seen in tinct unyielded zones are observed, shown schematically in Fig. 8,

Newtonian and power-law ﬂuids. On the other hand, for a ﬁxed where the unyielded zones are shaded while the unshaded regions

Reynolds number and aspect ratio, the recirculation length de- represent the deforming ﬂuid zones; however, these differ in shape

creases with the increasing Bingham number. The decreasing wake and size depending upon the aspect ratio (especially Zr1 and Zr2)

size and disappearance of the standing vortices is also expected of the cylinder from that seen for a circular cylinder (E = 1). These

with the increasing value of the aspect ratio (E) due to the increas- are brieﬂy described below:

ing degree of streamlining of the bluff body. Thus for instance, no

ﬂow separation is observed for the range of Bingham and Reynolds Two triangular shaped unyielded zones (Zr1 and Zr2) attached

numbers considered in this study for E > 2 which is also in line with to the front and rear of the cylinder at the stagnation points

the previous results [37]. Similarly, no ﬂow separation was ob- which are static in nature. The triangular shape of these zones

served at Re 6 0.1 for the ranges of Bingham number, Bn and aspect observed in this study was also reported by Mossaz et al. [21].

ratio, E embraced in this study. Table 9 summarizes the critical val- Two symmetric rigid cores (Zr3), equidistant from the cylinder

ues of the Bingham number (within ±0.13) as a function of the as- on the either side about the horizontal axis of symmetry. These

pect ratio and Reynolds number above which the ﬂow remains are dynamic in nature, i.e., these are undergoing a rigid body-

attached to the surface of the submerged body. It is worthwhile like rotation without deformation of the ﬂuid.

to add here the values of the critical Bingham number (for a ﬁxed A rigid envelope enclosing the ﬂuid zone, far away from the cyl-

Reynolds number) reported here (denoting the cessation of the inder referred to here as Zr4. This is also dynamic in nature in so

ﬂow separation) are complimentary to the critical values of the far that it is moving as a solid plug with a uniform velocity V1,

Reynolds number, for a ﬁxed Bingham number, reported by Moss- without deforming.

az et al. [20] which denote the onset of the formation of the recir-

culating regions in the rear of the cylinder. Therefore, while it is not The existence of the above-mentioned rigid zones has been also

possible to contrast these two results, however, Table 10 contrasts conﬁrmed by comparing the location of the yielded/unyielded

Fig. 9. Comparison of unyielded zones of (a) Tokpavi et al. [19] (creeping ﬂow) with that of (b) present work (Re = 0.01) for Bingham plastic ﬂuid.

44 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

regions for a circular cylinder (E = 1) at low values of the Reynolds the kinematic parameters, Reynolds number and Bingham num-

number (Re = 0.01) in the present study with that of Tokpavi et al. ber, also exert signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the size of these zones.

[19] for the creeping ﬂow regime at Bn = 10 and Bn = 100 (Fig. 9). With the increasing Reynolds number, the size of zone Zr3 de-

Notwithstanding the inherently different values of the Reynolds creases for a given value of the aspect ratio at low Bingham

number in the two cases and the numerical solution methodolo- numbers, while at high values of Bn, this effect is not so signif-

gies, the two predictions are seen to be qualitatively similar. icant, as can be seen clearly in Fig. 11. The size of the static zone

Naturally, the size of each of these unyielded segments will Zr1 (in the front side of cylinder) decreases as the Reynolds

vary not only with the kinematic parameters (Re and Bn), but number increases at low Bingham numbers while Zr2 (formed

also with the aspect ratio of the cylinder. For the extreme values in the rear of the cylinder) increases and this is discussed more

of E = 0.1 and E = 10 considered here, the shape of the cylinder later. However, the role of Reynolds number is somewhat coun-

corresponds to a vertical (E ? 0) or to a horizontal (E ? 1) ﬂat tered by the increasing Bingham number in suppressing these

plate. The static zones Zr1 and Zr2 are observed to be the largest regions. Finally, irrespective of the value of the aspect ratio,

corresponding to E = 0.1 (Fig. 10a). These regions shrink gradu- the far away rigid ﬂuid envelope Zr4, surrounding the ﬂuid zone

ally as the aspect ratio increases and there is no evidence of increases in size as the value of Bn increases, attaining a limiting

the formation of these static zones for E > 1 (Fig. 11b). On the behavior corresponding to the fully plastic limit reaching at a

other hand, the size of zone Zr3 is observed to be the largest limiting value of Bingham number. Included in these ﬁgures

for the extreme geometry given by E = 10 (Fig. 11b) due to the are also the predictions of the bi-viscosity model (with

increased extent of streamlining of the cylinder. Their size de- ly/lB = 105) where the two results are seen to be in very good

creases progressively, as the body shape becomes increasingly agreement thereby suggesting that it is possible to use either

blunt, due to the enhanced levels of deformation and it vanishes of these approaches with suitably chosen values of m or ly. This

altogether for aspect ratio, E < 0.5, as shown in Fig. 10. Similarly, ﬁnding is also in line with our previous studies [14,23,24].

Fig. 10. Unyielded ﬂuid zones (shaded): (a) E = 0.1 (b) E = 0.5 (dashed lines represent bi-viscosity model predictions) (ﬂow is from left to right).

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 45

Fig. 11. Unyielded ﬂuid zones (shaded): (a) E = 1 (b) E = 10 (dashed lines represent bi-viscosity model predictions) (ﬂow is from left to right).

tional relationship between the size of static zone Zr2 on one hand

and the Reynolds number and Bingham number on the other.

Fig. 12 shows the representative results for 0.1 6 E 6 1. These

trends are seen to be qualitatively similar to that for a circular cyl-

inder [20]. However, for E P 2, this zone was not observed due to

the streamlining of the cylinder shape.

ity, Vx, along the positive x-axis and y-axis at the extreme values of

the Reynolds number, Re = 0.01 and Re = 40 for a range of values of

the Bingham number and for representative values of the aspect

ratio. An inspection of the velocity proﬁles along the y-axis for

E = 10 (Fig. 13) shows that there are four different segments of

curve in the case of high Bingham numbers. These segments are

characterized as:

Fig. 12. Dependence of the size of the static rigid zone Zr2 on the Reynolds number I–II: Rapid change in velocity Vx where ﬂuid experiences rela-

and Bingham number. tively a high rate of deformation.

46 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

II–III: Solid body rotation, representing unyielded zone Zr3. Zr3 for this conﬁguration of elliptical cylinders as shown in

III–IV: Corresponds to a ﬂow region with very high strain rate. Fig. 14. On the other hand, for E = 0.1, an examination of the

IV–V: Corresponds to a dynamic zone Zr4 moving with a con- velocity proﬁle along the x-direction shows three different

stant velocity without shearing. regions irrespective of the value of the Bingham number, Bn,

spanned here (Fig. 14). These segments are characterized as

As the aspect ratio of the elliptic cylinder decreases, the follows:

size of zone Zr3 shrinks and ultimately it vanishes. So only

the segments I–II, III–IV and IV–V are observed for aspect ratio I–II: Static (Vx = 0), corresponds to the rigid zone (static zone

E 6 0.5 which suggest altogether the disappearance of the zone Zr2) adhering to the surface of the cylinder.

Fig. 13. Velocity proﬁle along (i) y = 0, x > 0 (ii) x = 0, y > 0 for E = 10 and E = 1.

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 47

II–III: Velocity changes from 0 to Vx corresponding to the ﬂuid- as shown in Fig. 13, hence one only observes the segments II–III

like zone between the rigid envelope Zr4 and static zone Zr2. and III–IV in this case.

III–IV: Constant velocity Vx = 1, corresponding to the translation Fig. 15 shows the proﬁles of the second invariant of the strain

of the rigid envelope Zr4. rate tensor at the equator and on the vertical axis of the symmetry

at Re = 5 for a range of Bingham numbers and for the extreme val-

As the aspect ratio of the cylinder increases, the static zone Zr2 ues of aspect ratio (E = 0.1 and E = 10). For an elliptical cylinder

decreases in size (Fig. 14) and disappears above aspect ratio E = 1 with E = 0.1 shown in Fig. 15a, for very small values of Bingham

Fig. 14. Velocity proﬁle along (i) y = 0, x > 0 (ii) x = 0, y > 0 for E = 0.5 and E = 0.1.

48 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

Fig. 15. Shear rate magnitude proﬁles at the equator (y = 0) and on the vertical axis (x = 0) at Re = 5: (a) E = 0.1 and (b) E = 10.

Fig. 16. Inﬂuence of the regularization parameter, m on the velocity proﬁles in x- and y-directions at Re = 5 and Bn = 100.

number (Bn = 0.01 and Bn = 0.1), i.e., small deviations from the increasing Bingham number (at a ﬁxed Reynolds number), as the

Newtonian ﬂuid behavior, two peaks (at x = 2.5 and x = 5) are pres- unyielded zone Zr2 appears and grows which behaves like a so-

ent at Re = 5. Under these conditions, the yield stress effects are lid-region thereby extending the body contour in the downstream

rather weak and the ﬂuid behaves nearly like a Newtonian ﬂuid direction. This, in turn, leads to a gradual turning of the streamlines

and there is a well formed wake in the rear of the plate which and hence, the ﬁrst minor peak disappears altogether. Thus, there

probably does not extend up to the top edge of the cylinder. Hence, is only one maximum in the shear rate plot in x-direction located in

the two peaks probably correspond to the sharp turning of the the ﬂuid zone between Zr2 and Zr4 for Bn P 1. While for aspect

streamlines at the two points along the wake contour. With the ratio E = 10, Fig. 15b, the presence of one peak in the x-direction

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 49

Fig. 17. Variation of the modiﬁed pressure coefﬁcient along the surface of cylinder for (i) E = 0.1 (ii) E = 0.5 (iii) E = 1.

conﬁrms the ﬂuid zone between the cylinder and Zr4. On the other been varied here by 2–3 orders of magnitude accompanied by a

hand, in the case of an elliptical cylinder with E = 10 (shown in very little change in the detailed velocity proﬁle (shown in

Fig. 15b) there are two zones of high shear rate in the positive y- Fig. 16) and/or in the value of drag coefﬁcients clearly demon-

direction which manifest in the form of two peaks of the velocity strates the robustness of the values of m used here. This, as such,

proﬁle in the y-direction. As aspect ratio approaches E = 0.1, only lends further credibility to the reliability of the present results.

one peak located in the ﬂuid zone between cylinder and Zr4 is ob- Figs. 17 and 18 show the pressure variation along the surface of

served (Fig. 15a). It is, however, appropriate to mention that the an elliptical cylinder for a range of values of the aspect ratios span-

shear rate is scaled here using (V1/2b) as the characteristic shear ning the range 0.1 6 E 6 10 and Bingham number 0.01 6 Bn 6 100

rate. The only other possibility is to employ (V1/2a) as the charac- at Re = 10 and Re = 40 in terms of the modiﬁed pressure coefﬁcient,

teristic shear rate. These two values are, however, inter-related via C p . Evidently, the aspect ratio is seen to have a strong inﬂuence on

the value of the aspect ratio, E. Both these choices approximate the the pressure coefﬁcient distribution along the surface of the cylin-

shear rate in an average sense, as actual shear rate could be signif- der, similar to the case of Newtonian ﬂuids. These results conﬁrm

icantly higher than this value in some parts of the ﬂow domain. that as the aspect ratio increases, the pressure decrease becomes

However, since the values of the regularization parameter (m) have sharper in the front part of the cylinder. For each conﬁguration

50 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

Fig. 18. Variation of the modiﬁed pressure coefﬁcient along the surface of cylinder for (i) E = 2 (ii) E = 5 (iii) E = 10.

of the elliptical cylinder, it is clear from these ﬁgures that the mag- drag coefﬁcients exhibit the classical inverse dependence on the

nitude of the pressure on the surface of the cylinder shows a posi- Reynolds number while positive dependence on the Bingham

tive dependence on the both Reynolds number and Bingham number irrespective of the shape of the cylinder. The relative con-

number. tributions of the friction and form drag depend upon the shape of

the cylinder, as can be clearly seen in Fig. 20. For E 6 1, the ellipti-

5.5. Drag coefﬁcients cal cylinder acts more like a bluff body and thus the total drag is

dominated by the form drag drawing little contribution from the

The drag coefﬁcient is a gross parameter which describes the viscous drag. As the aspect ratio E increases above unity, the object

macroscopic ﬂuid mechanical behavior and it consists of two com- becomes more streamlined where the total drag is dominated by

ponents, i.e., viscous drag due to shear stress and form drag (CDP) the viscous drag. Fig. 20 also reveals that the ratio CDP/CDF becomes

due to the pressure ﬁeld, as deﬁned in Eqs. (12) and (14). Fig. 19 independent of the Reynolds number above the value of Bingham

shows the dependence of the total (CD) and pressure (CDP) drag number 50 for a given value of the aspect ratio while the total

coefﬁcients on the Reynolds number and Bingham number for a drag coefﬁcient increases with the increasing Bingham number

range of values of the aspect ratio considered in this study. Both (Fig. 19). It is desirable to correlate the present numerical results

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 51

Fig. 19. Dependence of drag coefﬁcient (CD) and pressure drag coefﬁcient (CDP) on Reynolds number and Bingham number.

using regression which will facilitate the interpolation of the maximum deviations are of the order of 33% as shown in Table 11.

present results for the intermediate values of the parameters. On the other hand, at low Reynolds numbers (0.01 6 Re < 1), Eqs.

The present numerical values of the total (CD) and pressure (CDP) (20) and (21) approximate the present numerical results with an

drag coefﬁcients for elliptical cylinders have been correlated over average error of less than 1% which rises to a maximum of 3.43%

the range of conditions (0.01 6 Re 6 40, 0.01 6 Bn 6 100 and over the range of values of E spanned here. Further statistical

0.1 6 E 6 10) as follows: examination of the results showed that the deviations between

the numerical and predicted, using Eqs. (20) and (21), values in-

m1 ð1 m2 Ref Þ creased with the increasing values of the Reynolds number and as-

C D ¼ I1 þ ð1 þ m3 Bna þ m4 Bnb Þ ð20Þ pect ratio and with the decreasing values of the Bingham number.

Re

Therefore, there is a degree of self-cancelation of errors to some ex-

tent depending upon the combination of values of the parameters.

k1

C DP ¼ I2 þ ð1 þ k3 Bna þ k4 Bnb Þ ð21Þ Unfortunately, Eqs. (20) and (21) do not seem to approach the ex-

Rek pected Newtonian values as Bn ? 0. While the reasons for this are

Table 11 summarizes the values of the empirically ﬁtted not immediately obvious, similar difﬁculties in reconciling the

constants in Eqs. (20) and (21) for the total and pressure drag numerical and experimental results in Bingham plastic media have

coefﬁcients respectively which exhibit additional dependence on been observed for spheres [14,15] and for square cylinders [23,24].

the aspect ratio E. Eqs. (20) and (21) reproduce the present numer- Before leaving this section, it is worthwhile to compare the

ical data (343 data points) for Reynolds number (1 6 Re 6 40) and present predictions with the numerical predictions of drag for a

aspect ratio 0.1 6 E 6 10 with an average deviation (davg) < 6% ex- plate oriented normal to the direction of ﬂow available in the liter-

cept at the lowest Bingham number values of 0.01 and 0.1 where the ature [54]. In terms of the present notations, their results

52 S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53

Fig. 20. Inﬂuence of the Reynolds number, Bingham number and aspect ratio on the

drag ratio (CDP/CDF). Fig. 21. Comparison of the present drag coefﬁcient results for E = 0.15 (hollow

symbols with solid lines) and for a normal ﬂat plate [54] (ﬁlled symbols with

dashed lines).

correspond to E = 0.15 but the two ends of the plate were cham-

fered at an angle of 30°. Strictly speaking, therefore, it is neither 0.01 6 Bn 6 100, and 0.1 6 E 6 10. The extreme values of the as-

possible nor justiﬁed to make a comparison with their results. pect ratio, E, correspond to the limiting cases of a plane surface ori-

However, limited results were obtained in the present study for ented normal and parallel to the direction of ﬂow respectively.

an elliptic cylinder with E = 0.15 for this purpose, and these are Detailed results on the streamline contours, yielded/unyielded

plotted in Fig. 21 together with the results of Savreux et al. [54]. zones, wake characteristics and drag coefﬁcients are presented to

Notwithstanding the differences in the two geometries, the agree- delineate the inﬂuence of the inertial and yield stress forces on

ment is seen to be good in Fig. 21; the two values differ from each the velocity and shear rate distribution in the close proximity of

other at most by 7.5%. All in all, the present results seem to be con- the cylinder. Broadly speaking, while the increasing Reynolds num-

sistent with the previously available results for a circular cylinder ber tends to eliminate the unyielded zones due to the increased

and a ﬂat plate oriented normal to the direction of ﬂow. ﬂuid inertia, this tendency is strongly suppressed by the increasing

Bingham number due to the stronger yield-stress effects. In addi-

6. Conclusions tion, the ﬂow remains attached to the surface of the submerged

body up to higher Reynolds numbers in viscoplastic ﬂuids than

In this work, extensive numerical results are reported for the that in Newtonian ﬂuids. Indeed, for ﬁxed values of the Reynolds

steady ﬂow of Bingham plastic ﬂuids past an elliptical cylinder in number and aspect ratio, there exists a limiting Bingham number

an inﬁnite medium over the range of conditions as: 0.01 6 Re 6 40, beyond which the ﬂow does not detach itself from the surface of

Table 11

Values of ﬁtted constants in Eqs. (20) and (21).

CD CDP

E 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 E 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10

0.01 6 Re < 1a 0.01 6 Re < 1b

I1 0.370 0.411 0.382 0.407 0.501 0.534 0.863 I2 0.434 0.439 0.318 0.247 0.198 0.169 0.148

m1 3.910 3.973 4.051 4.351 4.412 4.698 4.834 k1 3.497 3.049 2.434 1.924 1.457 0.617 1.800

m3 5.348 5.286 7.388 7.347 6.155 8.352 12.427 k3 5.841 6.616 7.735 9.284 6.979 10.087 0.056

m4 7.425 7.359 5.363 5.289 8.127 10.123 12.950 k4 7.468 7.809 7.786 7.739 11.932 28.561 9.540

a 1.013 1.013 0.424 0.440 0.997 0.998 0.997 a 1.013 1.014 1.012 1.008 0.414 0.222 0.50

b 0.418 0.421 1.010 1.006 0.444 0.460 0.468 b 0.414 0.401 0.401 0.409 1.003 1.005 1.004

davg 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.15 davg 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.11 0.16 0.72 0.94

dmax 0.48 0.43 0.45 0.54 0.43 1.00 1.69 dmax 0.42 0.59 0.60 0.77 0.87 3.29 3.43

1 6 Re 6 40 1 6 Re 6 40

I1 1.315 1.282 1.148 1.103 0.968 0.947 1.070 I2 1.234 1.172 0.973 0.774 0.560 0.350 0.240

m1 6.711 6.963 8.670 7.854 3.034 3.816 4.265 k1 6.040 5.591 4.536 3.601 2.785 1.023 1.800

m2 0.003 0.002 0.152 0.001 1.887 1.805 1.972 k3 3.141 3.362 3.767 4.684 3.286 17.181 9.524

m3 3.964 3.858 3.746 3.812 2.722 3.193 4.189 k4 3.943 3.842 3.888 3.736 5.947 4.318 0.093

m4 2.888 2.756 2.667 2.603 3.857 4.256 4.776 k 1.002 1.002 1.002 1.001 1.001 1.001 1.001

f 0.412 0.450 0.009 0.681 0.002 0.002 0.001 a 1.023 1.023 0.494 1.016 0.520 1.006 1.004

a 0.497 0.508 0.516 0.534 1.014 1.016 1.012 b 0.495 0.489 1.021 0.503 1.009 0.294 0.271

b 1.023 1.025 1.023 1.022 0.544 0.565 0.571 davg 2.70 2.51 2.87 2.97 3.64 4.54 3.91

davg 2.58 2.06 3.83 4.11 4.55 5.40 5.57 dmax 18.57 17.56 17.12 18.16 20.34 24.58 21.47

dmax 18.63 18.95 21.80 22.98 27.76 31.78 33.37

d: Percent relative r.m.s. deviation from the numerical data (Total data points = 49 7 = 343).

a

m2 = 0.

b

k = 1.

S.A. Patel, R.P. Chhabra / Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 202 (2013) 32–53 53

the cylinder. Similarly, for highly streamlined shapes (E > 1), the [22] B. Deglo de Besses, A. Magnin, P. Jay, Viscoplastic ﬂow around a cylinder in an

inﬁnite medium, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 115 (2003) 27–49.

ﬂow does not detach even at Re = 40, the maximum value of the

[23] N. Nirmalkar, R.P. Chhabra, R.J. Poole, On creeping ﬂow of a Bingham plastic

Reynolds number used in this study. The numerical drag values ob- ﬂuid past a square cylinder, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 171–172 (2012) 17–30.

tained in this work have been correlated using empirical expres- [24] N. Nirmalkar, R.P. Chhabra, R.J. Poole, Laminar forced convection heat transfer

sions thereby enabling their interpolation for the intermediate from a heated square cylinder in a Bingham plastic ﬂuid, Int. J. Heat Mass

Trans. 56 (2013) 625–639.

values of the governing parameters. The present results are consis- [25] S. Tomotika, T. Aoi, The steady ﬂow of a viscous ﬂuid past an elliptic cylinder

tent with the previous studies in the limits of E = 1 (circular cylin- and a ﬂat plate at small Reynolds number, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 6 (1953)

der) and corresponding to the ﬂow transverse to a plane surface 290–312.

[26] I. Imai, A new method of solving Oseen’s equations and its applications to the

(E = 0.15). Finally, this work also demonstrates that it is possible ﬂow past an inclined elliptic cylinder, Proc. R. Soc. London A 224 (1954) 141–

to use either the bi-viscous or the exponential regularization meth- 160.

od to predict the location of the yield surfaces with comparable [27] H. Hasimoto, On the ﬂow of a viscous ﬂuid past an inclined elliptic cylinder at

small Reynolds numbers, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8 (1958) 653–661.

levels of precision. [28] N. Epstein, J.H. Masliyah, Creeping ﬂow through clusters of spheroids and

elliptical cylinders, Chem. Eng. J. 3 (1971) 169–175.

Acknowledgement [29] S.J.D. D’Alessio, S.C.R. Dennis, A vorticity model for viscous ﬂow past a cylinder,

Comput. Fluids 23 (1994) 279–293.

[30] S.C.R. Dennis, P.J.S. Young, Steady ﬂow past an elliptic cylinder inclined to the

We gratefully acknowledge the detailed and constructive com- stream, J. Eng. Math. 47 (2003) 101–120.

ments made by the two anonymous reviewers. [31] Z. Faruquee, D.S.K. Ting, A. Fartaj, R.M. Barron, R. Carriveau, The effects of axis

ratio on laminar ﬂuid ﬂow around an elliptical cylinder, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow

28 (2007) 1178–1189.

References [32] D. Stack, H.R. Bravo, Flow separation behind ellipses at Reynolds numbers less

than 10, App. Math. Model. 33 (2009) 1633–1643.

[1] R.B. Bird, G.C. Dai, B.J. Yarusso, The rheology and ﬂow of viscoplastic materials, [33] D.A. Perumal, G.V.S. Kumar, A.K. Dass, Lattice Boltzmann simulation of viscous

Rev. Chem. Eng. 1 (1983) 1–70. ﬂow past elliptical cylinder, CFD Lett. 4 (2012) 127–139.

[2] H.A. Barnes, Yield stress – a review or ‘palrahel – everything ﬂows?, J Non- [34] W.A. Khan, J.R. Culham, M.M. Yovanovich, Fluid ﬂow around and heat transfer

Newt. Fluid Mech. 81 (1999) 133–178. from elliptical cylinders: Analytical approach, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 19

[3] R.P. Chhabra, J.F. Richardson, Non-Newtonian Flow and Applied Rheology, (2005) 178–185.

second ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2008. [35] P. Sivakumar, R.P. Bharti, R.P. Chhabra, Steady ﬂow of power-law ﬂuids across

[4] R.P. Chhabra, J. Comiti, I. Machac, Flow of non-Newtonian ﬂuids in ﬁxed and an unconﬁned elliptical cylinder, Chem. Eng. Sci. 62 (2007) 1682–1702.

ﬂuidised beds: a review, Chem. Eng. Sci. 56 (2001) 1–27. [36] R.P. Bharti, P. Sivakumar, R.P. Chhabra, Forced convection heat transfer from an

[5] R.P. Chhabra, Fluid mechanics and heat transfer with non-Newtonian liquids in elliptical cylinder to power-law ﬂuids, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 51 (2008) 1838–

mechanically agitated vessels, Adv. Heat Transfer 37 (2003) 77–178. 1853.

[6] R.P. Chhabra, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles in Non-Newtonian Fluids, second [37] P.K. Rao, A.K. Sahu, R.P. Chhabra, Flow of Newtonian and power-law ﬂuids past

ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006. an elliptical cylinder: a numerical study, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49 (2010) 6649–

[7] A.N. Beris, J.A. Tsamopoulos, R.C. Armstrong, R.A. Brown, Creeping motion of a 6661.

sphere through a Bingham plastic, J. Fluid Mech. 158 (1985) 219–244. [38] A. Putz, I.A. Frigaard, Creeping ﬂow around particles in a Bingham ﬂuid, J. Non-

[8] M. Beaulne, E. Mitsoulis, Creeping motion of a sphere in tubes ﬁlled with Newt. Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 263–280.

Herschel–Bulkley ﬂuids, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 72 (1997) 55–71. [39] J.R. Zierenberg, H. Fujioka, R.B. Hirschl, R.H. Bartlett, J.B. Grotberg, Pulsatile

[9] Prashant, J.J. Derksen, Direct simulations of spherical particle motion in blood ﬂow and oxygen transport past a circular cylinder, J. Biomech. Eng. 129

Bingham liquids, Comput. Chem. Eng. 35 (2011) 1200–1214. (2007) 202–215.

[10] D.D. Atapattu, R.P. Chhabra, P.H.T. Uhlherr, Wall effect for spheres falling at [40] F.M. Najjar, S.P. Vanka, Simulations of the unsteady separated ﬂow past a

small Reynolds number in a viscoplastic medium, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 38 normal ﬂat plate, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 21 (1995) 525–547.

(1990) 31–42. [41] R. Glowinski, A. Wachs, On the numerical simulation of viscoplastic ﬂuid ﬂow,

[11] D.D. Atapattu, R.P. Chhabra, P.H.T. Uhlherr, Creeping sphere motion in in: P.G. Ciarlet (Ed.), Handbook of Numerical Analysis, Elsevier, North-Holland,

Herschel–Bulkley ﬂuids: ﬂow ﬁeld and drag, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 59 2011, pp. 483–717.

(1995) 245–265. [42] T.C. Papanastasiou, Flow of materials with yield, J. Rheol. 31 (1987) 385–404.

[12] M. Hariharaputhiran, R.S. Subramanian, G.A. Campbell, R.P. Chhabra, The [43] E.J. O’Donovan, R.I. Tanner, Numerical study of the Bingham squeeze ﬁlm

settling of spheres in a viscoplastic ﬂuid, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 79 (1998) problem, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 15 (1984) 75–83.

87–97. [44] B.T. Liu, S.J. Muller, M.M. Denn, Convergence of a regularisation method for

[13] B.T. Liu, S.J. Muller, M.M. Denn, Interactions of two rigid spheres translating creeping ﬂow of a Bingham material about a rigid sphere, J. Non-Newt. Fluid

collinearly in creeping ﬂow in a Bingham material, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. Mech. 102 (2002) 179–191.

(2003) 49–67. [45] G.R. Burgos, A.N. Alexandrou, V. Entov, On the determination of yield surfaces

[14] N. Nirmalkar, R.P. Chhabra, R.J. Poole, Numerical predictions of momentum in Herschel–Bulkley ﬂuids, J. Rheol. 43 (1999) 463–483.

and heat transfer characteristics from a heated sphere in yield-stress ﬂuids, [46] E. Mitsoulis, T. Zisis, Flow of Bingham plastics in a lid-driven square cavity, J.

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 (2013) 6848–6861. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 101 (2001) 173–180.

[15] N. Nirmalkar, R.P. Chhabra, R.J. Poole, Effect of shear-thinning behavior on heat [47] P. Neofytou, A 3rd order upwind ﬁnite volume method for generalised

transfer from a heated sphere in yield-stress ﬂuids, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 Newtonian ﬂuid ﬂows, Adv. Eng. Softw. 36 (2005) 664–680.

(2013) 13490–13504. [48] J.H. Masliyah, N. Epstein, Steady symmetric ﬂow past elliptical cylinders, Ind.

[16] E. Mitsoulis, On creeping drag ﬂow of a viscoplastic ﬂuid past a circular Eng. Chem. Fundam. 10 (1971) 293–299.

cylinder: wall effects, Chem. Eng. Sci. 59 (2004) 789–800. [49] H. Coudeville, P. Trepaud, E.A. Braun, Drag measurements in slip and transition

[17] T.H. Zisis, E. Mitsoulis, Viscoplastic ﬂow around a cylinder kept between ﬂow, Rareﬁed Gas Dyn. 1 (1965) 444–466.

parallel plates, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 105 (2002) 1–20. [50] K.O. Tamada, H. Miura, T. Miyagi, Low-Reynolds number ﬂow past a cylindrical

[18] N. Roquet, P. Saramito, An adaptive ﬁnite element method for Bingham ﬂuid body, J. Fluid Mech. 132 (1983) 445–455.

ﬂows around a cylinder, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 192 (2003) 3317– [51] S.C.R. Dennis, W. Qiang, M. Coutanceau, J.L. Launay, Viscous ﬂow normal to a

3341. ﬂat plate at moderate Reynolds numbers, J. Fluid Mech. 248 (1993) 605–635.

[19] D.L. Tokpavi, A. Magnin, P. Jay, Very slow ﬂow of Bingham viscoplastic ﬂuid [52] K.M. In, D.H. Choi, M.U. Kim, Two-dimensional viscous ﬂow past a ﬂat plate,

around a circular cylinder, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 154 (2008) 65–76. Fluid Dyn. Res. 15 (1995) 13–24.

[20] S. Mossaz, P. Jay, A. Magnin, Non-recirculating and recirculating inertial ﬂows [53] M.F. Randolph, G.T. Houlsby, The limiting pressure on a circular pile loaded

of a viscoplastic ﬂuid around a cylinder, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 177 (2012) laterally in cohesive soil, Geotechnique 34 (1984) 613–623.

64–75. [54] F. Savreux, P. Jay, A. Magnin, Flow normal to a ﬂat plate of a viscoplastic ﬂuid

[21] S. Mossaz, P. Jay, A. Magnin, Criteria for the appearance of recirculating and with inertia effects, AICHE J. 51 (2005) 750–758.

non-stationary regimes behind a cylinder in a viscoplastic ﬂuid, J. Non- Newt.

Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 1525–1535.

- ContentUploaded byKrypton
- Solo No IdUploaded byPraveen Mudunuri
- IRJET-Evaluation of Numerical Methods of Solution and Resistance Equations Applicable to Unsteady Flow Situation in Surge TankUploaded byIRJET Journal
- 5 - Fusheng - A Model Calculation for Flow Resistance in the Hydraulic Transport of SandUploaded byAlfredo Collantes
- Flow SimilitudeUploaded byPaul Ong
- Mud Removal- NExTUploaded byDK Kakitahi
- 1Uploaded byMogahed Osman
- femUploaded byFitiwi Gnigus
- g v 3113061312Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- aero_curriculum_imageUploaded byDaniel Wesolowski
- 2 phase flowUploaded byKushal Puri
- Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering (ME) _ GATE 2013Uploaded bypiyush
- Fluid Mechanics and Pipe Flow Turbulence, Simulation and Dynami- By Easyengineering.netUploaded byepe civil
- FLOW AND DRAG PHENOMENA OF SPHEROID BUBBLESUploaded bykolke
- 20EWA_AnandUploaded byPejman Sho
- mor_paperUploaded byozgurturunc4
- EM08.pdfUploaded byHimanshu Sharma
- Optimization PSA N2Uploaded byBolívar Amores
- IES Mechanical SylladbUploaded byRuby Smith
- Transportation and Storage Handout 4Uploaded byTamika Pena
- Centrifugal Pump Design Tuzson 2000Uploaded byHector
- Turbulent Mixing Annual ReviewUploaded byhyperliz
- Flow Measurement ExperimentUploaded byChong Jie Mee
- ESE Complete Syllabus 2015Uploaded bypreetam
- FM230 - Chapter 9 SLUploaded byorsonsc
- OnlineUploaded bykaktusth
- BitUploaded byJulo Desmazures
- FlowSciV9.3Features WEBUploaded byeasy_astronaut
- Pressure SolveUploaded byJ Jesús Villanueva García
- Shell Momentum BalancesUploaded byMXR-3

- 1-s2.0-S0020746216301779-mainUploaded byManikiranSai
- Telugu alphabet, pronunciation and language.pdfUploaded byManikiranSai
- Telugu alphabet, pronunciation and language.pdfUploaded byManikiranSai
- 98-007-3173Uploaded byManikiranSai
- Muy Bueno Este Poole_29Uploaded byfrankkqqzz
- lec1Uploaded byManikiranSai
- B0412061117.pdfUploaded byManikiranSai
- lec1.pdfUploaded byManikiranSai
- Fluid Mechanics d203Uploaded byManikiranSai
- TEQIP-III-APs-Interviews_Schedule-WebCopy_v2.pdfUploaded byManikiranSai
- IES_Gate_PSU_General English.pdfUploaded byshivam yadav
- Vol5Iss1_P11.pdfUploaded byManikiranSai
- PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS.pptxUploaded byManikiranSai
- Fluid Mechanics d203Uploaded byVignesh Sundaram
- Reimbursement Form (3)Uploaded byManikiranSai
- Polyolyfins.pptUploaded byManikiranSai
- Chapter 3Uploaded byManas Xabat Nigam
- Berntsen KennyUploaded byManikiranSai

- Polyester Resins - Reswer arawesdrfawerawerrwerin Systems - Guide to Composite Materials - NetComposites NowUploaded bySagarias Albus
- Flexural Strength of Self Compacting Concrete using Polypropylene Fibers And Fly Ash Without ReinforcementUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- 2015 Monlau - A new concept for enhancing the energy recovery from agricultural residues by integrating pyrolysis into AD.pdfUploaded byskakind
- Epon 1007_ DER667-20.pdfUploaded byHenrique Morales
- Copy of TextileUploaded byShivam Bajpai
- Posco Atuomotive SteelUploaded byTomás Núñez Acuña
- Stress Strain ExampleUploaded byDarran Cairns
- MLF 500 LiteratureUploaded bychandraprakashhh
- CAPITULO 1Uploaded byEddy Mamani Guerrero
- Catalyst Deactivation and RegenerationUploaded byMaggyBalcazar
- NdtUploaded byAlfiansyah Darmawan
- Torsional Vibrations and Torsion ModulusUploaded byJose Galvan
- IS 2090Uploaded bylunar_vip
- Piping Module - 3, ASME B31.3Uploaded byRAGHVENDRA PRATAP SINGH
- Thesis LetterUploaded byRichard Cairo Santos
- Vt Construction Spec HDPE LLDPE LinerUploaded byKosan Namnam
- Term 2 ChemistryUploaded byChong Jun Wei
- Gold MetallurgyUploaded byjsinn
- Detalles estanqueidadUploaded bygonchotorena
- Mechanical Stress Measurements Using Micro-Raman SpectroscopyUploaded byYenhao Chen
- IFG 5500Uploaded byAmir
- 33A.pdfUploaded byPARASASRINIVAS
- Formulation and Characterization of Rosuvastatin Calcium NanoparticlesUploaded byRamkumar
- Msci Rev05 BilUploaded byWan Kei Chiu
- F-436M-–-93Uploaded byRaquel Martins
- Toxicity effects on Artemia salina (brine shrimp)Uploaded byFaye Stephanie Cantago
- refractoriesUploaded byDorothy Saikia
- Rdf Plant Design and CostUploaded byNgoc Nguyen
- US3632460 Epicyclic weaving of fiber discs.pdfUploaded byParikshit Paul
- Ethanol PVT DataUploaded byMahesh Parit