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Chapter 1 Marks 15 %

Instruments

Learn the Basics First !


1) Circuit: Circuit is a combination of different components like resistors, capacitors, diodes,
transistors1, ICs, transformer and many other, which are connected to each other with conductors
like wires, obeying a set of rules, to carry out specific work and to get required result.
2) Voltage: It is defined as the potential difference (P.D.) created between two physical points in a
circuit or in a battery (also called as voltage source). Its unit is Volts (V). The voltage is of two types:
alternating voltage (ACV) and direct voltage (DCV).
3) Current: It is defined as the flow of electrons through a conductor. The number of electrons decides
the value of electric current. Its unit is Amperes (A). Since the voltage is of two types, the current is
also of two types: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC).
4) Frequency: The frequency is defined as the number of cycles (i.e. changes in the polarity of electric
voltage) of the electrical quantity, per second. Its unit is Hertz (Hz).
5) Faraday’s law of electro-magnetic induction:
a) First law: It states that when an electric current flows through a conductor, magnetic field is
produced around the conductor. This strength of this magnetic field is directly proportional to
the amount of the current flowing through the conductor.
b) Second law: It states that when a conductor is placed in a magnetic field, such that the
magnetic field is changing with respect to time, then electric current is produced in the
conductor. The amount of current produced in the conductor is directly proportional to the
strength of magnetic field.
6) Kirchoff’s laws:
a) Kirchoff’s current law: It states that in a circuit, the addition of electric currents going
towards the node2 is equal to the addition of the currents going away from the node.
Mathematically – n
∑ In = 0 Important
formula
n =1
b) Kirchoff’s voltage law: It states that in a closed circuit, the sum of all the potential
differences is always equal to zero.

• Permanent Magnet Moving Coil [PMMC]: The basic constructional diagram of the meter is given
here. In this meter, a permanent magnet is
used known as horseshoe magnet. Between
the two poles of this magnet, a coil is
suspended. This coil is wound on paper
cylinder and its two terminals are taken out
for external connection. The coil is
suspended on the two supports fixed to the
horseshoe magnet. A spring is attached to
the cylinder along with the needle or
pointer. The spring is used to restore the
resting position of the needle after
deflection. A balancing weight is fixed on
Fig: 1 Schematic diagram of PMMC

1
Transistors, diodes, ICs and a number of others are known as the semiconductor devices. We shall learn
more about them in chapter ‘Semiconductors’.
2
A node is the point in any electrical circuit, to which three or more wires or conductors (branches) are
connected.
the other end of the needle. It is generally a bulk of wax or some sealing material. Now when some
electrical quantity is connected across the two terminals of the coil, magnetic field is produced around
it. This magnetic field interacts with the permanent magnet of the horseshoe magnet. Due to this, an
angular torque is given to the coil i.e. the cylinder along with the coil rotates on its axis. Therefore,
the needle also deflects and the reading of the connected quantity is obtained on the scale of the meter.
Here note that the deflection of the needle is directly proportional to the electrical quantity
applied to the coil. The coil has a DC resistance known as Rm. The scale of the PMMC can be
calibrated in terms of the unit of the electrical quantity under measurement.

♦ Applications of PMMC –
◊ PMMC as Voltmeter – Consider the diagram given here.
Here the PMMC is connected in series with a series resistor
[Rs]. The coil‘s internal resistance is shown as [Rm]. Now we
are interested to calculate the value of the series resistor [Rs]
when the voltage under measurement is [V]. Here note that the
[Im] is known as the full–scale deflection current of the PMMC.
When this current flows through the meter, the needle of the
meter gives full-scale deflection. Fig: 2 PMMC as voltmeter
◊ Now according to the Ohm’s law:
V
Im =
Rs + Rm

∴ V
Rs + Rm =
Im
V is the required equation.
Rs = − Rm
Im
◊ Multirange Voltmeter - When a number of different voltages are to be measured with the
help of a voltmeter then a multirange voltmeter is used as shown in the following diagram.
Here a number of [Rs] as series resistors are connected in the circuit i.e. Rs1, Rs2, Rs3 .
. . . . . and so on. The values of the resistors are calculated for a different range of the
voltage under measurement.

Importan

Fig: 3 PMMC as Multirange Voltmeter


The rotary switch is used to change the selection range of the voltage to be
measured. When the rotary switch is rotated the different values of the [Rs] are selected
and the range of the voltage to be measured changes.
The scale of such meter is calibrated in terms of different ranges of voltage. It the
same meter is to be used to measure AC voltage, then a rectifier stage can be added to
convert the AC voltage into DC and then it can be easily measured. This is because the basic
PMMC only operates on DC voltage, so it is necessary to convert the AC voltage under
measurement into DC and then measure.
◊ PMMC as Ammeter – Consider the following diagram –

Fig: 4 PMMC as Ammeter

Here the PMMC is connected in parallel with a shunt resistor RSH. The internal
resistance of the coil is shown as [Rm]. Now we are interested to calculate the value of RSH
in terms of the current under measurement [I]. Here also note that the [Im] is known as full
scale deflection current of the PMMC. When this flows through the meter it shows full scale
deflection.
Now according to the Ohm‘s law :

RSH . ISH = Rm . Im because the voltage across


both is equal.

I .R
i.e. R SH = m m but since RSH is unknown we
I SH cannot know the ISH

however according to KCL we have :

ISH = I – Im putting this value in the equation.

I .R
R SH = m m this is the required equation.
I − Im

◊ Multirange Ammeter - When a number of different currents are to be measured with the
help of an ammeter then a multirange ammeter is used as shown in the following diagram -

Fig: 5 PMMC as Multirange Ammeter

Here note that the rotary switch should be make-before-break type so that the meter
is not damaged. In this above diagram there is one disadvantage. When the position of
the switch is changed for a fraction of second the total current under measurement flows
through the PMMC which may damage it since the meter‘s full scale deflection current is very
small. To avoid this problem the Ayrton Shunt Method is used. Its circuit is given in the
following diagram. In this circuit, however the meter coil resistance is more as compared to
the general purpose PMMC.
Importan

Fig: 6 PMMC wired in Ayrton Shunt method

♦ PMMC as Ohmmeter – The PMMC can be used to construct two different types of
Ohmmeters : the shunt type and the series type.
◊ Shunt type Ohmmeter – In this type of Ohmmeter the unknown resistance is connected
in parallel to the meter as shown in the following diagram. Here the PMMC is connected in
parallel with the unknown resistance [Rx] across the measuring terminals a - b. The battery,
the switch and the variable resistor [R1] are in series and together in parallel with the PMMC.
There are two basic possible conditions for [Rx] :
1) When Rx = ∞ : here the total current [Im] flows through the meter and the meter
gives full scale deflection. Hence the [∞] of the meter scale is on OUR RIGHT.
2) When Rx = 0 : here the total current flows through short circuit of a - b and the
PMMC is shorted. Hence the meter gives no deflection and its pointer remains on
OUR LEFT. In this way the value of [Rx] can be measured within this range. In this
circuit the switch is necessary because when the meter is not in use it will draw
unnecessary current from the battery, so it should be switched off.

Fig: 7 PMMC as Shunt type Ohmmeter circuit

◊ Series type Ohmmeter – In this type of meter the PMMC is used in series with the
unknown resistor [Rx] as shown in the following diagram –

Importan

Fig: 8 PMMC as Series type Ohmmeter circuit


Here the PMMC is connected in series with the unknown resistor [Rx], across the
measuring terminals a-b. The current limiting resistor R1 is also in series with the [Rx] and
PMMC. The battery is connected to the circuit to power it. When the [Rx] is connected in the
circuit current flows through it and the meter gives reading. Now for this circuit also there are
two possible conditions for [Rx] :
1) When Rx = ∞ : here the current [Im] does not flows through the meter and the meter
gives zero scale deflection. Hence the [∞] of the meter scale is on OUR LEFT.
2) When Rx = 0 : here the total current flows through short circuit of a - b and the
PMMC. Hence the meter gives full scale deflection and its pointer remains on OUR
RIGHT. In this way the value of [Rx] can be measured within this range. In this circuit
the switch not necessary because when the meter is not in use it will not draw any
current from the battery.

◊ Formulas for the series and shunt type Ohmmeters –


• For shunt type Ohmmeter –

V
R1 = − Rm
Im

• For series type Ohmmeter –

I m .R m . R I m .R m . R
h h
R1 = Rh − and R2 =
V V − I m .R h