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South Africa and India.

He believed it was honorable to


go to jail for a just cause. Altogether he spent seven
years in prison for his political activities.
More than once Gandhi used fasting to impress upon
others the need to be nonviolent. India was granted
independence in 1947, and partitioned into India and
Pakistan. Rioting between Hindus and Muslims followed.
Gandhi had been an advocate for a united India where
Hindus and Muslims lived together in peace.
Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi's ideas and strategies of


nonviolent civil disobedience (satyagraha--see
Glossary), first applied during his South Africa
days, initially appeared impractical to many
educated Indians. In Gandhi's own words,
"Civil disobedience is civil breach of unmoral
statutory enactments," but as he viewed it, it
had to be carried out nonviolently by
withdrawing cooperation with the corrupt state.
Observers realized Gandhi's political potential
when he used the satyagraha during the anti-
Rowlatt Acts protests in Punjab. In 1920, under
Gandhi's leadership, the Congress was
reorganized and given a new constitution,
whose goal was swaraj . Membership in the
party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a
token fee, and a hierarchy of committees--from
district, to province, to all-India--was
established and made responsible for discipline