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# FLOW RATE

## LE: After completing this module, you

should be able to:
• Define the rate of flow for a fluid and solve
problems using velocity and cross-section.
• Write and apply Bernoulli’s equation for the
general case and apply for (a) a fluid at rest, (b) a
fluid at constant pressure, and (c) flow through a
horizontal pipe.
Fluids in Motion

## All fluids are assumed

in this treatment to
exhibit streamline flow.

## • Streamline flow is the motion of a fluid in

which every particle in the fluid follows the
same path past a particular point as that
followed by previous particles.
Assumptions for Fluid Flow:
• All fluids move with streamline flow.
• The fluids are incompressible.
• There is no internal friction.

## Streamline flow Turbulent flow

Rate of Flow
The rate of flow R is defined as the volume V of a fluid
that passes a certain cross-section A per unit of time t.
The volume V of fluid is given by
the product of area A and vt:
V  Avt
A vt

Volume = A(vt)

Avt
R  vA Rate of flow = velocity x area
t
Constant Rate of Flow
For an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the velocity
increases when the cross-section decreases:

R  v1 A1  v2 A2 vd v d
1 1
2 2
2 2

A1
R = A1v1 = A2v2
A2
v2
v1
v2
Example 1: Water flows through a rubber hose 2 cm in
diameter at a velocity of 4 m/s. What must be the
diameter of the nozzle in order that the water emerge
at 16 m/s?
The area is proportional to
the square of diameter, so:
vd v d
1 1
2 2
2 2

2 2
vd (4 m/s)(2 cm)
d 
2
2 
1 1
d2 = 0.894 cm
v2 (20 cm) 2
Example 1 (Cont.): Water flows through a rubber hose
2 cm in diameter at a velocity of 4 m/s. What is the rate
of flow in m3/min?

R  v1 A1  v2 A2

 d12
R  v1 A1 ; A1 
4
 d1 (4 m/s) (0.02 m)
2 2
R1  v1  R1 = 0.00126 m3/s
4 4
m3  1 min 
R1  0.00126   R1 = 0.0754 m3/min
min  60 s 
Problem Strategy for Rate of Flow:
• Read, draw, and label given information.
• The rate of flow R is volume per unit time.
• When cross-section changes, R is constant.

R  v1 A1  v2 A2

## • Be sure to use consistent units for area

and velocity.
Problem Strategy (Continued):

## • Since the area A of a pipe is proportional to its diameter

d, a more useful equation is:

vd v d
1 1
2 2
2 2

## • The units of area, velocity, or diameter chosen

for one section of pipe must be consistent with
those used for any other section of pipe.
The Venturi Meter

A C
B
The higher velocity in the constriction B causes a
difference of pressure between points A and B.
PA - PB = rgh
Demonstrations of the Venturi Principle

## The increase in air velocity produces a difference

of pressure that exerts the forces shown.
Work in Moving a A2 Note
Volume of Fluid P2 differences in
pressure DP
A1 and area DA
F2
P1 P2  ; F2  P2 A2
A2
A2
Volume
F1 V P2 , F2
P1  ; F1  P1 A1
A1
A1 h
P1
F1
Fluid is raised
to a height h.
Work on a Fluid (Cont.)
v2 F2 = P2A2
Net work done on
fluid is sum of work
v1 A2 done by input force
F1 = P1A1
A1 s2 h2 Fi less the work done
by resisting force F2,
h1 s1 as shown in figure.

## Net Work = P1V - P2V = (P1 - P2) V

Conservation of Energy
v2 F2 = P2A2
Kinetic Energy K:
DK  ½mv22  ½mv12 v1 A2
F1 = P1A1
Potential Energy U: A1 s2 h2
DU  mgh2  mgh1 h1 s1

## ( P1  P2 )V  (½mv  ½mv )  (mgh2  mgh2 )

2
2
2
1
Conservation of Energy
( P1  P2 )V  (½mv  ½mv )  (mgh2  mgh2 )
2
2
2
1

## P1  r gh1  ½ r v12  P2  r gh2  ½ r v22

v2
Bernoulli’s Theorem: v1
P1  r gh1  ½ r v  Const
2
1
h2
h1
Bernoulli’s Theorem (Horizontal Pipe):
P1  r gh1  ½ r v12  P2  r gh2  ½ r v22

## Horizontal Pipe (h1 = h2) v1 h v2

r
P1  P2  ½ r v22  ½ r v12
h1 = h 2

## Now, since the difference in pressure DP = rgh,

Horizontal
Pipe
DP  r gh  ½ r v22  ½ r v12
Example 3: Water flowing at 4 m/s passes through a Venturi
tube as shown. If h = 12 cm, what is the velocity of the water in
the constriction?

## Bernoulli’s Equation (h1 = h2) h v2

r
DP  r gh  ½ r v  ½ r v
2
2
2
1
v1 = 4 m/s h = 6 cm

## v2 = 4.28 m/s Note that density is not a factor.

Bernoulli’s Theorem for Fluids at Rest.
For many situations, the fluid remains at rest so that
v1 and v2 are zero. In such cases we have:

## This is the same relation

r = 1000
seen earlier for finding the h kg/m3
pressure P at a given depth
h = (h2 - h1) in a fluid.
Torricelli’s Theorem
When there is no change of pressure, P1 = P2.

P1  r gh1  ½ r v  P2  r gh2  ½ r v
2
1
2
2

## Consider right figure. If

surface v2  0 and P1= v2  0
P2 and v1 = v we have:
h2 h v  2 gh
Torricelli’s theorem:
h1
v  2 gh
Interesting Example of Torricelli’s
Theorem:
Torricelli’s theorem:
v
v  2 gh v
v
• Discharge velocity
increases with depth.
• Maximum range is in the middle.
• Holes equidistant above and below midpoint
will have same horizontal range.
Example 4: A dam springs a leak at a point 20
m below the surface. What is the emergent
velocity?

Torricelli’s theorem:
v  2 gh h
v  2 gh
Given: h = 20 m
g = 9.8 m/s2

## v  2(9.8 m/s 2 )(20 m)

v = 19.8 m/s2
Strategies for Bernoulli’s Equation:
• Read, draw, and label a rough sketch with givens.
• The height h of a fluid is from a common reference
point to the center of mass of the fluid.
• In Bernoulli’s equation, the density r is mass
density and the appropriate units are kg/m3.
• Write Bernoulli’s equation for the problem and
simplify by eliminating those factors that do not
change.

## P1  r gh1  ½ r v12  P2  r gh2  ½ r v22

Strategies (Continued)
P1  r gh1  ½ r v12  P2  r gh2  ½ r v22

## • For a stationary fluid, v1 = v2 and we have:

r = 1000
DP = rg(h2 - h1) h kg/m3

## • For a horizontal pipe, h1 = h2 and we obtain:

P1  P2  ½ r v22  ½ r v12
Strategies (Continued)
P1  r gh1  ½ r v12  P2  r gh2  ½ r v22

## • For no change in pressure, P1 = P2 and we have:

Torricelli’s Theorem

v  2 gh
General Example: Water flows through the pipe at the rate of
30 L/s. The absolute pressure at point A is 200 kPa, and the point
B is 8 m higher than point A. The lower section of pipe has a
diameter of 16 cm and the upper section narrows to a diameter of
10 cm. Find the velocities of the stream at points A and B.

## R = 30 L/s = 0.030 m3/s B

R=30 L/s
D
A   R2 ; R 8m
2
AA = (0.08 m)2 = 0.0201 m3 A
AB = (0.05 m)2 = 0.00785 m3

R 0.030 m 3 /s R 0.030 m 3 /s
vA   2
 1.49 m/s; v2   2
 3.82 m/s
AA 0.0201 m A2 0.00785 m

## vA = 1.49 m/s vB = 3.82 m/s

General Example (Cont.): Next find the absolute
pressure at Point B.
B
Given: vA = 1.49 m/s R=30 L/s
vB = 3.82 m/s 8m
PA = 200 kPa
A
hB - hA = 8 m
Consider the height hA = 0 for reference purposes.
0
PA + rghA +½rvA2 = PB + rghB + ½rvB2
PB = PA + ½rvA2 - rghB - ½rvB2

## PB = 200,000 Pa + 1113 Pa –78,400 Pa – 7296 Pa

PB = 200,000 Pa + ½(1000 kg/m3)(1.49 m/s)2
– (1000 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2)(8 m) - ½(1000 kg/m3)(3.82 m/s)2
PB = 115 kPa
Summary
Streamline Fluid Flow in Pipe:
R  v1 A1  v2 A2 v1d12  v2 d22

## Fluid at Rest: Horizontal Pipe (h1 = h2)

PA - PB = rgh P1  P2  ½ r v22  ½ r v12

## Bernoulli’s Theorem: Torricelli’s theorem:

P1  r gh1  ½ r v12  Constant v  2 gh
Summary: Bernoulli’s Theorem
• Read, draw, and label a rough sketch with givens.
• The height h of a fluid is from a common reference
point to the center of mass of the fluid.
• In Bernoulli’s equation, the density r is mass density
and the appropriate units are kg/m3.
• Write Bernoulli’s equation for the problem and
simplify by eliminating those factors that do not
change.