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SHOCKEY PRECAST PARKING

STRUCTURE DESIGN GUIDE


2018 EDITION
WWW.SHOCKEYPRECAST.COM

NOTE: The details shown in this design


guide are intended to be helpful in the
preparation of complete project plans. Section 1 | Introduction
These details are not to be used as
working drawings. Working drawings and • Why Precast?
details must be prepared and approved • Why Shockey?
by qualified professionals certified in the • Company History
jurisdiction in which the project is to be
built. Shockey accepts no responsibility Section 2 | Parking Structure Aesthetics
for any errors or oversights in the use • Colors, Features, Textures
of this material or in the preparation
of plans. This publication is intended Section 3 | Open Bay System
for use by professional personnel
competent to evaluate the significance • Optimal Layout
and limitations of its contents and able to • Openness
accept responsibility for the application • Ramp Walls
of material contained herein. Special • Dry System
conditions and specific local requirements • Wet System
on your project will require specific
evaluation and practical engineering Section 4 | Parking Structure Specifications
judgment by the project’s Engineer of
Record. Section 5 | Case Studies
• Canton Crossing Parking Structure
© Shockey Precast, a Metromont
• Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking Structure
Company 2018. All Rights Reserved.
• Hecht Warehouse Parking Structure
• George Washington AutoPark
• Washington Headquarters Services Parking Structure
• Calvert St. Parking Structure
• Washington Nationals Parking Structure
219 Stine Lane • Gaylord National Harbor Parking Structure
Winchester, VA 22603 • Temple University Health System Parking Structure
540.401-0101 • Iron Hill Corporate Center Parking Structure
shockeyprecast.com • Tysons II H Parking Structure
#ShockeyPrecast • Southpointe Apartments Parking Structures
• University of Maryland at Shady Grove Parking Structure
INTRODUCTION
• Why Precast?
• Why Shockey?

Long & Foster Parking Structure, Chantilly, VA


48’ Bay System Introduction
Introduction

INTRODUCTION project time is not lost waiting for acceptable


weather conditions.
In 2008, The Shockey Precast Group published
its inaugural Parking Structure Design Guide Typical precast parking structure components
for the A/E community. The publication was such as double tees, columns, and inverted
an overwhelming success, and years later, we T-beams can easily be erected at an average
continue to receive compliments and requests rate of 12 pieces per crane per day, and can
be erected in weather conditions that are
for copies. In 2015, Shockey Precast revised
problematic for the full erection of steel
its Parking Structure Design Guide, to include
components or the placement of CIP concrete.
updated design information and specifications,
Precast concrete’s faster erection means follow-
reference drawings and photos, and new parking
on trades can begin work more quickly and
structure case studies. While this guide is not to
translates to an overall construction schedule
be used as a substitute for project drawings, we that may be several months shorter than that
hope you find it to be a valuable resource in the of a project using CIP concrete. The activities
design of your next parking structure. associated with precast erection can overlap, so
their overall completion is not dependent upon a
series of sequential activities.

With overhead significantly reduced and crews


more readily available for other projects, the
speed-to-market of precast concrete offers
important advantages to the project as a whole,
and creates an economic advantage for general
WHY PRECAST? contractors.

Precast concrete is a highly durable, economical, Durability


and versatile building material that offers
incomparable flexibility and value. Its short Plant-cast precast products are generally more
erection time and ability to reduce the overall durable than field-placed concrete because they
construction schedule make it particularly are manufactured in a controlled environment.
appealing to owners and general contractors. The low water-cement ratio used in precast
For designers, precast opens the door to a world concrete creates a denser product that better
of creative and diverse possibilities for providing prevents the penetration of chlorides and other
“signature” solutions to their individual parking harmful elements than field-placed concrete.
needs. According to the Precast Prestressed Concrete
Institute (PCI) PCI Handbook 7th Edition, studies
Speed-to-Market have shown “accelerated curing makes precast
concrete more resistant to chlorides than
One of the foremost benefits of using precast field-cured concrete.” High-quality concrete
rather than cast-in-place (CIP) concrete is that is produced by lowering the water-to-cement
the precast manufacturing process is unaffected ratio as much as possible without losing the
by temperature or adverse weather conditions. workability of the concrete. As it cures, the
Precast concrete components are fabricated mixture gains strength and forms the rock-like
in a controlled plant environment, so valuable material known as concrete. The curing process

SHOCKEY PRECAST, WINCHESTER, VA • SHOCKEYPRECAST.COM 3


Introduction Introduction

continues even after the surface of the concrete cement used in concrete. Precast concrete maintenance program, can result in a parking contractor and continues through the entire
has hardened. The majority of strength gain generates a low amount of waste with a low structure with a typical life cycle of 40-50 years design and construction process, to include
occurs in the first month of the concrete’s life toxicity. It is generally assumed that 2% of the – far greater than the standard life cycle of a providing experience-based budgets that aid in
cycle; however, hydration will continue gradually concrete at a plant is waste, but because it is CIP concrete parking structure. For the owner, the long-term financial forecasting of projects.
for several years. generated at the plant, 95% of the waste can be this can represent a significant return on initial As planning continues and details of a structure
beneficially used.” 100 percent of the reinforcing investment. become more defined, we assist in determining
Another significant advantage of precast steel used at Shockey Precast manufacturing the cost by offering a comprehensive proposal
concrete is that its strength is gained from its facility is recycled. OPENNESS AND SECURITY for the project.
own structural qualities. Because it is capable
of the higher strength required for long clear It is an accepted belief among those who Anyone who has ever parked in a closed-in The project proposal includes a detailed
spans, precast concrete is especially well-suited practice sustainable design that the key to parking structure understands the aesthetic and engineering and production schedule that
to structures such as parking structures. sustainable building is found in designing security-related advantages of a precast parking enables the owner or general contractor to
buildings that are adaptable, low-energy, and structure. The use of long-span precast double meet project erection needs. Shockey Precast
Shockey Precast can use slag cement and other offer a long lifespan. The longevity and durability tees and architectural load-bearing spandrels provides quality coordination efforts to the team
cementitious mixtures to help reduce the water- of precast concrete makes it an ideal building or load-bearing walls allows designers to create throughout the design development process.
to-cement ratio of the concrete mix, increase choice for sustainable design. parking structures with wide bays that give
density, reduce alkali silica reactivity, and patrons an increased sense of visibility and Shockey Precast team includes field-
increase the long-term strength and durability 50-YEAR LIFE EXPECTANCY security. experienced coordinators who specialize in
of our precast concrete components. The use of onsite management of pre-erection activities
corrosion inhibitors in the precast concrete can Shockey Precast is able to provide parking to facilitate a smooth transition to the erection
INDUSTRY PARTNERS AND AFFILIATIONS
further increase durability. To prevent corrosion structures that meet a 50-year life expectancy, phase of the project. Our transportation
of connections and to maximize the lifespan of in accordance with the Life-365 Service coordinators ensure the site logistics details
Shockey Precast actively participates in
a parking deck, stainless steel flange-to-flange Life Prediction Model™, by using slag with are planned well in advance to allow for
professional organizations that foster the
connections can be used in the driving surface a corrosion inhibitor in our normal concrete uninterrupted erection of the precast. After
growth and development of the precast industry
where the majority of normal wear-and-tear will mixtures, and with a 1.9” cover-to-steel erection is completed or has advanced to a safe
as a whole. Shockey is a charter member of
occur. in our horizontal precast components. It is degree, our field coordinators provide early
the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute
important to note that achieving a 50-year access to the structure for follow-on trades. This
(PCI), as well as being a PCI-Certified Plant and
SUSTAINABILITY life expectancy is contingent upon proper PCI-Certified Erector. Our senior management
timely onsite coordination minimizes disruptions
maintenance as outlined in PCI’s Maintenance of field activities and reduces the overall project
team has held leadership positions in the PCI
According to the 2015 PCI Designer’s Notebook Guide, including immediate repair of cracks and construction schedule.
chairmanship, various PCI technical committees,
on Sustainability, the use of precast concrete in timely replacement of joint sealants to maintain and on the PCI Industry Advisory Group to
building construction can contribute to achieving protection of connections. During erection of the building, Shockey Precast
the National Building Information Modeling
sustainability by…”incorporating an integrated field finishers complete the onsite work,
Standard Initiative. Shockey Precast is also
design, using materials efficiently, and reducing enabling the precast portion of the structure
INCREASED VALUE TO OWNER active in the Design-Build Institute of America
construction waste, site disturbance, and noise.” to be completed within a month of erection
(DBIA) – Mid-Atlantic Region, ACI, ASCE, SMPS,
completion. This quick response allows punchlist
The speed-to-market of precast means faster and the International Parking Institute (IPI).
The 2015 PCI Designer’s Notebook on review of the structure to proceed without delay.
delivery of the finished parking structure, which
Sustainability states, “Precast and prestressed Finally, upon completion of the precast work,
can equal extensive cost savings and an earlier SOLE SOURCE SUBCONTRACTOR
concrete can be designed to optimize (or lessen) Shockey Precast provides a manual for care and
start to return on investment for the owner.
the amount of concrete used. Industrial wastes maintenance of parking facilities, along with
The durability and longevity of a precast parking Shockey Precast provides a single point of
such as slag cement can be used as partial a warranty of our work. Owners who follow
structure also contributes to a better long-term contact for the full range of precast activities,
replacements for cement with certain aesthetic the cyclic maintenance activities outlined in
investment. The inherent quality, strength, from initial coordination and design through
(color) and early-compressive-strength this manual and who have trained personnel
and density of precast concrete produced by turnover to the building owner. Our involvement
restrictions, thereby reducing the amount of responsible for the care of their parking
Shockey Precast, combined with a regular begins with assisting the owner or general

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Introduction Introduction

structure will ensure the structure meets or concepts, product samples, and drawings for interoperability.” -- National Institute of final cost estimates. Deliverables include fully
exceeds the service life objectives. Shockey from similar projects. Building Sciences annotated plan, elevation, and building section
Precast field representatives also deliver • Participate in regular phone, written, and drawings, as well as product take-off. Likely
experience-based assistance to the owner on email communications with the A/E Design Shockey Precast Engineering department has modeling platforms: Revit or Tekla. Standard
an as-needed basis during parking structure Team during the development of the design played an integral role in the development default for design-assist agreements.
operations. through 100% construction documents. of BIM for the precast industry through its
From design development through on-line • Use BIM process to provide 3D project partnership with TEKLA Structures. Our LOD 300: Specific assemblies and detailed
operations, Shockey Precast provides one-stop models. commitment to remaining at the forefront of model elements suitable for the generation
service for all the activities necessary to bring a BIM technology has made Shockey Precast of traditional construction documents and
new parking structure from design to reality. Our overall design-build experience instrumental in the advancement and use shop drawings. Some conceptual connections
encompasses structural precast projects, and of BIM throughout the precast industry. included, but no reinforcing. Drawings
DESIGN-ASSIST / DESIGN-BUILD includes the following parking structures: Our extensive knowledge and use of BIM generated at this level include floor slopes
technology means we can maximize the and are generally suitable for MEP and other
Over the past 20 years, PPEA and design-build • Washington HQ Services parking structures effectiveness of this valuable integration tool subtrade coordination and permitting. Likely
activity has steadily increased, and more than • California University’s Vulcan to ensure smooth project flow and open team modeling platforms: Revit or Tekla.
half of all non-residential construction projects parking structure communication.
greater than $10 million have been delivered • Ft. Meade DISA parking structure
LOD 400: Full connections, reinforcing, lift
using the design-build model. As a result, • University of Maryland at Shady Grove Shockey Precast typically offers the following
devices, etc. included in model. Model object
the need for specialty subcontractors who parking structure levels of model development through our BIM
granularity includes “the nuts and bolt, but not
understand the design-build process is greater • George Mason University parking structure services (with reference to AIA E202):
the threads.” General arrangement (GA) and
than ever. • George Washington AutoPark LOD 100: Conceptual design, overall building
cast unit (CU) drawings generated at this level
massing, including basic footprint and number
are equivalent to Shockey’s erection drawings
Shockey Precast welcomes opportunities BUILDING INFORMATION of floors. May contain generalized assemblies
and shop tickets. Modeling platform: Tekla.
to become involved in the development of MODELING (BIM) w/approximate interfaces, quantities, sizes
projects that are less than 15% designed. Early and shapes, but not necessarily dimensionally
LOD 500: Model as-builts.
involvement in the design process enables us “A Building Information Model (BIM) is a digital specific. Appropriate for $/sqft cost estimates
to aid our customers in making sound, informed representation of physical and functional such as iGMP. Deliverable largely limited to
choices that best serve the financial and characteristics of a facility. It serves as a screen captures of model views with little text SAFETY: FIRST AT ALL LEVELS
aesthetic needs of the owner. shared knowledge resource for information editing. Likely modeling platforms: Sketchup,
about a facility, forming a reliable basis for Revit, Tekla. Shockey Precast establishes the groundwork
Our design assistance package typically includes decisions during its life-cycle from inception for a safe and successful project well before
the following services: onward. LOD 200: Schematic design development, the first piece of precast is manufactured in the
specific assemblies w/quantities, sizes, plant and delivered to the site. Shockey Precast
• Prepare and update budget estimates. A basic premise of BIM is collaboration by and shapes such as would be shown in a managers and field operations experts mentally
• Participate in constructability reviews. different stakeholders at different phases “panelization submittal.” Precast elements build the project, anticipating any issues that
• Support value engineering options. of the life cycle of a facility to insert, extract, modeled as solid objects, dimensionally could delay progress of the work on site. They
• Attend meetings with the A/E Design Team update or modify information in the BIM specific, but with no internal elements like conduct thorough onsite reviews of crane and
as required. to support and reflect the roles of that reinforcing or connections. No floor slopes for truck access requirements, and discuss potential
• Provide assistance to the A/E Design Team stakeholder. The BIM is a shared digital drainage, thus not suitable for MEP or other access issues long before the first layer of
in the form of construction details, loading representation founded on open standards subtrade coordination. Appropriate for fGMP topsoil is disturbed.

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Introduction Introduction

During the project proposal stage, our field added to the structure’s original erection plan, up safety meetings, sometimes referred to as concrete as a division of its former ready-mix
operations manager collaborates with our and the design analysis and details are sealed “Tool Box Talks,” are held onsite for the duration concrete company, Crider & Shockey. In 1959,
estimating department in the evaluation of by the precast design professional. of the project. Shockey Brothers, Inc. became the third Shockey
available contract documents to determine operating company, and in 1999, the company
the safest and most economical method for TEAM COORDINATION AND During erection of the precast, the erection changed its name to The Shockey Precast
erecting the precast. The field operations SITE SAFETY foreman is responsible for safety on the project. Group. In January 2018, Shockey Precast was
manager determines required access for the The foreman continually observes the work acquired by Metromont Corporation, a precast
crane and establishes the size of the crane, Internal preconstruction meetings between of the crew to ensure compliance with the concrete manufacturer based in Greenville, SC.
lengths of boom, and boom configuration the erection foreman and the precast design published Safety Plan. Proper safety marking To date, Shockey Precast has completed more
required to safely erect the precast well within professionals, and onsite preconstruction of the site is maintained in accordance with the than 3,500 precast projects throughout Virginia,
the crane-specified capacities. Shockey Precast meetings between the general contractor, Safety Plan and the foreman ensures that non- Maryland, Washington, DC, Pennsylvania,
includes an access sketch showing the required inspection agencies, and the Engineer of Record, erection personnel remain outside the erection Delaware, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
crane path with each bid proposal. The crane are held to ensure that all aspects of precast area. Only when the properly documented and Utah, including these parking structures:
geometry (length, width) and the maximum erection are fully agreed upon and understood. turnover of the erected structure has been
crane-bearing pressure are also included so This includes in-depth discussions on precast completed are non-erection personnel allowed • Iron Hill Corporate Center, Newark, DE
the owner can determine costs for providing connections and required erection bracing. to perform work on the structure.
• Social Security Administration, Urbana, MD
stabilized crane access and a stable base course  
to support the delivery of precast components A pre-erection survey of the CIP concrete or COMPANY HISTORY • Washington Headquarters Services,
to the site. steel substructure supporting the precast is
Alexandria, VA
completed well in advance of erection so any In 1896, a master carpenter named Howard
PCI-CERTIFIED ERECTOR required modifications or repairs to the CIP Shockey opened a wagon-repair business in • Canton Crossing, Baltimore, MD
concrete or steel can be accomplished without Winchester, Virginia. Howard’s reputation for • Martha Jefferson Hospital parking structure,
Erection of the precast is performed by erectors affecting the erection start date. Erection quality construction and do-it-right-the-first-
certified under PCI’s Erector Certification begins only after assurance from the Engineer time attitude quickly put his company in demand Charlottesville, VA
Program. PCI-Certified Erectors must undergo of Record that the CIP concrete has achieved for custom home building, and the business • Cira Center South, Philadelphia, PA
a rigorous audit of their erection operations at required strength or the steel structure is ready grew to include residential and commercial
least every six months. Any deficiencies found to accept precast. construction. Howard Shockey passed along his • Hecht Warehouse parking structure,
during the audits are immediately corrected, legacy of hard work, integrity, and dedication to Washington, DC
and follow-up audits are conducted to ensure The erector is required to develop a site-specific his sons, and in the 1930s, Jim Shockey joined
continued compliance. Safety Plan for each project, which includes a his father in the business. He was later followed • Calvert St., Annapolis, MD
complete hazard analysis and fall protection by his brother Ralph, and in 1947, the company • George Mason University, Fairfax, VA
During the design development stage of all plan for the project. The erection crew is fully became known as Howard Shockey & Sons.
awarded projects, the precast design engineer briefed on the Safety Plan and understands the • George Washington AutoPark,
uses the erection plan to determine if additional safety constraints of the project prior to the SHOCKEY PRECAST Winchester, VA
erection bracing is required. The precast design start of precast erection. All precast delivered to
• Washington Nationals, Washington, DC
engineer evaluates the stability of the partially the project arrives with shipping and handling With the birth of the precast/prestressed
erected structure to ensure it can withstand the tags attached. These tags outline the specific concrete industry in North America, the Shockey • Gaylord National Harbor, Oxen Hill, MD
most severe weather conditions at any point method for erecting each precast piece, and also family recognized the numerous benefits of
• John Paul Jones Arena, Charlottesville, VA
during erection. If additional erection bracing include special handling instructions for rotating precast concrete, and by 1955, had opened a
is required, a detailed erection bracing plan is or rolling the precast as needed. Weekly follow- small manufacturing facility for prestressed • Shady Grove Metro Station, Shady Grove, MD

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PARKING STRUCTURE
AESTHETICS

Washington Nationals Parking Structure, Washington, DC


Parking Structure Aesthetics

PARKING STRUCTURE AESTHETICS the use of white cement and gray pigment is
still recommended. When reviewing cost in
Precast concrete offers owners and designers selections, consider the source of aggregate if
nearly limitless design freedom and the ability to deep exposure is required, as local sources are
create parking structures that blend seamlessly almost always more cost effective. It is also
with surrounding aesthetic. Shockey Precast important to recognize that matrix colors such
works with owners and designers to help
as blue and green are higher cost selections.
them realize their unique project visions with
individualized precast solutions that are durable,
cost effective, and beautiful. Variations in color can be achieved within areas
of the structure or within each individual precast
COLOR, TEXTURES, AND APPLIED unit. Use of multiple colors requires clearly
defined color breaks, which can be achieved with
FINISHES
reveals, joints, and profile changes to ensure
sharp transitions.

Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking Structure,


Charlottesville, VA

Through a variety of aggregates, choice of matrix Martha Jefferson Hospital PS finishes


colors, varying depths of exposure, and finishing
techniques, precast can meet almost any color,
form, or texture that may be specified by the
Deep exposure finishes can be achieved either
designer. The beauty of natural aggregates is
through the use of chemical retarders or through
greatly accentuated when the aggregates are
the sandblasting process. In both cases, more
fused with the color and texture benefits of
than just the extreme
Martha surface
Jefferson areaFinishes
Hospital of the
precast.
aggregate is exposed, allowing the coarse stone
aggregate to project beyond the cement matrix.
COLOR

Shockey Precast recommends that color


TEXTURE
selections be made in the same or similar
Texture expresses the natural beauty of the
lighting conditions as the final, in-place
material components and can be used to define
conditions. White cement should always be used or accentuate specific areas of the structure’s
with color pigments conforming to ASTM C979 façade. Texture takes advantage of its changing
in order to maintain matrix color uniformity. relationship to light to create a range of surface
Even when the desired matrix color is gray, differences from subtle to dramatic. When

SHOCKEY PRECAST, WINCHESTER, VA • SHOCKEYPRECAST.COM 13


Parking Structure Aesthetics Parking Structure Aesthetics

changing textures or exposures within a single into account the size, function, articulation, aggregates (granite, quartz, etc.) should be remove all the surface laitance. Light blasting
precast unit, clear and well-defined break and configuration of the units. Final selection used. Carbonate aggregates such as dolomite provides a similar appearance to that found
points are needed similar to those for color. of the finish gradation should be made during and limestone, suitable for sandblasting mixes, in natural limestone without the “sugar cube”
Textured surfaces also have the added benefit will dissolve or discolor through the acid- appearance created by acid etching.
the mock-up phase and should include
of hiding the effects of weathering and high- etching process due to their calcium content.
recommendations from Shockey Precast.
volume use areas since the irregularities in the Complementary aggregates (fine and coarse) In contrast to acid etching, blasting tends to be
Variations of applied finishes within the and cement pigments should always be chosen
surface help divert attention from line streaking better suited to muting or camouflaging minor
individual units can be used to enhance the when an acid-etch finish is selected.
and diminish traffic use marks. Texture can variations that occur in the manufacturing
overall appearance of the structure. This can
be achieved through a variety of techniques, process. This is especially true when addressing
be a more cost-effective means of accentuating Acid etching is the crucial second-step process
and can range from light exposure to deep deep profile articulations. Deeper blasts have an
key components or areas of the façade than the when the façade of the structure will include
exposure. Texture expresses the natural beauty clay products such as thin-brick veneer. increased ability to ensure uniformity. However,
use of multiple mixes. When applied multiple once blasting exceeds the light level of finish
of the material components and can be used This process not only helps remove some of
finishes are part of the design, use the same and texture, the end result is more dependent
to define or accentuate specific areas of the the surface laitance on the brick during the
logic regarding profile changes and reveal work manufacturing process, but also exposes the on the natural elements of the mix (aggregates).
structure’s façade. as used for multiple mixes to ensure sand between the thin brick joints to mimic that Complementary aggregates and matrices should
clean breaks. of hand-laid brick mortar. It is used as a safe always be considered when specifying deeper
finish around the brick veneer for incorporated levels of exposure. A deeper blast can mimic other
precast features such as lintels, sills, bands, and natural materials such as flamed granite and can
projections that have all been integrated within create interesting plays of light through its texture.
the same precast unit.

Heavy and Light Sandblast Finish

Acid Etch Finish


APPLIED FINISHES

ACID ETCH FINISH Light and Heavy Sandblast Finish
These are a variety of post-applied techniques Light Sandblast Finish
used to achieve the desired appearance and Acid etching is a process that dissolves the
character of the façade. The structure’s final surface cement matrix to expose the sand, and Blasting can also be a more economical means of
appearance is obtained through the combination to a lesser extent, the coarse aggregate. Acid SANDBLAST FINISH achieving multiple variations within the same unit
of mix design selection and the choice of etching is typically used to achieve a light-to- than incorporating multiple mix designs. Blasting
applied finish. Although final finishes such as medium-light exposure. The end result is similar Sandblast is the generic term used for the creates multiple variations by exposing differing
to that of natural products such as sandstone or abrasive blasting process. Varying gradations of levels of the coarse aggregate in predefined
brick veneers are cast in natural stone or form
limestone. The etching process leaves a sugar- blast material are used to chip away the precast areas on each panel. The overall desired effect
liners and may receive a post-casting finish, cube appearance, which is enhanced by direct surface. Selection of a particular gradation of texture is also influenced by the type and
they are addressed separately since the critical sunlight. depends on the desired depth of finish. selection of coarse aggregate in relation to the
elements of obtaining the desired appearance
Sandblasting allows the designer the full range psi of the matrix. Softer aggregates will become
are achieved during the pre-pour operation. The decision to incorporate an acid-etch finish of depths obtainable in precast (light to heavy). concave during the blasting process, while harder
must be made prior to or during the mix design
On final exposed surfaces, brush blasting should aggregates will become convex, depending upon
The depth of the applied finish should take process, since only acid-resistance siliceous
be avoided because of its inability to uniformly the depth of exposure.

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Parking Structure Aesthetics Parking Structure Aesthetics

THIN BRICK well. Brick manufacturers will usually fabricate


the lighter shades in the beginning of the
There is no faster way to install brick on a month and the darker shades at the end of the
building than concrete-faced wall panels. month (or vice versa).
Brick liner systems offer diverse options
for producing creative brick facades by Depending upon the desired color, thin brick
Exposed Aggregate Exposed Aggregate and Medium Sandblast
accommodating any brick size, shape, pattern, may be referred to in terms of “standard” or
and point devised. The advantages of brick- “premium.” Certain colors are more difficult
embedded concrete over conventional masonry to achieve, and therefore, more expensive to
include: produce. Some thin brick manufacturers do
EXPOSED AGGREGATE FORM LINERS
offer a premium line, while others simply offer
• Structural and aesthetic value a standard line. Shockey Precast can advise as
This process is achieved by chemically Form liners offer a wide array of possibilities
• Simplified engineering to whether or not a particular color selection is
retarding the matrix, which provides a non- in shapes, patterns, textures, and designs. Any • No flashing, lintels, or weep cavities considered standard or premium.
abrasive method of exposing the natural combination of applied finishes can be utilized • No efflorescence
beauty of the coarse aggregates. Unlike in conjunction with form liners. Form liner • Reduced construction time
finishes can be implemented either as the main • Recommended in seismic zones
the sandblasting process, the chemical
• No sand, mortars, or mixers on site
retarder does not mute or damage the coarse aesthetic feature or as a highlight, medallion,
aggregates. The chemical retarder is applied or logo. Advances in form liner technologies
Form liners are a key component when
to the mold surface, which delays the cement have created a design palette limited only by implementing a thin-brick veneer. The three
paste from setting up. After stripping the the imagination. When vast areas of precast main types of brick liners (elastomeric, plastic
panel, the retarded outer surface layer of require form liners, limitations of liner sizes grids, and snaps) each have their own positive Acid-Etched Thin Brick

cement is removed with a high-pressure should be incorporated with reveal work to attributes, depending on project design and
washer. A variety of depths, from shallow prevent liner butt joints. Form liners provide panel configuration. Selection of a liner should
to deep, can be achieved depending on the the highest degree of texture and will enhance be made with the guidance of Shockey Precast,
the play of light and shadows, creating a and with an understanding of the lead time
type of retarder used. As with other finishes,
associated with form liners. Although lead time
variations of exposure within the same unit can changing appearance of the façade throughout
will vary by type of liner and pattern selected,
be achieved with chemical retarders; however, the day. Key placement of night illumination
the average range is from four to eight weeks.
a clear reveal or profile change is a must for can also complement the effects of the liner.
Liners requiring unique artwork will require
the transition points to prevent bleeding of additional time for the artisan to create the

exposure. If the owner or designer’s vision is master mold. When elastomeric liners are used Thin Brick Facade

to enhance the bright, natural colors of the in conjunction with thin brick, a sample run of
aggregates, chemical retarders should be used. the actual brick being used is required in order
Shockey recommends avoiding contrasting to obtain the correct “fit.” The first 100 bricks
ALTERNATIVE FINISHES
matrices and aggregates to prevent a from a run are measured and the form liner is
Form Finish Brick based on the average brick size. In addition to Shockey Precast can also incorporate
“patchy” appearance.
the lead time for the form liner, the lead time alternative finishes such as granite inlays and
required on the brick must be considered as terra cotta.

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Parking Structure Aesthetics

JOINTS AND REVEALS FACIAL PROJECTIONS


Joint sizes between precast and CIP elements Facial projections can add a unique accent to a
vary, and recommended nominal joint building project. These features are cast to the
dimensions are noted in this handbook. These panels “bottom in form,” so a minimum draft
joints have been established based on tolerance dimension is necessary in order to strip the
requirements, and to ensure a long-lasting joint panels out of the forms. Without proper draft,
interface. The listed dimensions are “nominal” – suction forces generated between the concrete
meaning actual joint sizes are allowed to deviate and the form may cause the panels to bind up
from these values to within industry accepted during stripping and possibly damage the panel
ranges, as described in PCI MNL 135. When and forms. To prevent damage from occurring,
selecting accent reveals or rustication lines, Shockey recommends a minimum draft of
it is important to tie them to the chosen joint 1:6 on facial projections. Facial projections
size. Avoid triangular reveals where possible can increase production costs, since forms
because they are difficult to affix to the forms. must be built up to accommodate the feature.
A trapezoidal reveal will provide a flat nailing However, they also contribute to the variety of
surface for the form builders and help minimize
architectural details possible with precast.
possible nail-hole irregularities.

When choosing a reveal size, consider limiting


the depth to ¾” as deeper reveals decrease the
effective section of the panel, reducing panel
strength and increasing the chance for panel
cracking, which may require an increase in panel
thickness. Reveals should be included between
Panel as-cast Panel in final, erected position
any and all color breaks. For example, when
two separate face mixes are used within the
same panel, it is strongly recommended that
designers include a reveal between the two
mixes to provide the casting crew a distinct
stopping point and reduce color bleed. This will
help to ensure a smooth break line between the
two colors, as illustrated below.

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OPEN BAY SYSTEM

Tysons II H Parking Structure, McLean, VA


Open Bay System

OPEN BAY SYSTEM






Interior view of Martha Jefferson
Hospital Parking Structure

BAY SIZE

Shockey Precast standard open bay system features a 48’ bay module that uses 12’-wide double
tees, and offers the most cost-effective use of precast components. Non-standard tee widths or bay
sizes can increase costs and may result in very different spandrel dimensions, floor-to-floor heights,
drainage plans, and supporting wall systems.

DRAINAGE

For owners and designers, assurance of a proper drainage system is one of the most important
considerations in the design of a parking deck, both for the health and life of the deck as well as for
the safety its patrons. Precast or CIP washes direct water toward the drain.

Designed correctly, an effective drainage plan will help prevent water from ponding or causing
premature degradation to the joint interfaces. Drains are generally located at alternating grid lines at
the interior bays. An economical way to provide proper deck drainage is to “warp” the deck surface.
Warping occurs when the deck perimeter is held at a constant elevation and the interior bays are
alternately raised and lowered. Warping is generally not cause for concern regarding cracking of
the double tee surface, provided the warp is held to a limit of 3/16” per foot for a 60’ long tee. The
following diagram illustrates this concept:

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

While warping of the deck surface is an option worth considering, it is also possible to alternately raise
and lower the perimeter of the deck equally with the interior bays, resulting in a two-way deck cross
slope. This eliminates the need for warping tees, but also tends to be less cost effective. The amount
of cross slope along the length of the tee will depend upon the deck system and bay size chosen.
Either option is possible and may or may not be suitable to the design in question.

Here are two important drainage facts to consider: EXPANSION JOINTS

• Shockey Precast can cast pre-manufactured drain units into the flanges of the double tees. Under normal seasonal heating and cooling cycles, concrete will expand and contract. This generates
in-plane forces and displacements that must be accounted for with the use of expansion joints. When
In addition to being more cost effective, this option also offers better sealing quality compared
correctly located, expansion joints allow these effects to occur without adversely affecting the precast
with field-installed drain units. It also eliminates field cutting and installation. joints and connections. Depending on the deck configuration, expansion joints should be located
• Shockey Precast can divert water toward the drain using either monolithic precast a maximum of 300 feet apart. The expansion joint is frequently located at the joint between two
washes or CIP washes. double tees at a column gridline and should be large enough to accommodate the combined thermal
movement on each half of the structure. The location of the shear-resisting elements also plays a
DRAINAGE CONSIDERATIONS role in determining the location of expansion joints. For example, if a 300’ long deck contains stiff,
shear-resisting elements on both ends, an expansion joint in the middle of the deck helps to relieve
the build-up of stress at the ends. Shear elements act as “points of fixity” and will act to restrain the
The movement of water from the deck surface is illustrated by the following image. Sloping of the
deck, causing connection forces to exceed reasonable limits. Expansion joints also serve to interrupt
deck structure directs the water to strategically located drains, and has a very significant effect on the lateral force resisting system, which, for design purposes, effectively creates two separate building
structure framing. Therefore, early determination is critical and vital to floor heights. structures. Each building half must contain sufficient lateral load-resisting elements.

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

FLOOR-TO-FLOOR HEIGHT
GENERAL LOADING
The floor-to-floor height of a parking structure is determined by a variety of factors, including the
A parking garage must satisfy a variety of loading requirements. In addition to self-weight, parking precast elements used and the usage requirements of the occupants. The sample parking structure
garages are designed to resist uniform vehicular loads of 40 psf or the application of a 3,000 lbs included in this handbook suggests a floor-to-floor height of 10’-8.” This height provides for optimal
car-jack acting on an area of 20 square inches while changing tires. Commonly, precast concrete economy and allows a minimum 7’-0” vertical clearance under the inverted tee beams. If ADA van
is utilized as a vehicle barrier not less than 2’-9” in height for passenger vehicles are designed to accessible parking is required to travel under the inverted tee beams, a floor-to-floor height of 11’ 8”
resist a concentrated load of 6,000 lbs applied at 18” or 27” above the floor. If higher loading criteria is generally recommended.
are needed to resist fire trucks or other large vehicles, special provisions may be required, including
the deepening of elements or the addition of reinforcing. Wind or seismic loads may be included,
depending on the applicable building code.
FIRE RESISTANCE
A parking structure may be required to have either a 1-hour or 2-hour fire rating for structural
SEISMIC/WIND CONSIDERATIONS endurance, depending upon several factors. Many parking structures fall under the category type IIB,
as defined by the International Building Code, and do not require any particular fire resistance rating
Parking structures utilize shear walls to resist the lateral wind or seismic forces prescribed by local at all. However, when required by design, precast parking structures can easily be designed to a higher
building codes. Depending on location and site conditions, the design loads will vary, as will the
level of fire resistance.
number or size of shear walls needed. Shockey engineers always perform a comprehensive lateral
load analysis of each building Shockey Precast designs. Loads from this analysis are given to the
Engineer of Record to verify the CIP footing and wall designs. Fire resistance ratings of precast components are measured and specified according to the common
standard, ASTM E119. Fire endurance is defined as the period of time elapsed before a prescribed
When possible, shear walls should be located along the line of ramp walls with an additional wall condition of failure is reached during a standard fire test. Designing precast elements to satisfy a
on each end of the ramp as shown in the figure below. Shear walls may be provided with “punched” given fire resistance rating will increase costs to some degree – primarily when additional reinforcing
window openings to offer additional light and openness, as determined by the prescribed loads. or larger member sizes are needed.
Horizontal ramp walls can be used to provide the required lateral stability parallel to the ramp. These
walls have openings to provide light and openness. Double-tee flange thicknesses of 4” are commonly designed for precast concrete parking structures
when 1-hour or 2-hour fire ratings are required. Fire marshals traditionally accept this thickness in
Walls should be located in a way that takes maximum advantage of the surrounding dead load
elements. Shear walls that support double tees or inverted tee beams will “engage” more dead load, achieving 2-hour fire ratings and do not deem IBC 2012 TBL 722.2.2.1 applicable to parking structure
which helps to counteract the wall overturning moment. When overturning moments are larger than designs.
dead load resisting moments, a condition known as “net uplift” occurs on a shear wall element. This
requires the design of hold-down devices or connections and increases cost. The heat-gain limit state that drives the thickness of concrete used by the IBC for minimum slab
thickness is not applicable for to the contents of an “open” garage. This proposed change to IBC (FS-
Design of the CIP footings and walls is the responsibility of the Engineer of Record, so it is important 125-12) has been approved as submitted without public comment. Additionally, this is clarified in IBC
that shear wall placement is considered early in the design process. Shockey Precast works with the 2015. Further information can be found in the PCI Design Handbook – Seventh Edition in section 10.8.
project engineers to help develop rational, economical and practical load-resisting systems that will
provide superior building performance.

  Shear  walls  

Possible  
Stair  shafts  

Shear  Wall  
Layout  

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

TOLERANCES MAINTENANCE

Precast connections and panel dimensions for parking structures must allow for industry standard Ensuring long-lasting durability of a parking structure requires that an owner follow the
tolerances. PCI’s Tolerance Manual, MNL 135, describes in detail the allowable production and recommended maintenance schedule and requirements the structure once completed. Proper
erection tolerances for various precast elements. Request a copy at www.shockeyprecast.com. maintenance of a parking structure includes regular inspections, cleaning of the precast joints, and
a range of other items. Complete maintenance recommendations are outlined in PCI’s Maintenance
PENETRATIONS Manual, available upon request at www.shockeyprecast.com.

Vertical penetrations through the double tee flanges can be located anywhere except in the stem. CIP CONCRETE
Vertical and horizontal penetrations required for wall hydrants, pipe penetrations, and light fixtures
CIP concrete is typically not included in the precast scope of work. However, since CIP interfaces
can be cast into the precast panels provided the coordination of location and size occurs early in the with the precast elements, the coordination of precast-to-CIP interface is extremely important.
development of shop drawings. Location and size of penetrations should be furnished to Shockey CIP elevations and details should closely match the precast design to ensure the proper fit-up and
Precast during the shop drawing process to ensure that adequate time is provided for integrating execution of the pieces when they arrive on site.
the information into the shop drawings and fabrication drawings. For openings less than 10” square,
Shockey Precast recommends that penetrations be field cut. The following outlines each design team member’s responsibilities regarding the coordination of
CIP-to-precast interface:

Engineer of Record (EOR) – The EOR should specify top of CIP pier, wall, and footing elevations
and provide adequate reinforcing details of these elements within the contract documents.
Pier and footing designs should account for the possibility of uplift and sliding forces at shear
wall locations. Reinforcing details should specify adequate confinement steel at the tops of
piers and walls, as required by the ACI code. Pier and wall sizes should typically be a larger
dimension than the precast they support so that anchor bolts and embedded plates can
be easily placed within the confinement steel. Dowels or anchor bolts used to connect the
Utility block-outs through double tee stems precast to the CIP are usually the responsibility of the precast subcontractor. In many cases,
Shockey Precast may suggest alternate top-of-pier or footing elevations that either enhance
the structure’s performance or improve cost-effectiveness. The CIP subcontractor is asked
CONNECTIONS to execute the details according to the precast drawings, since this is how the pieces are
fabricated. Design of the reinforcement in the CIP can be assigned to the precast specialty
designer or included as part of the EOR package.
Design of the connections is always the responsibility of the precast subcontractor. Shockey Precast
utilizes a variety of safe and efficient connections that allow precast elements to be set and secured General Contractor (GC) – The GC coordinates top-of-CIP-pier and wall elevations with the
in a timely manner. Embedment finishes will vary depending on parking structure life expectancy and structural and precast drawings, and ensures that the CIP subcontractor follows and properly
durability requirements. Shockey Precast recommends the following plate finishes: executes the reinforcing details shown on the Contract Drawings (see notes above).

Shockey Precast – Shockey Precast designs and prepares anchor bolt layout drawings for use
Non-welded plate connections exposed to elements Electroplated or Stainless Steel by the GC and CIP subcontractor. Shockey also supplies all loose hardware and anchor bolts
needed for the attachment of the precast elements to the CIP concrete.
Welded plate connections exposed to elements Zinc Rich Cold Galvanizing Coated
Rods and Bolts Electroplated CIP Subcontractor – The CIP subcontractor is responsible for carefully executing the CIP
reinforcing layouts per the structural drawings, including the confinement ties located near
All other material Plain the tops of piers and walls. The CIP subcontractor also incorporates loose hardware for the
Flange-to-flange shear connections Electroplated or Stainless Steel precast connections according to the locations shown on the precast layout drawings. When
a discrepancy exists between the structural drawings and the precast drawings for top of CIP
elevations, the precast drawings govern.

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

The image below illustrates the CIP-to-precast interface:

Always maintain top-of-pier or wall Anchor bolts or embedded plates


elevations as shown on the precast supplied by Shockey, installed by CIP
drawings. Notify GC of any subcontractor at locations shown on
discrepancies between the structural precast anchor bolt layouts.
and precast drawings.

Reinforcing including ACI-required


confinement ties to be designed and
detailed by the EOR, furnished and
installed by the GC or CIP subcontractor.

Ideally, the CIP section should be wider


than the supported precast. For piers,
this should be 2” on all sides. For walls,
1” is suggested.
Sample Scenario: Shockey Design-Assist Process Using Open Bay System

Below is a sample scenario to illustrate the typical path of The Shockey Precast Group’s
design-assist process.
Shockey generally recommends the CIP system be designed such that the precast elements are not
The Scenario: Shockey Precast is approached by a potential customer, who brings to the table this
required to retain earth loads. CIP retaining walls can be provided that act independently from the
information regarding a parking structure:
precast to withstand these forces. If necessary, the precast tees or walls may be designed below
grade to resist earth loads, as shown below. However, this could influence the location of shear-
1. The structure must have a floor-to-floor height of 11’8” grade to first elevated level, and 10’8”
resisting elements, connections, and may require using a CIP topping on the tees.
on all other levels.
2. Ramp slope is 6.1% at the first level, and 5.6% at the upper levels.
3. The 256,000 SF structure must be designed to accommodate 790 cars.
Precast double tee
Connection
The Design-Assist Process and Shockey Precast Solution:
Using the owner-provided sketches and basic deck requirements as a guide, Shockey Precast works
with the project design team to achieve an optimal layout, using Shockey Precast’s standard open bay
system with 12’ double tees and 48’ bays, that meets the owner’s needs and satisfies the designer’s
vision. The following illustrations represent examples of owner-provided sketches typically received
by Shockey Precast at the beginning of the design-assist process. Specifics of the parking structure
are listed below:
Possible CIP topping

Precast double tee 12’ wide, 30” deep tees
48’ wide bays
Free standing, CIP retaining wall. CIP or precast retaining wall. 10’-8” floor-to-floor height
Backfill wall and allow for anticipated
wall movement or rotation to occur 7’-0” minimum free vertical clearance
prior to setting precast. 192’ long ramp with a 5.55% slope
177 parking spaces per typical level

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

The following pages illustrate the typical precast components and connections that comprise Shockey
Precast’s open bay system. These details are included to give the designer a better understanding of
the 48’ bay module as a whole, and to give insight as to necessary design considerations specific to
precast concrete parking structures.

Results: Floor Framing Plans and Parking Layout Plans

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

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Open Bay System Open Bay System Open Bay System

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

SOUTH BUILDING ELEVATION

NORTH BUILDING ELEVATION

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

WEST BUILDING ELEVATION

EAST BUILDING ELEVATION

3D VIEW: WEST ELEVATION AT STAIRWELL

LONGITUDINAL BUILDING CROSS SECTION AT RAMP WALLS

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Open Bay System Open Bay System Open Bay System

DOUBLE-TEE STEMS

INVERTED
TEE BEAM

PRECAST SHEARWALL

FOOTING

CUT-AWAY SECTION ILLUSTRATING BUILDING ASSEMBLY

POCKETED SHEAR WALL DETAILS

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

DOUBLE-TEE STEMS
RAMP WALL CORBELS
HORIZONTAL RAMP WALLS CLOSURE SCREENS

HORIZONTAL RAMP WALLS AND DETAILS VERTICAL RAMP WALL OPTIONS

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

WET OPTION DRY OPTION

Modeled image showing reinforcing.

12’ WIDE DOUBLE TEE PROFILE WITH 6’-0” STEM SPACING INVERTED TEE BEAM PROFILE DETAIL

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

DECK DRAIN DETAILS STEM BLOCK-OUT DETAILS

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

DOUBLE TEE-TO-FLANGE AND CHORD CONNECTIONS CHORD CONNECTOR IN FACTORY-TOPPED DOUBLE TEE

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

VIEW FROM DECK


UNDERSIDE

COLUMN-TO-CIP FOOTING OR PIER DOUBLE TEE-TO-SPANDREL CONNECTION DETAILS

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

VIEW FROM DECK


UNDERSIDE

DOUBLE TEE-TO-SPANDREL DETAILS CORBEL DETAIL DOUBLE TEE-TO-SPANDREL CONNECTION DETAILS TOP CONNECTION

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

VIEW FROM DECK


UNDERSIDE

BOTTOM OF
SPANDREL CONNECTION

TOP OF SPANDREL
CONNECTION

DOUBLE TEE-TO-INVERTED TEE BEAM CONNECTION DETAILS NON-LOAD-BEARING SPANDREL-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION

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Open Bay System Open Bay System

LOAD-BEARING SPANDREL-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION OUTBOARD COLUMN OPTION

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PARKING STRUCTURE SPECIFICATIONS

Tysons II H Parking Structure, McLean, VA


Shockey Parking Structure Specifications

STRUCTURAL PRECAST CONCRETE

PART 1 GENERAL

1.1 SUMMARY

A. Section includes:
1. Structural precast concrete for:
a. Columns
b. Beams
c. Spandrels
d. Floor and Roof Double Tees
e. Inverted Tee Beam
f. Stair Riser Sections
g. Wall Panels
h. Flat Slabs
i. Shear Walls
2. Accessories and Supporting Devices

B. Related Requirements:
1. Section 03 45 00 - Architectural Precast Concrete
2. Section 07 92 01 – Joint Sealants

1.2 REFERENCES

A. American Concrete Institute:


1. ACI 301 -- Specifications for Structural Concrete
2. ACI 318 -- Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

B. ASTM International:
1. ASTM C 33 -- Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
2. ASTM A 36/A 36M -- Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
3. ASTM C 94 -- Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete
4. ASTM E 119 -- Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and
Materials
5. ASTM C 150 -- Standard Specification for Portland Cement
6. ASTM A 153/A 153M -- Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and
Steel Hardware
7. ASTM A 185 -- Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain, for
8. Concrete Reinforcement

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Shockey Parking Structure Specifications Shockey Parking Structure Specifications

9. ASTM C 260 -- Standard Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete component is individually identified.
10. ASTM A 416/A 416M -- Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for 2. Sections and details showing connections, openings, blockouts, and cast-in items and their
Prestressed Concrete relationship to the structure
11. ASTM C 494 -- Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete 3. Description of all loose and cast-in hardware for making connections
12. ASTM A 497 -- Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Deformed, for
Concrete Reinforcement C. Construction Plan: A management plan for the assembly sequence of a project’s precast
13. ASTM A 615 -- Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for components. Includes:
Concrete Reinforcement 1. Access plan for crane and transport of precast components
14. ASTM C 618 -- Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural 2. Erection sequence by loads being shipped
Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete 3. Erection block plan outlining the sequence of erection activity
15. ASTM A 666 -- Standard Specification for Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate, and 4. Specific erection criteria required for the particular project
Flat Bar 5. Project-specific construction stability plan that outlines any additional erection bracing
16. ASTM A 706/A 706M -- Standard Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain that may be required
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement 6. Technical data sheet on grout used for the project
17. ASTM C 979 -- Standard Specification for Pigments for Integrally Colored Concrete 7. Erection tolerances for the project
18. ASTM C 989 -- Standard Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in
Concrete and Mortars D. Field-Use Erection (General Arrangement) Drawings: The erection drawings with any
19. ASTM F1554 -- Grade 36 Anchor Bolts modifications made during the approval process that are distributed prior to actual erection of the
project
C. American Welding Society:
1. AWS D1.1 -- Structural Welding Code - Steel E. As-Built Drawings: Erection Drawings annotated with approved construction changes
2. AWS D1.4 -- Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel
3. AWS D1.6 -- Structural Welding Code - Stainless Steel F. Control Number: A unique identification of each precast component for a project

D. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute: G. Piece Mark: A component identification of a precast element on a project. Similar pieces can have
1. PCI MNL-116 -- Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Structural Precast the same Piece Mark but each will have a unique Control Number.
Concrete Products
2. PCI MNL-120 -- PCI Design Handbook - Precast and Prestressed Concrete H. CIP: Cast-in-Place Concrete
3. PCI MNL-123 -- Design and Typical Details of Connections for Precast and Prestressed
I. Architectural Features: Where final appearance or form of precast components require the use of
Concrete
colored aggregate, pigmented concrete mix or surface textures such as sandblasting, water wash,
4. PCI MNL-127 -- PCI Committee Report – Erectors’ Manual Standards and Guidelines for
etched finishes, or thin brick.
the Erection of Precast Concrete Products
5. PCI MNL 135 -- Tolerances for Precast and Prestressed Concrete Construction
J. BIF: “Bottom-in-Form” indicates the surface of precast that will be in the bottom of the form
during casting.
1.3 DEFINITIONS
K. SIF: “Side-in-Form” indicates the surface of the precast that will be in the side of the form during
A. Fabrication (Cast Unit/Piece) Drawings: Documents used by the production facility to manufacture
casting by built-up rails.
the precast components. Information includes:
1. Required dimensional information
L. TIF: “Top-in-Form” indicates the top exposed surface during casting.
2. Description and location on all inserts, bearing plates, anchors and reinforcement materials
required to manufacture, transport, and erect the precast component 1.4 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS
3. Finish requirements for each component
4. Handling, storage, and shipping instructions A. Coordination
5. Provided as an informational submittal only 1. Coordinate the Work of framing components not pre-tensioned but associated with the
Work of this section.
B. Erection Drawings (General Arrangement/Shop Drawings): Documents providing the assembly 2. Coordinate cutting, drilling or coring in precast members with the manufacturer.
placement of precast components on the job site. Reviewed and sealed by a Professional Engineer. 3. Coordinate all precast opening or penetration greater than 10 inches in any dimension with
Information includes: the manufacturer prior to submittal of Erection (General Arrangement) Drawings.
1. Plans and elevations locating and dimensioning all precast components. Each precast

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Shockey Parking Structure Specifications Shockey Parking Structure Specifications

B. Pre-installation meetings with PCI Plant Certification requirements. Use certified test equipment, and unless otherwise
1. Convene minimum one week prior to commencing the onsite work of this section. specified, conform with:
2. Coordinate the sequence of installation with foundation and supporting elements in place 1. Manual For Quality Control For Plants and Production of Precast and Prestressed Concrete
with precast items to be delivered. Products, PCI MNL-116 (latest edition)
2. PCI Design Handbook, Latest Edition.
C. Site Survey: Provide a site survey to verify field dimensions and tolerances a minimum of two (2) 3. ACI 318 for the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (latest edition)
weeks prior to delivery of precast units for installation.
D. Mockup Control Sample Unit: Provide a mock up panel at the plant, 4 feet by 4 feet in size, for
1.5 SUBMITTALS quality comparison of finished unit to an approved appearance sample for color and texture.

A. Action Submittals: Provide for review and approval. E. The plant quality control records and inspection procedures for this project shall be available for
1. Erection Drawings (General Arrangement/Shop Drawings): Indicate layout, unit locations, review, verification, and in-plant inspection by an independent testing agent or the Architect/
unit identification marks, connection details, dimensions, openings, and relationship to Engineer.
adjacent materials and conformance with the requirements of the Contract Documents
and sealed by professional engineer. Provide coordination information for items required to 1.7 QUALIFICATIONS
be embedded in adjacent materials.
2. Design Calculations: Submit design data reports indicating calculations for loadings and A. Fabricator: Company certified by the Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) Plant Certification
stresses of fabricated precast components, connections, and reinforcement. Calculations Program with an in-house engineering department managed by a registered professional engineer.
shall be prepared by Professional Engineer experienced in precast concrete design.
3. Samples: Submit three samples 12 x12 inch (304.8 x 304.8 mm) in size illustrating surface B. Precast Engineer: Design precast concrete members under direct supervision of Professional
finish treatment of architectural featured component. Engineer experienced in precast design and licensed in the state of the project.
4. Mockup: Provide access to a mockup panel at the precast manufacturing plant for approval
by the Architect for color and texture. The approved mockup shall be the control standard C. Erector: Company with experience in the erection of precast units similar to those required for this
for color and texture. project and shall be a Certified Erector under the PCI Field Certification Program.

B. Informational Submittals D. Welder: Qualified in accordance with AWS D1.1, AWS D1.4, and AWS D1.6
1. Mix Design: Provide the concrete design mix with certification regarding compliance with
requirements of the Contract Documents. 1.8 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
2. Field-Use Erection Drawings: Submit field-use erection drawings incorporating comments
from approved Erection Drawings. A. Lift and support precast concrete members during manufacturing, yarding, transporting, and
3. Construction Plan: Submit prior to the pre-installation meeting, a construction plan, erection operations only from identified support points with suitable lifting and handling devices.
including calculations and details for guying, staying and shoring precast elements to
B. Lifting inserts will have a minimum safety factor of 4. Reusable lifting hardware and rigging will
assure structural stability during the erection phase. Provide for the removal, replacement,
have a minimum safety factor of 5.
and relocation of guying, bracing, and shoring required until all permanent structural
connections are completed.
C. Lifting or Handling Devices: Capable of supporting member in positions anticipated during
manufacture, storage, transportation, and erection.
C. Closeout Submittals – Provide the following:
1. Manufacturer’s Warranty Letter
D. Storage:
2. As-Built Drawings
1. Protect members to prevent staining, chipping, or spalling of concrete. Store members off
3. Precaster’s Maintenance Advisory Letter
the ground on dunnage materials as recommended by fabricator.
4. Specialty Engineer Closeout Letter
2. Place all units so that identification marks are readable.
3. Stack so that lifting devices are accessible and undamaged.
1.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE
E. Mark each member with date of production, job number, control number, and piece mark
A. Perform Work in accordance with requirements of PCI MNL-116, PCI MNL-123, PCI MNL-120, PCI
referenced from Erection Drawings.
MNL 135.
1.9 WARRANTY
B. Fire Rated Construction: Rating as indicated by construction type on contract documents.
A. Provide Manufacturer’s Warranty for a one-year period.
C. Source Quality Performance Testing: Provide tests for all precast concrete work in conformance

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Shockey Parking Structure Specifications Shockey Parking Structure Specifications

PART 2 PRODUCTS Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC)


Strength of Concrete -- 6000 psi minimum
2.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Water-cementitious materials ratio -- maximum 0.38
Air content -- 5.5% +/- 1.5%
A. General: The project, as shown on the drawings, including component dimensions and connection
configurations, provides the requirements for the development of the design documents. Design Architectural concrete:
shall include consideration for customary stresses incurred in factory precasting, transporting, and Strength of Concrete -- 5000 psi minimum
erecting. The design, manufacturing, transportation and erection process shall be compatible with Water-cementitious materials ratio -- maximum 0.44
the requirements of the Contract Documents. Air content -- 5.5% +/- 1.5%

B. Design Criteria: C. Batching concrete:


1. Per latest adopted International Building Code (IBC), ACI 318, ASCE, PCI Design Handbook, 1. The concrete batching plant will be in conformance with ASTM C 94 and will be certified by
state and municipal building codes, ASTM. the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Volumetric batching of concrete will not
be permitted. All measurements of the various components will be by weight and will be
C. Modifications: Submit all proposed modifications to the project designs represented on the accurate (within the most recent tolerance limits of ASTM C 94).
drawings with complete design calculations and drawings, prepared and signed by a licensed 2. The use of calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride ions or other salts is not
Professional Engineer for review and approval. more than 0.15% chloride ions or other salts by weight of admixture.

D. Design members exposed to weather to allow movement of components without damage, undue 2.3 REINFORCING AND CONNECTION MATERIALS
stress on fasteners or other detrimental effects, when subject to seasonal or cyclic day/night
temperature ranges. A. General: Provide all reinforcement, accessory, and connection materials required for a complete
installation as indicated on the approved drawings. Pour strip reinforcement, designed by
E. Design system to accommodate construction tolerances, deflection of other building structural precaster, to be supplied and installed by others unless specified. Provide grouting as required for
members, and clearances of intended openings. design bearing.

2.2 MATERIALS B. Reinforcing Bars: ASTM A 615, Grade 60. Reinforcing used to fabricate embedded parts or
connections by welding will be ASTM A 706.
A. Concrete Materials: As appropriate to design requirements and PCI MNL-116
1. Cement: Gray Portland, conforming to ASTM C 150 Type I  C. Welded anchor studs: AWS D1.1
2. Cement: White Portland, conforming to ASTM C150 Type I
3. Fly Ash Admixture: ASTM C 618 Class C or F -- 25% maximum D. Prestressing Strand: ASTM A 416, 270,000 psi minimum ultimate strength, uncoated, 7-wire, low
4. Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag: ASTM C 989 Grade 100 or 120 – 40% maximum relaxation.
5. Aggregates: ASTM C 33 except as modified by PCI MNL 116
6. Air-entraining admixtures: ASTM C 260 E. Anchor Bolts: ASTM F 1554 Grade 36
7. Water-reducing, Retarding, Accelerating Admixtures: ASTM C 494
F. Welded Wire Fabric: ASTM A 185 (plain steel) or ASTM A 497 (deformed steel), in flat sheets,
8. Pigments: Non-fading, lime-resistant pigments: ASTM C 979
unfinished
B. Concrete Mix Design: ACI 318, Chapter 5, using standard deviation calculations in accordance with
G. Supports for Reinforcement for Exposed-to-View Concrete: CRSI Class 1, plastic protected legs
section 5.3.1.1 or 5.3.1.2.
1. The concrete mix designs will conform to the following requirements:
2.4 ACCESSORIES
Structural concrete: Columns, Walls, Stairs, Spandrel Beams
Strength of Concrete -- 5000 psi minimum A. Connecting and Supporting Devices:
Water-cementitious materials ratio -- maximum 0.42 1. ASTM A 36/A 36M carbon steel, plates, angles, items cast into concrete:
Air Content -- 5.5% +/- 1.5% a. Double Tee and Beam Bearing Plates Finishes: hot-dip galvanized in accordance
with ASTM A 153/A 153M
Structural concrete: Double Tees, Beams b. Welded Plates: ZRC painted finish
Strength of Concrete -- 6000 psi minimum c. Proprietary Inserts: Corrosion-resistant electroplated finish
Water-cementitious materials ratio -- maximum 0.40 d. All non-proprietary embedments in climate-controlled structures: Red oxide
Air content -- 5.5% +/- 1.5% primer finish
2. ASTM A 666 Type 201 LN, 302 or 304 stainless steel, where required

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Shockey Parking Structure Specifications Shockey Parking Structure Specifications

3. Anchor Bolts: ASTM F 1554 Grade 36 accessories provided by other sections, at indicated locations.
4. Sleeves: Plastic
F. Tension reinforcement tendons as required to achieve design load criteria.
B. Grout: Non-shrink, non-staining, minimum yield strength of 5,000 psi at 28 days
G. Ends at Stressing Tendons: Coat the exposed ends of prestressing strands in all prestressed
C. Bearing Pads: members with a bitumastic coating. Recess exterior exposed to view ends of tendons and patch to
1. Standard Bearing Pad: Rubber pad composed of homogeneous blend of ozone-resistant match surrounding surface.
rubber elastomer and high strength random synthetic fiber cords. Surface hardness of 75
Shore A durometer +/- 5 percent, compression 8000 psi. MASTICORD as manufactured by H. Weld steel fabrications in accordance with AWS D1.1. Weld reinforcing steel in accordance
JVI, Inc., or approved equal. with AWS D1.4. Welding processes shall not reduce the cross-sectional area of the concrete
2. Laminated Fabric-rubber Pads: Preformed, unused synthetic fibers and new unvulcanized reinforcement. Do not tack-weld reinforcing. Paint all field welds with ZRC.
rubber. Surface hardness of 80 Shore A durometer +/- 10%. Capralon or approved equal.
3. Expansion Bearing Pads: Assemblies consisting of lower and upper components. Dynalon I. Mark each piece of precast concrete for identification and record the date of casting. Marks will be
or approved equal. placed so the final appearance of the product is not impaired.
a. The upper component: An assembly of a sheet of stainless (14 gauge minimum)
with a minimum 2B mill finish. Sized larger than the lower element by a minimum J. Provide free access by the Architect/Engineer to all parts of the manufacturing facility.
of 1/2 inch in each direction.
b. The lower element: An assembly of a standard bearing pad, with a stainless steel K. Minor patching in plant is acceptable, providing structural adequacy and appearance of units is not
support plate and a bonded contact layer of PTFE (Teflon). impaired.

D. Shims: Steel, ASTM A 36 or engineered multi-polymer plastic material, compressive strength of 2.6 FINISHES
8000 psi; Korolath, or an approved equal.
A. Finish exposed-to-view architectural finish surfaces of precast concrete members to be consistent
E. Mechanical Splice for Structural Continuity: Erico Lenton or NMB Splice Sleeve. with approved mockup control sample.

F. Double Tee Flange-to-Flange Shear Connectors: JVI Vector Connector, or approved equal. B. Cure members under similar conditions to develop required concrete quality and minimize
Corrosion-resistant electroplated finish. appearance blemishes, including non-uniformity, staining, or surface cracking.

G. Bolts, Nuts and Washers: ASTM A 307 high-strength steel type recommended for structural steel C. Patching where required, shall be accomplished by skilled craftsmen in such a manner that the
joints. Corrosion-resistant electroplated finish. structural adequacy is maintained and the appearance and durability are not impaired.

H. Prime Paint: (ZRC) Zinc rich alkyd type coating. D. Provide finishes as indicated on the finishes schedule listed below.
1. Double Tees
2.5 FABRICATION a. Tee areas of CIP concrete topping: Top surface shall be transverse raked to 0.25”
depth minimum to ensure bond of topping
A. Fabrication procedure to conform to PCI MNL-116 and ACI 318. b. Tee areas without CIP concrete topping: Top surface shall receive rough horizontal
broom or swirl broom finish that shall not exceed a depth of 0.25”
B. Maintain plant records and quality control program during production of precast members. Make c. SIF, BIF and edges: Standard form finish
records available upon request. 2. Inverted T-Beams
a. Top surfaces to receive CIP topping: Top surface shall be transverse raked to 0.25”
C. Ensure reinforcing steel, anchors, inserts, plates, angles, and other cast-in items are embedded depth minimum to ensure bond of topping.
and located as indicated on erection drawings. Clean surfaces of all embedded items of rust, scale, b. Top surfaces not receiving CIP topping: Top surface shall receive rough broom
grease, and foreign matter. finish that shall not exceed a depth of 0.25” and shall be perpendicular to the
length of the beam.
D. Hardware supplied by other trades shall be furnished to the fabricator fully assembled and tagged c. SIF, BIF and edges: Standard form finish
for location a minimum of 30 days prior to scheduled production. 3. Columns
a. For non-architecturally finished columns: SIF and BIF shall be standard form
E. Fabricate required openings with dimension larger than 10 inches (250 mm) in diameter or larger finish. TIF finish shall be steel trowel.
for rectangular openings as shown and approved on erection drawings. Provide openings in Tee b. For architecturally finished columns: SIF and BIF surfaces shall receive finish as
stems for running electrical conduit as coordinated with approved shop drawings, and embed prescribed by approved architectural sample. TIF finish shall be steel trowel.

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Shockey Parking Structure Specifications Shockey Parking Structure Specifications

4. Spandrels 3.2 PREPARATION


a. TIF surface: Light broom finish not to exceed a depth of 0.125” and running
perpendicular to the length of the spandrel. A. Prepare support equipment for erection procedure.
b. SIF and BIF surfaces: Standard form finish
c. For spandrels that require architectural finish: BIF will receive finish consistent 3.3 ERECTION
with Mockup Control Sample.
5. Walls A. Install and secure precast units as shown on Contract Documents and as indicated by the Field
a. TIF surface: Light broom finish not to exceed a depth of 0.125” or a steel trowel Erection Drawings in conformance with PCI – MNL 127.
finish
b. SIF and BIF surfaces: Standard form finish B. Align and maintain uniform horizontal and vertical joints, as erection progresses.
c. For walls that require architectural finish: BIF will receive finish consistent with
C. Maintain temporary bracing in place until final support is provided.
Mockup Control Sample.
6. Stairs
D. Adjust differential camber between precast members to tolerance before final attachment.
a. Top surface in final construction: Rough broom finish not to exceed a depth of
0.25” or sandblast finish to provide non-slip surface E. Secure units in place. Perform welding in accordance with AWS.
b. SIF and BIF surfaces: Standard form finish
7. Flat Slabs 3.4 ERECTION TOLERANCES
a. Flat slab areas of CIP concrete topping: Top surface shall be transverse raked to
0.25” depth minimum to ensure bond of topping. A. Conform to PCI MNL-135 and PCI MNL 127 – Tolerances for Precast and Prestressed Concrete
b. Flat slab areas without CIP concrete topping: Top surface shall receive rough Construction.
broom finish not to exceed a depth of 0.25”.
c. SIF and BIF surfaces: Standard form finish 3.5 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

2.7 FABRICATION TOLERANCES A. Welding: Inspection of welds shall be by Owner’s third-party inspection agency.

A. Conform to PCI MNL-135 3.6 CLEANING


1. Exception: Double tee lengths +1/4 inches/- 3/4 inches
A. Clean weld marks, dirt, or blemishes from surface of exposed members.
2.8 SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTS B. Remove all debris and surplus materials associated with this scope of work from the premises.

A. Test and analyze concrete in accordance with PCI MNL-116.

PART 3 EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. A minimum of two (2) weeks prior to scheduled delivery of precast materials, verify supporting
work and site conditions are ready to receive work and field measurements are as indicated on
field use erection drawings.

B. General Contractor shall provide to fabricator verification that supporting structure has met or
exceeded the design requirements of the precast system design as required by PCI guidelines and
Contract Documents. Support requirements shall include, but not be limited to:
1. Field Placed Bearing Walls or Footings: Provide true level bearing surfaces with elevations
of +/- 1/2 inch unless shown otherwise on the Drawings.
2. Accurate placement and alignment of anchor bolts, plates, or dowels in CIP column
footings, beams, wall footings, and other field placed supporting elements.
3. CIP Concrete supporting structure has met design strength requirements as specified.

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CASE STUDIES

Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking Structure, Charlottesville, VA


Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking Structure Case Studies
Case Studies

CASE STUDIES two phases: from 10/13/09 – 1/08/10 and


from 6/2/10 – 9/22/10. Precast erection of the
north parking structure was completed with two
crews working from 6/28/10 – 1/8/11. Driven
primarily by schedule, the project also required
extensive coordination by Shockey Precast for
crane and truck access to the site.

Washington HQ Services Parking Structures

Project: Washington HQ Services


Parking Structures
Location: Alexandria, VA
Owner: Duke Realty Corporation
Washington HQ Services Parking Structures
Architect: HKS
General Contractor: Clark Construction Group
Precaster: Shockey Precast


The Washington HQ Services north and south
parking structures were part of the overall BRAC
133 project. In addition to the two design-build
parking structures, Shockey Precast provided
exterior architectural precast walls for the two
office buildings also included in the project. With Hecht Warehouse Parking Structure
a small, congested construction site, limited
access for trailers, and a fast-track construction
schedule, the Washington HQ Services parking
structures project offered numerous challenges
Project: Hecht Warehouse Parking Structure
that were overcome through the use of precast.
Location: Washington, D.C.
Owner: Douglas Development
The south parking structure is eight stories
Architect: Antunovich Associates
tall and approximately 660,000 SF, with
General Contractor: Clark Construction Group
1,718 parking spaces; while the north parking
Precaster: Shockey Precast
structure is five stories and 600,979 SF,
with 2,034 parking spaces. Shockey Precast
Located in the heart of Washington, D.C., in a
produced and erected 1,361 structural precast
high-traffic area, the Hecht Warehouse parking
components for the south parking structure,
structure is part of the overall redevelopment of
and a total of 1,361 precast pieces for the
the historic Hecht Warehouse District building
north parking structure. Precast erection for
by Douglas Development for office and retail
the south parking structure was completed in

SHOCKEY PRECAST, WINCHESTER, VA • SHOCKEYPRECAST.COM 71


Case Studies Case Studies

use. The parking structure features a distinct stairs. The two exterior sides of the tower were structure specified that masonry cladding,
Art-Deco façade and its unique design allows for designed as glass to fulfill the owner’s aesthetic lapboard siding, and slate roof be replicated on
vision for the tower to retain an open look. the parking structure to match the hospital. The
conversion to residential units on some floors,
distinct combination of architectural finishes
and also includes retail space on the ground and features created unique challenges that
floor. Shockey Precast utilized transfer girders showcased the aesthetic versatility of precast
on the interior of the structure rather than Canton Crossing Parking Structure
concrete.
ramp walls to create the openness necessary The parking structure features a total precast
to accommodate the ground-level retail space. concrete structural system consisting of
Project: Canton Crossing Parking Structure double tees, beams, columns, walls, stairs,
The Art-Deco façade design demanded that the
Location: Baltimore, MD Canton Crossing Parking Structure and architectural spandrels. The structure
concave spandrels be poured with both black Owner: Corporate Office Properties Trust itself was relatively easy to design, measuring
and white concrete mixes, and Shockey Precast Architect: Design Collective, Inc. three bays wide and six stories tall to provide
had to incorporate into the shop ticket specific General Contractor: The Whiting-Turner the needed 765 spaces in the approximately
details that would enable the two different Contracting Co. 250,000-square-foot rectangular building. But
Precaster: Shockey Precast achieving the appearance needed for each panel
colors to remain separate after the spandrels
required careful attention to detail.
were poured. This issue was resolved by pouring
The 338,000 SF Canton Crossing Parking
the bull noses with a black concrete mix and Surrounded in the complex by buildings with
Structure, located adjacent to the former facades featuring brick and dark gray cast stone,
pouring the spandrels with a white concrete mix.
First Mariner Bank office tower in Baltimore, the parking structure was designed to feature a
Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking Structure

Maryland, offered numerous coordination dark brown wood paneling look (achieved with
Shockey Precast manufactured and erected and erection challenges for Shockey Precast. form liners) as well as embedded cast stone

approximately 1,100 structural precast With a garage footprint that occupied the and brick features. Brick was used primarily on
components, including double tees, columns, entire construction site, erection of the 1,131 Project: Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking the lower floors, acting as a solid base, while
structural precast components required Structure cast-stone panels frame the glass-enclosed
beams, spandrels, shear walls, stair and
Location: Charlottesville, VA stair towers on the end. The wood paneling
elevator walls, flat slabs and precast stairs for extensive coordination for final crane set up and
Owner: Martha Jefferson Hospital appearance was used on upper levels and as
demobilization. The presence of high-voltage accents for the windows and to frame the
the completion of this seven-story, 450,000 Architect: Kahler Slater, Milwaukee, Wis.
power lines near the site prohibited a normal perimeter.
SF structure. The project added more than 900 General Contractor: M.A. Morenson,
precast erection sequence, and Shockey’s
parking spaces for residential, office, and retail Brookfield, Wis.
coordination efforts included developing a Precaster: Shockey Precast To achieve all of these variations, the panels
use in the Hecht Warehouse district. special erection sequence plan. feature three finishes and four concrete mixes:
one each for the lap siding, cast-in lintels and
Taken from the project case study, “The
In addition, the project came with a fast-track sills, mortar around the inset brick, and the gray
Aesthetic Versatility of Precast Achieves Project
panel backup. The inset brick added another
construction schedule and design elements Goals” written by Craig A. Shutt, and published in
texture and color to the aesthetic pallet.
that included architectural and thin-brick false the Winter 2015 issue of PCI’s Ascent magazine.
columns attached to the structural columns Further complicating the design was the need
through the external spandrel system to create Martha Jefferson Hospital is located within to match the bricks on the adjacent hospital, but
a vertical façade. The parking structure was also sight of Thomas Jefferson’s historic plantation, no thin brick provided the proper appearance. To
Hecht Warehouse Parking Structure
designed to attach a future exterior screening Monticello, and designers of the new hospital resolve this issue, Shockey Precast bought full
system, and featured a stair tower with a single wanted the architecture to blend with local bricks from the local manufacturer and sliced off
center wall with cantilevered beams to bear styles. The design of the hospital’s parking the front half to insert into the panels. Lintels

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Case Studies Case Studies

that accent the openings, which provide the hospital lobby and directs drivers around to the architectural precast elements. The architectural challenge to both design and production teams.
appearance of windows, project out from the parking entrance. The finished parking structure façade was essentially self-supporting with In order to accent the precast façade, numerous
panels, while wood-like vertical dividers that blends beautifully and seamlessly with the regard to gravity load, with required lateral pieces of decorative steel columns, channels,
split some openings were recessed to provide architecture of the adjacent hospital and support provided by tieback to the structural beams, grilles, and glazing were field-installed.
depth and more shadow lines. other buildings. frame. In order to ensure a successful project,
the design team was vigilant in detailing the Erection of the structure was difficult due to
Many of the panels combined a variety of colors numerous interface/offset conditions and limited access to the interior footprint of the
and textures in an effort to cut the panel total.
connection schemes such that requirements for structure. The architectural façade was erected
Optimizing the sizes without regard for the
constructability and access were in concurrence in conjunction with the structural components
number of textures and colors in each panel cut
the piece count by more than 100. The typical with aesthetic requirements. of the parking structure. The access plan was
panels were 1 foot thick, 48 feet long, and 9 feet changed to eliminate ramp construction, and
tall, weighing approximately 50,000 to 60,000 Shockey Precast Winchester production facility the last phase of construction was moved to
pounds. Martha Jefferson Hospital Parking Structure provided 554 pieces of structural precast for the top of Bladen Street out of the footprint.
the project, including double tees, beams, This change saved time and expense for the
Delivering and erecting the components also columns, spandrels, vertical ramp walls, shear general contractor, and resulted in a shorter
offered challenges. The woodgrain panels walls, flat slabs, and stair/elevator core walls. and more continuous erection process. Erection
feature three or four vertical “fingers” that The 223 elements of the architectural façade was completed on schedule in approximately 12
project to allow connections to be made. Those were provided by Shockey Precast former weeks. The Calvert Street parking structure won
projections precluded the panels from being Fredericksburg production facility and consisted the Design-Build Institute of America (DBIA)
shipped flat due to the stress on their cross- of an array of spandrels, wall panels, cornices, 2007 Best Public Sector Building Project Over
sections. Shockey contracted with a Richmond, coping, and column covers. $15 million category.
Va., hauler to load eight or nine of the panels
vertically onto double-drops that were placed Calvert Street Parking Structure
on low-boy trailers to protect the panels while
providing the proper clearances.
Project: Calvert Street Parking Structure
Upon arrival, the panels were picked from
the truck in the position in which they were Location: Annapolis, MD
being placed on the frame. Other components, Owner: Department of General Services, State
including the 207,000 square feet of double of Maryland Calvert Street Parking Structure
tees and the stair and elevator panels, were Calvert Street Parking Structure
Architect: Hayes, Seay, Mattern & Mattern (HSMM)
delivered on traditional trucks and staged at a
nearby location for erection as needed. General Contractor: Coakley-Williams
Project Timeline:
Construction
Design of the façade specified two colors of thin
The panels had cast-in-place plates embedded Precaster: Shockey Precast brick to be used in either standard running or Design: July 2005 – December 2005
into them, and they were connected to the Flemish bond coursing at specific locations along Construction: December 2005 – February 2007
foundation using splice sleeves, rather than Exterior aesthetics were of paramount concern
the exterior elevations. Layout and detailing Production Winchester: January 9, 2006 –
setting the panels onto the plates. In part, this to the owner throughout the duration of
the project, given the close proximity of the of the horizontal and vertical coursing of brick May 16, 2006
was done because the crane was limited in
its maneuverability, requiring it to swing over parking structure to several historical brick-clad presented a formidable challenge to all members Production Fredericksburg: January 3, 2006 –
two bays to locate some panels. The crane buildings of the State Capitol complex. Shockey of the design and production team, requiring
May 17, 2006
was placed in an outer bay and performed the Precast met this desired intent by providing close attention to assure proper alignment of
Precast Erection Start: April 3, 2006
erection from that spot. a structural gray precast frame surrounded brick between precast elements. The presence
by a separate façade of architectural precast of several highly articulated, ornate cornice and Erection Complete: July 21, 2006
The structure connects to the hospital, with
a dropoff point at the front that leads to the using a mix of highly articulated thin-brick and sill details of architectural precast presented a Open to Public: January 10, 2007

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Case Studies Case Studies

garages in the design of the parking structures. A number of different parking structure
In order to meet LEED requirements, the configurations were considered in order to
  designer had to allow for additional program maximize the optimal number of parking spaces.
features, such as bicycle parking, in the design.
Parking access controls were also included The approved design specified a 247,700 SF, six-
to accommodate the future possibility of level structure to provide 1,933 parking spaces
commercial use of the garages by the owner. for staff and visitors to the Gaylord National
Washington Nationals Parking Structure Washington Nationals Parking Structure
Harbor Resort and Convention Center. The
Shockey Precast produced a total of 308,000
upper five levels of the parking structure were
square feet of precast double tees for the
project. The garages each consist of three constructed of precast components produced
Project: Washington Nationals Parking
framed levels and are three bays wide. The East by Shockey Precast at its Winchester plant
Structures
garage features 170,000 square feet of double and former Fredericksburg facility. Shockey
Location: Washington, D.C.
tees and the West garage includes 138,000 manufactured and erected 12’ x 30” double
Owner: D.C. Sports and Entertainment square feet of double tees. The Shockey Precast
Commission tees with a 4” flange, 12’ x 30 ⅝” double tees
team’s design coordination efforts included
Architect: Desman and Associates development of the drawings and matching with a 4 ⅝” flange, 8” flat slabs, 10” thick walls,
General Contractor: Clark/Hunt/Smoot, a Joint the parking structures’ precast finishes to stair units, columns with architectural finish,
Venture Gaylord National Harbor Parking Stucture
those of the ballpark. With retail and ticket L-beams, 24”x36” inverted-tee beams, 10” thick
Precaster: Shockey Precast sales areas featuring CIP concrete incorporated prestressed spandrels with an architectural
into the first floor of both parking structures,
This project included two parking structures Shockey Precast had to include coordination and finish and 10” thick prestressed vertical ramp
that would provide 1,250 parking spaces for interaction with CIP in its planning and design. Project: Gaylord National Harbor Parking walls for 6’ stems.
Washington Nationals’ patrons. Both garages Because of the surrounding retail areas, the first Structure
were scheduled to be built during construction floor of the garages was unusually tall, adding Location: National Harbor, Maryland The parking structure’s architectural precast
of the new baseball stadium, Nationals Park. to the coordination considerations incorporated Owner: Gaylord Entertainment Company features include horizontal ribs on spandrels
The original concept specified an underground by the design team. Architect: Gensler Architects
parking garage; however, complications in the and exterior elevator wall panels, column covers
design process made this concept impractical. Complex reveals and two different sandblast General Contractor: Perini/Tompkins, and a planter on the north end of the garage
patterns increased the overall intensity of the a Joint Venture
roof. The exterior of the parking structure
With only 12 months remaining in the project project, but the use of architectural precast Precaster: Shockey Precast
required architectural mix design and finishes
schedule, the project was redesigned as a made it possible for the designer’s vision to
precast parking structure and Shockey Precast be consistent with those of the hotel and
be realized well within the project timeline
was recruited as a design-build , assisting the and budget. Another unique aspect of the The Peterson National Harbor Center is a convention center.
team with development of the overall layout of project for the designer and for Shockey 300-acre site located on a 1 ¼ mile waterfront
the garages so that the owner’s construction Precast was that the precast design had to stretch of the Potomac River in Prince George,
completion deadline of April 2008 could be met. accommodate the hanging of artwork on the
On-time completion was essential, as April Maryland. National Harbor is home to 7,000,000
exterior of the garages. The precast shear walls
2008 marked the start of the 2008 baseball were incorporated into the exterior “window square feet of restaurants, shopping, office
season and opening day of the Washington dressing,” and a tower effect was added to the space, residences and hotels, including the
Nationals’ new stadium. façade to create visual interest. Gaylord National Harbor Resort and Convention
Center. The Gaylord National Harbor Resort is
The site itself presented significant challenges. Erection of the parking structures began in
The Washington Nationals Ballpark is set below July 2007 and was completed on November the largest non-gaming hotel and convention
Gaylord National Harbor Parking Stucture
grade elevation, so it was necessary to include 21, 2007. The finishing of the structures was center on the east coast and the largest hotel in
a retaining wall between the ballpark and the completed on March 1, 2008. Washington D.C.

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Case Studies Case Studies

by Shockey Precast to ensure a smooth precast Precast erection, performed by union labor, began
erection process and minimum disruption in October 2014 and was completed in December
to local traffic patterns. The project site was 2014. The parking structure, which features an
situated between two existing buildings, which architectural façade designed to replicate DNA
created additional challenges in maneuvering strands, provides 1,500 parking spaces for Temple
of the 300 Demag crawler crane for erection of University Health System patrons.
George Washington AutoPark the precast components. Working property line Temple University Health System Parking Structure

to property line and moving east to west, the


erection crew followed a very precise plan in
Project: George Washington Autopark order to maximize utilization of the available site Project: Temple University Health System
Location: Winchester, Virginia
space. Approximately 12 precast pieces were Ontario Street Parking Structure
Owner: City of Winchester erected per day. Location: Philadelphia, PA
Architect: Design Concepts
Owner: Temple University
Although the project was not designed toward
General Contractor: Howard Shockey & Sons Architect: Array Architects Iron Hill Corporate Center Parking Structure
Precaster: Shockey Precast specific green technology, the site contractor
General Contractor: Shoemaker Construction
was able to “recycle” the site waste to another
Company
The $7.68 million George Washington AutoPark building site and use it as fill for that project. As
a result, none of the site waste from the George Precaster: The Shockey Precast Group Project: Iron Hill Corporate Center Parking
is the City of Winchester, Virginia’s fourth
downtown parking structure; adding 540 new Washington AutoPark went to the local dump. Structure
The use of a KONE traction elevator on site Temple University Health System’s Ontario Location: Newark, DE
parking spaces in the heart of its historic district.
The parking structure’s location adjacent to the contributed to the project’s environmentally- Street Parking Structure project offered Developer/Owner: Buccini Pollin Construction
friendly practices by eliminating the risk of a significant schedule, access, and erection Group, LLC
historic George Washington Wyndham Hotel
hydraulic oil spill on the site. challenges for Shockey Precast, including a Owner: JP Morgan Chase
made it necessary for the 170,000 square-foot,
Architect: Timothy Haahs & Associates
five-story parking structure to blend with the fast-track construction schedule, limited site
Shockey Precast produced 532 precast General Contractor: Buccini Pollin Construction
surrounding architecture. access, and a construction site located between
components, including 204 precast double Group, LLC
an operating medical facility and residential Precaster: The Shockey Precast Group
The exterior of the George Washington tees, for the project. Production of the precast
components began in May 2008, and erection neighborhood. Shockey Precast manufactured
AutoPark includes an architectural thin-brick
began in October 2008. Erection and transported a total of 576 pieces of precast, The five-level Iron Hill Corporate Center
façade, accented with precast concrete features
was completed in January 2009. A total of 25 including 140,000 SF of double tees for the five- parking structure features 705 parking spaces,
that mimic stacked limestone to complement
million pounds of concrete was used in the level, 500,000 SF parking structure. and was designed to blend aesthetically and
the neighboring buildings. An enclosed,
elevated pedestrian walkway connects the PPEA project. architecturally with the existing surrounding
parking structure with the Frederick County buildings. As a design-assist partner and
Office Complex. specialty subcontractor, Shockey Precast
designed, manufactured, delivered and erected
For Shockey Precast, site logistics and limited approximately 527 precast components for the
accessibility presented the greatest challenge project, including 155,051 SF of double tees.
during the project. The project’s location in Limited site access required that Shockey Precast
the historic downtown area of Winchester George Washington AutoPark Temple University Health System Parking Structure use a drop lot approximately three miles from the
demanded careful planning and coordination construction site for storage of the precast.

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Case Studies Case Studies

Buccini Pollin was the Developer/Owner of the The 537,000 SF parking structure was designed design demanded that the parking garages be
property, and sold the completed structure to to allow for future, horizontal expansion, and erected first. With the jobsite located nearly four
JP Morgan Chase after the parking structure includes a green-tinted architectural concrete hours from Shockey Precast in Winchester, VA,
was finished. As the General Contractor on the mix and architectural finish on the wall panels. hauling of the precast pieces offered its own
project, BPGS Construction was awarded a 2014 Shockey Precast manufactured and erected a
logistical challenges. Site access constraints
Excellence Award by ABC Delaware for the Iron total of 993 precast components for the project,
and ground stability issues made it necessary
Hill Corporate Center Parking Structure. including 337,256 SF of double tees. Erection
began in December 2014 and was completed for Shockey Precast to utilize an offsite drop lot University of Maryland Parking Structure

in May 2015. for storage of the precast components prior to


erection. Despite the numerous coordination
challenges, Shockey Precast completed erection Project: University of Maryland at Shady Grove
of both garages in less than two months. Parking Structure
Erection of Garage B began on March 10, 2014
Location: Gaithersburg, MD
and was completed on April 11, 2014. Erection
Owner: University of Maryland
Tysons II H Parking Structure of Garage A began on March 31, 2014 and was
Architect: DNC
completed on April 24, 2014. By using two
Southpointe Apartments Parking Structure General Contractor: Coakley Williams
erection crews, Shockey Precast was able to
erect the garages concurrently, saving valuable Precaster: Shockey Precast
Project: Tysons II H Parking Structure
Location: McLean, VA time on the overall construction schedule and
Project: Southpointe Apartments Parking Sustainability, green building, speed of erection,
Owner: Lerner Enterprises Structures ensuring the structures were completed so that
and flexibility of design were important
Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates PC Location: Cantonsburg, PA construction of the apartment buildings could considerations that guided the University of
General Contractor: The Whiting-Turner begin as scheduled.
Owner: GMH Southpointe Holdings LP Maryland to select precast for its Shady Grove
Contracting Company
Architect: Heffner Architects, Inc., Alexandria, VA campus parking structure in Gaithersburg, MD.
Precaster: Shockey Precast To meet the sustainability requirements for
General Contractor: Elford, Inc., Colbusum, OH
Located in the 12th largest business district in Precaster: Shockey Precast the five-level structure, Shockey Precast used
the country and the heart of downtown Fairfax recycled fly ash and rebar. Shockey used slag
County, the Tysons II H Parking Structure in The Southpointe Apartments parking structures mix concrete in the roof double tees to decrease
McLean, VA, was constructed to support the18- projects featured two nearly identical, four-level the heat island effect and result in a high albedo
story, 476,000 office building currently in parking structures surrounded by apartments. rating. Shockey manufactured and erected a
construction at 1775 Tysons Boulevard. When Each structure provides 320 parking spaces total of 528 precast pieces, including 156,000 SF
completed in late 2015, the office building will for the Southpointe Apartments complex, Southpointe Apartments Parking Structure of double tees, for the project. Precast erection
be the fifth office building designed by Lerner began in November 2008 and was completed
and Shockey Precast manufactured, hauled,
Enterprises as part of the Corporate Office Centre in April 2009.
and erected a combined total of 475 pieces of
at Tysons II.
precast, which included 150,000 SF of precast Providing an additional 600 spaces for student
double tees for the two decks. Although these parking, the garage features an architectural
structures were straightforward with no exterior thin-brick finish, and solar shading at the
architectural precast – both were structural gray windows. It includes designated spaces for
concrete – the project offered other challenges hybrids, carpool vehicles, and bicycles, and also
in terms of design, access, and schedule. features LED lighting and daylight sensors to
reduce power requirements. The structure was
Tysons II H Parking Structure Designed with apartment buildings surrounding University of Maryland Parking Structure completed and open for the start of the fall
both parking structures, the overall project 2009 semester.

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