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eclectic piety, his asceticism, his vegetarianism,

his espousal of Hindu-Muslim unity, and his


firm belief in ahimsa, Gandhi appealed to the
loftier Hindu ideals. For Gandhi, moral
regeneration, social progress, and national
freedom were inseparable.
Emerging leaders within the Congress--
Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel,
Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari, Maulana
Abdul Kalam Azad, Subhas Chandra Bose, and
Jaya-prakash (J.P.) Narayan--accepted
Gandhi's leadership in articulating nationalist
aspirations but disagreed on strategies for
wresting more concessions from the British.
The Indian political spectrum was further
broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence
of both moderate and militant parties, such as
the Swaraj Party (sometimes referred to as the
Swarajist Party), the Mahasabha Party
(literally, great council; an orthodox Hindu
communal party), the Unionist Party, the
Communist Party of India, and the Socialist
Independence for India League. Regional
political organizations also continued to
represent the interests of non-Brahmans in
Madras, Mahars in Maharashtra, and Sikhs in
Punjab.
The Congress, however, kept itself aloof from
competing in elections. As voices inside and