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Chapter 4

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data

gathered in the study. These are presented in themes. The identification

of the themes was based on the five basic action research processes. The

researcher transcribed the audiotapes recorded observed the process in

qualitative data analysis –transcription, organizing data, familiarization,

coding, and providing themes.

This study identified the lived experiences and the strategies used

to address the difficulties and the challenges/problems in the conduct of

action research among public high school teachers in the two identified

schools in the District II of Don Carlos. The lived experiences indicate the

difficulties encountered as well as the challenges/problems in the each of

the action research process. In addition, the study also presented the

strategies used by the teachers to address the aforementioned difficulties

and challenges/problems.

A frame was designed derived. This procedure provided the means

for discovering the actual experience of the public high school teachers in

the conduct of action research. These experiences were validated through

semi-structured interview and focus group discussion of the participants.


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In exploring the lived experiences, the five parts of the action

research process were considered as grand themes. The first grand theme

was in Identifying an issue and developing a research question which

consists of three subthemes: difficulties in what to study in action

research, challenges/problems in choosing what to study in action

research, and prioritizing and addressing difficulties and

challenges/problems. The second process was in Learning more about the

issue: what does research show, which includes two subthemes:

difficulties in gathering and preparing literature review in action research,

and challenges/problems in gathering and preparing literature review in

the action research.

For the third theme, there were three sub themes: difficulties in

developing a strategy in the action research, challenges/problems in

developing strategy in the action research and considerations in the

preparation of strategy in the action research.

The fourth theme was in gathering and analyzing data which has

five subthemes, these were: difficulties in gathering data,

challenges/problems in gathering data, difficulties in analyzing data,

challenges/problems in analyzing data, and assistance received in

analyzing data.

The fifth theme was In Taking actions and sharing the results. This

had three sub-themes, namely: difficulties in presenting and sharing the


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results, challenges/problems in preparing the results, and making others

informed of the results.

The strategies utilized by the teachers to address the various

difficulties and challenges/problems in each of the five action research

process were also inlcuded in the frames.

Identifying an Issue and Developing Research Question

Difficulties in choosing what to study. The difficulties encountered by

the public high school teachers in the first process of action research was

in choosing the right topic to be studied. The research topic was the

foundation on which everything else rests, so it is crucial to be chosen

carefully. This stage may be difficult especially if an individual has lot of

issues in the classroom. The significant responses of the participants are

shown in Frame 1.

Most of the teachers have shared common experiences in deciding

what to study for their action research. They claimed that the most

prevalent problem they had encountered was on what to be studied. They

also expressed their sentiments that due to their busy schedule, they tend

to have so much considerations making the action research process a

second priority.
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Frame 1
Difficulties, challenges/problems and the strategies used in choosing what
to study

Difficulties Challenges/Problems Strategies

P1: ….ang pagpili sa P1: …maglisod ko ug P1: …ang ako is


problem. Di ko kabalo. unsay akong determination then
Then aside from that, the studyhan tungod sa encourage the
time. Sa kakulangon sa kadaghan….paminaw student to
time sa panahon maglisod nako lack of participate…. I
ko ug unsay problema. knowledge pa gyud encourage them to
Hahahaha. ko…dili kayo ko participate, do
kakuan ug sakto ba whatever the task
akong ginahimo or dili nga ipatrabaho sa
ba…kulang pako ug ilaha kay aron
knowledge. ..maglisod because that is the
kog pili, maglisod bases sa ilahang
gyud ko grades. Then
determination gyud
nga mahuman kay
saying kayo nga dili
siya mapadayon at
least nasugdan
naman siya.

P2: first one is….yes… P2: …mahuman ba P2: Okay,


kanang the proper, the siya within period ahh…okay
proper nga pagkahimo kanang within one ahmmm. Sa akoa
gyud sa title. Research year…kay cycle mana pud sir I have the
title. Kung ang title pud siya so mahuman ba same answer with
siya kay maayo o bako siya?...though sir Cordero. Kato
nindot…kanang ginatawag mobo siya, ang gyud siya kanang
nila nga maka catch ug problema nako is ang murag guide nimu
attention. time management siya so para pud
nako. mahuman nako
akong action
research adto nga
time…Kung wala to
nga guide nga
gipabasa sa ato
adto nga time diba
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murag di gyud to
nako to mahuman
nako tong akong
action research
pud. So guide gyud
siya.

P3: Kanang kuan lang is P3: …sa write ups kau P3:..my system is I
ang time….kanang kanus kinahanglan mokaon list down all the
a nako buhaton….So the siya ug oras…ang problems.
only thing is sa paglingkod pagplastar sa Sometimes, I think
ra gyud siya. papel…okay ra gyud deeply which
kayo na siya basta sa among these
atoa lang nga level problems will I
nga problem. address first. Pero
sa reading gyud
gihapon ko…So
akong ginabuhat,
prioritize gyud ko.
Reading gyud akoa
kay first step mana
siya.

P4: Sa ako, lisud P4: Sa pagsugod no, P4: Prioritize, dayon


pagsugod. Pag title palang murag wala siyay ayaw deretso sa
daan struggle na. lugar sa sched nako lisod…Kuan pud,
kay imagine one-hour patabang kos mga
ra akong vacant and kabalo gyud like
then kana baya nga Mam Jas. Patudlo
time kay mag check ko kay expert.
kag paper, record ug
uban pa. Isingit pa
ang research, asa
naman na ibutang.
Kay unahon baya
nato as teachers ang
mga bata.
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P5: …..daghan man P5: Imu pa gyud ng P5: Sa akoa sir, nag
studyhan. Ang ako lang is isakto ug ineglish ang prioritize ko dayon
asa gyud didto akong mga questions ba isa pud ana is nag
ipursue. I don’t know how unya di baya ta kaayo consult ko sa akong
to choose from among the master ana. Mao nang mga kauban ug
many problems in the kanang murag ako okay ba ni nga
class…kuan, kani akon personally murag di problem…Daghan
pillion, okay man pero kaayo ko, kanang ko gipilian pero as a
basin lisod kaha siguro ni. mahadlok ko ba. So science teacher
Basin dili ko mahuman. dili magkadimao sa kadto gyud sa
questions pa lang. akong field.
Unsaon pag
improve sa
instruction sa
academic
performance sa
mga bata. Ana sir.

P6: Ang pag formulate sa P6: Lisud gyud. Kani P6: So sa ako kay
problem ako…kanang pag lang daan pagbalay absenteeism man
balay-balay sa problem. sa question in English, ko dayon si Kenny
Kay ingon man nga ang na ambot lang sir. sauna sa guidance
problem o title kanang Mahimo man noun siya pud isa nag
relevant, kanang angayan pero madugay kay ingon nga kani lagi
ug nindot paminawon usahay panimaw daw absenteeism
ba… nako sakto na pero di kanig drop-out mao
sko sure ang poy nitambag diri
grammar ba. Isa pud sa akoa,
is ang panahon ba, Nagpatabang kos
kay dili baya sayon ng iyaha unsaon to.
mag visit-visit ka. Nagpatudlo ko
unsay angay
buhaton ana. Nag
consult ko ba.

P7: …..also the title, P7: ….mahadlok ko P7: Ako sir is, I
ahmmmmm. There are a lot basin dili mahuman always look at
of problems surrounding dayon….so dili something. Siguro
our school. So, for me also, mahuman ba kay kanang mga
that is one factor. daghan lain buhaton, previous studies, or
mabiyaan na dayon. shall I say kanang
Usahay malimtan, kanan bitawng
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usahay dili na gyud naana bitaw


siya matiwas. nakahuman, naka
Sagdaaan nalang. accomplish.

P8: ….during my action P8: Bahin ana sir, P8: Ang sa ako lang
research is how to make a maglisud pud kog nga part sir, I
title, especially kay padayon sir kay taas encourage lang the
daghan kayo problema sa ang ilahang kaning student o my
atong eskwelahan man scope sa problema sir. respondent nga
gud…. Mao na akong una Kuan kayo murag whatever nga study
nakita nga complicated nga akong gibuhat
problema….mejo lisod ko sir….basin dili ko ana nga problem, it
maghimo ug title. mahuman sa akong is dako nga
research sir kay ang katabang sa ilaha.
attendance sa bata.
Then usahay sir ang
atong mga activities
sa school sir ba….

P9: ….daghan kayo ug P9: …. ahhhh, ang P9: Kuan


problema nga research question di strategies, kuan
kinahanaglan tagaan ug kabalo unsaon pag kaning naa may
action..but first gyud is plastar sa English. matawg o
choosing the right topic. masangpit noon
Mao nay isa man gyud. nga mayo. Dinhi sa
Then naa poy isa, unsa school pa lang
nga title dayon. I restate daan naa namay
and title….aron haom sa pwede daghan
atoang problem. makatabang sa
atoa, so in ana.
Konsulta tas
kanang hanas ba
ug mayo anang
plastar plastar
anang butanga.

Due to several paper work needed in school, this prohibited most

of the participants to conduct action research. Besides, the teachers were


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given extra work load keeping them very busy apart from the regular

teaching loads. According to Gwambombo (2013), teachers’ heavy work

load could contribute to students’ poor performance in assessment.

The identification of the problem was not difficult for the teachers

because of the plethora of problems encountered in the school; however,

how they would choose from among the many options they have was their

main concern. It was therefore vital to decide a topic that would not be too

critical and strenuous so that it won’t add more burden on the part of the

teacher.

The first frame shows the participants’ experiences in choosing the

right topic to be studied. The participants had a lot of option because there

were lot of problems needing to be addressed in the classroom. Some topics

may be broad and may be associated with several factors for both the

students and the teacher who intend to do the research. This process was

something that needs thorough consideration and review which might

later affect the entire research process. The appropriate criteria in

choosing the right topic should always prevail in order to select the most

valuable and relevant research topic. However, this should be something

relevant and worthwhile.

The chosen topic needs to be looked at all sides, this has to be done

in order to identify which aspect of the topic needs to be studied. This

should be narrowed in order to make the chosen topic as simple as


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possible. This is a process of free writing and a continuous process of

revision to come up with a good topic to be studied. As observed, one of

the things that teachers found to be difficult was on translating the chosen

topic into title of the research to be started. The title should be studied

carefully if it is well-suited to the current research to work on. Participant

9 remarked,

“at the outset kaning paghimo sa title. Difficult


siya para sa ako in a sense nga I still have a
lot of factors to consider.”

This was also true to other participants. They claim that the title

should also be specific as possible. The title of any research should

manifest what the research is all about. Therefore, this should be given so

much attention and consideration. This may be something difficult at the

start, but still can be revised as one goes on with the research. In addition,

the participants also claimed that stating the right title into English was

difficult for them especially that they were not English majors. They find

this difficult since the title was the first thing that was seen in the research.

Since there were a lot problems faced by the teacher in the teaching

and learning process, oftentimes not all problems were addressed.

Teachers often have little or no vacant period to work on those matters to

solve problems. Participant A accentuated that due to the many task to

submit, she found it difficult what to prioritize. She further said,


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“difficulties in choosing what to study kay


which of the problems, the existing problems
in the classroom ang akong unahon. Then
aside from that, action research is not my
priority as of now..kanang busy nga time.
There are other things to be done before
na siya.”

On the other hand, Participant 3 mentioned in the focus group

discussion that choosing what to study was not an issue. She further said

that her specialization was English; it was there where she concentrated

the most.

As observed during the focus group discussion, most of the

participants nodded their heads as a sign of approval to what the other

participants had said. In other words, teachers may not have enough time

to do action research because of the busy schedules they had as well as

various deadlines to comply. In addition, their classes should not be left

unattended. Participant three, a senior high school master teacher

commented that:

“….ako lang gyud kalaban sir is ang time…


Perting daghana baya nato ug paperworks .
Ang oras lang lagi.

Various reports were needed to accomplish by the teachers that is

why the first part of the research seem to be the challenging. Since they

needed to budget their time. Republic Act No. 4670 or the Magna Carta for

Public School Teachers cited that Public School Teachers should render at
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most six (6) hours of actual teaching a day. The remaining two (2) hours

have to be devoted to teaching-related activities.

Challenges/problems in choosing what to study. Teachers often have

several questions they wish to investigate; however, it is important to limit

the question to one that is meaningful and doable. Careful planning at this

first stage will limit false starts and frustrations.

A research question investigates a specific component of

a broader topic. It is the question one is trying to answer when one does

research on a topic. Identifying the research question is a process which

takes time. One may identify a certain topic, but if it was too broad, it

needs to be refined.

There were various challenges/problems faced by the teacher when

choosing what to study. It should be noted that these teachers differ in

their field of specialization, and in the subjects they teach in the field.

Thus, their area of specialization manifest the topics they choose in

conducting action research.

There were a lot of challenge experienced by the teachers in

identifying an issue and in developing research questions. Once one begins

to feel comfortable with the topic, one should pick an aspect which is

particularly interesting.
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One of the notable experiences of the teachers was on their thorough

considerations and reflection on the questions they formulate. Participant

A expressed her anxiety over the participants in her research. Accordingly,

she was afraid that the participants might stop attending school in the

middle of the implementation process. This would make her research come

to waste. She said:

“I am afraid regarding the respondent kay


galig dili siya mopadayon ug eskwela…I
am afraid nga dili sila mopadayon.”

She mentioned that her topic interests her the most but the only thing was

that it was also critical. She wanted to help her student-participants to

continue studying amidst the challenges as student-parents. Accordingly,

she tried to choose and reflect on the question carefully, if it is correct in

structure, the grammar, and most especially if it is measurable and

specific. Participant 7, on the other hand expressed that his biggest

challenge was on the related studies. He said:

“one of the challenges in choosing what to


study is the related studies.”

He gave emphasis on this especially that this would be very helpful

in the later part of the research. Other participants also considered some

factors in their research. That is why their research question was

formulated in such a way that it was specific and thus cannot make their

research produce negative results. Participant 5 asserted that,


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“basin daghan factors maka-affect. Ma-negative


na noun ang outcome. Mao pud kabalak-an nako.”

In framing the research question, it helps to consider the wide

range of variables that can affect the action research process. There were

many factors in which one has no control in teaching and in their research.

To frame a manageable question, one must focus on those variables that

can be controlled. Teachers should identify these factors before going

green with their action research because this might soon affect in the later

part of the implemention process.

Strategies used by the teachers in addressing the difficulties,

challenges and problems in identifying an issue and developing research

questions. When the teachers were asked to submit action research,

teachers were at first resistant. Although a research proposal was crafted

and submitted due to the demand of the school head, still most of the

teachers did not pursue what was in their proposal after it was approved

in the division office. Only a few were able to continue and yet not all of

them were able to make it for final submission. It was made possible since

along the way, public high school teachers have come up with strategies

to address the encountered difficulties and challenges/problems in the

process.
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The beginning process of the action research was considered the

most challenging and difficult. Although some have enough understanding

of the process, but the majority do not have. The conceptualization was a

decision that has consumed so much time. Trial and error process before

coming up with a topic and translating the chosen topic to a research title.

The strategy generally used by the public high school teachers to

address the first major step in the action research process, was the

inclusion of action research in their common work habits.

One of the issues that emerged was in the formulation of research

questions. For some participants who find this difficult, one of their

strategies was to consult their colleagues. Identifying and framing the

research questions should be done carefully after mulling over and

contemplating on the different angle of the issues confronting the

researcher.

The value of cooperation among teachers exist and was a very good

manifestation for accomplishing the task better. Talis (2009) asserted that

when teachers were working together in groups or teams, they would

successfully achieve their educational goals and objectives. Furthermore,

cooperation among teachers create opportunities for social and emotional

support, exchange ideas, sharing common thoughts and experiences that

enables them to develop their individual potentials and abilities.


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As one reflects on the teaching and learning situations in the

classroom, it helps when one allows the ideas percolate, brainstorm

questions and play around with them. One would talk about the questions

with colleagues, and let the questions emerge over time until one is ready

to frame the question to serve as guide in the process of inquiry.

The mentioned difficulties and challenges/problems encountered in

the conduct of action research among public high school teachers did not

hinder them from finishing the research they have started. This was

because the value of determination and perseverance brought them to

make use of different initiative to overcome those difficulties and

challenges in each of the process of action research.

Prioritizing the difficulties and challenges/problems. At times,

teaching can be overwhelming. One has units and lessons to plan, a

student work to mark, meetings to attend, reports to write, budgets to

submit, emails to respond to, and, if there is any time left—lessons to

teach. There is so much to do, but only a limited amount of time to

accomplish the task. This was one of the common responses of the

participants as observed in Frame 2.

Time management for teachers is far more complicated than for the

office workers or those in other industries. Teachers face unique

challenges. One is that much of the day is already scheduled.


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Frame 2
Prioritizing the difficulties and challenges/problems

P1: …this is now the big problem kay wala pa gyud nako siya na
prioritize. Hahahaha. Tungod sa kadaghan sa extra work….naa lagi koy
plano daghan pero nakalimtan nako….grabe ka busy…because sa time
management murag kulang ko ug time management. Wala gyud ko anang
time management.

P2:….first moadto ko sa pinaka sayon….kay para pag-mahuman ka


adtong pinakasayon, for sure ang naulahi kadto ng pinakalisud na. So
mao na gihapon, step by step, pinakasayon padulong sa pinakalisud.

P3: Sa subject gyud oo. Mas focus ko sa akoa gyud kay mao may akoang
kuan, reading gyud akoang priority oo.

P4: Wala nako nag rank-rank. Wala nako nag list down. Ako lang,
usually man gud ila ra gyung academic performance...

P5: ….daghan kayo problema. Kani na akoa sugod na….agoy time comes
nga naa man gyud mga problema nga kanang niabot. Ikuan gyud siya,
iprioritize napud. Kay kinahanglan siyag urgent nga attention…mabyaan
tong usahay, nakakuan nakasugod naka mabyaan nasad kay tua naa
sad kay giganahan lain kay murag mas tsada.

P6:…karon diba zero drop-out…oo…zero drop-out, so mao gyud tong mo


drop sa akoa, so na achieve gyud nako siya….gi prioritize nako sila oo.

P7: ….unahon tong sayon, I prioritize tong sayon-sayon kadtong mga


lisud ipaulahi ra dayon. Kadtong mga complicated na lingkuran gyud tog
taas-taas nga panahon. Then usahay sad sir kay malimtan na tingod sa
kadaghan buhaton masapawan naman….kay daghan na kayo murag
malimtan na dayon.

P8:….naay mga bag-ong problema sa klase sa classroom, ato sa gyung


iprioritize. For example sir kanang lateness, absenteeism. Usahay gani
during discussion mauna o madaghan gyud na nga problem sir nga
maencounter. Kadtong lisud-lisud ipaulahi lang sa to.

P9: Una, unahon nako ang sayon. Then ang pinakalisod, ahh, hahahah.
Dayon pinakalisud sa ulahi ug nay mga urgent gyud kayo sir.
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There is very limited leeway in altering a class schedule, so that the

teachers must work with flexibility and efficiently with the very limited

time. Although teachers had so much to accomplish, still techniques were

utilized in prioritizing the problems they face in the classroom. It was a

matter of making priorities that made the teachers nailed themselves into

what topic they will pursue from among the various options they have.

Among the participants, Participant C accentuated that it was in reading

that she gave so much attention. She gave priority to reading in most of

her researches.

Kayode and Ayodele (2015) recommended that teachers should

improve upon their time management, especially by being more conscious

about how to control their time. By doing so, scheduled task will not be

neglected and that those that require the most attention will be attended

to. On the other hand, Participant A’s response is contrary. According to

her, she has a lot of things to do especially that some major office task is

delegated to her. These tasks, according to her, requires immediate

attention and is most of the time given priority over the others.

Action research was not given priority since teachers have to look

into other aspects of the teaching and learning process. Action research

was seen as an extra work for the teachers. One of the things teachers did

was opting to start with the easiest. They did not want to be troubled and

be stressed anymore.
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Although doing action research takes time, still teachers have

inserted this task and made this as part of their accomplishment for the

school year. Even though there were anxieties at first, topics were

narrowed and simplified by looking at every dimension of the topic. The

difficulties were addressed as well as the challenges/problems. In

addition, new strategies were also learned which could later be used in

another research endeavor. Research questions become very specific and

have met the criteria of measurability.

Learning more about the issue; what does research show?

Difficulties in gathering and preparing literature review. Nowadays,

literature searches are undertaken using computers and electronic

databases. Computer databases offer access to vast quantity of

information, which could be retrieved more easily and quickly than using

a manual search (Younger, 2004). There are numerous electronic

databases. Many of which deal with specific field of information. It is

important, therefore, to identify which database is relevant to

the topic.

Conducting literature review is one the basic process in the research

process. A literature review is an objective thorough summary and critical

analysis of the relevant available research and non-research literature on


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the topic being studied. The significant responses of the participants are

found in Frame 3.

Frame 3
Difficulties, challenges/problems and the strategies used in gathering and
preparing literature review

Difficulties Challenges/Problems Strategies

P1: Para sa akoa sir, P1:…wa nay panahon P1: Kuan man tong
kaning sa review of nga magbasa. Taas akoa ganina, walay
related lit, murag wala kayo siya…karon ang time mobasa pero
siyay problema, naa kakapoy pagbasa lisud we need to mobasa
namay internet. Sa kayo pagbasa, dugay gyud siya. So para
school maka connect kayo ma cope up to nako
man ta. Hinay lang gyud mahuman…daghan siya nga problem,
noon siya pero madala naman ta makuha pero ang akong gibuhat
naman. Sa balay naa tungod sa panahon, adto sir is nagbasa
man sad didto. Naa koy ang pagbasa gyud ang gyud ko ug uban
makuha kay daghan kulang..kapoy kayo ang nga research nga
mana sa internet, text nga gagmay kayo. diri sa
download lang nimu. CMU…Akong
strategy nga
gikuan, naa koy
basehan kay kon
didto sa mga
journals higher
naman na siya.

P2: Ah okay, review of P2: ….unsaon pag, P2: Nag-refer ta sa


related….. Atong net sir pagkuha sa iyang mga kanang,
ay, kamang kaayo. Didto related literature, nagpatabang ta sa
baya ta halos gakuha kay unsaon pag-garay. Ah, expert… okay
ug mga print resources, pagplastar. Then kanang time
wala man. Wa man tay usahay pud….taas management man
library diri. Naa tood kay kayo unya, then naa akong problema, so
makuha, bisan loading man jud time nga gitagaan gyud
kaayo pero kadto pa kapoyan nata ug basa nako siya ug time
gyung dili kuan, dili or kanang magbasa- especially adtong
related jud. basa lag gyud. Basa hapit na gyud siya
yes, ya. nga kinahanglan
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na gyud siya
himoon.

P3: Okay isa sa problem P3: … Dayon ug naa P3: Pugson gyud
nako ang kay makuha pud, siya, walay choice
pagpangita..wala kayo kaning pagbasa lagi. basahon gyud. Di
studies adtong akong Kay imu baya ng man mahuman
ISN. lingkuran, kanang ang research ug
sabton nimu baya ug dili kanang kuan,
maayo na. Tapos naay kanang tagaan ug
mga journal nga tag-as time. Magbasa
kaayo. Ang pagbasa ba gyud ka. Pero ako,
kuan, kanang usahay I read it slowly, nay
mokaon gyud siyag mga journals nga
oras nimu. tag-as kayo pero
dili nako na
basahon word for
word. Sa title, sa
methodology.

P4:…finding the exact P4:..ang research nga P4: Kuan, walay


literature that could hit tag-as na kaayo didto choice bisan pag
your study kay there are nako deretso sa tag-as kayo hala,
bundles of literature and methodology. Kay basa, basa, basa
is irrelevant. So, what I bahasahon na nimu gyud. Usahay
did is I find….i found a malangan ka oy. Naa makalibat lagi na.
lot, a lot, a lot. Sige nako may mga instances Pero akong style
siyag save…kay naa may gyud nga ing ana. ana is sa
study nga, there are Dayon maglabad imung methodology ko
studies man gud nga ulo labi nag kanang moderetso. Kanang
relevant siya sa title, pero gagmay pa gyud ug font basa sa abstract
pag abot diay didto sa nga pdf file. Ne, effort kay that’s the first
methodology, lahi diay jud. thing nga Makita.
siyag content. Lahi diay Dayon oo sa
siyag pamaagi, dili diay methodology,
siya mo fit sa imuha ana. kanang giunsa
niya. Iya dayong
result ug
discussion, dayon
statement of the
problem…Didto
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nako sa mga
importante oy.

P5:.. walay internet. P5: …tag-as kayo ang P5: Bisan daot kog
Sauna naa man to pero gi mga research. Usahay mata, wala koy
pa cut kay hinay man mao na mabasa nimu, choice sir ay.
kaayo. Layo-layo baya mi ahay…kanang daot Magbasa gyud. Ga
diri sa sibilisasyon sir ay, natag mata kapoy ug antipara ko usahay
hahaha. Mao na nga diri basa. Isa sab, wan a dayon isa pud
ra baya na ideally gyuy nasabtan sa akong buhaton is
gabuhaton unta sa kadaghan kanang magbasa
school. Kana gyud. Toud gibasa….Kapoy na ko, gina print nako
naa sa balay pero hinay kaayo, taas kayo, di dayon dili kanang
gihapon. nako kasabot…Usahay daghan o tingob ba.
tapulan na kayo ko Tinagsa lang dayon
mobasa sir oy. pahulay dayon.
Naningkamot ko,
usahay motabang
akong bana.
Hahahah.

P6: Mao gyud na kay layo P6: Kani pong sa P6: Patudlo
kaayo tanan ta diri sa magbasa ko kay gihapon, patabang
New Nongnogan ug kuan, usahay makahuha man kos mga anak nako
layo kaayo diri internet so akong anak, siya man dayon akong mga
moadto pag Don Carlos o mag-ukay-ukay sa kauban sa school
Valencia kuan nya di anang internet. Sos uy, namo. Sila
daon ka dayon dili ka ang kanang pagbasa moingon nga in ani
access dayon sa kay kapoyan naman Mam Jo, naa koy
internet… Maayo gyud ko. Uban sad gagmay na research mam
unta naa gyud diriy kaayo ug letra. Usahay Jo, magamit ni
regular connection. sa sige nakong basa sir nimu. Kaingon ko
wa nako kasabot. Labi salamat nay mga
na kay tag-as kaayo angel from heaven
ang basahon pa. Dayon gyud. Blessing
inig kaning mag kayo. Tawon ang
summarize ba, di man tigulang.
kaayo ko ana kahibalo.

P7: Kuan sir, aha ko P7: Ang uban articles P7: For me, I
mangita sa source. O aha kay naay bayad ayha always refer to the
ko mangita ug mosupport pa makita. Naa siya sa expert. Yes,
sa akong study…wala online. Magbayad sa because naa man
72

pud kayo tay books. Wala ka then naa pa gyuy koy mga kaila nga
man tay library. Hahaha. mga registration medjo maayo na
usahay kay tsada unta, kayo sila, nahuman
pero di nalang to nako nana nila, so didto
kuhaon kay naa may ko gapangayo sa
bayad. Di nalang pud ilaha unsaon
ko kay daghan kaayog pagbalay sa review
steps nga kuan I of related literature.
undergo. Mao to Then one this
abstract nalang ang gabuhat gyud kog
makuha. Pagkuha to-do list nga unsa
nimu sa abstract kay dapat gyud akong
kulang pa gyud. Kay mahuman. First,
abstract ra baya. dapat humanon
gyud nako na siya.
Ana, galista kos
akong ginabuhat.
Oo, para makabalo
ko ug makit-an
nako naa ba koy
progress.

P8: …diha man ko sa P8: Ang uban bitaw nga P8: Ako sir, it is
internet sir hinay kaayo articles sir kay naa after nga mao lagi
ang internet. Labi na bayad. Makita pud to tagaan ug time
karon kay kuan pud, then kuan pud deretso aron makakuha ta
wala nakoy internet nga pud abstract sir ba sa atong RRL,
personal so mag adto didto sa internet dili nakahuman pero
didto sa gawas so nimu Makita bitaw mag nagpatabang sa
magbayad napud ka sa kuan napud ka kay uban nga palihog
oras nga imung gigamit naay unsa naa kay kog basa.
sa internet sir. iopen naa bayaran man Hahaha…The kuan
tingali na. maglisud pud dayon kay lagi
napud dayon ko sir. dili man ta English
major, hahaha.
Nagpatabang ko sa
akong mga kauban
nga English. Naa
gyud to nakita siya
gyud nga sayop. So
in ana lang sir oy.
73

P9:…Then kini pong P9: the right P9: Para masulbad


pagpangita usahay sab methodology….basin na siya, kanang
wala tay makita nga makuan ta aning way choice.
related studies sa imung ginatawag Magkugi gyud
topic, sa problem nga aning…ahh..kadtong sa pangita. Anyways,
gipangitaan ug mga authors, ma di man pud in ana
kasulbaran….Specific plagiarise oo…latest pa kadaghan
man gyud aron mo shoot raba gyud ang kinahanglan gyud.
sa current study nato kinahanglanon, ang Di man pareha
pero nangita tag related mga year adto mga anang sa
ang mogawas murag layo 1978, so mao nay university naa
raman…. naa maka problema gyud sir… gyud kanang
connect man noun ta. Ang pagbasa pud sakit standard kaayo.
Pero naa puy usahay nga sa mata. Dayon Sa ato sa DepEd
mejo hinay ang makatapol labi nag tag- wala ma. Basa
connection. Lagi, mohinay as kaayo. Wa pa nimu gyud ukayon gyud
ang connection sa nabasa gani pero sa internet ba.
internet provider. naglabad na imung ulo.
Hahaha.

The goal of literature review is to bring the reader up-to-date with

the current literature on a topic and form for the basis for another goal,

just as the justification for future research in the area (Coughlan, et. al,

2007). In addition, Ortiz (2006) cited that the purpose reviewing literature

is to determine what has already been done that relates to the current

study being conducted. The familiarity of the previous research is

beneficial in facilitating the interpretation of the results of the study.

The growth of Internet offers real opportunities for improving access

and transfer of knowledge and information from universities and colleges

to a wide range of users (Haylen, 2017). Most of the participants remarked

that the internet connection was most difficult for them. Most of the
74

participants expressed their approval when the Participant 7 answered

first during the focus group discussion. He said,

“..one of my difficulties is internet connection,


kay most of my review of related literatures can
be found online.”

Some of the participants nodded their heads while others agree through

verbal response. In New Nongnongan National High School – main campus

for example, their internet connection contract was terminated by the

school because the internet service provider cannot provide good service

because of its location. Other teachers residing in the same barangay

where the school was located may have internet connection at home but

still admit the connection was very unsatisfactory. Participant 4

mentioned,

“naa koy internet connection sa balay, oo


naa tuod pero ang signal lagi. Dah,
hastang kamanga.”

The source of information for conducting a literature review are

varied and many, including books; professional journals; official

government publications; research reports issued by foundations,

professional organizations, and government agencies; theses and

dissertations; and Internet resources like online journals and databases

as well as Web sites (Pine, 2008).

The Philippines is one of the countries in Southeast Asia where

internet speed is slow compared with other neighbors in the Asean region.
75

Thus, access to online resources is difficult. Teachers relied the most in

online resources also because there is no library or printed materials that

can easily be accessed. In the municipality of Don Carlos, there is a library

hub; however, research materials are not available. Teachers need to go to

college and university libraries where they were pursuing their Graduate

and Post-graduate degrees. This would mean another time allocation

which is getting more difficult to do for busy teachers.

When it comes to the number of related studies found, this depends

on the topic that teachers chose to study. Some teachers claim that they

even find it difficult to choose because of the huge number of literature

found, like that of Participant 9. He said,

“lisod mamili tungod sa kadaghan.”

Although confusion may arise because of so many literatures, this

is better than having too little. Not all topics offer a number of resources

in the internet. Some literature needed to be reviewed with caution.

While for some teachers, their difficulty in how to find the related

literature, Participant 3 noted that it is true that in her school, the internet

connection was so unstable, in poblacion where she lived, the signal was

better. So she took advantage of the opportunity to explore the internet.

On the other hand, not much related literature was found. Participant 3

added that,

“…halos wala koy makita. Gamay


o wala pa nag study adto….uban
76

studies wala kaayo.”

Since internet connection was often unstable, when good connection

is established, most download as much literature as they could have and

read or print it after. Downloaded documents were saved and the next

thing to do was to read and drop those that were irrelevant. Having

downloaded a great number of literature did not give full assurance that

all of those were helpful and relevant. Participant 9 added that after

putting much effort downloading those materials, the next consideration

would be was that if those materials were really related to the current

study being conducted.

Challenges/problems in gathering and preparing literature review.

After so much patience finding literature, another challenge/problem was

faced by the participants. Even if materials were taken through online

search, some articles have restrictions to be accessed. Not all were free

and could even be viewed but more difficult to be downloaded. The

significant responses of the participants are found in Frame 3.

Some online databases and journals found in the internet in

particular only show the abstract of the study, and then requires

membership and purchases in order to have access and download entire


77

copy of the the related articles found. Oftentimes, this process consumed

time. Participant 7 told,

“naay bayad ang uban nga journal nga


iaccess nimu. Magparegister dayon
bayaran nimu ayha nimu makuha
ang access.”

Other participants mentioned a lot of challenges other than the

aforementioned challenge/problem. After they had scanned and

downloaded the literature, their main concern was in reading the

downloaded articles. They had expressed emphasis on the time to read the

articles they have because it was time consuming. Participant 4 made a

significant statement by saying,

“…makita ang related studies tungod sa


technology pero lagi, oo, ang time napud
magbasa.”

For participant 5, hers was still concerning reading. She made a

personal remarks and relate to the group that her eyesight hinders her

from moving forward with reading the literature. She told,

“dili ko kapadayon deretso kay akong mata,


maglabad akong ulo ug sige kog basa ug
gagmay nga letra.”

This is true for some literatures available that the font size is not

friendly for everybody. Cronin, et. al., (2008) emphasized that in

synthesizing the literature, it is advisable to undertake a first read to get

a sense of what they are about. After the intensive reading, another
78

challenge/problem is on the paraphrasing. This often confuses the

participants especially that they have a lot of readings at hand.

To be able to fully grasp the thought of the literature and to prepare

a good paraphrased, one should carefully study the notable details of the

research. Some teachers took advantage of the internet connection they

have when they were away from the school. On the other hand, with so

many readings and hectic schedules, Participant 1 said,

“..murag sa kabusy murag maglibog na


dayon ta kadaghan sa atong nabasa,
maglibog napud noun ta.”

Strategies used by the teachers to address the difficulties, challenges

and problems in learning more about the issue: what does research show.

There were mixed feelings and attitude about the role and the timing of

the literature review in conducting action research. Consequently, some

participants begin to doubt and lose trust in their own thinking and work.

Other teacher-researchers have expressed concern that, in conducting a

local classroom-based study, a review of the literature was not worth the

time and energy required to do it; they point out that many published

teacher research studies do not include literature reviews. Other teacher-

researchers have demonstrated their skepticism and resistance. On the

other hand, since a review of the relevant research literature is essential,

teachers still have found ways to go on with the process.


79

The strategies used by the teachers to address the various

difficulties and challenges/problems realy work. Although they claim that

the time to read was something that hinders them, they have to spare a

little time to read the articles gathered.

Participant 1 expressed her strategy by reading as a must for her to

proceed with her research. She claimed that there was no choice to solve

this problem but to read. Similarly, when no other choice was available,

Participant 3 and 9 revealed that they need to read, they need to give time.

According to them, if they would not do it, they would not be able to finish

the action research. Thus, what they did was they compel themselves to

read.

In the process of paraphrasing, not all were conversant to this

process. That is why the participants have looked into guides and other

researchers for them to do this task. They also made readings on the

process of paraphrasing especially for non-English majors.

Other strategies they utilized include consultation with some of their

collegues whom they believed as experts on this matter. For related studies

that were very long, they recall the skill of scanning and skimming.

Participant 5 used spectacles in reading to avoid eye strain and work on it

slowly.
80

Developing a strategy in action research

Difficulties in developing strategy. Using the information from review

of literature, one may design a plan of action that will allow to make a

change and to study that change. This would be the inclusion or

application of a strategy to address the existing problem. This process has

brought the participants to get perplexed and increase worries. Their

responses are found in Frame 4.

Teaching is a complex and demanding work that requires highly

specialised skills and knowledge to impact significantly on student

learning. The process of developing a strategy in action research was

difficult for the majority but not for some. This process was when an

intervention plan or a strategy to use in the action research is prepared. A

mixture of difficulties were experienced by the participants.

When it comes to the developing a strategy, a lot was found in the

internet. But there were criteria and conditions to follow. A lot can be

found and were for free but were designed for some schools or classes from

other countries. This may not be considered a problem since one can have

modifications or revisions to suit to the current participants subjected to

such strategy.
81

Frame 4
Difficulties, challenges/problems and the strategies used in developing a
strategy

Difficulties Challenges/Problems Strategies

P1: Mao na siya sir, ang P1: Ang kuan, maayo P1: Ako sad sir,
problema nga wala ko lang siya, advantage agree ko sa giingon
kasugod kay ngano man, lang siya sa mga kuan, ni sir. Hahahaha.
dili ko kabalo ug kung mga estudyante nga Ni sir Keen. Dayon
mga pamaagi nga mga kanang..kana bitawng kadto dayong
masolve siya nga nay mga bright, nay determination sir.
problem…. mga artistic o mga Kung dili ka
creative nga mga bata. determined sa
Pero kadtong mga bata imung gitrabaho,
nga dili kay dili pud to dili siya nimu
sila mayo ug output. mahuman….sa
Jama-jamaan lang nila. start palang daan,
nag set nata ug
goal daan nga
mahuman nato
siya. So, dapat
determined, dapat
kuan gyud siya,
determinado, ko
nga mahuman
gyud ni nako.

P2: Ahmmmm. Kaning P2: …strategy kay P2:…okay positive


kuan, dili ko kabalo positive ba ang response mind-set, dayon
unsaon pagbalay sa sa mga students or dili, kay Mam Irish kay
action plan o strategy mao pud na isa. Kay determination.
nako. Yes…Kay wala naa man mga strategy Unsa to imuha Ye?
gyud ni siya gi kuan nga nga okay dawaton sa Time..Lagi, kadto
kanang murag before bata positive kaayo sa man gyud ang
unta sila nag-conduct iyaha, nap oy uban nga pinaka atoang
ani kaning action dili. Wala lang. O wala kuan gyud naga
research nato karon kay lang, wala ra diay toy kinahanglan nato
dapat nag-undergo sa ta effect. para mahuman
ug trainings. Mao to isa. gyud nato atoang
study or ang
82

atoang action
research.

P3:…it’s part of kuan P3: Ahhh, yes didto na P3: Ang ato lang
man, if you are going to to sa imuha sa subject na diha is stick ta sa
think about the problem, nga bata, pero atong time frame
the strategy is already mapangitaan mana siya sa strategy o
kuan, uban na gyud na ug paagi. Oo, mao na intervention. Dili
siya…mas challenging siya. Actually, if you are nato kuanon ba,
siya kung naan aka ana going to kuan bitaw ug ipit-ipiton atong
nga problem dayon mga strategy, sa kaugalingon. Give
magsugod naka ana ug internet naa naman time. Dili ra baya
kuan, pangita sa imung didto. So pili nalang ka kana atong huna-
strategy and una lang or you can have the hunaon. Kanang
gyud, ang first lang modification. kuan lang, enejoy-
gyud, kinahanglan ka ug enjoy what you are
choices. So dili kaayo doing. Sakto pud
difficult sa akoa, dili tong ingon nila nga
difficult ang strategy. determination. Oo,
kapoy baya ako
gani usahay
maluya nako pero
go lang japun.
Hahaha.

P4: Sa akoa gyud sir no, P4: Ang time….I only P4: So mao lagi to
wala man gyud format conducted my research nangita kog
ana dayon kanang sa for three months. Oo, so daghan sa internet
akong mga kauban nitan- one month of pre- kanang strategy
aw ok because I was so assessment, ahh. One nay daghan oo.
kanang wala koy idea week of pre-assessment Daghan akong
ana. Himo-himo lang lang almost two and a half nakita. Nagpili
dayon usahay lantaw months dayon sa nalang dayon kog
kos internet kaingon ko analysis and kuan, isa.. Kadtong sa
pwede na tingali ni. gathering of data. SIM, although dili
sila dapat o dapat
man gyud unta
pero dili kayahon
sa resources nga
tagsa sila…kuan
share-share
nalang. Ana ra.
83

Teacher man so
napangitaan ug
paagi.

P5: Kuan, kanang, kana P5: Kato siya sir, P5: Akong strategy
laging walay focus way maglisud ko pag-process sir kay kanang
kuan, dili kaayo ko gyud siya sir. Kanang nagpili ko ug top
bansay sa pagbalay- strategy, pag plastar- nga kanang sayon-
balay sa action plan. plastar. Oo, ana ba. sayon ra tapos
Asta sa mga strategy kaya rapud sa
niya… ang ako nalang akong bata.
diha suwat-suwat lang Kadtong sayon, di
pero dili siya ingon nga gyud ingon nga
mabalay-balay gyud ug sayon gyud kayo
tarong. pero at least mao
natoy pinakasayon
nga natagbo nako.
Go lang gihapon ko
kay testingan nako
ni bi. Usahay
pamahala na. Kani
na ah. Ang time
frame lang gyud
ko. Ako sched
kailangan mo
shoot lang gyud
siya, di na molapas
sir ba. Sakto ba?

P6:…ang difficulty lang P6: Kini, oo. Mogamit ug P6: Mao lagi to
nako bi, kanang pag- computer, kana….Kay siya, akong
type-type sa computer. bisan unsa ka layo, strategy adto
Kanang madugay ko. sulong. Sulong gyud. Init kanang gidayon
Labi na nay mga table- kaayo sa tanan. Oo gyud nako. Suklan
table. Unsaon mani? nako bisan layo
kay lain man sab
byaan ko nalang
ni.

P7: Kuan gyud sir, ma P7: Kuan siya sir, ang P7: Ako sir nga
discourage gyud ko ay. time frame. Kay usahay mind-set lang
Paghuna-huna palang malangan kay daghan gyud. Nga dapat
84

nako daan sa source, sa disruptions sa klase like gyud is nga


budget murag makagasto holiday, daghan pud ug humanon gyud
ko. Personal. Alhtough activity sa school. Kana nimu. Dapat na
dili man gyud na sir, ug kana bitaw pud akay positive nga
malikayan sir nga dayong response sa mind set kay it
makakuot-kuot gyud ta mga bata, kung goes down sa
sa atoang bulsa. madawat ba nila o dili. imuha lang
Usahay kay uban kay gihapon padulong.
dili sila mokuan, Ug ikaw mismo dili
hesitant sila ba. ka positive sa
imung action
research, wala
gihapon siyay
padulngan. Naa
gihapon sa imuha.

P8: Usahay sir kay P8: Lisud siya pag- P8: Sa akoa sir,
maka-discourage kay conceptualize sa tagaan gyud siyag
aha ta magkuha ug problema sir. Mga time kay kuan
resources nato ba, complicated ba, daghan gyud sir, kung
financially. kaayo huna-hunaon. ipatiwas gyud ang
Then aha ko mag-start action research,
unsaon pagkuan, ang tagaan gyud syag
pagsugod. Dayon, ang time. Then kadtong
response pud sa bata. giingon ni mam
Ang uban baya kay nga determination.
duay gyud makakuha Kay usahay man
gihapon. Mao nang, gud kay kuan man
patay basin negative nig gyud kining maka
result akong gibuhat discourage
gihapon. usahay. Pero
tagaan gyud nimug
time, naa kay
determination nga
mahuman gyud
imuang action
research
mahuman gyud
siya.

P9: Ahhmmm. Okay man P9: Maglisud tag P9: Kay lagi di
ang pagbuhat sa action conceptualize sa atong man to kanang
plan, pero usahay man mga angay buhaton. effective tong isa
85

gud. Dili siya mo haom sa Umm, pero pagsugod ka strategy nako


atong problema….Ahh, raman, pagsugod sir nangita o nag set
kabalo man gyud ta nga mejo lisod-lisod… ang napud kog
dili man gyud ta English response pud sa bata. strategy sa kining
major, so di kaayo ta Ang uban baya kay para sa ila
kabalo ug balay o duay gyud makakuha kadtong wa
plastar-plastar sa gihapon. Mao nang, niangay o dili
English. patay basin negative pwede kay
nig result akong gibuhat parehas anang
gihapon. naay gipang bati.
Usahay ang mga
babae kay sakit
ang tiyan, in ana.
Gipangitaan
napud to. Kapoy
lagi pero sige lang.

When it comes to the developing a strategy, a lot can be found in the

internet. However, there were criteria and conditions to follow. A lot can

be found and are for free but are designed for some schools or classes from

other countries. This may not be considered a problem since on can have

a modifications or revisions to suit to the current participants to be

subjected to such strategy.

The modification of strategies may be a tough to do, especially that

not all the participants were conversant in written English. This process

was a serious concern for most of the participants since only one among
86

the nine participants is an English major. This was also true to most of

the participants and they claim that making use of the RNglish language

is really a tough task, Participant 1 stated,

“…kanang pag han-ay especially that


I am not good in English. Hahahah.”

Participant 3, a Master Teacher II in the senior high school and an

English major, however, stressed that in developing strategy, it was not

difficult for her to do. She added that since most of her action reseaches

focused on reading, she can easily find a lot of strategy. She said,

“…di kaayo siya big deal sa akoa…when I


intend to apply or kanang I use a strategy,
di man kaayo lisud…kay sa reading naay
daghan.”

Various strategies can be used in teaching. These strategies may

have been widely practiced or have been existing for quite sometime. There

were also new and products of research and innovations made. It can

always be accessed and reviewed in books. The strategies may be easily

accessed through online search, but did not mean that one could easily

emulate and adopt the said strategy. However there are features of the

strategy that may not be suitable to the type of students in their classes.

That was why one should learn how to localized or modify the existing

strategy in order to meet the standard of the learners.

There were .some things that may not be available in the school

setting of the participants. It was highly encouraged to make modifications


87

of the strategy to utilize the existing materials available of there are no

options left. Participant 2 shared,

“…kadtong pagbalay…paggaray sa
action plan o kanang akong stratehiya
nga akong gamiton.”

The same scenario was true for participant 1. Another problem faced

by Participant 6 was in dealing with computers. She found it difficult to

use basic word processing applications. The strategy or intervention may

be available, but the prepation of the write-ups was a big deal for her,

especially that she was not conversant with manipulation of computers

and in the use of word processing softwares where she encodes.

Preparing a modified strategy is best to suit to the current needs of

the students and to the subject where it will be employed. A desired

strategy may have been choosen and in order to make the strategy to suit

to the types of learner perceived, one may make modifications and

improvements of the style and the procedure.

Challenges/problems in developing a strategy. When the strategy

has been set already, prior to the the implemention phase, teachers have

anxiety in pursuing the prepared activity. Teachers have second thoughts

whether to proceed or not since the strategy may not work as expected.
88

This attitude is common especially if the strategy to be employed is also

something new for both to the teacher and the students.

Participant A expressed her doubts and anxiety over her strategy

that,

“…mahadlok ko nga basin ma negative na


noun ang result adto, instead nga gahimo
ko adto nga action research….mahadlok
ko nga gali mobo sila ug performance…”

Participant 7 also expressed the same thought and added that,

“kanang positive ba ang outcome or basin


ma negative and resulta ba.”

They reflect on the things that might hinder the implemention of

their strategy. The schedule that they prepare was carefully studied

especially on the aspect of time budgeting. Others contemplate the most

on the responses of students. They used to have this kind of thinking that

it may not work well for all the students. Although for some it will, but it

may not have significant or positive response from the majority.

One of the things that challenges the teachers were in the resources.

Some strategies may require some that the school could not provide. These

might be the materials that were specific to one subject area. Since there

was no other way that this problem may be solved, some do a little sacrifice

and use what they have in their pockets just to realize the plan.
89

Strategies used by the teachers to address difficulties and

challenges/problems in developing a strategy. Teachers sought alternate

approaches to help the students to be successful whenever the students

encounter difficulty in learning. They must include the students’ attention

and daily events in the lesson.

Students have different level of learning and different learning

difficulties. One subject area and skill mastered by one student might be

a least mastered skill by another student. Hence, innovation is a must to

satisfy different needs of varied learners. Seeing this need, the DepEd-

Division has started requiring teachers to develop innovations, one of

which was the use of Strategic Intervention Materials or SIMs in both

remedial and regular classes. Consequently, teachers should seek

approaches for the students who have difficulty in learning. It is very

important to teacher to know the different learning styles as basis in

making lesson adjustments to assist individual students.

A lot of issues faced by the teachers in the conduct of action

research. However, they still pursue their research and have come up with

results that were beneficial to their clientele. Even with anxieties,

intimidating attitude, low self-confidence, internet connection issues, and

other, teachers tried to look for solutions to these problems. In the first,

process for example, it took the teachers quite some time to start. They

have so many doubts what to study and whether they would pursue it or
90

not. In the process of when and how to start that caused them so much

trouble, but then again this was conquered through the initiative of

teachers and their determination to finish their research.

With the principle of collaboration, teachers were able to conquer

the hindrance at the outset of the process. Various strategies were used,

and the spirit of optimism and determination were some of the factors that

motivate the teachers. A lot of strategies were found and were subjected to

testing, but then again, these teachers had chosen one out of the

meticulous process of reflection, consultation and consideration of the

factos.

They had learned to overcome the difficulties and

challenges/problems at the very start of the research process. This was

made through further readings, consulations and advises from the people

whom they refer to and with some individuals that helped them along the

way.

Considerations in developing a strategy. In developing the strategy,

a lot of considerations were looked into by the participants. Most of them

cited that time was their greatest consideration. This was true since there

were numerous work and deadlines to be accomplished by teachers. Prior

to the decision-making, the public high school teachers had consulted


91

their schedules and they looked for space where to insert such activity.

The significant responses of the participants are shown in Frame 5.

Frame 5
Considerations in developing a strategy

P1: Ako sir, kana gyud time. Hahaha. Kay time, kani dayong mga
materials nga gapanggamiton… Kani gyud o, number one is time,
panahon nga pag atubang ana kay lingkuran man gyud na siya. O labi
na ang paperworks sir di ko mayo sa paperworks. Ako gyud ng
angkonon. Hahaha.

P2: Time, time gyud kaayo siya then second is kanang money. Asa ko
maningitag money parang kung kanang gamiton siya nga kanang pag-
implement sa katong strategy nako. Kinahanglan man gyud tag mga
resources or kanang mga materials nga gamiton, oo.

P3: Hmmm. Gi-consider nako ang time, dayon time, money, supplies.
Kani tanan, kinahanglan mani, the time, the money, the internet,
connection oo. Kani gyung internet.

P4: Ang mga bata. Ang mga bata oo. Kanang, the intervention tapos, the
type of learner kay there is no best strategy that could fit a single
individual, therefor you should use varied strategies.

P5: Una sir is time, kay perting daghana buhaton sa maestro sir oy. Kana.
Dayon bi…murag kana ra gyud siya sir kay ingon kag supplies, naa man
daghan sa MOOE, mag request raman. Kani gyud time, siguroon.

P6: Time gyud time. Gahinan gyud nimu silag time… kaning money kaya-
kaya pa man ni. Anyway mohatag man gyud ta.

P7: Kuan sir, isa pud is materials gihapon sir. Materials gihapon. Kay
wala man gyud tay readily available materials diri then isa pud is ang
preparedness pud sa kuan, mga estudyante sad sir. Kanang ang ilang
mind set pud sir. Kay individual differences, oo.

P8: Kani gyud sir, ang oras gyud sir. Kay limited kayo ang oras. Daghan
kaayo pag-kuan gyud. Pag-eskwelahan naay clase og vacant ta ayha ra
katrabaho. …isa pud sir ang kwarta gyud moy pinaka gyud sir.
92

P9: Of course, mao na gyud na ang time. Kay kita man gud is naa ta sa
DepEd. Mao to nga ang atong trabaho ang pagtudlo, dili man ang
pagresearch. So kinahanglan time, naa gyud tay. Mao gyud na atong
kalaban. …Ikaduha, hahaha, kwarta… Ahh, supply and then materials
used.

Financial resources was also given consideration and was notably

the biggest consideration in the process of preparing the strategy. The

school cannot just disburse funds for the said research since it would take

so much time and there are a lot of technicalities to observe. Although

some or most educational resources in teaching were provided by school

under the Mainternance and Other Operating Expenses, not all materials

could be provided by the school. Thus, when teachers opt to pursue plans

that needs procurement of things or is not available in the school, they

may take from their own pockets or look for potential sponsors. In

addition, Participant 6 further claimed that she does give her personal

share for the research. This was done in order to realize and apply the

planned strategy.

One of the notable considerations mentioned by Participant 4 and 6

were the learners. It should be noted that not everybody in the classroom

may be amenable with one strategy or intervention. One should consider

individual differences as well. The learning style of learners may affect

positively or the other way around in the implementation of a new strategy.


93

Although they have entertained strategies that would cater individual

differences, but other aspect was also considered like the time.

Learning materials that needed reproduction may be shouldered by

the school through the Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses.

Supplies as well that may be used for printing may also be provided.

Gathering and Analyzing Data

Difficulties in gathering data. The collection of data is an important

step in deciding what action needs to be taken. Multiple sources of data

were used to better understand the scope of happenings in the class. There

was a lot of method in data gathering. Some of the specific methods of data

collection may be used, such as, surveys, interviews, questionnaires,

observation, archival research. One should select the data that are most

appropriate for the issue being researched. The significant responses of

the participants are found in Frame 6.

Data collection should be a thoughtful, planned, and

purposeful process. A good data collection scheme will help participants

think through important questions for data gathering, facilitate

coordination of resources and timelines so that data are gathered by


94

design rather than by chance, and bring clarity so that data are collected

right the first time.

Frame 6
Difficulties, challenges/problems and the strategies used in gathering data

Difficulties Challenges/Problems Strategies

P1: …student nga grabe P1: ..Katong uban nako P1: Mao sad to
ug absences. Kadto nga students kay walay Sir kay Sir Ariel
bitawng mga student nga materials. Imbes naay reward
garbe ug absences…dili magtrabaho na sila ana system. Nay
man nimu ma collect nga time, walay materials reward system
ilang kuan..ilahang mga sila. Mao na nga nga kung ka focus
outputs. ..ma behind magtanga nalang dayon. ka anang imung
napud siya nga Then some of the students output input
bata…maglisud ko ug kay dili sila interesado. during the week
unsaon ba nga kay everyday
makaapas sila. Imbes man to siya, so
naghimo ka ana nga naay reward
strategy, iapply nimu nga system at the end
ma-improve sila, ilang of the week nga
mobo nga grado, sige pa gikuan nga para
gyud silag absent….lisud sa mga bata nga
kaayo ang paggather sa complete ang
data kung sig eug absent. participation nga
during ana nga
conduct sa kuan.
….so kung
complete sila ana
nga week, naa
silay reward.

P2: Since dili man gyud P2: Problema kaayo sir P2: Sa akoa sir
all the time nga nay free kana bang ang bata Rands is kay
time and bata, kana pud walay time. Kay dili baya kanang kuan,
ang isa. Nga maglisud ta siya pwede basta hinay-hinayon ug
kinahanglan pa siya bunloton sa iyang klase. tawag ang bata.
hangyoon sa uban nga Kanang hulatan nako Hinay-hinayon ug
teachers nga iexcuse sa nga naa siyay free time so tawag ang bata.
95

ni siya so nay tendency we can talk ana sir ay. .. Hinay-hinayon ug


nga ma-behind pud tong Ug naa napoy time dili istorya nga wala
bata didto. Kana lang gadumdom. Di ga nga katong pag
siya, time gihapon. Time cooprate nga para man tawag kay dili
sa akong respondents. unta sa ilaha. Usahay siya wala siyay
makabantay ko galikay- kuan, kanang
likay unsa na siya, dili
na pangasaba o
unsa ba kaha o
nga
pagpangutana sa
iya. Mao rapud
na akoa, nag ask
nako ug question
sa ilaha.

P3: Dili gihapon kaayo P3: Wala, kay wala man P3: Sa akoa oo,
difficult siya kay naa ko nag-quali. Sa quali reward system
man kay pre ug post… kinahanglan pa man ka pud. Sa ako man
dili ra gyud kaayo ko sa mga bata ilahang gud kay ganahan
gakuan, dili nako dili na kuan. Pero kung data ang mga bata nga
gyud kaayo ko ingon nga lang nga as simple, mas mao lagi na
lisud-lisuron… dili kaayo simple pa sa thesis. Dili tagaan silag
lisud sa akoa lang gyud lisud. Mao ra gyud points. Dayon,
gathering of data, mostly na akoa. kanang prior sa
sa akoang kuan pre an activity kanang
dpost ra gyud na siya. akong buhaton,
Wala koy difficulty. Sa istoryhaon sad
reading mao gihapon. ang bata nga
kanang kini
langga para ni sa
imu. Tabangan
taka. Hinay-
hinayon. Pailin-
ilinan nako ug
estorya kay basin
moundang
palang hinoon.
Makasabot man
sad. Usahay
malibre nako ug
papel ba kaha,
ginagmay lang
96

gud. Hahaha.
Galisod baya ta.
Hahaha.

P4: In gathering the data, P4: When I piloted the P4: Kadtong
the formulation of the instrument, it’s not nakamiss,
proper and the most reliable, it below 50… especially ug nay
appropriate instrument. kapoy baya kaayo forty activity sa class.
That’s the thing, that you ka estudyante. kapoy Ako gihapon ipa
have to see to it that your gyud siya ..kani dayong comply pagbalik
instrument can be sample. If ang sample is nila. Akong
understood by your kanang kuan, gamay ra ipapares tong
sample… there are many siya pag pre-assessment nakabuhat aron
instruments that you nimu, so kinahanglan maoy mag guide
can find, found in the gyud nimu nga pangitaon nila aron
internet that’s not gyud nimu siya. Match makasubmit sa
reliable because it’s so gyud sa pre ug post. Unya output. Kay ang
standard. ang uban kay dili ga uban, pagbalik
seryoso ay. it’s like nothing
happened. Di pud
pwede
pasagdaan kay
action research
baya madaot
nasad akong
strategy, ang
data gathering
procedure ba is
not consistent.
Basin o lain gyud
nag result. Ma-
negative gyud
sure ug
pasagdaan lang.

P5: Nakita lang nako nga P5: Di ko kabalo P5: Ako sir kay
kung ang bata dili siya pagbalay o pag process o kadto lagi, bisan
consistent sa iyang kaha naanay data, pero absent sila sa
attendance, madugay ang proper utilization ba activity, ipaapas
gyud kag gather-gather ana. Pasagad lang. nako the
sa imung data. Oo, delay. Oo….Kuan man gud to following day. Ga
sila sir, deaf man. Oo. instruct ko sa
Mao galisod ko adto kay ilaha nga in ani,
97

ang uban lahi pud ang in ana ang


problema. Sa sped ba. Di buhaton. Tapos,
man sila tanan bungol. kuan sad
Gamay rat oud sila pero kadtong present
hago kaayo oy. akong ipa-assist
aron dili sila
mabyaan. Louy
man sad ug mo
go lang ko kay
ang uban diay
kay nangwarta
diay. …mao to
hatag kog
chance.
Pangitaan gyud
ug paagi.

P6: ..oo, mo-participate P6: Oo, nay manago oy P6: Akong


baya pud sila… kay lay murag ma-insecure buhaton para
naana si Mam Pasco, sila or naglagot sa ilang maayo ang kuan
mataranta sila. anak nga sige nag unya sa dagan sa
Mataranta baya sila kay padahlan ug sulat. Unya storya ba. Ako
nay mam…ang uban karon naana si Mam, ana usa mag ampo.
nagdala pag ispading, na sila. Ikaw nay Anang ali sa mo
uban moingon pag ‘naa moatubang ana, sila, diri, mag ampo ta
lagi ka mam?’ ang uban ilang asawa maoy sa Ginoo.
manago. ipaatubang. Hahaha. Lagi,
kay smooth
dayon kayo ang
kuan unya ang
flow sa interview
namo . oo, in ana.
Kay ug largohon
nako ug
makasab-an pas
ginikanan ang
bata o di ba kaha
wala sa mood ang
ginikanan ba.

P7: …Ang nakalisud P7: Ang hasol sir kay ang P7: …akong gina-
nalang dayon sir kay interview, pag-conduct ug employ nga
kuan, ang uban baya interview kay usahya strategy is
98

kay wala sila ana nga wala dira..ug kini dayong mangitag
time. Pag-gather sa data. sili mo-cooperate ang alternative.
Absent so, ma postpone bata. Kung mocooperate Kadtong
napud. Push napud man galling, kay dili somewhat doul-
dayon kag other nga day nimu mapuga ug mayo doul sa iyaha ug
nga ma-gather so murag ug unsa ang imung gusto performance nga
gakairog ang date napud sa ilaha ba kay ang uban bata maoy
dayon. maulaw. ginabira, maoy
akong gina-
interview. Mao na
alternative nga
respondent.

P8: Kadtong bata nga P8: Mao lagi sir, dili mo- P8: Ahh. Sa akoa
sige ug absent-absent cooperate ang bata. Sige sir it is, gitagaan
lisud kaayo ifollow-up. ug absent-absent. Kapoy nako silag points,
Oo, participant nako, kaayo magfollow-up. sa akong subject
respondent siya. Then Kana pud dayon sir. aron makuan
kuan, kanang taglagyo gyud siya, mo
ang balay. Dili makuan, attend sa ana nga
kay motabok pag sapa. session. Kay
Taglayo kaayo sir. kung moingon ka
nga okay, I will
give you
additional points,
so eager gyud ang
bata nga mo
attend…So mao
nay akong
gibuhat sir,
naghatag kog
additional points.
Murag na lessen
na dayon tong
absenses dayon
sir.

P9: Kadtong sa
P9: Kadtong sige ug P9: Kung qualitative sa akoa nga
absent ang bata, isa nato action research, kining nabantayan nako
sa participant o interview hasol. Hahaha. nga daghan gyud
respondent wala diha sa Uban dili mocooperate… wala anang
eskwelahan. Di gyud Oo, kaning in ana, walay biyernes, balhin
99

nato magather dayon ang problema. Aw, gamay ra kog Wednesday.


data. problema sa quantitative. Daghan man sila
ana. Arang-arang
nato. Reward
system naa
gihapon pero,
haha. Kaning
uban murag dili
gadulatlan ug
reward system.
Kadto rang mga
arangan rapud.

In the implementation of the strategy or intervention, it is vital that

the participants are around because it for their own benefit. However, this

was the greatest difficulty experienced by most teachers. The mode of data

gathering procedure differs from one to the other. Participant 6 utilized

interview for parents expressed that one of her difficulties was intimidated

partcipants. She recalled,

“…kadtong interview sa parents maoy lisud


lagi kay adtoan mo man gyud sila. Didto
gyud sa ilang balay mismo unya in ana
layo kaayo, maoy lisuran nako. Hastang
lisura gyud.”

Irregular attendance of students made the data gathering procedure

a difficult one. Some of the researches would utilize data from at the end

of the implementation, and the post-test shall also be administered.


100

Lesson may be missed by students and will eventually affect the result of

the post-test.

The difficulty of lesson adjustment had been the struggle of the

participants. Most of them asserted that absenteeism of students would

affect the whole assessment process. They emphasized that the activities

and assessment would be difficult whenever the students were absent and

do not easily get the lessons due to poor study habit. So, they need to run-

through the topic for the students who were absent from the previous

meetings. The students tend to be absent in the class due to physical,

emotional, and financial problems. That was why whenever the students

come back to class, they are left behind with the lessons.

As observed, one of the reasons that the students tend to be absent

was because they were not motivated to enter the class. In this scenario,

the teacher should make lesson and adjustment of the scheduled activities

which depend on instructional strategies and the confidence to make a

shift.

In the article from Child Trends Databank (2015) stated that

absenteeism was one of the strong predictors of academic failure. There

were many factors that contribute in student absenteeism, such as family

health or financial concerns, poor school climate, drug and alcohol use,

transportation problems, and differing community attitudes towards

education.
101

School activities were also considered to be one of the difficulties in

data gathering. Most teachers shared that there were school activities that

were not part of the school calendar and were urgently conducted. These

affected the implementation of strategy as the mode of data gathering

procedure. Thus, they need to adjust with their planned activities. THey

rescheduled the activities for the following day. These activities may be

symposia, practices for various events and the like.

In addition to the aforementioned challenges/problems, there were

also times that the teachers’ attention was needed. They may be asked to

do other task or may be sent to seminars for days. This is one of the

unanticipated situations that also affects the schedule. Participant 3 and

9 shared the same experience. The former is a master teacher and the later

acts as the Officer in-Charge. Both are senior high school coordinators

that has so much demand of their time. Participant 9 shared,

“…usahay mapatawag tas opisina dayon


schedule nimu naa kay gibutang didto
nga mao na imung trabahoon, mapadala
kag seminar. Ma-pending o mabiyaan
kadyot ba.”

Challenges/problems in gathering data. Collection or gathering of

data is critical to the research process. Thus, when implemented propertly,

data collection enhances the quality of a social research study (Rimando,

et. al., 2015). Teachers were greatly affected when they observed that
102

during the implementation, some students who were participants did

manifest less or no interest at all. Teachers may have anticipated this at

the outset but may fail to anticipate the severity.

Participant 1 utilized one particular strategy in her science lesson.

The activity was done on a daily basis. She observed that other than the

absences of the learners, their interest as well was not satisfactory at all.

She noted that the ability of the learner matters. She shared,

“…some of the students….were not interested kana


siya nga topic…dili sila ganahan. Lahi ra jud ang
ilahang result o output.”

What was also challenging to the teachers in the gathering of data

was the attitude of the participants. Learners in particular and even the

parent-participant showed the same attitude. The unannounced home

visit of Participant 6 created some reactions. She said,

“…mataranta pag abot nga oy, naa si Mam Pasco.


Unya ang uban gikan pa sa uma…”

One strategy employed by Participant 9, he recalled that it did not

worked for everybody. His research was related to sports, but obviously

not everybody was into it. There were limitations especially that the activity

was carried outdoor. He needed to consider students with special attention

on health and those that were not suited for the activity.

When it comes to interview, three participants emphasized that

doing such process was complicated and strenuous since interview data
103

needs to undergo a process so different with numerical figures. They

shared that at the outset of such process participants tend not to

participate. Participant 9 added that doing quantitative research was

better that qualitative research where interviews provide difficult data

gathering medium.

Strategies used by the teachers in addressing the difficulties,

challenges and problems in Gathering Data. Data analysis and

interpretation were usually the most revealing phase of doing teacher

research because through data analysis and interpretation, one finds the

answers needed in the most pressing problems of teaching and learning.

One can use the insight gained from data analysis and interpretation to

make sense of the situations and to make needed changes.

The system of giving reward to the students was eyed as one of the

strategies by the participants in order to alleviate their absences and

escalate participation and cooperation. Although, one of the participants

expressed that this strategy was effective, still there were participants

where reward system seem not to work. On the other hand, Participant 9

admitted that although reward system is helpful, for some students, still

it has no effect.
104

Paticipant 6 hasd a unique strategy in order not to intimidate the

parents whom she interviewed. She usually started with a prayer before

she did the interview. She also tried to be calm and motherly as possible

making her loved by the parents.

Difficulties in analyzing data. Depending upon the question,

teachers may wish to use classroom data, individual data, or subgroup

data. Some of the data were quantifiable and can be analyzed without the

use of statistics or technical assistance. Other data, such as opinions,

attitudes, or checklists, may be summarized in table form.

After having the data, one should explain how the findings were

analyzed. In the process of analyzing data, participants with good

background in data analysis using softwares did not find this process

difficult. Statistical softwares like SPSS and minitab were the common

media used to interpret data faster and easier. These teachers have

learned this technique especially that they do have learned this in one of

their subjects in their graduate studies. Some have learned this technique

as mathematics majors.

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is a software

package used in statistical analysis of data. It was developed by SPSS Inc.

and acquired by IBM in 2009. In 2014, the software was officially renamed

IBM SPSS Statistics. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is a
105

widely used program for statistical analysis in social sciences, particularly

in education and research. However, because of its potential, it is also

widely used by market researchers, health-care researchers, survey

organizations, governments and, most notably, data miners and big data

professionals. This is a common software used by teachers in the analysis

of their data and even some of them use this in testing the validity of

research instruments in their action researches.

Analysis of data in quantitative research is made easier by

softwares. This was also one of the difficulties of the participants not all

were lucky enough to have such software. SPPS in particular is not a free

software application. It needed to be bought, but only few among the

participants had this.

Having a software doesn’t guarantee a good statistical analysis. It

needs a lot of patience and practice to master the process of analysis.

Participants shared that they were also uncertain of what statistical tool

that will answer their research questions. Each function of the software is

unique, thus a careful manipulation should be done. The difficulties of the

participants in analyzing data is found in Frame 7.

Participants added that one of the greatest difficulty they had was

what specific tool must be used for their research question. Participant 2

shared,

“…unsa nga tool ang gamiton. Kay dili man


gyud ta pataka-taka lang ug gamit gyud dira.’’
106

Frame 7
Difficulties, challenges/problems and strategies used in analyzing data

Difficulties Challenges/Problems Strategies

P1: Kuan man to siya, P1: Dili ko kasabot..nga P1: Ako sir kay
quantitative, wala man mokuan for example after, nag try gyud
kaayo. Dali rapud ang kadto ilahang…kato ko ug interpret nga
pag-analyze kay gina- ilahang mga exam, di akong
run raman to nako dali 106an aa man toy mga kaugalingon. Then
raman siya. legend-legend. Dinha after sa akong
nga jani nga bracket interpretation, ako
ana. Naana ang result. dayon siyang gi
Unsa dayon to? refer sa akong
friend nga
statistician kung
sakto ba ng akong
ginahimo nga
interpretation
base on the result
sa SPSS kung
mainsakto ba isya
nga pagka
interpret ug
insakto baa ng
symbol nga akong
giinclude sa
akoang action
research gyud…

P2: Unsa nga tool nga P2: ..Tapos, ug makuha P2: Sa akoa pud
gamiton, unsa nga tool na ang result, nana sir kay kuan,
106ap ag-interpret ani lugar, ang kuan napud katong nag-ask ko
nga akong kinahanglan dayon ang kaning ug kanang help sa
nga gamiton para ana implication sa figures akoang kanang
nga data. nga nakuha nimu. Okay kauban nako sa
raman ang central mga teacher sa
tendency pero ang uban previous nako nga
nga higher level sa stat, station didto gyud
be. Murag di sako ana. ko nag-ask ug
So dili kaayo ko familiar tabang sa iyaa
ato sa iyaha kay murag kung unsaon pag
bag-o sa akoa. interpret….kay
107

murag
nagkalisang-
lisang gyud tong
akoang result pud.
Akong gi try, nag
try ko, pero mejo
nay deperensya
lang among gamay
result duha kay
master man to sa
akoa.

P3: Wala, kay sayon P3: Wala na kaayo ko sa P3: Ako rajud
raman akong gigamit. analyzing data man tawon ako adto sir.
Median, mode ug mean. gud… Dali raman siya. Kabalo-balo man
Wala nako nag correlate. Mao lagi, dili man lisod sad kog run sa
akong questions. Maong SPSS pero usahay
basic stat rapud ako gani kanang akoa
gigamit. Mao ng, di naa raman gani na
kaayo ko lisuran excel pud. Kadto
ana…Pagkahuman sa noong una, murag
data gathering, naa bug-at kaayo sa
nakay data gathered, akoa. Bisan
plastar na nimu. kanang mga
Mapuga gyud ka kay mean, mga
imuha baya ng ikuan, median, mga
iplastar tanan. Oo, mode. Pero pag
kinahanglan gyud masters nako
lingkuran nimu… kaingon ko anan
raman diay
kasayon. Pero sa
higher level na
siguro, kanang
kuan, pa rescue
ta. Pa rescue ko….

P4: Kanang difficulty is P4: Ang SPSS dali P4: Naa man toy
unsa nga tool ang raman gyud kaayo siya, mga kauban nga
angayan gamiton. In kanang studyhan mayo sa stat,
analyzing the data, you makabalo raman gyud dayon sa ilang
have to select the most ka. Practice ka lang research ana pud
appropriate statistical gyud. Adtong Usahay ang flow.
technique. masayop ka, pero Nagpatabang ko.
108

magpractice ka lang. Nakabalo ko


ako dili man kaayo ko unsaon na dayon.
kabalo ana sauna pero Pag skwela nako
time goes by tawag- nay stat nabaw-an
tawag mura napud na nako nga pre-
dayon kag nahimong ug post kung nay
statistician nimu ba. So significant
dili kaayo difficult man difference, t-test
sa akoa. diay. Sauna,
hadlok
paminawon, karon
feeling expert na
kunohay.
Ahahaha. Pero oo,
sa mga kaila nako
nga statistitician,
consult kos iyaa ug
sakto ba ni mam.
Unsay comment
nimu mam. Anion
nako.

P5: Akong difficulties, as P5: Sir, actually, P5: Akoa,


to what tool, proper tool kadtong akoang action patabang kos mga
nga gamiton o kaha research karon sir kay, mathematician
angayan ba nga motubag wala raba gyud to diri. Dali raman
sa research magamitig, mga kuan, daw to pero saon
question….Kuan ba siya, tool like mga basic lang taman gyud.
appropriate ba? sa SPSS ug uban pa nga Willing man pud
software para motabang sila. Pagduol nako
ug analyze. Kuan lang sa akong mga
siya, ako lang siyang kauban mga ‘mam
naka excel bitaw. Nag unsaon mani
graph-graph lang ko, oo. nako? Pwede ko
Ana. Measure of central magpatabang ani
tendency ra gyud siya. unsaon ko ni?
Sayon ra gyud kaayo. Murag apili man
gyud kaayo.’
Willing kaayo sila
motabang.

P6: Diha nata dapit kay P6: Oo, statistical, P6: Kuan, kanang
dili man ta math. ohohoh. That’s it. Kay di mao nato naana
109

Hahaha. Kanang, pila ka man gyud ko kabalo sa akoa ang data


per cent? Patabang gyud ana. Nalimot na kay na record. Kanang
ko ana. Ah, sa data, di unsa pa tong anyoha sa na kuan na sa
man ko math mao mana college nako. Unya math, excel, na record
akong kalagutan kay agay dili ko ana. Mao naman gani to sa
sauna dili nako na bet nay problemahan nako. class record kay sa
kanang math oy. science man to.
Nangita ko ug mag
analyze, kanang
nagpatabang nako
ug unsaon. Akong
mga kauban man
noun sa school
rescue man noun
sila. Ang mga math
dayon kadtong
naa pud SPSS sa
stat nila maoy ni
volunteer.

P7: Kaning kuan sir, ang P7: Ang statistical tool. P7: Sa akong
tool, statistical too… Usahay man gud sir kay study sir, akong
mainterpret ba niya ug dili ko kabalo ug gamit strategy, nag-
tarong ang akong sa ubang statistical patutor gyud ko
pangutana sa akoang tool…murag gaka kuan unsaon paggamit.
research. pako, gaka confuse pako Kay kapoyan man
unsa nga tool ang dapat ko ug basa kay
angay gamiton ani nga murag naa mana
question…naa koy siya sa internet ra
minitab pero dili ko unsaon pag-gamit,
kabalo ug gamit. kapoyan ko.
Akong gi-studyhan
ug giunsa gyud ni
siya. So
nagpatabang gyud
ko sir. Nagpatutor.

P8: Maglisud ko sir unsa P8: …dili ko kabalo P8: ..naka-enrol ko


gamiton nga tools sa pag- atong figure, ang anang stat nga
interpret sir. Kung kuan pasabot niya. Then subject. So didto
ba to, ANOVA, unsa pa usahay makaingon ko, ko nakarealize nga
tong uban diha sir oy. ‘sakto ba tong pamaagi ‘ay, sayon raman
Mga t-test. Maglibog ko diay.’ Kadtong kay
110

ug aha ang angayan nako?’ Murag di ko sure Sir Keen kay


diani nga problema. sir ba. nagpatutor, ako
kay gi-discuss
rapud sa among
professor. So, ako
nalang kuan sir is
nag additional
nalang ko sa uban
nga kuan kung
unsaon siya pag-
interpret. Didto
nalang dayon ko
sa interpretation
sa data dayon sa
result. Usahay
kay magpatabang
dayon ko sa isa
nako ka kauban.

P9: Ahhh, ang gamiton P9: ..pag naana ang P9: Srategies
nga tool. Mao nay mejo result, explain mana. kanang
lisud. Lisuran ko ana. Kani napong isupport nagpatudlo gyud
Kanang statistical tool. nimu kay dili mana ko unsaon.
ingon nga kadtong result Naningkamot pud
mao nato. Human na ko masabtan nako
dayon. So, balay-balay gamay tong
napud kas isupport processo kay naa
nimu nga literature ba. man akoa akoa
anang SPSS pag
interpret. Ug ako-
ako lang okay
raman pero lagi
kay murag di
kaayo ko
confident…Maong
ako nalang dayon
tong gi-explain-
explain. In ana
tong ako sir. Kay
quanti man to.
111

On the other hand, some of them also shared their experience that

this process was not difficult for them at all. Participant 1 who was in her

post-graduate study shared that she had a little knowledge with statistical

tools. One participant shared that she did not find this process difficult

since the statistical tools she often used in most of her research were easy.

Participant 5 may have experienced a unique difficulty among them.

Hers was on the individual analyses of the output in her Special Eucation

class. She shared that she needed to browse and study the output of her

learners one by one. The process was tedious because it needed a lot of

understanding and effort.

Challenges/problems in analyzing data. There were isues in

analyzing data. The statistical software presented the result of the analysis

but some of the participants were not certain on the implication of the

figures given in the processing of data.

Related studies to support the result of the data analysis was needed

again in this portion. Participant 1 finds it a major difficulty to look for

studies to support the result. She said,

“maglisod sa pagpangita ug related


study nga mosupport sa didto sa
akong study. Di ba manginahanglan man
ta ana nga naa poy mossuport ana sa
imung result? Whether positive or
negative…”
112

She emphasized that another time is needed to to look for

literatures. On the other hand, Participant 3 had a different experience.

According to her, it is easy for her to analyze the data since the tools and

procedure she used were common statistical tools that could be ran in

Microsoft excel. She noted that,

“…sa pag-analyze dalian rako kay sayon raman


akong question….pero ako man gud adto kay lahi
baya ug kanang university standards ang ato sa
school kay kanang basic ra.”

The type of data also varies from each of the participants. Most

claims that these were numerical figure especially in quantitative data.

Participant 7 had decided what statistical tool to use, on the other hand,

since he was not familiar with SPSS. The challenge was how to encode the

figures taken as the data was analyzed.

The analysis with the aid of Statistical software did not take too

much time. The greatest challenge for Participant 9 was on what the

implication of what the result is. He recalled,

“….naa na ang data, aw kaning result, unya


kay numbers raman na….naa nay number
dayon unsa dayon implication ana? Unsay
pasabot ana? So kuan baya, numbers cannot
speak for itself baya”
113

Strategies used by the teachers in addressing the difficulties,

challenges/problems in analyzing data. Even if the process of analyzing

was usually done by expert statisticians, still some of the participants tried

to manipulate the software and made analysis on their own.

In one of the subjects in the Graduate Program where most of them

were enrolled, Participant and 3, 4 and 7 shared the same experience.

Their statistics subject enlighted them about data analysis. They shared

that, they were able to learn a lot which were found helpful.

Assistance in data analysis. The process of analyzing data takes a

lot of expertise. That is why when the teachers were uncertain in this

particular process, they seek for assistance with whom they trust the most

in data analysis. As observed, most of the participants consulted an expert

in statistics.

Although some teachers were experts already with analysis, they

still were not confident and further sought for assistance. According to

Glickman, Gordon, and Gordon (2007), teachers commonly seek each

other’s advice, support, and assistance more often than those of

administrator. Experts in data analysis were consulted by teachers.

Usually, the mathematics majors who were also teaching in the same

school did this. Although some would claim that they did it by themselves,
114

but still they ask for assistance from experts. The responses of the

participants for the assistance in data analysis is found in Frame 8.

Frame 8
Assistance in data analysis.

P1:…mokontak ko ug statistician didto sa CMU, ug dili diri sa


Sinangguyan sa Don Carlos, si Mam Minao. Oo, maayo na siya, master
na siya anang stat. So, ana siya, didto ko mag-contact sa iya. Oo, sa
expert.

P2:…kauban nako nga teacher and then katong akong friend nfa math
teacher gihapon. Kato pud siya.

P3: Ako lang, kanang ako rajud. Besides, I did not use kanang kuan,
complicated statistical tool. Mga sayon raman unya naanad napud ko, so
in ana. Di ko maglisud-lisud.

P4:…ako ang ga-run pero pa check nako sa akoang statistician sa


master’s thesis…kay mahadlok ma ngyud ta labi na ma-question baya
ta. We are not experts, so murag mosangko gyud gamay.

P5: Ay, sus sir, sa akoa ra gyud. Mao gyud toy giingon nga ug unsa toy
nahuna hunaan gamay, hala ako nalang nag analyze, analyze. Kay mao
raman to, tulo ra man pud to. Central tendency. Wala natong mga higher
level na. mao ra gyud to. Ako ako ra gyuy nag kuan. Analyze analyze
adto.

P6: Mga expert sa math kinahanglan maayo gyud. Kay team teaching
man kaha ni tabangi ko ninyo kay motabang pud ko in terms sa science.
Hahahaha. Give and take ba… Oo, ana ba. At least hibaw-an pud nila
unsa imung study. Kamo man maayo ani pag interpret. Ana.

P7: Diri gyud ta sa expert. Statistician gyud ta. Or else kadtong kaila nako
nga mga math majors nga maayo gyud kaayo…. Ug maayo nako sa
minitab, siguro ako nalang ana pero karon kailangan pako mangayo ug
tabang. Sa mga maayo na.

P8: Kung pwede sir makaya man tingali nako sir. Pero ug dili na makuan
magpatabang nako sa akong kauban nga math major. Ahh. Kadtong mga
statistician gihapon.
115

P9: So far ako raman to sauna nagkuan kay naa lagi tay stat nga subject
pero ang among instructor sauna among professor nag kuan gyud siya
nag endorse gyud siya sa among statistician didto sa university nga
akong gitudloan nga akong gi eskwelahan. So didto, siya ray nag
analyze, although naa mi SPSS gitudloan mi niya ug paggamit.

There is a cooperative climate that heightens the level of innovation

and enthusiasm among teachers and provides a continuous support for

staff professional enhancement. Therefore, teachers need to recognize the

value of working together.Teacher collegiality is necessary in an era of

continuous change and improvement. It is seen as an opportunity to

involve many individuals in solving the complex educational problems of

modern times. A wider range of demands can be addressed by using a

collaborative approach than by individual, isolated efforts (Sha, 2012).

Taking Actions and Sharing Results

Difficulties in presenting and sharing the results of action research.

The English language has an important standing in global communication;

hence, both oral and written English skills are essential around the world.

However, to many, speaking English seems to be a very challenging task


116

(Paakki, 2013). These days, due to the global trend of internationalisation,

the ability to communicate in English is needed as an essential skill.

Presenting and sharing the result of the action research was usually

carried-out through written and verbal means. In this case, most of the

participants experienced an intimidating attitude when it comes to oral

presentation. This was due to their insecurity in speaking in front of the

crowd. Especially that English was ideally encouraged to be used in oral

presentations.

They also claimed to doubt the result to be heard by everybody

because it did not undergo a thorough review from experts, like that of

thesis and university researches where a pool of research experts sits and

scrutinize the action research. This was done in order to increase the

validity and reliability of the research being conducted. Also, most of the

research conducted have not undergone thorough editing.

Participant A expressed her doubt which also made her hesitant to

present her research to others. She told the group during focus group

discussion that,

“…maulaw ko ug magpabasa sa uban kay


galing bitaw ug dili mao, especially kung
ang nakabasa mas expert pa.”

The response was affirmed by Participant 7 who also expressed the

same side and added that the action research did not undergo referring.

The criteria on how the research proposal be improved, as suggested by


117

the research experts of the Division Office may not be enough since only

checklist were presented and not with the specific details to be worked on.

Responses of the participants in terms of their difficulties in presenting

and sharing the results of action research is found in Frame 9.

Frame 9
Difficulties, challenges/problems and the strategies used in presenting and
sharing the results of action research

Strategies Challenges/Problems Strategies

P1:…. Mahadlok mi P1:… dili ko confident P1: Ako sir kay,


ganig, dili mao o. lagi ng amakit-an sa uban ‘whatever will be,
murag doubtful. Kadto kay I’m not sure kung will be. Hahaha.
ganing ako murag ensakto ba o dili. Akong gikuan sa
doubtful ko. Siguro mao Hesistant ko mag- akong kaugalingon
gyud siya kadtong present ay. Duha-duha nga kaya ni nako,
mahadlok mi nga dili pako ug sakto na ba kaya ni nako. I can
mao kay kung mao pa gi- gyud. Mao ng ug naay do it…..So in ana
accept nato diretso wala opportunity to present, lang gyud. Positive
na nibalik diri so naa murag dili sa gyud ko. lang gyud nato
gyud siyay kakulangon Gi-print ko lang dayon atong kuan nga
nga so, siguro, kadto toa sa office tong full- kaya nato….
lang siguro sa result ang blown.
kuan, ang pag explain, sa
gina ingon na nako
ganina dili kaayo ko
maayo anang mga pag
explain-explain….

P2:….Mag storya infront. P2:… murag wala P2: Sa ako Sir


Okay ra unta kung mga kaayo nako nahan-ay Randy kay akong
bata ang pinakahadlok akong pag storya kay gihuna-huna kay
lang kay kani ganing kadto murag nahadlok kana ganing
ishare na sa uban nga nako, naulaw nako. molabay rani nga
kanang professional Murag negative na ang adlaw. Paghuman
napud. Kay naa man feedback sa uban adto. ani wala na. yes.
gyud mga tao nga Sa akong mga kauban, Yes. Bitaw mao ra
kanang perfectioninst. O okay raman. Pero gyud to siya. Akong
118

mahadlok ko ana nga murag dili sila approve gihuna-huna is


murag icorrect bitaw ko adto. Dili na siya han- mahuman rani nga
ana nga ahhhh. My God. ay. Murag gi nerbiyos adlaw.
Basin icorrect ko infront nako adto.
gyud ba samtang
gaistorya pa ko dinha.
Hahaha.

P3: ….wala man, wala P3: Okay ra sa akoa P3: Ako sir is
koy difficulties in sharing sir, wala nay problema. practice makes
the result. Whatever the Pag-present, oo naka perfect. Usahay
result nga naa, I share present man ko sa bitaw, aw
the results. ubang schools sa permanente gyud
district. Kini lang atoa ng anxiety pero
diri nga mga kuan, makaya raman.
pwede ra mag mentor, Positive lang jud.
pwede rako maka
mentor ginagmay
ginagmay. Oo, inig
mga Inset sa other
schools ga invite
naman sila adto nakog
mga other schools mga
elementary schools ga
invite sila during
weekend usahay.

P4: So there should be P4: Wala pa ko ka P4: Ako sir is


sharing of ideas and then share sa last kadtong practice gihapon.
if there are suggestions contemporary teaching Kanang sa INSET
to improve your strategies but naka lugar kadtong nag-
research, you just have share ko adtong sa share ko saunsa
to accept, accept. Hadlok SIM. Kadto pud lagi, kay INSET-INSET
man gyud, ulaw natural kanang nice unta ra ba gyud ta ka
mana siya inog mag- matagssan ang mga talk sa atong
present no kay it takes a teachers tanan pero, I research. Kanang
lot of confidence pero let it understand sa ana, oo, practice.
be. Anyways ang resources no. so ana
importante is ma realy nalang. Naa sa office,
nimu ang result. Then then sila ra basa…
conduct again, conduct
again.
119

P5:… kana bitawng naay P5:… basin katong P5: Kung ako lang,
inferiority. Kay kintahay akoang study kay dili dili kaayo ko
pag present, bati mani to salable, unya kadto confident ay. Di na
akoang research. Oo. mao to common ra gani unta ko kay
Ana. Dili man siguro ni kaayo. And then, wala mahadlok ko adto
kuan oy, ordinary raman siyay challenge sa kay mahadlok lagi.
kaayo ni. Ana lang. hala uban. Unya basin ug Pero gi-push
oy, basin kuan man gud didto ra siya nga level. gihapon kos mga
ni. Mga ana lang ba. Kay Dili siya bitaw kuan, kauban
mahadlok ko, mahadlok unsa ba ni oy. Dili diya nako….Nahimo to
ko nga basin ang akong pwede I further og sad to nako. Pabaga
mga kauban didto nga research. Kuan ra man lang sa face.
gipa kuan, gikan sa na , murag basic ra sa
kuan. Audience nako is akoa. Murag lang bag
mga expert diay kaayo gapanuko lang.
to….

P6: Okay kini sigurong P6: …. Kanang P6: Madala raman


pagkuan, powerpoint negative ang ilang noun ug smile sir.
kabalo man kog power kuan ba, kanang oo Kanang relax-relax
point pero dugay dugay feedback. Ambot lang bahala ang
ba. Dugay dugay pa. pero nganon na sila. Siguro dughan nagbuto-
kakuan naman kos kapoyan na. Ako bitaw buto na. Madugay
power point hapit nako eight years ka mag-present
presentation…. from now hapit nako, gisagulan nako
try lang gihapon ko…. bisaya. Okay
raman. Ang
importante lang
diha na relay to
nimung result ba
aron makatuon sab
ang uban kay
angay tong
masayran oy.

P7:.. Sa pag-present ug P7:… So far sir positive P7: Ako sir akong
pag-share….kuan kaning man ilaang kuan, tapos ginabuhaton lang
pareha sad sa uban. di lang nila ginapply. sir kay gina-remind
Kanang stage fright. Di Kadtong ginasulti nako nako akong self nga
man malikayan sir oy. sa ilaa. Pero positive take a deep breath
Kanang mag-atubang sila. Sige sila ug kuan gyud. Hinay-hinay
naka sa daghang tawo, ahh.. “tsada tsada.” mao gyud na akong
dayon ilang mata naa sa Taman ra sila estorya una ginabuhaton
120

imu. Kanang, murag be, pero walay action…. kay kung mag-
basin unsay ilang say Ang problema siguro present ko ginhawa
ani. Kanang an aba…. dili sila open. Di sila lang gyud ug lalom
open nga mao ni siya pirme…
ang strategy kay akoa
more on strategy man
to akoang action
research.

P8:… kung actual na. P8:.. maulaw ko inig P8: Ako sir kay
mag present, mahadlok present sa result sir malipay ko kung
ko kung naay mag tan aw basin naay mga sayop ikaduha ko nga
sa akoa. Kay basin naa sa uban ba…. Mao ba presenter. Hahaha.
koy mga sayop sir ba. ni akong gi present Kay at least naa koy
Kaning pag kuan sa mga tama ba ni pag present idea. Naana dayon
data. Basin 120ay mo tama ba ni ang result koy basis Sir dayon
interrupt ug kalit oy, sa akong problem. relax.
wrong. Mejo ulaw ulaw Problema kay basin ug
gyud gamay. kuan ba naay mga
sayop sayop wala
bitaw na check ug
tarong.

P9:… pag inenglish kay P9: So far, ahh, P9: Kanang mga in
basin masayop kog sulti kadtong akong study ana nga butang,
pag present…..Naay kay about man to sa relax lang. anyways
stage fright gihapon sir. sports, ganahan man dili bitaw ka nila
Kay hadlok gyud gihapon to sila sa unsaon. Ang imu
moatubang sa laing tawo. among resulta, nalang diha nga
although naa tay mga mahuman ra lagi na
kinahanglan nga mga ron. Sagdai nanang
interventions nga mangutana ah, ug
ihatag, and then naay nay tubag, tubag ug
usahay nga basin dili wala ayaw na
sila uyon sa result, sa pugsa. Ana lang,
sa atong ah,, sa chill ba.
research no. ang
importante diha na-
present nimu, sila nay
bahala ug okay ba sila
o dili.
121

The action researches conducted in the school level was supervised

by a school research coordinator. The said coordinator then endorses the

completed action research to the school prinicipal for submission.

Challenges/problems in presenting and sharing the results of action

research. The opportunities of the participants to present and share the

result of their researches were limited to school-based activities. In-service

training was the most common opportunity for them as well as meetings

and informal gatherings. Recently, the Division of Bukidnon conducted a

research congress, but none of the participants participated in this

research event. The said activity was organized in order to have

opportunity for all the researches conducted to be heard by all others

concerned.

When it comes to challenges/problems, most of the concerns only

focused on personal factors like stage fright. This was the common

denominator for all the participants.

Strategies used by the teachers in addressing the difficulties,

challenges and problems in Taking Actions and Sharing Result. The result

of the action research may first be conferred with co-teachers and other

realiable experts. Sharing one’s finding with others together with the
122

research approach used, as well as explaining data interpretations may

help draw valuable suggestions.

The perspectives and interpretations of others may be used to clarify

and validate the findings. This humble act may help any researcher to look

at their data from multiple lenses, help interpret the findings, and can

draw conclusions and implications for future teaching.

In sharing the result, teachers faced and conquered their fears. They

even shared some insights on how to present. Optimism played a vital role

in making this process successful.

Prior to their speaking engagement, the teacher prepared through

constant practice. Using English in presenting the research was great

challenge for many, but they emphasized that the most important thing

was to relay the result to others.

Making others informed of the results of action research. Results of

the conducted research is best shared to all concerned for their reference.

It should not be only found in the text of the finished research, but should

be translated into action. This will allow opportunities for others to do

same thing and reflect from the result.

The action researches made by the teachers was successfully shared

to others. Although, most were shared only within the school level, their
123

co-teachers may learn from the result as the result is encouraged to be

known by everybody especially those that are in the same discipline. This

opportunity would encourage others teachers to engage in research and

improve the delivery of the teaching-learning process. School heads would

encourage the school community to make innovations in teaching. These

innovations would significantly give contributions to the academic

community.

Sommer (2009) mentioned that action researchers should publish

substantive articles in technical journals to reach colleagues; applied

articles in periodicals read by practitioners and the public; and

methodological and reflective articles in associational and professional

journals designed to improve the practice of action research. In this

manner, other researchers from around the globe may refer to the research

and also learn from it. Other interested individuals may adopt and may

consider to deepen the research. On the other hand, none of the

participants was able to to publish their action research in print in

journals where a vast audience may have access like journals and other

internationally recognized publishers. Although their research was shared

to others, but the copy of the action research is only kept personally or in

the school office for filing purposes. Teachers’ responses on how the action

research result was conveyed is presented in Frame 10.


124

Frame 10
Making others informed of the results of action research

P1:…kadtong related nako sa Musuan na-publish gyud to nako sa


region. Naa koy na publish isa. Pero sa Musuan pud to. Pero diri sa
school nga action research wala pa gyud sir. Kadtong naay INSET sauna
oo, kanang mga meeting-meeting nato. Dayon nagpasa man ko adto sa
office. Naa man to sa SBM nga folders.

P2:… Unsa gani ni siya kanang meeting, naay mga seminar.

P3:… Mga inset ana. Kanang naay meetings oo kay school-based ra bya
pud maong ana sa school basta naay opputunity nga magtapok-tapok.
Tapos kanang i-invite ko sa ubang schools mag-talk. Mostly sa mga
elementary schools sa atong district II.

P4: … Naa sa office, then sila ra basa.I shared it to them kanang even
mag meeting. Share-share. Share-share…..gitagaan nakog copy si mam
tapos katong isa, katong sa SIM. Natagaan gihapon nakog copy si mam
then katong sa innovation sa making leadership oo.

P5: Kuan siya mao to, gi-submit sa division office. Tapos gibalik unya
wala man to I wasn’t able to present it. Sa body man naa ra sa akoa I
keep it. Gi-file sa school dayon naay sa akoa. Wala gyud to siya nako na
communicate. Ug naay mga in-service training. Oo, ana. Ana sir.

P6: Kanang sa inset, wala mi gitagaan ug privilege ana…. Kanang sa mga


tapok-tapok, magmeeting mi dir sa school. Ginapasa man namo ang
kopysa isa sa office ba. Gi file didto.

P7: Siguro sa LAC sessions siguro, pwede nako mag share sa akong mga
kauban. Mga kauban nga mga teachers sa akoang discipline… storya
storya lang ako na siyang gina insert. Kuan discussion. Mag tabi-tabi
lang. pwede pud sir diha pud. Pwede pud inset.

P8:.. Oo, gi-share nako sa math department namo kanang mag meeting
mi. Adtong LAC session. Sa school ra gyud sir.

P9:.. ako lang ibase didto sa kuan no, subject mana siya sa among, bali
naay online nga newspaper gitawag na nila ug integra, so once ma kuan
ka ana , ma-publish to siya. Akong kuan is, mejo tsada to siya nga topic.
But then diri sa atoa sa deped, ahh pareho aning naa tay mga inset,
pwede nato ishare diha…
125

Publishing research was not yet done by the teachers, except for

Participant 9 who was able to present his action research online. The rest

have shared the results through In-service trainings in their schools and

other teacher-realted gatherings. Meetings were also good opportunities to

share the result and other opportunities were teachers are gathered

together.

These researches were submitted and filed by their respective

schools for record-keeping purposes. Participant 3 was able to share to

share her researches through speaking engagements during training-

workshops in the district level. She mentored other school and assisted

them in the process of doing their research.

There are opportunities that the conducted research may be

presented like the recently organized research congress both here and

abroad.

Generally, the public high school teachers’ lived experiences

revealed various difficulties and challenges/problems encountered by

them in each action research processes. Although there were various tasks

and deadlines to meet in school, still action research was pursued for the

benefits, especially in finding solution to common classroom problems.