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Strut and Tie Method

Modeling reinforced concrete elements using the strut


and tie method
Design Acoarding to Eurocode 2
 Applied to the discontinuity areas where the Bernoulli hypothesis cannot be applied
PRINCIPAL STRESS AND STRAIN FOR A R.C. BEAM

x +z  − z 
2
2
 I , II =   x  +  xz
2
tg 2 =
2  2   x − z
  tg I  0
Strut and tie models for beams
Compressed Strut strut

Compressed Strut
Compressed Strut

Tie

tie
Bars of the Truss:
= concentrations of the principal
stress field
- Have the same direction as the
trajectories of the principal stresses in
the most stressed areas, slightly
different directions when the intensity
of stress is not as large
Start working after the yield
of the longitudinal rebars
Compressed (TF or diagonal)
Web of the R.C. Beam
Tensioned (BF or Tie)
Ties
Truss models for beams
Simply supported beam
Other Truss Models
Deep Beam

3/5  ctg θ  5/3 (θ =31° ÷ 59°)


Other Truss Models
Deep Beam

Ledged end of beam


Design of Compressed Bars
 Strut without tension stresses or with  Compressed cracked struts, with tension
compression stresses on a transversal stress on a transversal direction
direction

Recommended value

Accounts for the unfavorable/ long term effect on the tension


stress as a function of the type of load

Dead, Live loads

Accidental Loads
Design of the nodes

Reccomended values

Design of ties
Dead, live loads
Yield limit
Accidental loads
Example- high beam

For

Simply supported on 40x25 cm


columns
Determining the principal stresses using F.E. Analysis, considering membrane
behavior

σx σy
τxy σI

σII αI, II
Determining the internal resultants of the
model
Determining design stresses for concrete, rebar and nodes

Rebar Design

Distributed on the
height 1.2h=360 mm
Design of the node at the support

C3

Results from
node geometry
Ex.: Corbel design

40 mm d= 360 mm

z = 0,8 d

Static non-determined
truss
Determined using principal stress
directions
Ex.: Short simply supported beam, with two concentrated loads