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PNEUMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTING MACHINE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The elementary buildings blocks to the overall module, my project owe its being to numerous genius
personalities. I convey my humblest thanks with deep sense of gratitude to all those who helped me,
without which I would be falling in my duty. I wish to place on record my sincere thanks and
gratitude to managing trustee Mrs.K.SARASWATHY KHANNAIYAN her patronage and leadership
which has helped meto carry out this project. I deeply in debt and express my profund gratitude to my
guide and principal Dr.V.DURAISAMY,M.E.,PH.D., for providing me all facilities necessary to
finish this project. I would sincerely thank my beloved head of the department Dr.K.GANESH
BABU,M.E.,Ph.D., Department of mechanical Engineering who motivated me by his preserving
guidance and sustained interest in the project. We express our grateful thanks to Mr.
C.NITHYANANDAM,M.E.,Ph.D* Assistant professor Department Of Mechanical Engineering for
his valuable guidance and fruitful encouragement throughout the duration of doing this project. We
are very much grateful to Mr.R.Saminathan,ITI.,Lab assistant Department Of Mechanical Engineering
for providing mightly support, valuable suggestions, timely co-operation and countless help till the
successful completion of the project. Finally thank to all our staff member of mechanical engineering
and friends who have directly or indirectly supported us throughout the project.
CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE P.NO

1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.1. SHEET METAL 1

1.2. SHEET METAL CUTTING 2

2. COMPONENTS USED 3

3. SPECIFICATIONS 4

4. PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS 5

5. DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER 6

6. TW0-WAY DIRECT VALVE 7

7. MATERIALS 8

8. SHEARED EDGE 9

8.1. SHEARING 11

9. PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY 12

9.1. CONTROL OF PNEUMATIC ENERGY 13

9.2. CONTROL OF PRESSURE 13

9.3. CONTROL OF PRESSURE AFTER A COMPRESSOR 13

10. WORKING 14

11. APPLICATIONS 15

12. ADVANTAGES 16

13. COST ESTIMATION 17

14. PHOTOGRAPHY 18

15. BIBILOGRAPHY 19
ABSTRACT

We are using scissors for simple sheet metal cutting. It is a manual method so that sheet metals are to
be wasted sometime because of mistakes happened such as wrong dimensions etc., and also even a
simple cutting may take long time. Hydraulic machines are also available for sheet metal cutting. But
this method is used for only heavy metal cutting and its cost is very high. We are using a pneumatic
system for sheet metal cutting in an easy way. It is operated by a pneumatic hand lever of two way
control valve. Control valve is operated by a compressor.

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 SHEET METAL:

Sheet metal is simply a metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used
in metal working and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Countless everyday
objects are constructed of the material. Thicknesses can vary significantly, although extremely thin
thicknesses are considered foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate.

Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or as a coiled strip. The coils are formed by running a
continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter.

The thickness of the sheet metal is called its gauge. Commonly used steel sheet metal ranges from 30
gauges to about 8 gauges. The larger the gauge number, the thinner the metal. Gauge is measured in
ferrous (iron based) metals while nonferrous metals such as aluminium or copper are designated
differently; i.e., Copper is measured in thickness by Ounce.

There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal, such as aluminium, brass, copper,
steel, tin, nickel and titanium. For decorative uses, important sheet metals include silver, gold and
platinum (platinum sheet metal is also utilized as a catalyst.)

Sheet metal also has applications in car bodies, airplane wings, medical tables, roofs for buildings
(Architectural) and many other things. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic
permeability, also known as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformers and electric
machines. Historically, an important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry, and sheet
metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in horse tack. Sheet metal workers are also
known as "Tin Bashers", ("Tin Knockers") which is derived from the hammering of panel seams
when installing tin roofs.
There are three primary procedures in Layout

1. Parallel
2. Radial
3. Triangulation

1.2. SHEET METAL CUTTING:

Cutting processes are those in which a piece of sheet metal is separated by applying a great enough
force to cause the material to fail.

The most common cutting processes are performed by applying a shear force, and are
therefore sometimes referred to as shearing processes.

When a great enough shearing force is applied, the shear stress in the material will exceed the ultimate
shear strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location.

This shearing force is applied by two tools, one above and one below the sheet.
Whether these tools are a punch and die or upper and lower blades, the tool above the sheet delivers a
quick downward blow to the sheet metal that rests over the lower tool.

A small clearance is present between the edges of the upper and lower tools, which
facilitates the fracture of the material. The size of this clearance is typically 2-10% of the material
thickness and depends upon several factors, such as the specific shearing process, material, and sheet
thickness.

The effects of shearing on the material change as the cut progresses and are visible on
the edge of the sheared material. When the punch or blade impacts the sheet, the clearance between
the tools allows the sheet to plastically deform and “rollover” the edge. As the tool penetrates the
sheet further, the shearing results in a vertical burnished zone of material.

Finally, the shear stress is too great and the material fractures at an angle with a small burr formed at
the edge. The height of these portions of the cut depends on several factors, including the sharpness of
the tools and the clearance between the tools.
2. COMPONENTS USED

 Double acting cylinder

 Pneumatic hand operated valve

 High speed steel blade

3. SPECIFICATIONS

PNEUMATIC CYLINDER
Stroke length = 150mm
Diameter = 50mm
Pressure = 10bar

SHEET CUTTER = 8inch

4. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER

Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which
use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion.

Like hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid,
in this case compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach
atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston
is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved.
Engineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime because they are quieter, cleaner, and do not require
large amounts or space for fluid storage.

Because the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out
and contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a
requirement. For example, in the mechanical puppets of the DisneyTiki Room, pneumatics are used to
prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppet.
5. DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDER

Double-acting cylinders (DAC) uses the forces of air to move in both extend and retract
strokes. They have two ports to allow air in, one for outstroke and one for in-stroke. Stroke length for
this design is not limited; however, the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling and bending.
Addition calculations should be performed as well by using design data hand book using some
relations between cylinder and pressure we can accurately find out bending and buckling of tie rod.

6. TWO WAY DIRECTIONAL VALVE

A two-way directional valve consists of two ports connected to each other with passages, which are
connected and disconnected. In one extreme spool position, port A is open to port B; the flow path
through the valve is open. In the other extreme, the large diameter of the spool closes the path
between A and B; the flow path is blocked. A two-way directional valve gives an on-off function.
(Flow path open and Flow path closed).

HIGH SPEED STEEL BLADE:

A blade is used to cut the sheet metal in a desired dimension. Here we are using high speed steel
blades to cut the sheet metal.

7. MATERIALS
7.1 .Stainless steel:

The three most common stainless steel grades available in sheet metal are 304, 316, and 410.

 Grade 304 is the most common of the three grades. It offers good corrosion resistance
while maintaining formability and weldability. Available finishes are #2B, #3, and
#4. Note that grade 303 is not available in sheet form.

 Grade 316 offers more corrosion resistance and strength at elevated temperatures than
304. It is commonly used for pumps, valves, chemical equipment, and marine
applications. Available finishes are #2B, #3, and #4.

 Grade 410 is a heat treatable stainless steel, but does not offer as good corrosion
resistance. It is commonly used in cutlery. The only available finish is dull.

8. SHEARED EDGE

A variety of cutting processes that utilize shearing forces exist to separate or remove material
from a piece of sheet stock in different ways. Each process is capable of forming a specific
type of cut, some with an open path to separate portion of material and some with a closed
path to cut out and remove that material. By using many of these processes together, sheet
metal parts can be fabricated with cut outs and profiles of any 2D geometry. Such cutting
process include the following
1. Shearing – Separating material into two parts.
2. Blanking – Removing material to use for parts.
3. Conventional blanking.
4. Fine blanking.
5. Punching – Removing material as scrap.
6. Piercing.
7. Slotting.
8. Perforating.
9. Notching.
10. Nibbling.
11. Lancing
12. Slitting
13. Parting
Cut-off
Trimming
Shaving
Dinking

8.1. SHEARING

As mentioned above, several cutting processes exist that utilize shearing force to cut sheet metal.
However, the term “shearing” by itself refers to a specific cutting process that produces straight line
cuts to separate a piece of sheet metal. Most commonly, shearing is used to cut a sheet parallel to an
existing edge which is held square, but angled cuts can be made as well. For this reason, shearing is
primarily used to cut sheet stock into smaller sizes in preparation for other processes. Shearing has the
following capabilities

Sheet thickness: 0.005 – 0.25 inches

Tolerance: 0.1 inches

The shearing is performed on a shear machine, often called a squaring shear or power shear, that can
be operated manually or by hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric power. A typical shear machine includes
a table with support arms to hold the sheet, stops or guides to secure the sheet, upper and lower
straight - edge blades, a gauging device to precisely position the sheet. The sheet is placed between
the upper and the lower blade, which are then forced together against the sheet, cutting the material.
In most devices, the lower blades remain stationary while the upper blade is forced downward. The
upper blade is slightly offset from the lower blade, approximately 5 – 10% of the sheet thickness.
Also the upper blade is usually angled so that the cut progresses from one end to the other, thus
reducing the required force. The knife edge and are available in different materials, such as low alloy
steel and high carbon steel.

9. PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY:


The reason for using pneumatics, or any other type of energy transmission on a machine, is to perform
work. The accomplishment of work requires the application of kinetic energy to a resisting object
resulting in the object moving through a distance. In a pneumatic system, energy is stored in a
potential state under the form of compressed air. Working energy (kinetic energy and pressure) results
in a pneumatic system when the compressed air is allowed to expand. For example, a tank is charged
to 100 PSIA with compressed air. When the valve at the tank outlet is opened, the air inside the tank
expands until the pressure inside the tank equals the atmospheric pressure. Air expansion takes the
form of airflow.

To perform any applicable amount of work then, a device is needed which can supply an air tank with
a sufficient amount of air at a desired pressure. This device is positive displacement compressor.

What a Positive Displacement Compressor Consists of

A positive displacement compressor basically consists of a movable member inside housing. The
compressor has a piston for a movable member. The piston is connected to a crankshaft, which is in
turn connected to a prime mover (electric motor, internal combustion engine). At inlet and outlet
ports, valves allow air to enter and exit the chamber.

How a Positive Displacement Compressor Works:

As the crankshaft pulls the piston down, an increasing volume is formed within the housing. This
action causes the trapped air in the piston bore to expand, reducing its pressure. When pressure
differential becomes high enough, the inlet valve opens, allowing atmospheric air to flow in. With the
piston at the bottom of its stroke, inlet valve closes. The piston starts its upward movement to reduce
the air volume which consequently increases its pressure and temperature. When pressure differential
between the compressor chamber and discharge line is high enough, the discharge valve opens,
allowing air to pass into an air receiver tank for storage.

9.1. Control of Pneumatic Energy:

Working energy transmitted pneumatically must be directed and under complete control at all times.
If not under control, useful work will not be done and machinery or machine operators might be
harmed. One of the advantages of transmitting energy pneumatically is that energy can be controlled
relatively easily by using valves.
9.2. Control of Pressure:

Pressure in a pneumatic system must be controlled at two points - after the compressor and after the
air receiver tank. Control of pressure is required after the compressor as a safety for the system.
Control of pressure after an air receiver tank is necessary so that an actuator receives a steady pressure
source without wasting energy.

9.3. Control of Pressure after a Compressor:

In a pneumatic system, energy delivered by a compressor is not generally used immediately, but is
stored as potential energy in air receiver tank in the form of compressed air.

In most instances, a compressor is designed into a system so that it operates intermittently. A


compressor usually delivers compressed air to a receiver tank until high pressure is reached, and then
it is shut down. When air pressure in the tank decreases, the compressor cuts in and recharges the
tank. Intermittent compressor operation in this manner is a power saving benefit for the system.

A common way of sensing tank pressure and controlling actuation and deactuation of relatively small
(2-15 HP) compressors is with a pressure switch.

10. WORKING

The pneumatic machine includes a table with support arms to hold the sheet, stops or guides to secure
the sheet, upper and lower straight - edge blades, a gauging device to precisely position the sheet. The
table also includes the two way directional valve. The two way directional valve is connected to the
compressor. The compressor has a piston for a movable member. The piston is connected to a
crankshaft, which is in turn connected to a prime mover (electric motor, internal combustion engine).
At inlet and outlet ports, valves allow air to enter and exit the chamber. When the compressor is
switched ON, the compressed air is flow to inlet of the pneumatic cylinder.

The sheet is placed between the upper and the lower blade. The lower blade remains stationary while
the upper blade is forced downward. The upper blade is slightly offset from the lower blade,
approximately 5 – 10% of the sheet thickness. Also the upper blade is usually angled so that the cut
progresses from one end to the other, thus reducing the required force.

When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved forward, the piston starts moving in the forward
direction. The upper blade which are then forced against the sheet, cutting the material. When the
pneumatic hand operated lever is moved backward, the upper blade will come to the original position
(i.e., the upper blade will move upwards). After the material is cut, adjust the pneumatic hand lever to
the mid position (i.e., normal position) and then the compressor is switched OFF.
11. APPLICATIONS

Sheet metals are used in


1. Car bodies
2. Airplane wings
3. Medical tables
4. Roofs for buildings (Architectural) and many other things
5. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic permeability, also known
as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformers and electric machines.
6. Historically, an important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry, and
sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in horse tack.

12. ADVANTAGES
 Low cost
 Less consumption of time
 Easy to handle
 Skilled labor is not required
 Less maintainance
 High accuracy
 Good surface finish
 Less floor space

13. COST ESTIMATION

14. PHOTOGRAPHY
15. BIBLIOGRAPHY

We made this project with our own idea with the help of
 “HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEM” written by Srinivasan,

 “TOTAL AUTOMATIVE TECHNOLOGY” written by Anthony E Schwaller,

 “INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND THE ENGINEERING DIGEST” written by


Robert Thurston Kent, Charles McCaughey Somes

WEBSITES:
www.pumpwork.in
www.wikipedia.com
www.howstuffworks,com

Under the reference of our project guide.