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CHAPTER V

KINETICS AND MODELING

Kinetics is a study that deals with rate of the reaction. It is based on the
mechanisms of any processes-physical, chemical or biological. The chemical kinetics
deals with how the rate of reaction is dependent upon the concentration of the reactants.
In a biochemical reaction, kinetics is a little complicated. A living cell, during
fermentation or any biological processes, require essential nutrients and suitable
environment to survive. Hence a biochemical reaction proceeds with the intervention of
microbial cells in a liquid medium containing nutritive sources under conditions like pH,
temperature. The cells multiply and grow, consuming a part of substrate and other
necessary components from the fermentation broth. Cell growth is associated with two
        
    
      
   
                
        

into metabolic end products (D.G.Rao, 2001).

Certain parameters/ phenomena that determine cell population kinetics are the
characteristics of culture broth, nutrients and substrates used for growth and production
of metabolites, cell to cell heterogeneity, microbial cells of different ages manifesting
metabolic activities and characterization of biochemical pathway (Figure 5.1). These
complex parameters make it difficult to formulate a simple kinetic model for cellular
activities (Bailley and Ollis, 1986). A kinetic model describes the behavior of the cellular
processes through possible mathematical equations and it serves to be a very effective
tool to test and eliminate the extremities. Different kinetic models have been proposed in
several research works for microbial growth, substrate utilisation and product formation
in various fermentation modes.

In order to construct a simple kinetic model, different approximation and


representations of cellular population are taken into consideration. An individual cell in a
liquid broth is a complicated multi component system, which is not spatially homogenous
even at a single cell level. Nutrient solution used for the inoculum growth and production
is also a multi component system containing all the complex nutrients for cell growth and

 
accumulates various products as the result of metabolic activities. According to number
of components used in microbial representations and considering cells as heterogenous
mass or wholly as average cell clusters, different perspective are put forward for cell
population kinetic representations (Figure 5.2).

Figure 5.1 Certain important parameters, phenomena, and interactions which


determine cell population kinetics (Adapted from Bailley and Ollis,1986)

Structured model is one perspective in which the microbial cells are considered as
multicomponent systems. When cell population is treated as one component system, it is
referred to as unstructured model. The rate of reaction depends only on the parameters
inside the fermenter. These models only contain growth, substrate consumption and
product formation kinetics. Cell to cell heterogeneity and discrete cells compose a multi
component entity, constituting ultimately a segregated perspective. An unsegregated view
considers average cellular properties. In actual cellular cases, the situation is a structured
and segregated one. In balanced growth of cells, the metabolic activities are coordinated
in such a way that the average cell composition is not influenced by increase in cell mass.
In such cases, models that do not consider the multi component nature of cells are
necessary. Hence unsegregated, unstructured model is the most idealized situation when
analyzing the growth of cells (Bailley and Ollis, 1986).

 
Figure 5.2 Different perspectives for cell population kinetic representation (Adapted
from Bailley and Ollis,1986)

5.1 Substrate Utilisation kinetics

Substrate utilization kinetics is given as the modification of the Luedeking Piret


model, which considers substrate conversion to cell mass, to product and substrate
consumption maintenance,

ୢୗ ଵ ୢ୶ ଵ ୢ୔
ൌ  െ  െ  ൅ ‡୶ 
ୢ୲ ଢ଼୶Ȁୱ ୢ୲ ଢ଼୮Ȁୱ ୢ୲
             !

where Yx/s is the yield coefficient for biomass with respect to substrate consumed and Yp/s
is the yield coefficient for product formed with respect to the substrate consumption.

୑ୟୱୱ୭୤ୡୣ୪୪୤୭୰୫ୣୢ ୼୶ ୶ି୶బ
୶Ȁୱ ൌ  ൌ ൌ
୑ୟୱୱ୭୤ୱ୳ୠୱ୲୰ୟ୲ୣୡ୭୬ୱ୳୫ୣୢ ୼ୱ ୱబ ିୱ
                      " !

୑ୟୱୱ୭୤୮୰୭ୢ୳ୡ୲୤୭୰୫ୣୢ ୼୔ ୔ି୔బ
୔Ȁୱ ൌ  ൌ ൌ
୑ୟୱୱ୭୤ୱ୳ୠୱ୲୰ୟ୲ୣୡ୭୬ୱ୳୫ୣୢ ୼ୱ ୱబ ିୱ
                     # !

 
If the amount of carbon sources used for product formation and maintenance
constants are neglected when modeling substrate consumption rate, the model becomes,

ୢୗ ଵ ୢ୶
ൌ  െ  ............................................. (5.4)
ୢ୲ ଢ଼౮Ȁ౩ ୢ୲

Integrating equation 7 gives,

ଵ ୢ୶
• െ •଴ ൌ  െ 
ଢ଼౮Ȁ౩ ୢ୲
                          !


• ൌ •଴ െ  ሺš୲ െ  š଴ ሻ
ଢ଼౮Ȁ౩
                                   $ !

5.2 Growth Kinetics

The growth of microbial cells include four major phases namely lag phase,
exponential phase, stationary phase and the decline phase, which had been previously
described in chapter II. An emphasis on the exponential or logarithmic phase had been
given in this particular work, since the production of the product, exopolysaccharide, is
found maximum and directly proportional to the microbial cell growth.

Various models had been used for studying growth kinetics. The models are being
mentioned under this topic.

5.2.1 Malthus law

The simplest cell growth model is the Malthusian model commonly known as
exponential law. In a batch fermentation operated under ideal conditions the
concentration and weight of biomass increases proportionally with increase in time.
Hence it could be said that all the cells have the same probability to multiply. Thus the
overall rate of biomass formation is proportional to the biomass itself. For a batch system,
this is equivalent to

ୢ୶
ൌ Ɋš .................................... (5.7)
ୢ୲


where x is the mass of cells per unit volume, µ is the proportionality constant known as
'specific growth rate' (h-1) and t is the time (h).

Here as the time increases, cell mass will also increase. On integrating (1) gives

š ൌ š଴ ‡ஜ୲ .............................................. (5.8)

The demerit of this model is that it ignores the substrate needed for its growth and
that the resources are constrained.

5.2.2. Contois model

Contois model is another unstructured model that depends upon substrate and cell
concentration which is given as


Ɋ ൌ  Ɋ୫ୟ୶
୆୶ାୱ
                          & !

5.2.3 Moser Equation

Moser model relies upon the growth rate and substrate concnetration and the two
parameter model is depicted as

ିଵ
Ɋ ൌ  Ɋ୫ୟ୶ ൫ͳ ൅   ୱ • ି஛ ൯                    ' !

5.2.4 Tessier Model

Tessier model is another growth kinetic model that also rely upon the substrate
concentration and is explained by,


Ɋ ൌ  Ɋ୫ୟ୶ ൫ͳ െ  ‡ି ൗ୏ୱ ൯ .......................... (5.11)

Moser and Tessier model render algebraic solution of the growth equations much
more difficult than the Monod model.

 %
5.2.5 Verlhurst model

Verlhurst kinetic model depends on the cell concentration. This model has two
kinetic constants of maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum cell
concentration (xmax). Verlhurst model is expressed by the following equation

ஜౣ౗౮
Ɋ ൌ  Ɋ୫ୟ୶ െ  š
୶ౣ౗౮
                       " !

5.2.6 Andrew model

Andrew model is proposed by the following equation for the growth dependent
which incorporate substrate inhibition.

ஜౣ౗౮
Ɋ ൌ ୏౩ൗ ୱ
    ............... (5.13)
ቂቀଵି ୱቁቀଵା ൗ୏౟౩ ቁቃ

The commonly used unstructured kinetic models to evaluate cell growth are
Monod and Logistic models.

5.2.7 Monod Model

The concepts in microbial growth kinetics have been mainly analysed by semi-
empirical model proposed by Monod (1949). The Monod model introduces the concept
of a growth controlling substrate, called limiting substrate which indicates that the
microbial growth rate rely upon the actual concentration of a particular metabolite. There
exists a relationship between the exhaustion of the limiting substrate and the end of
growth, hence the Monod model may be considered deterministic. The relationship is
described as,

ஜౣ౗౮ ୱ
Ɋ ൌ ............................................. (5.14)
୏౩ ାୱ

where µmax is the maximum growth rate achievable and Ks is the limiting substrate
concentration when the specific growth rate is equal to the half the maximum specific
growth rate when µ = µmax/2.

 (
5.2.8 Logistic model

The model which could be appropriate for the present research is the logistic
model. Verlhurst in 1844 and Pearl and Reed in 1920 contributed to a theory which
included an inhibiting factor to population growth. Assuming that inhibition is
proportional to x2, they used

ୢ୶ ୶
ൌ šሺͳ െ ሻ
ୢ୲ ୶౩
                        * !

where x0 is the initial biomass concentration (gL-1) and t is the time (h). The logistic
curve is sigmoidal and leads to a stationary population of size, xs +

, - 

Rate of growth of cells is directly proportional to the cell mass concentration at


the given time. When the cell mass reaches the stationary phase, the growth rate ceases.
A gradual decrease is observed in the late exponential phase or when the cells near the
stationary phase. Advantage of this model is that it facilitates the exponential phase and
endogenous metabolic phase. It also has its own drawback that it fails to predict a decline
phase after the stationary phase.

5.3 Product Formation Kinetics

The type of kinetic description that may be employed for product formation by
cell population parallel those used to describe cell population growth. The simplest types
of product formation kinetics arise where there is a simple stoichiometric connection
between product formation and substrate utilization or cell growth. The rate of production
of the product parallels the rate of cell growth. Substrate concentration falls continuously
as fermentation proceeds. Such product formation kinetics is sometimes called as growth
associated. In many fermentation, involving secondary metabolite, significant product
formation does not occur until relatively late in a batch cultivation, that is, production
happens in the late exponential phase or during the stationary phase. Production rate is
proportional to cell concentration rather than growth rate. This kind of kinetics is referred
to as non growth associated model.

 )
A typical and widely used product kinetic model is Luedeking- Piret model
(1959), which is an unstructured approach contributed to both growth and non growth
associated phenomena for product formation. This model was originally developed for
the formation of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbruckeii and the equation is given as

rfp = fx . . . . . . . . . / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 1 / 2 1 3

where rfp is the rate of product formation, rfx is the rate of biomass formation and 4 and 5

are the kinetic constants of Luedeking- Piret model. This two-parameter expression has
proven extremely useful and versatile in fitting product formation data from different
fermentations. This is an expected kinetic form when the product is the result of energy
yielding metabolism.

According to this model, the product formation rate depends linearly upon the
growth rate and the cell concentration

ୢ୔ ୢ୶
ൌ Ƚ  ൅ Ⱦš ...................................... (5.16)
ୢ୲ ୢ୲

The Luedeking- 6 7 8 9 : ; 7 < 9 : 7 = > ? 8 ? @ 9 : 9 8 A B C ? < D E D 9 > 9 < D F > G < ? < D H ? 8 I J 7 : K : K 9

L L

9 8 @ 9 < : ? : 7 G < D I < ? @ 7 = A / M K 9 ; 7 < 9 : 7 = = G < A : ? < : E = ? < N 9 9 H ? O F ? : 9 D 8 G @ : K 9 A : ? : 7 G < ? 8 I > K ? A 9

of batch culture, which implies

ౚౌ
ቀ ቁୱ୲ୟ୲୧୭୬ୟ୰୷୮୦ୟୱୣ
ౚ౪
Ⱦൌ ................................ (5.17)
୶౩

where xs is the cell concentration at the stationary phase.

ܻ௉Ȁ௫ ,
L L

M K 9 G : K 9 8 ; 7 < 9 : 7 = = G < A : ? < : B C B = ? < N 9 = ? O = F O ? : 9 D F A 7 < P : K 9 I 7 9 O D = G 9 7 = 7 9 < : B

which is given as,

୑ୟୱୱ୭୤୮୰୭ୢ୳ୡ୲୤୭୰୫ୣୢ ୼୔ ୔ି୔బ
୔Ȁ୶ ൌ  ൌ ൌ ................... (5.18)
୑ୟୱୱ୭୤ୡୣ୪୪୤୭୰୫ୣୢ ୼୶ ୶ି୶బ

Integrating equation (3) gives

୶ ୶
ሺ–ሻ െ ሺͲሻ െ Ⱦ ቀ ౩ ቁቂͳ െ  బ ൫ͳ െ ‡୩୲ ൯ቃ ൌ Ƚሺš୲ െ  š଴ ሻ .............. (5.19)
୩ ୶ ౩
 
L

M K 7 A ? O O G J A : K 9 D 9 : 9 8 @ 7 < ? : 7 G < G C N I ? plot of the left handed side of equation (5)


vs. (xt x0).
S

5.4 Data Analysis and Modeling

Cell growth, substrate utilisation and product formation were examined and
simulated with the experimental data of EPS yield by B.subtilis and P.fluorescens, using
cane molasses and rice bran respectively. The logistic equation was used for the cellular
growth kinetic study and Luedeking Piret model for substrate consumption and product
formation studies. The simulation of the experiment was carried out using MATLAB
(v.7.10.0.0499, The Mathworks, USA) software. The MATLAB program is listed in
Appendix I and II. The kinetic parameter 'k' of logistic model was obtained using curve
fitting (cftool) tool kit of the same software and the high R2 values represented that the
equation fit the experiment (Sivaprakash et. al., 2011a). Using the obtained 'k' values for
each biological system, the kinetic constants of Luedeking- Piret model, α and β, were
evaluated (Table 5.1). The model was analysed using MS- Excel by graphical method.
The yield coefficient Yx/s, for substrate utilisation rate, was also obtained by graphical
method. Predicted values of this model, which were consistent with the observed values,
were obtained by solving the differential equations by Runge K F : : ? T A < F @ 9 8 7 = ? O

integration using ODE23 solver, in same software, which is given in Appendix III
(Sivaprakash et. al., 2011b). The theoretical and predicted values obtained are tabulated
in Table 5.2 and Table 5.3.

Table 5.1 Model parameters for EPS production

Luedeking Piret model


Substrate
Product formation
Organism Consumption
k Error Error
R2 Yx/s
(h-1)
C E

% %
B.subtilis 0.09126 0.9829 10.22 6.63 0.5 0.0808 3.05
P.fluorescens 0.08422 0.9852 5.5 5.45 0.6 0.114 7.47

Q R R
The high R2 and prediction values denote that the model is highly suitable for
exopolysaccharide production with a minimal error of 4.52 % and 9.91% from Bacillus
subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Figures 5.3 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8, illustrate the
experimental and predicted values for each variable S

cell mass, substrate consumed and


product formed at a given time.

Table 5.2 Experimental and predicted values of cell mass concentration, substrate
utilization and product formation of B.subtilis

Cell Substrate Product


Time, t Concentration, Consumption Formation, P
(h) x (gL-1) (gL-1) (gL-1)
Experimental Predicted Experimental Predicted Experimental Predicted
0 1.893 1.893 1.467 1.467 0 0
6 3.432 2.944195 1.318 1.364143 0.61 0.579208
12 3.989 4.337211 1.304 1.22784 1.281 1.34676
18 6.843 5.971837 0.939 1.067897 2.37 2.247439
24 8.761 7.636388 0.876 0.905025 2.972 3.164607
30 8.834 9.104527 0.872 0.761371 3.825 3.973551
36 9.743 10.24598 0.725 0.649683 4.582 4.60249
42 9.955 11.04985 0.73 0.571027 4.672 5.045422
48 11.401 11.58243 0.526 0.518915 4.973 5.338877
54 11.593 11.90793 0.521 0.487065 5.389 5.518227
60 11.932 12.1016 0.473 0.468115 5.421 5.624939
66 11.992 12.21622 0.461 0.4569 5.561 5.688096
72 12.364 12.27992 0.428 0.450668 5.731 5.723191
78 12.364 12.31684 0.419 0.447055 5.731 5.743534
84 12.364 12.33759 0.418 0.445024 5.731 5.754972
90 12.364 12.34906 0.417 0.443902 5.731 5.761287
96 12.364 12.35559 0.415 0.443263 5.731 5.764889

Q R U
14

12

Cell mass (g/L)


10

4
Experimental
2 Simulated
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (h)

Figure 5.3 Comparative chart showing experimental and predicted values of cell
concentration of B.subtilis

1.6
Experimental
1.4
Simulated
Substrate Consumption (g/L)

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (h)

Figure 5.4 Comparative chart showing experimental and predicted values of


substrate consumption of B.subtilis

Q R V
7

Product (g/L)
4

2 Experimental
Simulated
1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (h)

Figure 5.5 Comparative chart showing experimental and predicted values of


product concentration of B.subtilis

Table 5.2 Experimental and predicted values of cell mass concentration, substrate
utilization and product formation of Pseudomonas fluorescens

Cell Substrate Product


Time, Concentration, Consumption Formation, P
t -1
x (gL ) -1
(gL ) (gL-1)
(h) Experimental Predicted Experimental Predicted Experimental Predicted
0 1.036 1.036 1.897 1.897 0 0
6 1.428 1.593345 1.768 1.795665 0.352 0.334407
12 2.014 2.358844 1.642 1.656483 0.702 0.793706
18 2.414 3.322078 1.521 1.481349 1.275 1.371647
24 3.986 4.408413 1.502 1.283834 1.917 2.023448
30 5.002 5.492006 1.207 1.086817 2.474 2.673603
36 6.789 6.448431 0.924 0.912922 3.381 3.247458
42 7.136 7.206297 0.816 0.775128 3.704 3.702178
48 8.771 7.756798 0.608 0.675037 4.861 4.032479
54 8.771 8.131481 0.606 0.606912 4.861 4.257289
60 8.771 8.375118 0.605 0.562615 4.861 4.403471
66 8.771 8.528178 0.604 0.534786 4.861 4.495307
Q R W
10
9
8
7
Cell mass (g/L) 6
5
4
3 Experimental
2 Simulated
1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Time (h)

Figure 5.6 Comparative chart showing experimental and predicted values of cell
concentration of P.fluorescens

2
1.8
Experimental
Substrate Consumption (g/L)

1.6 Simulated
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Time (h)

Figure 5.7 Comparative chart showing experimental and predicted values of cell
substrate consumption of P.fluorescens

Q U X
6

Product (g/L)
4

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Time (h)

Figure 5.8 Comparative chart showing experimental and predicted values of


product concentration of P.fluorescens

The utilization rate was well predicted and found to be the most suited model
for the exopolysaccharide production from cane molasses and rice bran respectively with
a minimal error of 6.63% and 5.45% for Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens
respectively. Similarly, the predicted and theoretical values were found to be in
agreement with the experimental data of the exopolysaccharide formation kinetics with a
minimum error of 3.05% and 7.47% for Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens
respectively.

The overall trend of the simulated or the predicted values, obtained using the
implemented models in accordance with the experimental data for B.subtilis and
P.fluorescens is depicted in Figure 5.9. The studies confirmed that the Logistic and
Luedeking Piret models befitted accurately and explained adequately the mechanisms of
cell growth, substrate consumption and product formation in B.subtilis and P.
fluorescens.

Q U Q
14 2

1.8
12
Product (g/L) 1.6
10

Substrate consumption (g/L)


1.4

1.2
8
1
Cell mass (g/L)

6
0.8

4 0.6

0.4
2
0.2

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (h)

Figure 5.9 Overall experimental and predicted values of Logistic and Luedeking
Piret models for Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens (cell mass of B.
subtilis, experimental and predicted ; product formation by B. subtilis,
experimental and predicted ; substrate consumed by B. subtilis,
experimental and predicted ; cell mass of P. fluorescens, experimental
and predicted ; product formation by P. fluorescens experimental and
predicted ; substrate consumed by P. fluorescens experimental and
predicted)

5.5 Viscosity check

The viscosity measurements were performed for the cultures after 24 h till 120h to
check their viscosity. The viscosities and relative viscositites were found to be constant
after certain period (Fig.5.10). In case of B.subtilis, the relative viscosity was constant
after 72h, whereas for culture broth of P.fluorescens, the relative viscosity stayed the
same after 48h. The trends of both cultures exhibited a Newtonian behaviour.

Q U Y
1.02
1
0.98

Relative viscosity
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.9
B.subtilis
0.88
P.fluorescens
0.86
0.84
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (h)

Figure 5.10 Relative viscosity of the two culture filtrate with EPS

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to flow under an applied


shear stress. Dilute polymer solutions exhibit approximately Newtonian behavior at low
shear rates. For Newtonian fluids, shear stress is directly proportional to the shear rate,
? < D : K 9 > 8 G > G 8 : 7 G < ? O 7 : I = G < A : ? < : 7 A H 7 A = G A 7 : I B [ / The study is in agreement with Al Nahas
et al (2011) who reported the similar trend for EPS produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp.
As the cells grew, the viscosity kept increasing. The polymeric solution exhibited a non-
Newtonian behavior. This showed that the maximum EPS was found to be produced
during the exponential phase and after the stationary phase the production remained
stable.

Q U Z