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Bditedb¡r
Michael Aris
and
Aung San SuuKyi

PROCEEDINGS OF
THE INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON TIBETAI\ STUDIES
OXFORD 1979

ARIS A PHTLLIPS LTD. WARMINSTER ENGLAND


72 CANZIO: Drums & Cymbals IJ

As regards the modes of performance, the basic count is a tremolo of the


cymbals ending together with a drum stroke, this mode is knoum as rwithout
reboundt ('phat rned) ín order to be distínguíshed from another more elaboratq ODPIYÃNA: A NEW INTERPRETATION
mode of performance known as tgreat reboundf (rphar chen). This consists 6¡ Lokesh Chandra
three consecutive cymbal tremolos of diminishing length, the last of them o{{iyãna played a pivotal role ín the development, redaction and dis-
short and played with a bouncing gesture (the great rebound) is accompanied whence the Tantras originated'
with a drum stroke. s"¡oin"iion of the Tantrâs. It was the centre that Vajrapãr.ri collected 'endless rev-
i."ot¿ing to Bu-ston it was at Od.{iyãna
Another commonly encountered mode is the rlame-walkt (then-rkang) which 'illio"t ãf Va3rayãna' and gave them to Indrabhuti. Guhyasamãja, the cul-
consísts of two strokes of the cymbals one loud and one soft; both take one to Indrabhûtí/Indrabodhi in
count. This mode of playing indeed resembles the gaít of a lame person, hence åI.orion of Tãntric thoughi, was also revealed(Toh. 2643) and Jñãna-tilaka-
its colourful name; among the sakyas it is played with a left to ríght sweeping öãdi'a"". The Tartva-piabhãsa-karar.r{a-dipa tradition point out that
.ååi.rf-r"tttra-rã-ja (Toh, 422) of the Guhyasamãja
movement, the loud stroke on the feft and the soft on the right.
rn rof-tshigr scores other modes of performance are found: the fmouth iiãr"¡tt"ti r"" ui incarnatíon of vajrapã+i and it ¡,¡as he who upon
knew and could
by Candralcîrti
ãxpf"in the Guhyasamãja. The Guhyasamãja was commented
opent (kha-r7ang) where both c}'rnbals are held with the hollow boss upwards r"" a follower of the tantric Nãgãrjuna who was born at Kanci and whom
and thus struck. ThÍs mode of performance is contrasted with the habitual "i,à (slc, Tucci 1949: I.2L4). The explicit reference
way of playing them knovm as tmouth closedr (kha sbllar). ,h" aurar ca:l:l Kañcannara It is significant
Sti11 there exists modes of performance where there are no counts, iD- to Kanci holds the key to the identification of o{diyãna. the presiding deity
that Indrabhuti was an incarnation of Vajrapãr.ri, who was
stead there is a ritualization of the way of playing. The rlotus roundt o"tha situated in O{{iyãna, or modern Bkãrnre6vara at Kancí.
(pad-'khor) ís an interesting instance of this process. The lower cymbal is oi
"' U"rîgut
-d. idôntif ícation of Od{iyãna wíth Udyãna/U¡jãnaka in the North-inlestern
held sti1l while the upper cymbal starting from the tmouth closedt position of
describes a clockwise turn shor¿ing the inner ho11ow, thus symbolizing the ¡egions of India was enuncíated in a period of the euphoria of discoveries
openÍng of a lotus flower. There ís also the rput downr (bznag) indication Suádhist antiquities from Gandhara and other North-llestern regions of fndía
where the actíon of leaving the cymbals aside has become the ritualized usuaf whích seemed to be the prÍme locus of Buddhism. At that tíme, it was but
finale of certain rhythrnic formulae. natural that Udyãna came foremost to the minds of Buddhologísts as the place
Finally it is l^rorth noticing another way of playing where no counting is to be equated with O{díYãna.
Whán Oddiyãna was ídentified with Udyãna, South Indía had not come to
involved and that is the mchod-rof, a continuous tremolo on the clnnbals
accompanied by a rapid succession of drum strokes which can be heard during occupy a p1aåe of relevance ín the evolution of Buddhism and as such ít could
the Offerings when mantras are recited. not stríke anybody tlìat Oddiyãna could have a South Indían derivatíon' Kancl
r^ras one of the gru"iåst metropolitan centres of Indian culture, and it
The scope of our subject does not necessarily end at this point, \,r'e "..r"r,
gloríous capital of the Pallavas, who played a major role in the
was also the
could go on to analyze in detail indÍvidual compositions where ¡^¡e fill find díffusion of Vajrayãna to lands beyond the seas. The South Indian places of
alternating seríes of group countíngs of the kind described above, certain Sriparvata, Ohãnyaitaçaka, Potalaka and O{{iyãna rrere some of the for.emost
stereotyped ways of commencing and finishíng a piece, rítua1 gestures, set creatíve centres of Mantrayãna, especially of systems centeríng around
ways of waving the drumstick during the performance and the like. l.Ie must vairocana, namely the (i) Â.r"t"rìr""L" sûtras,(ií) caryã tantlas, and (iii) yoga
nevertheless stop here and hope that this brief paper serves âs a useful tantras - ín a1l three the Cosmlc Buddha was Vairocana v¡íth varying icono-
íntroit to our vast theme. graphic attríbutes. It is not surprising that the land par excellence of
VaSiayana in the Tibetan tradition should be O{{iyãna = Kanci'
Notes
Forms of the word OQQigâna.
sakya Pandítars rTreatise on Musicr The toponyn Oddi'á"" occurs in the following eleven forms in Sanskrit and
1. is perhaps the only major text deal- Tibetan texts:
ing with the various aspects of chant and ínstrumental musÍc in the (i) uQQigana-vinirgata-Kurukullã occurs in sãdhana 779 of the sãdhana-
Tibetan liturgy. Kun-dgat bsod-nams, the xvrth cenlury commentator
on this text, has clarífied many aspects of this impoïtant but obscure mãlã, where the variant reading ís O{iyãna. She is equivalent to
text. Hevajra-Kuruku11ã, Hevajra-tantra-krame¡a Kurukullã (Niçpannayogãvalî 6,
From his fTreatise on Musicr (noL-moti bstan-bcos) a non-extânt extra HT1.11.13,SM:l7g,I83,186,187-citedinMallmannIgT5:228)'
2
canonical work q,uoted by Kun-dgat bsod-nams. All other candragomin (ií) u||igârrakr apiears in the Mahãmãyürl 97 (Lêvi 1915: 56, 105 f') as
quotations are from Kun-dgat bSod-namsf commentary. the place of residence of yakça Karã1a'
(iii)The spelling u-Qgan can be seen in two titles of the Tanjur dedicated
3 'Jam-dpa1 (bSod-nams) dBang-po (1559-1621), son of the famous sTag- to 0{{iyãna-lfãrlcl and both translated by Don-yod-rdo-rje and Ba-rí
tshang Lotsava, teacher of Kun-dgat bsod-nams and also his fraternal
I otsava:
uncle. This and all other quotations are from his rTreatise on Musict
(aot-mo'i bstan-bcos gcig-shes kun-gro7) and are found in Kun-dgat bSod- Toh.3344 U-{yan-gyí tod-zer-can-gyi sgrub-patí-thabs:
namst comrnentary. UÇ{iyãna-}fiaiî"ï-"ãdh"tt". Author : Lhan-cig-skyes-pa'i-ro1-pa'
4 The relationship between the Nine Feelings (ngams dgu) which corresponds rår-r.iS+S-U-dyan-gyí rim-pati'od-zer-can-gyi sgrub-pa'i-thabs =

to the ¡asa of the rndian theory of Aesthetics and the four ritual 0{{iyãna-krama-rnãri ci- sãdhana.
activities is dealt with by sakya pandita in rThe I'lay of the Inlisef Gi)- oaqigana is prefaced ro Ìfãrlci: O{iyãna-Mãricl (S}{.138 [L.283-4 ],
(nKhas-pa 'jug-pa'i sgo) . 139).InSM.14OO{iyãna-pÏthahasthevariantreadingo{{iyãna-piÇha :
in the manuscript oi itt" Cârnbridge University Líbrary dated N.S. 285
74 CHANDRA: Oddiyãna CIIANDRA: Oddiyãna 75

4.D.1165. Odiyãna-l{ãrÎcî is also termed Vajradhãtvl6varî Mãrîcî (SM.


136, l.{a11mann 1975226L). The replacement of O{iyãna by Vajradhãtu may title is shortened to Jo-mo u-rgyan-ma.
enshrine the secret of its identífication with Kancí. It r^7as from Kancl Toh.1708 U-rgyan-gyi sgrol-mati rim-pa: u{diyãna-tãrã-krama. Translated
that the Vajraéekhara-tantra and its Vajradhãtu-ma1r{a1a ú/as trânsmitted as above in 1707.
to China. O{iyãna was the vajrapÍçha. hle find O{iyãna-vajrapïçha Toh.1711 U-rgyan-gyi rim-pa'i sgrol-ma'i sgrub-thabs: u{diyãna-krama-tãrã
Vajravãrãhf in SM. 225 (I.439) : éri-o{iyãna-vajrapîtha-vinírgata ürdh- -devl-sãdhana. Translated Parahita, Shes-rab-rgyal-mtshan'
vapãda-vajravãrãhî-sãdhanam samâptam, colophon. Here the Nepalese man- To:n.I744 Dpal U-rgyan-g)/i rnal-tbyor daåg' rnal-'bl'or-ma'i rang byung-gi
uscript of N.S.2B5 :4.D.1165 kept at the Cambridge University T,ibrary longs-spyod dur-khrod-kyi rtog-pa : u{{iyãna-érî-yoga-yoginî-svabhtta-
has the reãdíng O{yãna. sarÈhoga-(raéãna-ka1pa. Author: Virüpa, translated Prajñã6rîjñãnak-rrti.
(xi) The abbreviated form of the name S in Tibetan is an índicatíon
The form O-Qi-rlã-na occurs in the Blue Annals 2.753, as well as in three
titles of the Tanjur which v¡ere translated by Grags-pa-rgya1-mtshan: that once the most colnmon spelling was o:rggan' The iconographic
Toh.3528,3529 O-{i-yã-na'i'od-zer-can-gyÍ sgrub-thabs: xylograph Rín-lhan, the so-called Five Hundred Gods of Narthang, i11-
0{{iyãna-mãricî-sãdhana (ms. Odi"). ustrates the O-rgyan sgrol-ma gnas-kyi-dbâng-phyug-rna = P1çhÎévarÏ
TÒh.3566 0-{.i-yã-na-1as byung-bati rigs-byed-ma'i sgrub-thabs: O{{iyãna Tãrã on folio 45b. In the Padma-than1-li1, O-rgyan is used
0{{íyãna-vinirgata-kurukulle-sãdhana (ms. 0di') . (jå"tf,f.. p.607a). g{{iyãna was the p1fha of Tãrã. This ís reflected
It may be noted that while Ba-ri lotsava (4.n. 1038-1109 ?)used the form ín the popular beliei that the Kãmãksï temple was originally dedícaLed
U-{yan, Grags-pa-rgya1-mtshan (4. D. II47 -].2]-6) êmployed O-{í-yã-na. to.the Buddhist goddess Tãrã, later óonverted into that of a Hindu god-
(v) tr'le find o-Qi-gãn in the Tanjur title (Toh.3370): o-{í-yãn-nas byung- dess at the time.of Sañkarãcãryats establíshment of KãmakoÇÌ pÏfha ín
ba'i rigs-byed-ma'i sgrub-pa'i-thabs = 0{{iyãna-vinirgata-kurukulle- the ninth century A.D. (Ramachandran, 1954: 10, Champaklakshmi, 1978:
sãcihana, translated by Don-yod-rdo-rje and Ba-ri lotsava.
116). It is significant thar from among the four piçhas of O{diyãna,
(ví) OQigánaka appears in a l4athura inscription dated Sair yZ (Lüders, Púrr.ragirí, Kãmarüpa and Srihatta mentioned in sãdhana 234 oÍ the
Liste, No.62) commemorating the donation of a pi11ar to a vihãra of king sãdhanarnãlã (2.455), there r"r-rãrãkhyã in Kãmarüpa and Kãmãkçi at Kanci
Huviçka by the monk Jlvaka O{iyánaka (T,évi, 1915: 105, Naudou, 1968: 36). (oCdiyãna), both of them goddesses.
(víi)oQQigana is the most common form. It occurs in the colophon of Thus we have the following variants from Indian and Tibetan sources:
Sl{.35(1.80) sarahapãda-kçtarn o{{iyãna-(v.1.O{yãna-) kramena trailokyava (a) U{{iyãna, U{{iyãnaka, U{yan' U{i
6arìrkara-loke6vara-sãdhanaå samãptam. The colophon Ín the next sãdhana (b) U-rgyan
36(1.83) reads: iti sarahapãdãva-tãrita-o{{iyãna-vinirgata-traí1okya (c) O{iyãna, O{iyãn, O{iyãnaka, O{{iyãna, O{yan, Au{yan
vaéaiikara-loke6vara-sãdhanañ samãptam (Ma11rnann, 1975: 1OB). In a (d) 0-rgyan
Nepalese manuscript of the nínth century Vajrapãpi of Maågakostha in The variations are in the initial vowel u-o , single or double {{t
Oddíyãna is mentioned (Foucher, 1900: 121, Naudou, 1968: 36). G)dig or {g(with the elísion of i),dropping of'the final a in U{yan,/OQyan/
l{aågakostha is an earlier name of Ekãmre6vara temple near the KãmãksÎ Au4y"", adáítion of the pleonastic ka in U{{íyãnaka and O{iyänaka.
The Tibetan terms Ulrgyan and O-rgyan represent a translíteratíon of the
temple at Kanci: Tamil ¡nankag = man tmango-treet + kag rfruítt, heard and O44iyatta a]rrd rggan means ran ornamentf.
recorded by the Portuguese as mançra)English mango. The ancient name of initial syllable u-o of ù44iyana or tthe
The word U-rgyand O-rgyan signifies ornament termed UI{{iyãna/ or
the site where the present Ekãmreévara temple stands, must have been
intentionall)¡ changed to signal its new religious assocíatíons. The OI{{iyãnaJt. Thus in the Tibetan term U-(O-)rgyar7, u-(o- ) is the phonetic
and rggan is the semanteme.
word Maågãkostha may also conceal a doubfe entend.re to an emanatíon of
In fact in Tarnil and other south lndian languages oQQiqâ4an means(Tarnil a rgold
goddess Tãrã, for Tamil maåkäj means ra girl between L2 and.13 yearst, round the r¿aístr
Ì{alayam mahka t a young, playful womânt. Tãïã r¿as the presiding deity or sí1ver girdle or belt, an ornament \dorn by vromen
rgirdle
(p1Çhaévarl) of holy 0${iyãna and today her apotheosis is signíficantly Lexícon, Uádras, 7936,1:585b). The Lexicon also gives the meaning
worn by yogis while in a sitting posture, so as to bind the vrâist and the
KãmãsF1 tone of amorous eyest. In the Hevajratantra 1.7.12 O{{iyãna is in yogappaççai.
specified as a pitha. Here the Tibetan text renders O{{iyãna by Lt-{i doubled up legs togethert, and translates it Tarnil as The

v/hich stems from the reading U{iyãna. Lexicon gives variant forms in Telugu odQânamu, Kannada oQQgâ4a, Tulu o{yãna.
(víií)o-Qllan is the form in the Tanjur title (Toh.3340): O-{yan-gyi ?od- Burrow and Emeneau (1961: 71 no.B10) give the following morphological
rB10 Ta.
zer-can-gyi sgrub-pa ti-thabs: O{iyãna-mãrlcyai sãdhana (so in t1-re xyl.), variations of the lexeme in different South Indian languages:
otÇjqâ4an gold or silver girdle or belt worn by l^7omen. lla,uÇaññan gold chain
translated by Don-yod-rdo-rje and Bari lotsava. The toponym OQgã4am ís
found in the MalagaTam Lexicon 2.1246. round the loins. Ka. oQgârla, oQQqâ4a, o44a4a, oQQavâ4ta, oQQivâla, o{vã4a belt
(i-:x) au-Qgan-nas byuåg-ba'i tod-zer-can-gyi sgrub-thabs = O{{iyãna-mãrÍci- of gold or silver chiefly \,r'oïn by \¡7omen. Tu. oQga4e, oQ'Ja4a belt or girdle
madã of gold and generaliy worn by a devil-dancer. Te. oQQâlanu belt of gold
sãdhana (Toh.3231) provides a variation of the previous form.
(x) u-rguan, Jäschke 606b. George N. Roerích consistently âdopts this or sí1ver worn by r,romen. t
spelling in his translation of the Blue Annals (índex p.1264). In the All the morphological variations noted above from Indían and Tibetan
Tanjur, the following títles have the spelling U-rgyan: sources can be traced back to south Indian languages. v.A. Devasenapathí
Toh.17O7 Dpal U-rgyan-gyi sgrol-matí mngbn-par-rtogs-pati rim-pa:
(L975:3) says: rThe meaning of the \,rord KãncÏ in Sanskrít is OQQigã4an (a
Éri-U44iyana-tãrã-'bhisamaya-krama (ms. U{iyäna). belt worn as an ornament arourÌd the waist by women). Thís ornament is worn
Trans
Sairghaéribhadra,'Jarn-dpal-sgeg-pa'i-rdo-rje. In the Blue Annals the only around the nave1. t Kanci is so-ea11ed because it ís the navel position
for the earrh. Kãnc1mãhãtrnya 31.70 and KãmãkçT-vi1ãsa speak of Kanci as the
navel of the world:
76 CHANDRA: Oddiyãna CHANDRA: Oddiyãna '77

(i) âdhibhautikam,ainnOqhnak hãbhisthánam bhuvaþ param (Kãrnãksî-vílãsern 11.6). yancipura as a Centre of Pafi Buddhism.
(ii) jagad-kãma-kafâkâzaín hãbhisthânam bhuvah param (ibid. 13. 73) . The Gandhavains'a says that Kancipura, Avanti and Arímaddanâ lüere the three
Sivajñãna Muniver in his KãncTpuriãna refers io Kanci as the navel-region of renovmed centres of Theravãda. Buddhaghosa confirms this in his Manoratha-
the Goddess Earth who \^rears the sea as Her Garment and who shines as the p-tirarli and further points out that he \,rrote this work on the request of
Supreme ât(asa. Jotipãla wh1le both were residing ât Kancipurâ. Buddhaghosa refers to
South Indian words in dhâranls. Srinivãsa or Siripala as the king of Kancipura in his Samantapãsãdikã.
The presence of Dravi{a expressions ín the dhãna!1s is explicitly pointed The Tamil Thera Buddhadatta who lived in the fifth century under the
out by severa! Buddhist texts (Bernhard, L967: 148-168), some of which were oatronage of the Cola king Kalabhra AcÒ-uta-vikkanta was the abbot of several
rranslared inro chinese as early as 4.D.265-3L6 (T.31O),4.D.383 (T.1547), and Buddhist monasteries, ínc1udíng those at Anurãdhapura in Srílanka and at
A.D.398-399 (T.212). In the thrêe Chinese translations of the Abhidharma- KancíPura.
vibhã9ã G.1547, rr.A.D. 383; T.1546, rr. A.D. 437-439; T.1545, rr. Hsüan-rsang The Gandhavatìrsa ttar"s ten South Indían Theras who wrote Pa1í works:
A.D. 656-659) it is stated that Lord Buddha preached the Noble Truths to the Buddhadatta, Ã.nanda, Dhammapãla, trvo unnamedo Uahã-vaj írabuddhi, Cu1la-
lokapã1a Virupãkça in the language of the South Indían borderlands, as he did vajirabuddhi, Dlpañkara a1ías Buddha-priya, Cu11a-dhammapã1a, and Kassapa.
not understand Sanskrít. The Northern Liang version (T.1546)ernploys the Thís work also refers to tr,r'enty other Theravãda teachers who wrote in Pali at
words: ín the Dravi{a language. In the Vinaya of the Mõla-sarvãstivãdins, the Kancipura. Arnong the ten Theras, Dhammapãla (5-6th century A.D.) headed the
Buddha preaches in the tlanguage of the borderlandsf (Tib.mthat-tkhob-pati Bhaçãrãditta Vihãra at Kancipura and Dipairkara Thera (1100 A.D.) became the
tshig). In the Udãnavarga it is the Dami{a language (ib.154). In the head of the Bãlãdicca Vihãra at Kancipura.
MahãrnãyürÏ Vidyãrãjñî (ed. S.Oldenburg, p.250 f.) it is srared: sidhgantu Anuruddha (12th Century) of the Pandya land whose ?a1i works were popular
drãniQa mantrapadá.h svãhã (ibid. p.162). Bernhardfs in-depth study of a ín Ceylon and Burma headed the Ì-Glasoma Vihãra at Kâncipura. For the last
single, South Indían expression ine nine dapphe daQapphe employed by Lord eíght centuries his AbhidhammaÇçha-sairg'aha has served as a textbook for
Buddha to explain the Truths to Virüpakça clearly manifests the urgent need abhidhamma philosophy in the Pali countries ti11 our times.
of a comprehensive study of the language of dhãraqrls and their South Tndian tsouth India continued to be the centre of Pali Buddhísm as late as the
Vocabulary. The presence of South Indian v¡ords in dhãnar.rTs, which were pre- 12th century A.D. The Kalyani stone inscriptions of King Dhanunadazedi
cursors of Mantrayãna, ís borne out by the Karugã-ptrp{arTka-sutra v¡hich speaks (Dhamrnaceti, I472-L492 A.D.) and the Sãsanavainsa of Pannasãmi (4.D.1861) give
of Drãmida-mantra-pada (39: 7,3) and by the Sarvajããtakãra-dhãra4lz igain' an account of Chapada who returned to Burma during the reign of King Anav¿ratha
Drâvida-mantra-padâ sargajnâ.tã.kara-dhâranl (16.1), aîd DTâvida-mantra-padâh (10th century A.D.), taking \rith him to Arímaddananagara (city of Pagan) five
(19.8, Mantri, 1977: BB-89). In the Saddharma-pur.r{arika-s-utra chÊp.2I (ed. Buddhist sâvants \^re11-versed in the Pali 1ore, two of whom, namely Ãnanda
Kern/Nanjio 1912: 41O) rãksasls expounds the dhãrar.rï iti n{/ nime3/ ... Thera and Rähula Thera, were resÍdents of Kancipura. Ãnanda Thera (died
The interpretation of thís dhãnapi is possible as a Tamil expresslon. In L245 A.D.) was a native of Kancípuram who was taken to Arimarddanapura in
Tamil i ís a demonstrative base expressing the nearer or proximate person or Burma by Saddharma Jyoti Pã1a, where the Burmese king Jayãsura received him
thing; prefaced to nouns, expresslng nearness (Burrow/Emeneau, 1961; 3O No. with great honours and loaded hirn ¡¡ith presents including an elephant. whích
351a). It is i before a consonant arrd ivv before a vowe1. The second word he sent to his relatíves ât Kanci. Ãnanda was the head of the Burmese
timi-tini is explained by Burrow and Emeneau (1961: 2O9, No.2644) as rsyllables Buddhíst Church for about fifty years and died in 1245 A.D. t (Ramachandran,
sung to keep tíme in dancíngt, Kannada dimi tsound produced by the quick motion L954: 7).
of the feet in dancingr, Tulu dimidimi rdancing nirnbly, agilityr. Tn the It may be remembered that Diirnãga was a native of Kanci, lived there for
Laåkãvatãra-sütra (ed. Nanjio, 1956'.260) we find the spelling dime-dime. i a long time in the early part of his 1ífe, r^rent to Ayodhyã to learn from
time2 refers to the niinble dancer who is neâr the heart of the yogin. The Vasubandhu and ultimately settled dov¿n at Kanci.
third word nime-nime is a jingling assonance of time-time. The variation t Dharmapãla (4.D. 528-560) the head of the Nalanda monastery was the
cn reflects the sound sequence of the Tamil alphabet. In the Lankãvatãra eldest son of a minister of Kanci (Raghavan, 1976: B).
there is another assonance dime-dime hime-hime, which echoes the sequence of Mahendravarman in his }fattavilãsa-prahasana gives additional proof of the
t/d and p-h, that is, the dentals are followed by the 1abials. Regarding existence of a Buddhist vihãra in Kanci in the early part of the seventeenth
the p-h phenomenon, Caldwe11 (1961:147) says: rTamil and Malayalam ere des- century A.D.
titute of the sound h..... In Modern Canarese h is regularliz used as a sub- The Eight Patriarchs of Shingon or Japânese Vajrayãna who transmitted the
stitute for p, as is sometimes the case in l4arathi; but ancient Canarese doctrine and rítes are (Saunders, L964: 147): Nãgãrjuna, Nãgabodhí' Vajrabodhi
agrees in this particular wíth Tamilt. Thus the jingling sequenc-e of dine2 (4.D. 670-741), Subhakarasirirha (A.D. 637-735), Arnoghavajra (4.D. 7o5-774), r-
hime' is a feature that could have arisen only in the Tamil-speaking area. hsíng (A.D. 683-725), Hui-kuo (4.D. 746-805), Kobõ Daishi (4.D. 774-835).
Kanci as a Fountainhead of Buddhism. Tantrlc Buddhism was carried to East Asia by Vajrabodhi <¡f Kanci who
From very early times Kanci had become a cradle of Buddhism. In the ex- raccording to his biography, travelled to southern India at the age of 31 and
cavations at Kancipura, a Buddhist shrine has been uncovered and there has begana seven-year period of study under Nãgabodhi, a clisciple of Nãgãrjuna.
also come to light a greyware sherd wíth Brahmi letters of the first-second At this time, it is recorded, he studíed the Vajraéekhara-¡roga-sutra ...
century A.D. which have been read as pu ta 7i ti sa (Champaklakshrni, 1978: According to a Chínese source Vajrabodhirs bírthdate is conjectured as 671 4.D.,
116) . and so his thirty-first year would correspond to the year 701 A.D. t
(Ifatsunaga, lgll:178). Nãgãrjuna is an eminent authority on the Tantras jn
the Tíbetan tradition as ¡¿e11. In the Blue Annals 2.753 it is clear that the
78 CHÀNDRA: Oddiyãna 79

yoga and anuttara yoga tantras spread from the south:


tthe acarya Nãgãrjuna
and hís discíp1es obtained the yoga-tantras' including the Guhyasamãja and LAMA AND TAMANG IN YOLMO
others (the anuttara-yoga-tantras' \^Iere also called mahãyoga-tantras"'), and Graham Clarke
preached them. They spread from the South. After that Kambala and others
ãiscovered the yogini-tantras in the country of O-di-yan. They also spread In this paper I wish to discuss some important refationships ír, Yolmol'2
towards Madhyade6a.' between the peoples 1abe11ed Lama or Tamang, focussing on aspects of social
The bíographies (Bagchi, 1938: 2,583) of Prãjña of Kapiéã (worked in china organÍsation that are centred around the lineage and the vi11age.
A.D. 785-B1Oj .pài"t out that at the age of 23 years he entered Nalanda and Yolmo ís the Tibetan name of a sma11 regíon on the southern spurs of the
studied the sütras and éãstras which íncluded the Vajra6ekhara. He went to main east-west Himalayan chaín in central Nepal. It has easy access to the
the country of Chen-lí where he stayed for 18 years. He learnt the speech south, being only three days walk from the Kathmandu Valley but to the north
of south India where they pursue the guhya-piÇaka or vidyãdhara-pitaka and ít ís cut off by two high mountain ridges from Tibet: hence the textual
practíce strange rites. Thereafter he proceeded to the South where he
rfive famíliest in more referenceq to it as go7-mo gangs-ra, rplace screened by snorv mountains/
studíed the yoga tantra, na+da1a and mudrã of the glac'i ers r r.
than 3000 gãthãs. In Nepalese the region ís knov¡n as Helambu. Locally this name is held
Transmission from South India to the East and North-r¡lest' to derive from a combination of the Tibetan names of two of the main upland
The oldest of the texts of its genre the AçÇasãhasrikã Praiñãpãranítã crops: from åe, potato, and la-phugi, radish, comes the compound he 7a-phug,
(ed. BST. 112) clearly states that the Pãramitãyãira (Joshi, L967:345) literally tpotatoes and radishest. The narne Helambu does not refer to any
origínated in the South (Dakçí{rãpatha) and spread to the east and later clear topographical or administrative unit but is used in a general manner to
flourished ín Uttarãpatha, i.e. the North-west of lndia: ime khaiu punah refer to the uplând areas above the l'[elemchi rÍver-valley.
éãriputra Ealpâranitâ-pratisainguktâ1 sûtrãntãstathagatasgãtgagena dakEi?ãpathe In terms of Tibetan Hímalayan settlements the region is of moderate
pracari€ganti, d.akçieâpathât punareva vartangâin Þracari7ganti, vattangâh punar altitude, all the permanent víl1ages being below 10,O00 ft. ft possesses a
ittarapathe pracariçganti. Haribhadra ín his Ãloka (ed. BST. 427): (Lessing relatíve1y luxuriant vegetation. Besides potatoes and radishes, barley ánd
vartangâm iti purvadeée. The Pãramitãyãna developed into Mantrayãna ¡ wheat are groün at the higher altitudes- in the middle-hi1lside maíze and
Wayman, : 96t: tÐ, and this confirms that the route of transmissíon of millet âre groT/vn on stepped terraces and wet-ríce ís cultívated in the base of
Mantrayalna was from the Soulh to the North-west. The South Indian monks hTere the rÍver-valley. To the north the middle-hillside is forested rather than
great \randerers who roamed far and wide disseminating Buddhism. An terraced, this forest being used together \^/ith high alpíne pastures by the
inscription in one of the apsidal temples at Nagarjunikonda (EI. 20,22-23) yak-cow hybrids of pastoralists in their annual transhumance cycle.
actually records a donation for nuns and monks r¡ho ín their journeys to far- (?), Locally the terms Yolmo and Helambu are used ínterchangeably. Theír use
away lands had visited Kãém1ra, Gandhãra, Vaåga, Vanavãsi, Aparãnta, Yavana has followed the extension of the culture and local movements of the people
and Tãmrapar{rl (Sri Lanka), (trrreiner, 1977:34). who are knov¡n as tlama Peopler. Today they are begínning to call themselves,
especía11y to outsiders, rHelambu Sherpat. The use of the name Sherpa in this
manner is relatively recent and does not indicate, except for one or tvro smal1
groups, a direct connection with their cultural cousins, the Sherpas of Shar-
Kumbu in eastern Nepal. They began to call themselves Sherpa i¿hen thís other
Tíbetan population i^/as put on the international map by mountaineering
expeditions to Everest. Among themselves they stí1l use the term Sherpa in
its older sense, to refer to the people to their east who speak the true Sherpa
language. They have their o¡,in language, KãgaÇe, whích is a Bodic dialect;
Kãgate and Sherpa are mutually unintelligible.a However in the context of
the multi-ethnic polity of Nepa1, they today align themselves with thís re-
latively prestigious and well-knoÌirì group with whom they have begun to form
politíca1 contacts and to intermarry.
In Nepalese records) and in traditional terms a distinction is made be-
tween the Lama People and the Tamang, who together form a population in the
order or ten thousand in the region. Put simplistically the Lama are the
people who 1Íve above, towards the rídge, and the Tamang are the people who
live below, towards the valley.
The dífference ín altitude of residence is clearly correlated to an
economic distinction: whereas the villages of the Lamas are generally closely
packed settlements towards the ridge, centred around a temple, those of the
Tamang are distributed over the terraces r¡hich they farm. In the main the
Lama People are rich landlords, the owners of the hill land and rice fields
lower dor^m which are farmed by their Tamang sharecropping tenants. Inlhereas
the Tamang tenants farm this land to subsist, the Lama People derive an
additional income from trade. I'ltrilst in the past some of this trade was to
277

ON THE RECEPTION AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE DBU-MA (MADHYAMAKA) IN TIBET


D. Seyfort Ruegg
I
Our Tibetan documents show that the dBu ma (Madhyarnaka) school of Budd-
hist philosophy was already well-known in Tibet by the last quarter of the
eighth century. This was the time of two very promínent Indian Mãdhyamikas
who lived and taught in Tibet and represented the synthesizing Yogâcãra-
Madhyamaka school then very actíve ín Indía: 6ãntarakçita and his illustrious
discíple KarnaladTla. Kamaladila is reputed to have taken part in what vre may
call the Councí1 of Tibet (otherwise knov¡n as the Council of bsam yas) r¿hich
took place toward the close of the eighth century. There distinct currents
in Buddhist thought came into confrontation, and the Tibetans began more
clearly to define their approach to the theory and practice of Buddhísm; in
the Tibetan records Kamala6Í1a figures as the opponent at the Council of the
Chtan master Hva shang l{ahãyãna in crucíal debates concerning the theory and
practice of the Madhyamaka. According to a number of sources, after this
Council the Tibetan King issued an edict ordering that thenceforth Buddhísm
ín Tibet ú/as never to deviate from Nãgãrjunars Madhyêmaka.
Ifhatever the historical accuracy of these accounts in our sources may be,
it is a fact that the }{adhyamaka school prevailed in Tibet, where it has been
4øUNN regarded as the deepest and most exact phílosophical expression of the Buddhafs
meaning.
II
We are fortunate in possessíng some doctrinal treatises goíng back to about
800 A.D. which help to fíl1 in our knowledge of this early períod ín the hist-
ory of Buddhism in Tibet. Perhaps the oldest Tibetan references to the dBu-
ma can be traced in two of the most ancient índigenous philosophical rrorks
knovm to us, the J-Ta bati rim pa bshad pa by dPal brtsegs and the LTa ba'i
khgad pat by Ye shes sde, both of which date from about that tíme. These
treatises mention both Sãntarakçítats school - referred to as the rNal tbyor
€þo€' spyod pati dbu rna (Yogãcâra-ì{adhyamaka) - and the earlier school of Bhavya
(or Bhãvaviveka, sixth centudy) - referred to as the mDo sde (spyod) pati dbu
ma (Sautrãntika-Madhyamaka)." It is honever to be noted that neíther of these
treatíses nor dPal brtsegst LTa ba'i rim'pa'i rnan ngag mention the school of
Buddhapã1ita and Candrakïrti whích ¡¿as to occupy such a prominent place later
in the history of Tibetan thought but r¡as evidently not recognised as a dist-
inct doctrinal entity during the early propagatÍon (snga dat) of the Dharma
in Tibet.
The Gru.b mthat literature starting with the above-mentioned treatises by
dPal brtsegs and Ye ses sde anply testifíes to the attentíon given by Tibetan
scholars to the analysis and classifícation of the forms of Buddhism which
q they received frorn India, and especially to the Madhyarnaka.
Beginníng with the later propagation (phgi dar) of the Dharma in Tibet we
.$$:gË tI>
hear much of Candrak1rtirs school, knovm as,the Thal tgyur ba (tPrãsañglkat),
as a doctrinal curient quite distinct from Sãntarakçitafs school, which con-
tinued to be kno'rn as the rNal tbyor spyod pati dbu ma (rang rgyud pa)
(Yogãcãra-fSvãtantrika-/Madhyamaka)' and Bhãvavivekars school, which was
henceforth known also as the Rang rgyud pa (rSvãtantrikar) school. The terms
23 ranq rggud. pa =svâ.tantrika and thaf 'qgur ba =prâsa'ng'ika refer ín the first
place to the t\n7o different methods of reasoning and achieving understanding
of realíty that are characteristic of Bhãvavivekars and CandraklrtÍrs schools
and consist respectÍvely Ín the use of independent inferences and a kind of
t RUEGG: dBu-ma
RUEGG: dBu-ma 279

(4) the sustained aLtempt to situate the Madhyarnaka 1n the overall frame
lgogíc reasoning. And they niere then employed as designations for the of Buddhist thought, including not onl¡r the Bye brag tu snra ba
rools having these tr^lo masters at theír head. (Vaibhãçíka), mDo sde pa (Sautrãntika) and Sems tsam pa(Cittarnãtra
At the beginning of the phgi dar also there came into prominence ín Tibet or Vijñanavada) schools but also the rDo rje theg pa (Vajrayãna)
e gZ;¡a¡- stong tradition, whích is another synthesizing movement harrnonizing (in the Grub mtha' literature).
: Madhyamaka and the r/íjñaptí phÍ-losophy (rnam pat tig pa). It is opposed In order no doubt better to establish the specificÍ-ty and identíty of
the Rang stong (svabhâvaêttnga) theory of thè other Madhyamaka schools. Tibetan culture and also of Tibetology as an academic discipline, a tendency
.ilI has recently appeared among some scholars to discount connections between
I{íth respect to historical- development it seems possible to divide the India and Tíbet even in the area of Buddhíst thought. Now, when rue acknow-
r ma, and índeed much of Tibetan philosophy, ínto four periods: ledge the dependence of much of European philosophy on Plato or Aristotle r¡e
I. Preliminary assirnllation (rnainly in the Bth and 9th centuries): certainly do not put in question the original contributions made by !üest-
European philosophers startíng in mediaeval times; or when the Arablst notes
reception and early efforts at interpretation and systematization
duríng the snga dar or early propagation of the Dharma; the línks between mediaeval Islamic and Grèek philosophy he does not thereby
II. Fu11 assimilation (end of the loth to the 14th century): continuing
deny all specificity to Islamic philosophy. It is then suggested here that,
phílosophical penetration and explanation with further efforts by the same token, the study of Buddhisrn in Tibet and indeed of Tibetan cívil-
totrard systematization during the early part of the phgi dar or ization as a whole can lose nothing by fully acknowledging their close ties
later propagatíon of the Dharma; with the Buddhism of India and with Tndian civilization. Tíbetan studies can
III. Classieal períod (rnainly the 14th-16th centuries): the high poínt indeed only gain ty feing pursued in coordination with (but certaín1y not in
' of philosophical penetration, exegesís and riystematÍc hermeneutics' subordination tò) Indian stlrdies. Obviously this procedure will ín no way
preclude us from recognising also the existence of other very ímportant ties
accompanied by the final constitutíon of the- Tíbetan religious
school-s (chos 7ugs, vÍ2. the rNyíng ma, bKat brgyud, Sa skya, dGe
with Central Asia, Chína and even West Asia.
lugs or new bKat gdams, etc.); As for the dBu ma pas, there is no evidence to indicate that they have
understood their task to be to set themselves off from their Ì.€dhyamika pre-
IV. Scholastic períod (16th century onwards): interpretation (often decessors in Indi¿. On the contrary, they have very clearly stríven to pen-
epigonal) comprising continued exegetícal and hermeneutical actívity etrate, explaín and put ínto practice the understanding of Buddhísm achieved
largely wi.thín the bounds of the different chos 7ugis, but with by Nãgãrjuna and his disciples up to Abhayãkaragupta and iakya-Paç{ita; to
certain efforts toward cross-linkages between traditíons and greater their interpretations they regularly refer, and also defer in a not uncritical
universalism in the inclusivisrn or eclecticism of the ris med move- manner. They thus combine close adherence to the tradÍtions and lines of
ment (especially duríng the 19th and early 20th centuríes). thought established by theír predecessors in India with the production of
Of the above-mentioned four schools of the dBu ma, Bhãvavívekats branch very valuable contributions of their ovm in the area of textual exegesis and
the pure Madhyarnaka and 6ãntarakç1tats synthesízíng Yogãcãra-Madhyamaka philosophíca1 hermeneutlcs as well as ín the domain of philosophícal and
re especially strong in períods I and II; and they continued to be studied meditative theory and practíce.
the succeeding two períods when they, however, no longer occupied the same
edominant positÍon. CandrakÏrtits Thal tgyur ba branch of the pure
dhyamaka and the synthesizíng gZ]¡ar- stong traditíons came to the fore early
period II; and they continued to be strongly represented in the following
ríods up to the present time.
TV Notes
In theír fidelíty to the Indian tradltíons of the l{adhyamaka the dBu ma
1. This paper is the summary of a much more detailed article which was
s of Tibet díd not stop short at mere scholastíc elaboration and mechanical ímpossible to publísh in these proceedings due to its length.
hematizatíon of borrowed ídeas. Among theír contributions to the development ) dPal brtsegsr TTa ba'i rim pa bshad pa, foL.140a-b of the Peking edition
the Madhyamaka we can mention in particular: of rhe bsTan tgyrr, Vol. ngo. And Ye shes sde, 7Ta ba'i khgad par, fo)-.
(1) the textual exegesis of passages from the scriptures (Sütra) andr. 252b of the Peking edition of the bsTan'gyur, Vo1. tsho; see also Ms.
more especially, the canonical commentaries and treatises (Sãstra) Pelliot tibétain 814, fo1. 5a-b.
found respectlvely in the bKat tgyur and bsTan tgyur;
(2) the composítion of comnentaríes and independent treatises showlng
vrlde learning, intellectual acumen and poïters of synthesis in which
(a) difficult individual points of doctrine are examined with care
and penetratj-on and (b) the overall- purport of Sütras and sãstras
ís explicated in a system¿tic synchronic frame by means of a com-
prehensive hermeneutical method;
(3) the treatment of phílosophical praxís derívíng from Madhyamaka
theory, includíng in particular guídes to medítation and the
theoretical and practícaL reaLizaLion of reality (for example in
tirre 7Ta khrid and d.Mat khrid literature); and
300 SZERB: Sa-skya Pandita 301

Cf. Derníévi11e, ibid, pp.2OO-2O4, also Franke, ibid, pp.173-175 etc. In


other words, he was obviously a very influential religious person in the NOTES ON THE TIBETAN KINSHIP TERM DBON*
Mongol court. Thus 'Phags-pats rule was ín all likelihood only that of Helga Uebach
primus inter pares. cf. also p. Tsering, rRñyift Ma pa Lamas am yüan-
Kaiserhoff, i.n: Proceedings of xhe csoma de K6rös Memorial sgmposjum etc. In the course of excerpting texts for a Dictionary of Classical Tibetan I
pp.511-540; lrlylie (passÍm); also T.v. Wy1ie, tRei.ncarnarion: a politíca1 have noticed considerably differing interpretations of the kinship term d.bon,
innovat.ion in Tíbetan Buddhismr, in: proceedings etc., pp.579-586; s.Jag- especially ín its compounds. These diffeÍences indicate that the 1cerm dbon
chid. rl^Ihy.the Mongolian Khans adopted ribetan Buddhisrn as their faithr, is a problematic one and indeed at any occurence the question of its correct
ín: Ptoceedings of the Third East Asian Al-taistic conference, ed. by translation arises anew. To a certaín degree thís is due to the dual meaning
Chten Chieh-hsien and S. Jagehid, Taipei, I97O, p.LI7. of the r¡ord: according to the standar{ dictionaries and also Benedictrs study
For the position of Taoism see J. Thiel, tDer streít der Buddhisten und on Tibetan and Chinese kinship terms, r dbon is a respectful terrn denoting both
Taoísten zur Mongolenzeítt, Monumenta Serica XX, pp.1-8L; also,my notes grandchild and siblingrs child
9, 6L, 62. The lack of a corresponding term covering both the meanings of dbon in any
64. I^Iy1ie, p.L25. western language prevents any direct translation of the Tibetan and thus r^7e are
65. Inlylie, p.118, p.L25. forced to be precise about its interpretatíon. The decision whether dbon
66. Cf. also n.57. should be translated as grandchild or siblingrs chí1d is diffícu1t in many in-
67. Wy1íe, p.L25. stances and depends. on sufflcient information of the context. The following
68. Wylie, p.ffZ. notes are therefore an attempt to contríbute to a better knowledge of the use
69. He died on 28th November, 1251, see D.schuh, tl,Iie ist die Elnladung etc.t, and meaning of tùe term dbon.
p.234, ¡o.22, An investigatÍon of the O1d Tíbetan Lexts and iriscriptions so far published
shows that occurences of dbon by itself are rare. There are only two instances
r wÍsh to express my deepest gratÍtude to Dr. L.Bese, my professor G. of the word meaning grandchild in the Tun-huang Annals, where the spe1líng is
Kara, Professor A. Róna-Tas and professor T.v. ÍIy1ie for thelr constant sbon:
lnterest and help 1n preparing this paper. DTH p.13, 1.8: tbtsan po myes khri song rtsan gyi spur phying
ba'i ring khang na' ring mkhyud ching bzhug ste/ btsan po sbon
khri rnang slon mang rtsan mer ke na bzhugs par 1o gcig/t
tThe corpse of the btsan po grandfather' Khrí-srong-btsan was
preserved in the deadhouse at ?hying-ba. The btsan po grand-
child Khri-mang-slon-mang-rtsan stayed in l'ter-ke. Thus one year. t
In this instance r/e may trançlate sbon as grandchild only because rnre know
from the Genealogies of the Kingsr that Khri-rnang-slon-mang-rtsan was in fact
a grandson and not a nephew of Khri-song-btsan.
For the year 7O7 the Annals inform us about the residence of Khrí-ma-lod,
the grandmother of rGyal-gtsug-ru:
DTH p.20, L.I-2: rdgun btsan po brag mar na bzhugs pa las/
po brang tphoste/ phyi sbon thas gang tsal na bzhugs ... I
fThe btsan po having stayed in winter in Brag-dmar changed
residence. The grandmother and the grandchild stayed in
t
Lhas-gang-tsal...
The element dbon appears in two compound expressions knor¡n from the Tun-
huang Chronicle and the inscriptions: sras-dbon and dbon-sras. Both express-
ions deserve our special attention because various scholars have interpreted
them in different ways and sometimes sras-dbon and dbon-sras have been taken
for equÍvalents. Certainly, sras-dbon as well as dbon-sras refer to descendj
ing generations, but a differentiation is desirable.
In the Tun-huang Chronicle the respectful term sras-dbon occurs on the
occasion of the oath sworn by kíng Khri-srong-brtsan to protect the farnily and
properly of dBa's-dbyi-tshab. The kingts oath ends with the words:
DTH p.11O, 7.2O-2Lz t... nam nam nam nam/ zlna zlna zha zhat/
sras dbon gyi zha sngar di bzhin du gnang îgo//'
Bacot and Toussaint translated: DTH p.L46, I.2I-22: rToujours, tou-
jours, toujours, toujours, dorénavant, pardevant nos fils et
petit-fi1s, seront ces promesses tenues.r
302 UEBACH: dbon UEBACH: dbon 303

tNever ever at any time will we be faithless to the King and


From the context it is knor,m that the king himself and síx ministers have
attended the oath ceremony. There is no mention of a son and grandson of Khri- his offspring, whatever they dol'
srong-brtçan and if we accept that the oath took place before the year 634, as From these translations it becomes obvious that except for Snellgrove and
Macdonald+ proposed, most probably the son and grandson of the king had not yet Richardson who choose to take dbon-sras as roffspringt, the terrn has been tran-
been born. Ile may therefore assume that the king sirnply included hís descend- slated in reverse order or, in other words, as if it read sras-dbon. It has
ing generations ín the oath. generally been disregarded that the son \^/as already mentioned together with
In the Tíbetan ínscriptíons which record ín an abstract form the oaths of hís father in the first part of the sentence. Therefore it is 1íkel)¡ that the
the kings, we fínd further instaDces ol sras-dbon. The inscription on the dBars made allusion to a further generatíon, i.e. the grandchildren of the
north side of the pi11ar at Zho75 records the rer¿ards which king Khri-srong-lde king.
-btsan bestowed on his míníster sTàg-sgra-k1u-khong. Let us examine t\^7o more instances of dbon-sras occuring ín the inscriptio4-
ZhoL I.72-L7z rbrtsan po sras dbon sku tse rabs re zhing yatg/ on the pillar of the Vihãra at sKar-cung. Concerning this inscription, T,rccí1l
zLa gong gi bu tsha rgyud tpeld 1as gcig/ zham rbring/ na nang has pointed out in his ínvaluable study on the tombs of the Tibetan kings that
kor yan cad du gzhug cing ... gnang ngo/' Rfcherdsonr.p.g: it is an abstract from an edict on the support of Buddhísn decreed by king Khri-
rAnd he decreed that during each generation of the male descend- lde-srong-btsan which is recorded at length by dPato-gtsug-lag.
ants of the King, one of the nale descendants shall serve in the sKar-cung 1.33-36: t... btsan po <lbon sras/l sku chu ngur
Kíngts retj-nue, ranking above the príyate attendants ....r ' bzhugs pa yan ead/ / cf.ab srid kyi mnga' bdag mdzad Da man
In another inscriptíon at Zhva'i-lha-khango kÍtrg Khrí-lde-srongrbtsan chad kyang// dge slong las dge ba'i shes nyen bskos ste/
favours his monk-miníster ì{yang-tíng-nge-tdzín. There sras-d.bon occurs twíce: ...t Tucci TTK p.53: rFrom the time when the kings, the
IJest inscríptíon 7.29: t... sras dbon phyí ma mgnat ndzad pa nephews and uncles are young of age, up to the time r,vhen
rnams ...r Richardson p.2: sons.and grandsons who sha1l they take the power, from among the monksrllet them appoint
rul-e hereafter ... I their good friends ... r Richardson p.56 -*: tAnd the Kings,
West ínscrlptíon 1.59: t... sras dbon chab srid kyi mngat gang Grandsons and Sons, from the smallest children upwards and
mdzad pas ...t Richardson p.4: t... my sons and grandsons, whosoever from the Rulers of the Land downwârds, having appointed
may hold authoríty... I teachers of religion from among the C1ergy... I
In these instances the term sras-dbon has been translated by Bacot and Tous- In interpreting the term dbon-sras attention should be turned upon the fact
saint and also by Ríchardson as a coordinate comr)ound, sras dang dbon, sons and that this inscription from líne four onwards represents a rather long narrative,
grandsons. In the Zhol ínscription Richardson rendered this pair of terms by starting wíth the enumeratlon of the great deeds of myes Khri-srong-btsan ín
rmale descendantsr. The translatíon as sons and grandsons is correct although succession down to myes Khri-tdus-sfong, rnyes Khri-1de-gtsug-brtsan, gab KhTí-
ít only íncludes tv/o generatíons which rnight be too restricted from the poínt of srong-lde-brtsan and then to the initiator of the inscription who is referred
víer,¡ of nam zharr tfor evert. The Zhol inscription where the descendants of to as f4a-btsan-po Khri-1de-srong-brtsan. Again his father is mentioned and
Zla-gong are called bu-tsha clearly shows that sras-dbon is the respectful then there follows tlne btsan-po-gab-sras and finally the .btsan-po-dbon-stas.
equlvalent for common bu-tsha which accordíng to Benedict/ rserve to cover all The great deeds from the time of the ancestors down to the father of Khri-lde-
the relatives of descending generations, including the collateral lines srong-brtsan are more or less retold from the edicts of Khri-srong-lde-brtsan
(rnephewt and tniecet) t. Benedictrs definitíon which íncludes the col-1atera1 and the passage beginning wíth 'btsan-po-dbon-sras' in iny opiníon recalls the
lines is justified by the dual meaning of tsha/dbon an.d may be generally accep-- well known fact that Khri-1de-srong-brtsan r,ras brought up by the monk Myang-
ted, although there is no mention of the nephews of the king or the position ting-nge-tdzin whom the kíng later appointed his pinister and rewarded. This
they may have held in the O1d Tibetan texts, wþereas Rona-Tas has shornm an is knov¡n from the inscription at Zhva'i-1ha-khango. It may be taken ínto con-
exampl-e where bu-tsha denotes sons and nephews". There is no doubt that the sideration that here Khri-1de-srong-brtsan himself is ca11ed btsan-po-dbon-
term sras-dbon refers to the descendants of the king ín a collective sense, the s¡as with regard to his ancestors listed in advance.
specification fmalet for them is not necessary. The narrative of the sKar-cung inscription is summed up in 1.48-51:
t... yab myes dbon sras gang gi ring 1a yang rung ste...r
Now the question aríses as to r^rhich descending generations the term dÌ:on-
sras refers. The discussion of the following occurences may perhaps contribute TTK p.54: 'At any tirne, during the time of the grandfather
to elucidate its meaning. and the father, the son and grandson...r Richardsonrr p.56:
tAnd in whatever time may be, of the Father, the Ancestors,
The above-mentioned oath of king Khrí-srong-brtsan in the Tun-huang
Chronicle is followed by the counter-oath of dBa's-dbyi-tshab. It starts rrith and the Descendants. . . I
the sentence: The expressi.on gab-mges-dbon-sras should perhaps not be splít into three
DTH p.11O, 7.22-24: tbtsan po spu rgyal khri srong brtsan yab or four parts if \lie compare it rrith the second edic!-of Khri-srong-1de-brtsan,
sras dang/ gdun (read: gdung) rgyud Ia/ g1o ba 'dríng ref nam where there is a reference to the gab-mges-sngu-^urL2 the former paternal
nam zha zhar :tanl/ / dbon sras rgyal po gang mdzad pa La/ g1o ancestors. Thus tlne dbon-sras would be a unity loo, denoting the grandson.
ba tdring re/ / t The second part of the sentence contaj-ning the A pi11ar near the tomb of Khri-1de-srong-brtsan bears a badly damaged
term under consideration has been translated by Bacot and Toussaínt: inscription r¡here we find one more instance of dbon-sras. Tuccirs fírst
DTH p.746, 1.252 rToujours, toujours, dorênavant, en tout ce que editÍon has been re-edited by Richardsonl4 who was able to make use of the
feront 1e roí, sonofils, ses petits-fils, nous leur serons fidèles.r readings of Ka-thog Rig-'dzin Tshe-dbang-nor-bu,15 a scholar of the l$th
Fang kuei Li p.58.' 'Never, never sha1l we be disloyal to whççver is century. Lines 18-20 of the inscríption díffer in these editions.
ki-ng, the son or grandson.r Snellgrove and Richardson p.27iru
304 UEBACH: dbon UEBACH: dbon 305

TTK p.92: t... nam zhar dbon sras rgyud chab srid btsan dang/ Evidently, 1itt1e is knov¡n about the use of the term dbon in an affinal
tbangs skyid par byato...r TTK p.37: tthe family of the son sense from the 01d Tíbetan texts. Besides the bilingual treaty inscription,
in lar¡ and of the son and the government became ever might-¡ dbon in this sense only occurs in combination with the tA-zha chiefs-r.1rho were
and the suþjects \^lere happy... r allied bv marriage vríth the Tibetan king, as is proved by the texts.26
Richardsonau p.31: t... nam zhar dbon sras rgyud kyi chab srid The question g$ the dbon-zhang relatíon has recently been rolled up
brtan zhing/'bangs skyid par bya ba'i gdarns ngag ... bka' agaín by Yamaguchi'' who proposes to take the expressíon dbon-zhang for grand-
lung du bzlnag ste// ...' Richardson p.32: 'Having made firm son and maternal grandfather because thís was the actual relatíonship between
for ever the dominion of the succession of hís sons and grand- the partners of the bilingual treaty, the Tibetan^kíng and the Chinese emperor.
sons he established b1r order ... the precepts of conferring Yamaguchirs article has been díscussed elsewhererzö b.rt I may add a few words
happiness upon subjects... I on his newly acquired meaning of dbon-zhang. The opinion of Yamaguchí cannot
All the data given above show well that a meaníng of dbon-sras connected be who11y rejected but he should have taken into consideration that there is
with the collateral lines may be excluded. It may also be assumed that the no líterary evidence in Old Tibetan as to v¡hom the title zhang is given by rhe
interpretation tgrandchíld and sont is not correct because of its unusual in- Tibetan king. It rníght have been the grandfather, the father or the brother of
verted order. There is a slight possibility that the term means dbon gqi sras the queen or even the actual clan chief. Accordingly in the case of the tA-zha
-- rgreat grandchildr but it seems to be less probable as generally a distinction chief it is not known whether dbon denotes the husband or the son of the
between mles = tgrandfather and great grandfatherl is also not made. .I think Tibetan princess or even one of her further descendants. .The Tibetan princess
dbon-sras ís nothing but the respectful expression for the maLe dbo4, tahing herself may have been a sister of the king but it is not recorded expressis
sras for an apposifion acting as sex rnodifier and thus dbon-sras denotes verbis. Furthermore in 01d Tibetan generally there Ís no tertimonv to a dis-
I grandchild-son--grandson r..
tinction being made between m7es = rgrandfather and great grandfatherr or
In later Tibetan literature the simple dbonfsbon= tgrandchildt occuring in rancestorr, or'between dbon = rgrandchild and great grandchildt, ibíd. (íf my
the 01d Tibetan texts is usually replaced by the male form dbon-po or by dbon- interpretation of dbon-sras is accepted.)
sras. Instances where the term denotes grandson are rare and caq_mainly be There is one more expression, dbon-sLob, occuring in the Bon-po funeral
observed when the texts deal with the so-called Yar-1ung dynasty.16 In the rites ¡rhich points to a connection of dbon witln the motherrs side, as Stein has
latter 1íteralgre
11
there appears another compound expressíon containing d.bon.' showed29. l,ittrougn the exact meaning of dbon-sfob is hítherto unidentified
mes-dbon-gsu^Lór. chos-rgrgaT-mes-dbon!8 Both expressions refer to the three this connection may be deduced from its descriptlon: Stein p.L72: tshas bdags/
Tibetan kings Srong-btsan-sgam-po, KhrÍ-srong-1de-brtsan and Ral-pa-can as snag gyis tbrel te// gnyen tu gyur nas...f Stein p.182: tdevenu un parent par
supporters of Buddhism and ínéarnations of Avalokiteévara, Mañjuér1 and Vajgra- la chair et par 1e sang.t This definitíon reflects the belief that the motherrs
pã+i by means of the kinshíp terms mes and dbon.79 side contríbutes the flesh and blood to the offspring while the bones descend
It has already been mentioned that the term dbon according to the diction- from the fatherrs side.
aries may also denote nephew but as the dictíonaries only refer to later Summing up, it can be said that the kinship term dbon: tgrandchildr as
sources it must be emphasized that in O1d Tibetan texts there is no genealogical well as rsisterts sonrson-in-law and husbandt, the meaning of the latter beíng
evidence for dbon mean!4g rsisterts sont or rbrotherts sont. In O1d Tibetan, mainl¡r based on the equation with the Chi.nese cheng, is used in O1d Tibetan
d.bon wl:th thís meaníng2o"i" alrnost inseparable from the term zhang and the pair only for the kíngs and the tÃ-zlna chief. Concerníng dbon: rgrandchildf it
of terms àbon-zhang occuïs repeatedly in the bilingual treaty inscription at remains reserved to the kings in later literature too, whereas dbon =rsisterrs
lHa-sa gtsug-1ag-khang." It has become prominent for it serves to denote the sont in the later period is used as an honorific term for common tsha-boralso
matrimonial alliance between the Tibetan king and the Chinese emperor. It is for rbrotherts sont as will be shown below.
from the Chínese text of the i-nscription that the meaning dbon: tnepher¡ on the hlhen in the beginning of the 13th century some of the powerful rnonastic
motherrs sider or rsisterts sont has been deduced. The Chinese pair of terms centres became hereditary, the nephews played"pn important role as successors
cheng kieou (or kieou cheng) has been discussed at length especiallv by of their celibate uncles. In the Red Annals" Sa-skya Pa+Çita and the son of
Derniéville who states inter alia tCheng et kieou signiflent neveu utérin et his brother tPhags-pa, are ca11ed khu-dbonz
oncle malernel (frère de la mère), mais aussi (parrní drautres sígnifications encore) RA 23a9: rchos rje khu dbon gyi slob ma shar nub gung sum
encore)gendre et beau-père, double sens remontant aux institutíons matrimoniales du grags pa la...r rThe discíples of Chos-rje, fatherts brother
de lrantiquité chinoise ...'22. The Chinese cheng kieou is rendered by dbon- and brotherts son, are knor¿n as Shar, Nub and Gung, the three...r
Tibetan a1$ it ma',' be assumed thât the terms are ecluivalent for the RA 21b9: rshing po drug cu rtsa gsum pa la khu dbon gsum bvon/
th::S :" reasons.-
fo11owíng ...t tIn the male wood-dragon year in his 63rd year the
For the Tibetan Tucci has shor^rn lthat Zhang, is the çit1e given to offícials fatherrs brother and his brotherts sons, the three departed...r
related by marriage with the ki:rig...t24 and Ríãhard"orr25 h"" ãbserved that the The succession to an office or see from uncle to nephew, when the latter
titie zhang with some exceptions is found especialil' with those Clans whích is not specified to be motherts or fatherts hrotherts son, is denoted by the
provided queen mothers. Analogously, the Tibetan king should have been the respectful term dbon-brggud:
dbon of these zhang and Tuccí has translated dbon in the inscríptions as shown RA 24a5: tde nas dbon brgyud med par slob mas gdan sa bzt¡g ba/
above in this sense. But such a translation cannot be accepted because ít ...t tThereafter the see was held by the disciples because
would irnply either that the Tibetan king ca11s himself dbon with regard to his there was no succession of nephe\^rs..,t
zhang relatíves or that the inscriptions Íssue from the zhang wt.o address the The succession from tuncle to nephewr in as much as the Sa-skya-pa are
king as their dbon. concerned was from fatherrs brother to brotherts son but there are also cases
of succession by the sisterrs son known from the texts. The following
306 UEBÃCH: dbon UEBACH: dbon 307

instance on the succeççíon to the see of the monastery of Tshur-bu is taken p.32, L.4-5:
from the Bfue Annafs.Sr rsku mched bar pa kha cig gi rgyud da 1ta g1o bo ma thang
BA p.453 (nya52a4): 'kar ma pa shi kharns nas byon nas gdan sa gi dbon rgyud rgyun phra mor gnas pa tdi rnams yin zer bas
mdzadl de rting kar ma oat i snag dbon yín pa zhig gis gdan sa de tsho gung thang gi- rgyal poti gdung rigs su rtogs dgos so/r
bskyangs te dbon rin po che zerf de rjes kar ma pati rus dbon Those r¡ho nowadays continue to exist here and there as the
b1a ma gnas nang pa/ ð,e rjes kar ma pa'i mched ya gtsirg tor dbon-rggud of G1o-bo ma-thang are said to be descendants of
skyabs kyi sras a dbang ye shes dbang phyug/ ðe' i sras b1a ma the rniddle brother and therefore they should be known as
tbum pas gdan sa gzung/ de rjes bkra shis tbum pati mched ya (belonging to) the bone-lineage of the kings of Gung-thang. I
dbon po a dpal gyi sras che ba b1a ma dtrang rin/ ... t The informatíon provided here by Ka-thog Tshe-dbang nor-bu, who was an
Roerich, p.5L9-2O: t... Kar-ma pa-shí came from Khams and and shows t1ne dbon-rggud has been used not
expert in genealogy, ís most useful tuncle
occupíed the chair. After him , Kar-ma-pars rnaternal nephew only to denote the succession from to neirhewt but also has survived to
(snag-dbon) took over the chair and was ca11ed db0n Rin-po-che. denote royal descendants. This passage fits t5e dbon mKhang-dkar-ba weIL
After him, the paternal (rus-dbon) nephew of Kar-ma-pa, the since they, like so many 'ìrominent families of Tj-bet, trace their origins back
b1a-ma gNas-nang-pa. After hírn A-dbang Ye-shes dbang-phyug, to the TibeLan kings. They are called, or perhaps call themseTves, dbon-po in
son of gTsug-tor-skyabs, the brother of Kar-ma-pa. Then the order to indicate their royal descent. Tt. is understandable that these dis-
latterrs son the bla-ma bKra-shÍs tbum-pa took over the chair. tant relatives of the Tibetan kings used the terrn dbon, for.ín the absence of
After him the bla-ma dBang-rín, son of db0n-po A-dpal, brother a common dynastic narne what expression could better denote their royal descent
of bKra-shis t bum-p4... I than thls term for grandchild and nephew, irnplyíng both direct and collaterâ1
This ínstance is interestlng on the one hand because ít shows that a royal descendants?
differentiation between nephew on the motherrs síde, snaçr-dbon and the nephew
on the fatherrs side, rus-dbon is made. On the other hand ít is noter,vorthy
that the respectful address Rin-po-che is preceeded by dbon aîd dbon-po also Notes
forms the first part of the name A-dpal.. This might lead us to the âssumption
that the collateral relationship is expressed by Lhe antecedent dbon in names. I am very rnuch indebted to Heather Karmay who kindly corrected the Bnglfsh
The following remark of gZhon-nu-dpal seems to confirm :t: of my paper and to Nlcholas J. A11en for his very helpful críticism from the
BA p.507 (nya79a7): tdbon po gzhon nu bzang po 1a dbon po poínt of view of a specialíst in the kinshíp termíno1ogy.
zer ba yang khong gi dbon po yin pas ming du chags/r
tDbon-po gzhon-nub-zang-po is called dbon-po because he was rTibetan and Chínese kinship termsr, in
1. Bendict, Paul K: HJAS VI, 1941,
hís (i.e., Tshul-darts) nephew and therefore (dbon-po) became pp.313-337.
his name. t
2. In translating btsan po mges, ibíd., I fo11ow the suggestions rnade by L.
From these instances it is obvious that dbon: tsisterts sont in 01d Tibetan Petech: "Glossi agli Annali di Tun-Huangt, in Rivista degli Studi Otientafi,
r,ras reserved to the royal famíly. After the collapse of the Tibetan kingdom it Vo1. XLII, p.257.
was taken over to denote respectfully within the clergy famous tnephewst, 3. DTH, p.82.
fatherrs sisterts sons as !/e11 as fatherrs brotherrs sons, ofrrenovl-ned uncles. 4. ì{acdonald, Ariane: tUne lecture des P.T. L286,1287' 1038' IO47 et I29O.
Thus dbon even became part of the name of some re1ígious men." Essai sur 1a formation et lremploi des mythes politiques dans 1a religion
These notes ot dbon could be concluded if there were not so many persons royale de Srong-btsân sgam-pot, ín Etudes ribétaines dédiées à fa memoire
whose name begins with dbon or rvho are called dlcon-po although there is neither de ltla:rceffe Lafou, Paris, I97L, p.256.
any mention that they belonged to the clergy nor the s1íghtest hint of anlT uncle. 5. Richardson, Hugh E; rAncient Historical Edicts at Lhasa and the Ì{u Tsung/
Finally 1et me therefore show by one example how the problem of these dbon-po Khri gtsug 1de brtsan treâty of A.D. 821-822 from the ínscription at Lhasar,
can be settled. d4 the bíographies of the lamas bSod-nams blo-gros and Chos- R.A.S. Prize Publication Fund, Vo1. XIX, p.1-34.
skyabs dpal-bzangJr ¡nre read of a family of G1o(Mustang) named dbon mKhang-dkar- 6. Richardson, Hugh E; tTíbetan inscriptions at Zhva-hi 1Ha Khangr, pts.T and
ba, tlne members of which are repeâtedly and simply ca11ed tlne dbon-po-ba.! A II , JRAS , 1952, pp.133-154 and JRAS L953, pp.1-I2.
1ot of trouble was caused by these dbon-po-ba and they seemed to have done t-. Op.cit. , p.32O.
great harm to the larnas. Idho v¡ere these dbon-po-ba? A mísreading or mis- B. Róna-Tas, A: rsocial terms in the list of grants of the Tibetan Tun-Huang
printing for dpon can easily be excluded because they were the opponents of a chronicler, in Ao, L955, p.256.
dpon-po ¡¿ho ís mentíoned too. 1n his index Snellgrove gave the translation 9. Li, Fang kuei: fTibetan G1o-ba-tdringr, in studia Serica Bernhard Karlgren
rnephewr, tsquiret, rofficialr and withín the transl4fíon of the text the
Dedicata, Copenhagen, 7959, p.58.
meaning was extended to chieftains and clan-leaders.'* Indeed t\e dbon ÍKhang- 10. Snellgrove, Davíd L. and Ríchardson, Hugh E; A CuLturaf historg of Tibex,
dkar-ba seem to have held such a position but this fact does not a11ow us to London, 1968, p.27.
translate the term dbon-po accordingly. The solution to the problem of theír 11. Tucci, Giuseppe: The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings, SOR I, Roma, 1950, pp.1O4-
being ca11ed dbon-po-ba must be sought elsewhere and there is a remark in the B; Richardson, Hugh E; tThree ancíent inscriptions from Tibetr, in JRASB,
recently published tBod r3.1ha btsan po'i.gdung rabs tshigs nyung don gsal yid Vo1.XV, 1949, pp.57-6.
kyi me longt of Ka-thog Tshe-dbang nor-buJJ which helps to clarÍfy the issue of 12. TTK, p.96.
tlae dbon mKhang-dkar-ba. The author traces the descendants of the Tibetan kíngs 13. TTK, pp.91-93, translatíon pp.36-39.
down to his own times" Concerning the descendants of tOd-srungs, it is said on
308 UEBACH: dbon UEBACH: dbon 309

74 Richardson, Hugh E; rThe inscription at the tomb of Khrí 1de srong brtsant, Tibetr, in EncAcTopedie de l-a P7éiade, pp.286-7 informs us: tUn autre
in JRAS, 1969, pp.29-38. statut est celui des relígieux maríés: on leur donne 1e nom généra1 de
15 Richardson, Hugh E; tA Tibetan antiquarian in the XVIIIth Centuryr, in sngags-pa, rtantristest .... Les religieux mariés vivent parfois en
Bul-l-etin of Tibetofogg IV, 1967, pp.5-8. cornmunauté dans 1es monastères appelés dbon-dgon dfaprès le nom dbon-po
L6 For example in tGgal rabs gsaf bati me 7ong, ed. by Kuznetsov, B.r.rleiden, donné également aux sngags-pa;... t Unfortunately I could not trace the
1966, o.187, 1.10: fdeti dbon po mang srong... t or n.16O, 1.13-14;' rde textual evidence for dbon-po with this sense and I am not in a position
nas dbon sras mang srong mang btsan gyis/ dgung 1o bcu gsum 1on dus rgyal to judge if it is connected with the kínship term.
srid bzung/t or in sBa-bzhed, ed. by Stein, R.4., paris, 1961, p.1r1-4: JJ. Snellgrove, D.L: Four Lamas of DoJ-po.2 Vols.r Oxford, L967; I. p.L4rI
rngatí dbon sras gvi ring 1a rgyal po lde zhes b..¡a bati ring la dam pati 19: rdbon po ba ngan shed ches pati stabs kyis ...1, p.14, 1. 22: tnor
tha chos 'byung/ r or in t]ne Historg of Tibet of the Vth DaJ_ai Lama, gang yod dbon po ba rnams kyis bgos nas ...t II, p.45, p.20: rdbon po
Varanasí, L967, p.65: rde nas dbon sras/ mang srong mang btsan gyis rgyal mkhang dkar ba nang bzhig nas yod pa ...r, ibid.
s'ríd, bzrngf ' . Snellgrove, op.cit., Vol. I, pp.9O and 153.
L7. sBa-bzhed, op.cit., p.1, 1.1. 35. Rare Tibetan historical and Titerarg texts from the Librarg of Tsepon
18. rGgal rabs gsaT ba'i me 7ong, op.cít., pp.2 and 2O2. W.D. Shakabpa, Series I, llew De1hi, L974, pp.1-59; on the author see
19. It is difficult to judge if mes-dbon-gsum mearìs two grandfathers (ancest- n.15.
ors)and one grandson or one grandfather(ancestor) and two grandsons
(descendants).
20. 0n1y once is the expression sp1ít: LJ-:ne 42 of the Bast ínscrlpdion reads: Abbreviations
tbtsan po dbon ní ... rgya rje zhang ni...r.
2L. Li, Fang kuei: rThe inscripti-on of the Sino-Tibetan treat y of g2L-221 , AHE Ancient Historicaf Edicts at Lhasa, see n.5.
T'oung Pao,1956, pp.1-99; Ríchardson, Hugh E; see n.5 above and nev¡ AM Asia Major
edition tThe slno-Tíbetan treaty inscription of A.D. BzL/823 at T,hasar, AO Acta Orientafia Academiae Scientiarium Hungaricae
JRAS, 1978, pp.l-37-762. BA BTue AnnaTs, see n.31.
22 Demiéví11e, Paul: Le concife de Lhasa, Bibl. de ltlnst. des Hautes DTH Documents de Touen-Houang relatifs à -Z'histoire du Tibet. J.Bacot,
Etudes Chinoises Vo1. VII: Paris, 1952, p.4. F.I/. Thomas, Ch.ToussaLnt, Annales du Iusée Guimet,51, Paris, 194O.
aa For references see Derniévi11e, op.cit., Þ.4, Benedict, op.cit., and Al1en, HJAS Harvard Jouînaf of Asiatic Studies
N.J: tSherpa kinship terininolog..¡ in diachronic perspectivet, in /Ian, Vo1. JA JournaT Asiatique
71, L976, where marriage customs and their relation to kinship terminology JRAS Journal of the Rogal Asiatic Societg
are discussed. JRASB JournaT of the RogaT Asiatic Societg of Bengal
24. TTK, p.61. RA Red Annafs, see n.30.
25. AHE, p.5Of. SOR Serie OrientaTe Roma
26. DTH, p.48; Thomas, F.lJ: TLTD, pt.II , p.6; Ríchardson, Ilugh E; rÌ{ames and TLTD Tibetan Literarry Texts and Documents concerning Chinese Turkestan,
titles ín early Tibetan Recordst, in BuLl,etin of TibetoTogg, IV, L967, 4 pts. F.lJ. Thomas, London, 1935, 1951, L955, L963.
p.1O; Uray, G: tThe Annals of the ,A-zha principalityr, in proceedings TTK The Tombs of the Tibetan kings, see n.11.
of the Csoma de Körös MemoriaT Sgnpos:.um, Budapest, 1978, p.574.
According to stein, R.A: ¿es tribus anciennes des matches sino-Tibêtaines,
Bib1. de ltInst. des Hautes Etudes Chínoises, Vo1. XV, paris, I96L, p.
66f, there is also the possibilíty that in thís case dbon rnight be the
name of a tribe in the North-East of Tíbet.
)7 Yamaguchí, zuil¡'oz rMatrimonía1 relatíonship between the Ttu-fan and the
Ttang dynastiesr, in lúemoirs of the Research Department of the Togo Bunko,
No.27, pp.141-166 and No.28, pp.59-100.
28. Uray, op.cit.
10 Stein, R.A: tun document aneien rélatif aux rites funéraires des Bon-po
Tibétainst, in JA, 1970, pp.155-185; see also Lalou, Marcelle: tRituel
Bon-po des funérai11es royalest, in JA, 1953, pp.L-24.
30. The Red AnnaTs, Gangtok, 1961.
31. The Bfue AnnaTs, ed. by T,okesh Chandra, New Delhi, 1976; translation by
Roerich, G.N; ?åe BLue Annals, 2 pts, Calcutta, 1949.
JZ There are references in the standard dictionaries to dbon-po denotíng
Lama-servant (H.4. Jaeschke: A Tibetan-EngJish Dictionarg, London,1965,
repr., p.389) and to its equivalent ín set-gzugs (Dagyab, L.S:.?j.betan
Dictionarg, Dharamsala, L966, p.464b). Tucci, Ci Tibetan painted
Scro77s, Roma, 1949, Vo1.II, p.725 gives: tngags pa, rtsis pa, dbon Do,
exorcists and astrologers.t Blondeau, Anne-I.{arie: tf.es religions du
310 UF.ÃY: khrom 311

The conclusions drarnm so far can nor¡r be completed with the data províded
KHROM: ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS OF THE TIBETAN EMPIRE IN THE 7th gth CENTURIES in the docurnent ?e11iot tibétaín 1089, which became known through Lalours
Geza Uray
- fRevendications des fonctionnaires du Grand Tibet au VIIIe síèc1er. In this
record a decision is passed on a díspute over rank among the functionaríestheof
1. In this lecture an attempt is made to determine the meaning of khrom in Sh"-",r, and in this cãnnection earlier dispositions on the rank order of
the early Tibetan records and the place the khrom had in the organízation of functionaries of the various reglons are also abundantly quoted.
the Tibetan Empire of the 7th-9th centuri.es. In the record in question a khrom named mKhar-tsan/Khar-tsan is mentioned
Ti11 recently the terrn khrom seemed to gLve ríse to no difficulties in the four tirnes (Li.. L2,30,j3r35). Of importance ís the passage containing the reg-
interpretation of the early records. As there is a word in classj-ca1 Tibetan ulation on the rank order of the functionaríes of this khtom, introduced by with
an
examination performed by the Military Head (dmag-pon) and a consultation
with the well-supported rneaning of ra market place, abazaar, a crowd of
people, multitude of personsr, scholars have translated the term khrom in the the Great Uncle-Councillors (zhang-7on ched-po)- (1t, I'Z-ttt).12' Th"". círcum-
records as tmartr, ttov¡nt, tcityl, or lví11e1, tmarchét, or occasionally as stances seem to be in agreement with the conclusíon drawn from the report of
rpopulationr; the more so since these translations seemed to fit the Annals lor 755; ttr*ã1y that the khtom were governed by mi1-itary heads. ís
the context Even more ínterestíng is a further passage in the same document. It
unobjectíonab1y. Di.sagreement exj.sted at most as to \,rhether in certain pass-
ages there occured the common noun meaning rmarket, town, populatlonrr.or the said there that at a certaín time the decree on the ranks of the functionaríes
piop.. name of a country.l who had control of the Chinese of Sha-cu from the rtse-tje down could not be
The wa/ to a more correct interpretation of the 01d Tibetan term was paved found and thís led.to constant collisions. Therefore a copy of the decísion on
by }frne. Ariane Ì{acdonald, when she translated khrom chen-po as rprefecturet.2 the ranks that had been passed in a decree by the }{il'ítary Heað (dmag-pon) of
Thís translation is fu11y juctified, ínsofar as khrom, according to the evid- Kv¡a-cu was requested. Then there is also the list of ranks ítse1f to read, as
ence of several recently dísclosed sources, designáted territorial units of determined by the decree of the }filitary Head and Lhe Inspector (spgan) of Kwa-
considerable síze. A comprehensive analysis of the data shows, however, that cu, based on information concerning the ranks as subrnítted by the ttse-rje of
tlre khrom of the 7th-9th centuries cannot be treated as equivalents to the Shá*cu (11. 43-50).13 Relying upon this passage, Lalou herself índicated that
so-ca11ed prefectures, the ,{.1 chou, of contemporary China. Sha-cu was subordinate to the ì ilitary Heaà @náq-pon) of Kwa-cu.l4 Th"t. ""tt
2. For discovering the true nature of the khrom the document Pelliot Tibétaín be no doubt about the fact that one haç-to look upon thís Military Head as the
1088, Fragm.7, rècto, affords an important starting poínt. Among the texts chief official of t]ne khrom of Kwa-cu,I5 and so ít ís to be further understood
written as exercises over one another there is found the copy oï draft of a that the khrom of Kwa-cu also comprísed the territories of the former prefecture
decision, and that with a dating formula, as follows: yos-bu-foti dpllid/ it n{ Sha-chou (i\C sa-tÉip,r16) besides those of Kua- and Su-chou'
prefectures re-
No\,n the questiãn ãi1ã"" âs to hot far the earlier Chinese
/Kwa-cu-khrom-ggi dun-sa/sug-cu btab-pari .rtan-rrta rrn the spring of the In the document under discu*
year of the Hare, in the period when the assembly of the khrom of Kwa-cu was mained adminÍstrative units under Tibetan rule.
held in sug-cu.?3 Now ¡(øa-cu (also r^rri.tten at iimes Krr-;;;j4-Kua-chou ssion, Pelliot tibétain 1089, the highest functionary of Sha-cu, as already
knor¡n Tibetan transcription, or rather a loan from Ch../a..)1.[
1"--;;.';"i;- stated by La1ou, is mentíoned by the titles sha-cu'i rtse-rje b7on, sha-cu-1:tse-
(AC kwa-
the name of an earlier Chinese prefecture and/or of its centre r¡hich rje, sha-cuti rtse-rje(1l. 5,43146147), and also without a(orplace-namer as rtse-
fé*R"5), rje and rtse-rje r¿loÁ (tt. 44,53,8o); besídes, sha-cu'i -chu'j) rtse-tje
i" -ahg T'ang
An-hsi
peri2d r¡as situated soutþ-east of the present tov¡n of -* ú
in Kan-su.o similarry sug-c¿7 renders ch. ÊT]Il su-chou (ec-!;u.t-tÉiau8¡ occurs in numerous other Tun-huang documents too. Since in tlne I'lahâvgutpatti
the name of another, earlier ctrineãe prefecture, actually of its centre, which rtse-rje corresponds to sanscrít koÇÇapã1a, Lalou translates rtse-rje as
is identical !úirh the tor^rïr knov¡n at one time and sti11 knov¿n tpr-efeitL7. This translation is in itself incontestable, but 1n my opiníon one
chiu-chtüan.9 Thus, on the'sole basis of the dating formula as ìð,g should on no account put the ttse-rje on an equal footíng with the Chinese pre-
quoted above one
can state that at least two earlier Chinese prefectures belonged to the khrom fects, the +{* ts\e-shih. i.e., the chíef officials of the chou. In the
of Kwa-cu. Tibetan Miran records ttse-rje and rtse-rje bTon are mentioned ín connection
wíth nearly all the towns of the Lop Nor region, notably: 1) Ka-dag, which ís
Further important clues are contained in the entry for summer 755 in the authors (Ka-dag-gi ttse-
Roqal AnnaLs- rt is reported here that after a raLd into Chinese identical with the Kadhakh and Katak of the l{ohammedan (uob-chungu-) i ttse-
rMa-grom phgir btsugste/zhang mDo-bzher rlqa-grom-ggi dnag-dpon-du
territory rje) ; 2) Little Nob, the o1d Tibetan fortess near Miran
(wob-ched-po)i rtse-tje).
trMa-grom \,zas re-es-tablished^
and the tJncTe (zhangj ,Do_¡rh.r
bkar-scafd ú! iunj; and 3) Great Nob, the Charkhlík of our days rtse-rje of Shing-shan,
Military Head of rlfa-gro¡¡.'I0 The name rl.Ia-gtom is known fromwas appoínted Símilar1y, the Tibetan P|azar Tag|- records mention the
other sources
and refers r¡ithout doubt to a region near the wide bend of the rl.{a-chu, i.e. the old Tortress of l{azar Tagh on thçonorthern border of the Kingdom ofthe
i.e. Khotan (Sninq or Shin-shàn-ggi rtse-tje).rð Thus all these c¿ses concern
upper Hoang-ho.11 rn the 755 rãport of the Annals, however, dva-grom They are to
functíon at all as a mere place name but as that of a reorganízed, (phgir btsu- does not chief officials of the centres of the smaller oasís territories.
gste) unit of the state' consequently the suffix -grrom must have represented be compared more wíth the heads of the so-called subprefectures, the $fi
political term. As a term of this kind only khrom comes into question, the a hsien, rather than wíth those of the prefectures, the chou. Therefore, instead
more so sínce spellings like bkat-grims instead oÍ bka,-khr.ims are quiie of rpiefectt T should prefer the translatíon.rtovrn prefectr, which also comes
current closer to the meaníng ãf Sanscrit koççapâlalY Similarly, I should interpret
ín the o1d manuscrlpts. Thus, relying upon the report for 755, one can see in fconseiller du préfetr by La1ou, as rtotnm prefect
rlfa-grom t]ne khtom of Rmaf-chu-/, i.e., the upper Hãang_ho, and also state that rtse-rje bLon, traîslated
the kårom. v/as governed by a dmag-dpon, a trnilítary ("n¿) áo,rrrci1íort or ttoç1r prefect (ho1díng the rank of a)councí11ort, since j-t
heãdt, which indicates that is preôísely this title thal always stands at the head of the offícíal rank
it was a unit of a fundamentally military character.
lists of the functionaries of Sha-cu.
312 URAY'. khrom URAY: khrom 313

3. The results achieved so far are confirmed and completed by .the data provide the strongest confirmation of the fact that in the Tibetan administrat-
provided in some Chinese records and Ínscriptions of Tun-Huang, origínatíng
from the Tibetan perÍod. The data contained in these records were thoroughly íon there \,rere no uníts corresponding to the Chinese prefectures, the chou,
analysed by the recently deceased Professor Demíévi11e, whí1e even Marcelle since they designated the Tibetan head of Sha-chou not by ts'e-shih, the Chin-
Lalou had ca11ed attention to the agreement of certain of these data with those ese term for the prefect, but by chieh-erh, the transcríptíon of the Tíbetan
of the Pelliot rÍbérâin 1089.20 title rtse-rje.
The most. important of the Chinese documents in question is the scro11 S.
4. The fíndings so far achieved have to be supplemented with chronological
1438 of the British Library, whích includes the drafts of several official and geographical information.
documents and éorne prívate letters of a high Chinese functionary of the Tibetan
For the period up to the end of the 8th century, only the RogaT Annal-s
adrnÍnístration of sha-chou ('.ù- )l'l ,äP fãl sha-chou-tut-tul)?r A nrrmber of the contain data on tlne khrom. Thus in the year 676/677 Khri-bshos-khromr^]the
officÍa1 writings contaj.ned in the scro1l deal with an attack on Sha-chou by a military government of the Chting-hai (rtko uor) regiont ís mentioned.29 In
group of foreígn Chinese rebels and its further consequences. The rebels had the summer of 7O4 there appears the designatíon rlLa-grom, rrnílítary government
slaughtered the Tibetan functionaries .of Sha-chou, but.later they were arrested of rMaf-chu/ (i.e. upper Hoang-ho)t, but only as a possessive attribute of the
name of a smaller p1ace. Later, however, at the time of the Chinese advance
by the author of the wrltíngs who lnformed the g i{,r{ tiu-lrou-siriå of Kua- duríng the 73O-74Ors, this government must have been destroye{^since a report
chou on tl€ events and had the arrested rebels transported to Chiu-chtüan, í.e.
su-chou. The lj-åou-sl¡iå sent a new âþ J[ chieå-,erh to sha-chou, and so the on its restoratíon exists from as early as the summer of 755.JU There is
situatíon there became quiet again. Sasing hinself on these reports, mention, further, of the great administration of the military governments (or
Derniévil1e was able'to establish that the -Ziu:åou-shjå of Kua-chou wås superÍor of an unspecífied military government) which had been arranged ín the presence
.to the chieh-erh of sha-chou, ánd Lalou compared this nith the data of the of the Tibetan ruler in the summer of 741 at Zhang-tsäl in Zho-donri.e. dSJ
Pelliot Ëibêtâin 1089 concerning t1le role pLayed_by the Military Head of Kwa- Jà.shu-tun (Ac áiy-tua.n31) to the v¡est of rnodern Ð.$ Hsi-ning.32
Thanks to the records of Tun-huang, Míran ar'd }lazar Tagh, as well as to
cu in settling the dlspute over rank in Sha-cu.22 some texts of a different character, a far greater number of military govern-
To add to the pícture so far obtaíned, the Chinese titles of these funct-
Íonaríes have to be subjected to a closer look. Liu-hou-shih \,/as, since the ments are knovrn for the period lasting from the end of the Bth century down to
second half of the 8th century, the title of the temporary officíals who
the disintegratíon of the Tibetan Empire and, sporad1ca11y, even dornm to sub-
carried on the affairs of a âf jg-4þ_ chieh-tu-shi¡r, i.e. of armilitary sequent centuries. From east to \^¡est, these rnilitary governments are as
governort23 while the post waË vacant. Now there are in fact several passages follows:
in Pelliot chinois 2449, verso, texts 2 and 3, which concern the 4s.,tlì$f¡frrrpl{ (a) rl.Ia-gtom, rthe military government of rì4a-fchuJt. One learns about
Kua-chou hsin chieh-tu-såih, tthe new military governor of Kua-chout etc.t' thís unit from the introductíon to the docurnent Pelliot tibétaín 1089 where it
Especíal1y interestlng is an inscripÈ.íon frorn 839 4.D., in which a man's office 1s made clear that the same assembly of the bDe Councillors which had come to
is srared ro beÀS,ñ y.rÌ tr ,¡9. 1j F ++ )y il.| :- å? * È È e- a decísíon on the díspule over rank among the functionaries of Sha-cu also
suspended, among others, the authority of the treasurer and of the s-Zunqs of
å Èt S l¿ ra-Fan xua-chòu chiehltu'nsins-cñün pinq snlJcní"'J"" i"-tZ the nilitary government of Rma (dkor-pa-dang/stungs twa-grom-pa) (1.7).JJ Tt
tstang-ts'ao dtih chih-chi teng shih tcommissary of the expeditionary army, as appears from Pe11íot tibétain 1082, a letter from a Ulghur Khagan of Kan-chou
well as of the granaries, accounts, etc. of the three tribes of Sha-chou, of vüritten in Tibetan in the lOth century, that at that time rMa-grom \¡as an in-
the Military Goveroment of Kua-chou of Great Tibet. t25 dependent political unit whích had stríven after an alliance with the khagan
It is also \torth mentioning chieh-erh; in 5.1438 this is gíven as the title (11.9-10).J4 R.A. Stein proposes to connect this old military government -
of the new chief official of Sha-chou who was sent by tine fiu-hou-såih of Kua- to all probability wíth good reason - with Ma-khrom and the region of Khrom,
chou to occupy the place of one who had been murdered. Demiévi11e to begin which were mentioned in connection with the travels of the 5th and 7th Karma-
r^/ith intended to explain this tÍt1e as fgunded on Chinese, but later he rãised pa and wþich were sítuated near the princípality of G1íng and the territory of
the idea that chieh-erå (AC tsiqç-ñ¿iÐ26 níglnt perhaps be a transcription or mGo-1og. "
a loan of the Tíbetan rtse-rje.L/ In rny opinion this interpretation is with- (b) dBgar-mo-thang-khrom chen-po. rthe great military government of dByar-
out doubt the correct one sínce, as far as r know, chieh-erh is known only mo-thangr. The existence of thís government ís borne out only by the Pragets
from records which datè from the time of Tibetan rule and from a pr"""g. i., of the De-ga-g.Yu-tshaf Monasterq (iol.33, recto,1. 1: fo1.34-, uLrto, 1.3i.36
later document in r'ihích reference is made to the expulsion of çl-le Tibetan " The location of the region dByar- (or g.Yar- or g.Yer-)mo-thang (which frequ-
chieh-erh and to the tbarbarian mob' from Sha-chou in B4B A.D.28 ently occurs not only in the ancient records but also in the geographíc lit-
Consequently, the analysis of the Tibetan and Chinese sources under dís- erature and, especía1lyrín the religious and heroic epíc) wasrat all times
cussion has demonstrated that the khrom were large units r,rhich comprised sev- thought to be found ín the neighbourhood of Lake Chting-haí;'' it was, however,
eral earlier chinese prefectures, chou. rn Tibetan, their leaders bore the only recently that Ríchardson recognized the importance of the Zhol ínscrípt-
titre dnag-(d)pon fMílitary Headr, and ín chinese chieh-tu-shiå rl{ilitary ion in Lha-sa for a more exact location of dByar-mo-thang in the B-9th centur-
Governorr or, in vacancy of the post, Jj-hou-shih. This bears witness to the ies. Sínce, in the descríption of the conquest of Chinese terrítories betr¿een
basically military character of the khrom, and I therefore consider 1mílitary 758 and 763 this inscription mentions âmong others rGga'i/ kha[ms]-su [qto]gs-
governmentt the adequate translation of the term khrom. As sub-dlvisíons of pa dBgar-mo-thang, 'the Dbyar:-mo-thang belonging to the Chinese countryt
the khtom one can only prove the existence of the sma1l dístricts governed by (south side 11.32-33), there can exist no doubt, even gíven the incornpleteness
the rtse-rje, í.e. the rtor,m prefectsr. rndeed, the chinese Tun-huang records of the textr^that dByar-mo-thang should be located east or north-east of Lake
Chting-haí.rÕ
314 URAY: khrom URAY: khrom 315

(c) mKhat-tsan-khrom chen-po / mKhar-tsan-khrom / Khat-tsan-khrom


mKhar-tsan-pâ, tthe (great) milltary government of (m)Khar-tsant. rhe / khron
ominations of this unit are documented not only in peiliot tibétain loggãerr_ (11,
r2r3or33r35) but also in the pragers of r?,e De-ga-g.yu-tshar Monasterq (for. Notes
38, verso, l-L. 2-3; fo1.39, recto, 1.3; fo1.39, velrso, f .i¡.:l----;i-iË
sufficient to say here thaË I Í-dentify mKhar-rÁan r¡itÁ X_Ì-l 1 Thomas, 1955, p.118 and the passages quoted there; Bacot, L94O-I946, p.5I
Liang-chou, i.e., wíth modern ÊL,4, wu-r^rei. r hope to discuss this more and n.4; La1ou, 1955, pp.199,2OL-2O2; Steín, I959a, p.2IB; Uray, 1960,
thoroughly ín another p1ace. p.39, n; Stein, L962, p.216; Petech, L967, p.253; Richardson, 1978' p.
(d) Kwa-cu-khr7n /,.Kwa-cu-khrom / Kwa-curi khrom, rthe (great) 749.
mÍ1ítary government ofth9_n-no
Kwa-cu.4o Apart from Kr¿a-cu (Kua-chou) in the 2 Macdonald, 797L, p.325. I used to adopt this translation myself: Uray'
sÈrícter sense thís government also lncluded sug-cu (su-chou) and sha-cu 1975, p.168.
(Sha-chou), as discussed above. 3 Quoted from microfilm. Cf. Lalou, 195O, p.57, where, however, Sugr-chu is
(e) A rnilitary government which comprised read, and the end of the formula is not quoted.
probabílity 1r bore rhe name of rshal-bgi, the whole Lop Nor region. rn all
4 For occurences of the name Kwa-cu/-chu see La1ou, 1955, pp.L99-2OO;
although the denomination Tshal-bgi-khrom has y"Ë to be found. "at_f ,i¡îli--
i.". &.**- su__p,j (AC
Thomas-Conze, 1963, p.4O.
ions of Thomas on certain, khrom bearing the alleged denominatior1s The assert_ 5 Karlgren, 1957, nos.41/a + 1O86/a-c.
chu-ngu ar.d sta-gu-khrom4t are foundeã on false interpretations khrom Nob 6
'Ham1lton, 7955, p.26, Anm.5, and esp., Hamílton, 1958' pp.L24-125.
of elliptic
forrnulas and heavily damaged passages: they are therefàre .r.r"..ãpi"ri."-'Hor- 7 Hackin, 1924,'pp.37*, 26-27, 40, 82; Thomas, 1951' p.49-50 (misinterpreted
. ever, r shal1 not enter into dêtails here as r hope in the
ûear future to be
here); Thomasr 1955, p.32 (already correct here); Lalour 195O, pp.661 83,
in a position to conclude a paper on celtain problems concerning 84 (nos. 1L29, I27L, 1212)
in the Lop Nor region. Tibetan rule B. Karlgren, 1957, nos. IO2B/a'b + LO86/a-c.
(f) A military goveïnment of unknovm name in the Kíngdorn of Khotan. o Hamilton, 1955, p.29, n; Hamilton, 1958, p.128.
ence on the existence of this government is found only ìn EvÍd- 10. Annals II-1,11. 13-14; cf. Thomas, L94O-7946, pp.56' 63.
the
term kårg4r in several Tibetan documents from Mazar Taih concerning occurence of the
Stein, I959a, p.2O9, n.34; Stein, 1959t,, p.30.
11.
1oca1
affairs.4J However,-ir-a-1. fragmenrary passage t...1 dbgi,d cuns. 1t Lalou, 1955, pp.176-L77,180-182, 193. - Also in 1.3O of the record a
rtse-khrom-du/su[---] of M.Tagh""ar;;i;
a v oo1, recto r.3, r cànnot see the name of military head is rnentioned in connectíon with trre khtom of mKhar-tsan; in
thj-s khrom, as Thomas didr44 since DbgiJd is easily demonstrated my opinion, however, the passage admits of various ínterpretations.
name, and in rny opinion the dbgild.cung.tse/..of M.iagh a to be a clan 13. Lalou, 1955, pp.17B, 183, 199.
can only be ínterpreted as a personal ,r"rn".45
vi 0O6, recto, I.2, L4. Lalou, 1955, p.199.
(g) Bru-sha'i quJ-ggi khrom, rthe mílitary government of the 15. In any case, one has to ernphasíze the point that besídes the chief officí-
(i-e. GÍlgit)t. This unít is only knovm Bru-sha country
from the colophon of the rDo-rje bkod- a1s of tine khrom, those of mÍ1ítary units of othér degrees and sizes were
pali tggud rnaT-'bgor g:rub-pati Jung kun-tdus tig-pari mdo as the place also designated as dmagi-pon tmilitary headr; this is true also for the
its translation was completed by Dha-rrna-bo-dhi, Dã-na-ra-kshifsíc]/-ta. where document under discussion (11. 261 42,67,69r 7Or 72; cf. La1ou, 1955,
and
che-btsan-skye"r46 whose activities can be dated,to approximately gth pp.I77-779, LB7, 183-185, 193). Sínce, however, a khrom of Kr¡a-cu did
century according to the rNying-ma-pa tradition.4/ the exist, the military head of Kwa-cu can have been nothing else but the
5. rn conclusíon one can state that the khrom were mÍlitary governments chief officíal of this khrom.
established ín the borderlands, or at least in the eastern, northern
and far- 16. Karlgren, 1957, nos.L6/a-c + 1OB6/a-c.
'hTestern frontíer zonesr which
were of the greatest milÍtary importance for the 17. Lalou, 1955, pp.I75, 176, L7B-179, lBO' 183-185 and, especíally,pp.191,
Tibetan Empire. In the interior of the Empire there.hTere îo khrom 2O3; Thomas, 1.951, pp.339-340.
is proved by the sÍ1ence of the sources and also by the dístinction made and this Thomas, 1957, pp.135, 793, 21L, 297-298, 4O3, 449*450' 451. For ident-
18.
ween the so-khams-kgi khrom, rthe mílitary governmL.rt" of the bet- ificatíon of the towns of the Lop Nor region see Hamí1ton, 1958, p.12O;
province(s)t, and the guJ chen-po)i dbus, tih. frontíer_guard Hamí1ton, 1977, pp.357-358, 36L.
""rrtru of the sreat countrvr On the office of the koÇÇapã7a and its hístory see Majumdarr 1966, p.
in the Pragers of the De-ga-g-yu-tshar, Iqonasterq (fo1. 4o, ' 19.
""i"",-1.;t.48' 275. For this datum I owe thanks to my friend Gy. I{ojtilla.
20. La1ou, 1955, pp.I99, 2O3.
2r. Derniéví1ler lg52r.pp.259 and n.2.- Tu-tu (AC tuo-tuok; Karlgren, 1957,
nos. 45/e'-gt+ 1O31/n) was borrowed by the Tibetan in the Íorm to-dogi,
yet the functíon of thís office in the Tibetan admínistration is unfort-
unately not known.
,, Demiéví11e, L952, pp.260-264, 276-278; Lalou, 1955' p.199.
L). Des Rotours, 1948, p.670; p.825, n.2. I'or chieh-tu-shih see Pulleyblank'
1955, pp.68-69; pp. 106-107, n.13; and, especially, pp.149-152, n.32,
for a detailed díscussíon of the opinions referrÍng thereto.
24 Derníéví11e, 1952, p.24O and n.6; p.242, n.2; p.243 and n.5.
25 Demlévílle, 1952, p.24L, n.
316 URAY: khrom
URAY: khrom 317

26. Karlgren, 1957, nos.399/e-f + 873/a-ð.


Demíévi11e, 7952, p.26I, n.2l p.2BI, n.6. Cf. also La1ou, 1955, p.2O3.
to Demíévi11e, 7952, p.277, n. Bibliography and Abbreviations
to AnnaTs, r. 1. 68. rn Bacot, 1940-1946, p.15; p.34 and n.g, misinterpreted.
For a correct interpretation see Stein, 1952, p.B4; Stein, 1959a, pp.196- AC: Ancient Chinese.
797, 293-294 and, especially, p.314, n.136; Stein, 1962, p.216. ANNALS r: The Rogal AnnaLs of Tibet, version r; mss. pellíot tíbétain 12gB
30 Annals, I, 11. 146-147; cf. Bacot, I94O-L946, pp.19, 40. Also the passages (previously 252) + c1'. 79 viii 7 (rndia office Library, Tun-huang,
quoted above, n.10-11. no. 750); quoted from a microfilm.
31. Karlgren, 1957, nos. 727/J-L + 464/p-q. ,A]v/vÄ¿s rr-1: The RogaL AnnaJ-s of Tibet, versíon rr, copy 1; Brítísh Library
JZ. AnnaTs, I. 11. 285-286; cf. Bacor, I94O-L946, pp.26,51; perech, 1967, pp. ms. 0r. 821-2 (I87); quoted from a mícrofilm.
253. For the location of Shu-tun see especially Mo1è, 1970, pp.]'2I-l.22, BACor r94o-7946t J.Bacot, rAnnales (650-747) ', in J.Bacot, F. If.Thomas, ch.
n, 206; p.140, n.337. Toussaint, Documents de Touen-houang reTatifs à l.rhistoire du Libet
33. Lalou, 1955, pp.176, 180. rnterpretation of the passage according to (Annales du l{usée Guimet, Bibliothèque d'Etudes, LI), paris, 194O-
Uray, 1975, p.16O. 7946, pp.7-52.
14 Quoted from a microfilm. cf. steín,L959a, p.2o9, n.34; stein, 1959b, p.30. CH.: Chinese.
An edition of this letter v¡ith a conmentary is in preparation for a volume csOIiGoR 196o: B.csongor, 'some chinese texts ín Tibetan script from Tun-
of the l.Ionumenta Tibetica Historica Huangt, AoH. X-2, Lg6O, pp.97-L4O.
35 Stein, 7959a, þ.2O9, n.34; pp.213, 2I5, 218; Stein, 1959b, p.30. DARGYAY 1977: . Eva M.Dargyay, The rise of esoteric Buddhisn in Tibet, Delhí,
36 Macdonald-Imaeda, I978, pI. L2-73; cf. Thomas, 1955, p.46:' Sr.ir,, 1959a, Varanasi, patta, 1977.
p.294. DBì{ïEVTLLB 1952: ?. Demíévi1re, Le conciLe de Lhasa, r. (Bibliothèque de
37. Thomas, 1951,p.106; Thornas, 1955, pp.42,46; Stein, I959a, pp.1g6, 196, lrInstítut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, VII.),. paris, 1952.
198; p.2O7, n.11; p.2O9, n.34; pp.287,294; p.303, n.29; Stein, 1959b, p. DES ROTOURS 1948: R. des Rotours, Traité des fonctionnaires et Traité de
52, and n. L47; pp.67, 68; p.7L, n.203; p.73; itylie, L962, p.J,I2 and p. L'Armêe traduits de La NouveLLe Histoire des T'ang (chap. xLVr-L).
2O7, n.822-823; cf. also p.105 and p.19O, n.697. Tomes 1-2. (Bibliothèque de ltlnstitut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises,
38. Richardson, L952, pp.77, 20; p,23, n.19; Richardson, 1978, p.149 (however, VI.) Leyde,1948.
r believe a location of the region to the north of the lake ís improbable). HACKIN 7924: J. Hackin, Formufaire sanscrit-tibétain du F sièc¡e. (Mission
39. Thomas, 1951, pp.95-96, 102; La1ou, 1955, pp.176-177, 180-182, ZOI-2O2. Pelliot en Asie centrale, série petit in-octavo, rr.), paris, Lgz4.
40. For the various forms of denornj,natíon for this government see Thomas, 1951, HAlfrLToN 1955: J.R. Hamilton, ¿es ou'Íghours à l-,ípoque des cing Dgnasties
pp.21, 73, 75, 96-97, 1O3; Lalou, 1950, p.57, no.1O8B. d'après fes documents chinois. (Bib1íothèque de ltlnstitut des
4L Csongor, 1960, no.687 + Karlgren, 7957, no.566/r. Hautes Etudes Chinoises, X.), paris, 1955.
42 Thomas, 1951, pp.I43-I44, 153, 158-160, 248, Z9O. HAÌlrLToN 1958: J.Hamilton, rAutour du manuscrj,t staël-Holsteinr, ?p, xLVr,
43 Thomas, 1951, pp.2L9, 382, 41I-4I2, 4I5, 466. 1958, pp.115-153.
44 Thomas, 1957, p.2I9. HAllrLTON 7977: J.Hamilton, t],es pays des Tchong-yun, ðungu1, ou cumu{a au
45 Thornas, 1951, pp.21,9, 255-256. xe sièclef, JÀ, CCLXV-3-4, 7977, pp.351-379.
46 Tibetan Tripitaka, text no.452; Vo1.9, 1956, p.ZO4-5, 11. 3-4, cf. KARIGREN 19572 B.Karlgren, Gratwnata Serica recensa. The l.Iuseum of Far East-
Pe11iot, I9L4, p.749, r,¡here khrom is understood as a place name. ern Anticluities StockhoTm, BulLetin, 29, 1957.
47. Cf. Dargyay, 1977, pp.4I-43. LAIOU 1950: M.La1ou, rnventaire des manuscrits tibétaine de Touen-houang
48. Thomas, 1951, pp.97-LO3. conservés à fa aibliothègue Nationafe (Fonds peLLiot tib'taifl, 1I.
fParis/, 1950.
LALOU 1955: l{.T,alou, tRevendícations des fonctionnai-res du Grand Tibet au
VIïI. tsièc1ef, JA, CCXLI]I-?, 1955, pp.l-7I-2].2, resp. its offprint
augmented with fascimíles ín the seríes: Manuscripts de Haute Asie
conservés à 1a Biblíothèque Natíona1e de París (Fonds Pelliot), III,
Paris, 1956.
MACDONALD. 1971: Ariane Macdonald, 'Une lecture des Pe11íot tibétaín 1286
1287, 1038, 1047, et 729Ot, in Erudes tibetajnes aéaiées à la
mémoire de llarcel_7e Lafou, paris, 1971, pp.190-391.
MACDONALD-IIÍEDA 1978: Aríane l{acdonald, Yoshj-ro Imaeda, Choix de documents
tibétaines conservês à la aibliothèc¡ue Nationale completé par quel-
oues manusctits de L,India Office et du Btitish Museum. Tome Ier.
(Míssion Paul Pe11iot.) paris, 1978.
MAJII{DAR L966: R.c. I{ajumdar (ed.) rhe historg and cujture of the rndian
PeopJe, Vo1. V. The StruggLe fot Empire, 2rrd. ed. Bornbay, 1966.
318 URAY'. khrom 319

MOLÈ 7970: Gabriella l{o1è, ?he T'u-gü-hun from the Northern þIei to the time
of five dgnasxies. (Series Oríentale Roma, XLI.) Roina, 197O. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF TWO RASÃYANA SYSTEMS IN
PELLIOT I9L4: P.Pe11iot, tNotes à propos drun catalogue du Kanjurt, JA, XIe INDO-TIBETAN ESOTERISM
série, IV, 1914, pp.111-150. Michael L. Walter
PETBCH 1967: L.Petech, tGlosse agLí Annafi di Tun-huangt, Rso, n'II, 1967, The purpose of this paper is to describe and contrast t\^/o systems of al-
pp. 24I-279. chemical practice found in rNying-ma literature. The general observations
PIILLEYBLAI¡K 1955: E.G. Pul1eyb1ank, The background of the Rebeffion of An made about these systems may shed some light on the role of alchemy and medicine
Lu-shan. (London Oriental Series, 4.) London, New York, Torontor1955. in Tantrism from the Bth century on.
RICHARDSOÌJ 1952: H.E.Richardson, Äncient historicaL edicts at Lhasa and the First, a few prelimínary remarks. The compounding of elixirs and tonics
Mu Tsung/Khri Gtsug Lde Brtsan treatU of A.D. 827-822 from the on the one hand, and the transmutation of base metals into gold on the other,
inscription at Lhasa. (Prize Publícation Fund, XIX.) London, 1952. are referred to in most Indian traditions by the term rasãgana. In Indian
RICHARDSON. 1967: H.E. Richardson, 'Names and titles in early Tibetan - medicine the creation of such elixirs is very o1d, attested already in the
recordst, BuLl-etin of TibetoLogg, IV-L, L967, pp.5-2O. Caraka- and su,lruta-sakhità. Metallic transmutation under this term dates
RICHARDSON l-978:. H.E. Richardson, 'The Sino-Tibetan treaty inscription of from at least the Bth century, and is best represented in daivite materíals
827/823 ar Lhasar, JRAS, I97B-2, pp.I37-L62. such as the Rasãr4ava-tantra. In additíon to this latter development, there
^.D. R.A. Stei.n, fRécentes études tibétaines', JA, CCXL-1, 1952, pp.
STEIN L952: were other adaptations of rasâgana techniclues v/ithín Tantrism. As a result of
79-706. this, when it is listed as one of the siddhis markíng a yogints.success
STEIN L959a: noli-A. Steín, Recherches sur 7'épopée et fe barde au Tibet. (especially among the l{ãths and Siddhãcãryas and related groupsr), it ís often
(Bíbliothèque de lrlnstitut des Hautes Etudes Chinoíses, XIII.) unclear exactly what rasãgana ís supposed to denote.. The vagueness is
Parlsr 1959. accentuated because this power is frequently listed formulaically.'
STEIN L959a: R.A. Stein, Les tribus anciennes des marches sino-tibétaines, l. Two figures of pararnount importance to Tibetan religious culture have
Paris,1959. played decisive roles in the interpretation of rasâ11ana. LIe refer here to
STEIN 19622 R.A. Steín, La civiTisation tibêtaine. (Collection Sigma, 1.) Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra, Bth century contemporaries who dominate rNying-
Paris, 1962. ma traditions. Using materials from the -bKat-'ggur and such rNying-ma co1l-
TIBETAN TRIPITAKA. D.T. Suzuku (ed.) The Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking Edition, ections as the sNging-thiq-ga-bzhi anð. tþe rivgjng-ma' i-rggud-'-bum we present
Vo1s. 1-168. Tokyo-Kyoto, 1955-1961. here a very brief look at their systems J
THOI'ÍAS 194O-I946: F.l^1. Thomas rtSuite des Annalest, in J.Bacot, F.l,I.Thomas, Let us look first at the system'in Padmaist literature. Our examination
Ch. Toussaint, Documenxs de Touen-houang reJatifs à f'histoite du reveals that it is almost completely oriented around the extraction of
?ibet (Annales du Musée Guimet, Bibliothèque drEtudes, LI), Paris, essences (rasas) from the physical elements of the universe (the nahãbhütas of
L94o-1946, pp.53-75. Indían cosmogony and A¡rurvedic doctríne) and a few other substances. Padmas-
THOIÍAS 1951: F.W. Thornas, Tibetan Titerarg texts and documents concerning ambhava delivers these teachings as a mediator for, or is to be evoked as a
Chinese Turkestan, Part II. (Orienlale Translation Fund, new series, form of, Amitãyus. There are also several texts which mgntíon the conjuring
XXXVII.), London, 1951. of eíght immortal magicians which emanate from Amitãyus.a The nrocess is as
THOI{AS 1955: F.trr7. Thomas, Tibetan Titerarg texts and documents concerning follows: rIn the south there appears the magicían.Mañjuéri(-mÍtra), who
Chinese TLlrkestan. Part III. (Oriental Translation Fund, new series, comes from the sphere of activity of tJam-dpal-sku.) iltren he extracts the
F-.) London,1955. essence of the element earth it floats up from the flesh element of the yogínrs
THOIÍAS-CONZE 1963: F.tr^I. Thomas, Tibetan Titerarg texts and documents con- body and collects in the realm (klongr) of Buddhalocanã (one of the rgoddesses
cerning Chinese Turkestan, Part IV. Ed. t'y E. Conze. (Oriental of the elementsto). It then enters the column of eternal life-force of the
Translation Fund, new series, XLI.) London, 1963, yogin...r The process is the same for each of the other elements, and all
URAY 1960: G.Uray, tThe Four Horns of Tíbet according to the Royal Annalst, conclude with the statemeÊt that the yogin has attained a siddhi over the
AOH, X-I, 1960, pp.31-57. forces of life and death.T
URAY L975: G.lJray, rLfannalístique et 1a pratique bureaucratique au Tibet _ Two particular points to note in this sâdhana are its utilizatíon of
ancienr, JÄ, CcLXrrr-L-2, 1975, pp.I57-I7o. Ayurvedic principles of corporeal development ând its statement of the bhTtta-
I'IYLIE 1"962: T.V. Irrylie, The geogîaphg of Tibet according to the 'Dzam-gl-ing- (vi-)éuddhi concept. The latter are usually prelíminary Tantric rituals for
rgqas-bshad. (Serie Orientale Roma, XXV.) Rorna, 1962. cleansíng the bodyts constitueÊt elements; in the present text it has become a
dístinctly alchemjcal process. "
In another text, directly attributed.to Padmasambhava, there are discussed
the recognitlon, acquisltion, and use of rthe essence of the rock elementt
('bgung bati rdo). ì{ethods for preparing and ingesting it with the proper
meditational practices are gíven. The eighth section. of this upadeéa, wh6re
the results of its application are described, is particularly interestíng.-
Ile read, inter a7ia, tÌ'att tGradually ít becomes no longer necessary for one
to develop or to deieriorate (physíca11y)... all strugglíng after food,- cloth-
ing, and nourishrnent ceases. I,lit.hin seven or eight days the flesh on the