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Papaschase Band: Metis Who Withdrew From Treaty

Papaschase Band: Metis Who Withdrew From Treaty Compiled by Lawrence Barkwell Coordinator of Metis Heritage and

Compiled by Lawrence Barkwell Coordinator of Metis Heritage and History Research Louis Riel Institute

Chief Papaschase along with his six brothers and their families moved to the Edmonton area in the late 1850s from the Lesser Slave Lake area. They normally travelled and hunted in the Fort Edmonton, Fort Assiniboia and Lesser Slave Lake areas for some time before making Edmonton their home. Their band settled their and traded with the Hudson Bay Company and was employed with them from time to time.

On August 21, 1877, Chief Papaschase (also known as Passpasschase, Papastew, Pahpastayo, and John Gladieu-Quinn) and his brother Tahkoots, a Headman, signed an adhesion to Treaty 6 on behalf of the Papaschase Band at Fort Edmonton.

In 1877, the Hon. David Laird, Lieutenant Governor and Indian Superintendent for the North-West Territories, recommended to the Department of Indian Affairs that surveyors be sent to lay out Indian reserves for the Edmonton Bands, however, no action was taken by the Federal Government to survey a reserve for the Papaschase Band until 1880. By 1879, the buffalo had become virtually extinct and the Indians in the Edmonton area were suffering from severe starvation.

On August 2, 1880, George A. Simpson, Dominion Land Surveyor, was instructed to survey the boundaries of Passpasschase Indian Reserve No. 136 for the Papaschase Band. According to Simpson's information, 241 members of the Papaschase Band were paid annuities in 1879 so he promised Chief Papaschase that 48 square miles of land would be set apart as a reserve for the Band. The Federal Government should have known that in fact 249 members of the Papaschase Band were paid annuities in 1879 entitling the Band to at least 49.9 square miles of reserve land. Chief Papaschase selected a reserve approximately four miles south of Fort Edmonton and Simpson began to survey the reserve located within the present boundaries of the City of Edmonton.

When Chief Papaschase realized he was not getting the size of the reserve he wanted, a dispute arose between him and Inspector T.P. Wadsworth (Inspector of Indian Farms and Agencies for the Dept. of Indian Affairs). On August 3, 1880, Inspector Wadsworth maliciously transferred 84 members of the Papaschase Band to a new treaty pay list he created for the “Edmonton Stragglers”. Then Inspector Wadsworth instructed Simpson to survey no more than 40 square miles of reserve land fro the Papaschase Band and to not

set apart any land for the Edmonton Stragglers. On August 4, 1880, Inspector Wadsworth paid annuities to only 188 members of the Papaschase Band.

Frank Oliver, through his newspaper the Edmonton Bulletin advocated the removal of the band and its surrender. A mass meeting was held in January 13, 1881, to petition Sir John A. Macdonald, the Prime Minister to pressure Canada into moving the Papaschase Band and obtain a surrender of IR 136 for sale to non-Indians. This incited a number of settlers to squat and trespass upon IR 136.

From 1879 to 1886, The Federal Government of Canada did not provide necessary rations or relief to members of the Papaschase Band who were suffering from starvation. In the midst of the Riel Rebellion, the Half Breed Scrip Commission arrived in Edmonton on June 3, 1885 offering scrip to people of mixed Indian and white ancestry, including any treaty status Indians who could show they were of Metis ancestry. The commission issued scrip to 202 treaty Indians from June to July, 1885. Twelve Papaschase members took scrip at this time.

When the Half Breed Scrip Commission returned to Edmonton on July 3, 1886, the rest of the Papaschase Band motivated by starvation, poverty and general discord over Canada’s failure to honour the terms of Treaty 6, requested scrip.

The Papaschase Band was reduced to only 82 members, most of whom were elders, women and children. After receiving scrip, Chief Papaschase and other members of the Band continued in the honest belief they could use and occupy IR 136 because the Federal Government contributed to this belief by allowing the Papaschase band to harvest their crops in the fall of 1886.

James Brady 1 tells of Papachase coming to the assistance of his grandfather, Lawrence Garneau, after Garneau was imprisoned as a suspected Riel spy during the Resistance.

Here Papasschayo 2 entered the scene. After the rebellion, considerable animosity and attitudes of revenge appeared among the Anglo-Saxons against the defeated Métis. In those days social aid and other amenities of the welfare state were unknown. My grandmother and eleven children were left destitute to shift for themselves. The Whites, it seemed, without thinking about it, punished them for my grandfather’s rebellious spirit. They would have starved but for the enduring friendship, compassion and generosity of Papasschayo. For during this period of imprisonment, they fed both the Garneau and Vandal families. My grandfather never forgot this (Ibid. 4).

1 Jim Brady, “The Wisdom of Papasschayo, a Cree Medicine Man.” The Brady Papers, Glenbow Institute, n.d., pp. 3-4. 2 Chief Papasschayo (also known as John Gladieu-Quinn, Papachase, Passpasschase, and Papastew), his brothers, and their families were finessed and maneuvered into taking scrip in July of 1886. They were henceforth referred to as “Treaty Metis” or Indians of Metis descent.

Later pressure from the railway and land speculators forced Papasschayo and his band off their land. They dispersed and wandered the valleys of the foothills of the Rockies.

In 1901 Garneau moved to the St. Paul des Métis colony 150 miles northeast of Edmonton. His sons and sons-in-law followed him to this location. The area they inhabited became known as Garneau Village. Several years later son-in-law James Brady Sr. (married to Garneau’s daughter, Philomena) 3 also moved his family to this village.

Years passed. Three years later (1904), and nearly twenty years after the rebellion, my grandfather heard that Papasschayo was old and in straightened circumstances. So he journeyed to the foothills and brought the Chief back to St. Paul des Metis. The Cree band of earlier days had broken up; it now existed only in the memories of old timers…a comfortable cabin was built for Papasschayo across a small lake near our trading post, and here Papasschayo lived with his two wives. The summer seasons were spent in the old style prairie teepees (Brady, op. cit.: 6).

Jerry Quinn of the Kikino Metis Settlement born on November 23, 1911 was a grandson of Chief Papaschase and was interviewed by Richard Lightning of TARR in Edmonton in 1975 and told the story of the family taking scrip and losing their reserve.

Listed below are the Band members who took Metis Scrip:

Batteau, Headman, #2, was discharged from treaty on July 30, 1886 with nine other members of his family including: Angelique Gladieu Quin, nee Chattelain; Alexis Gladieu Quin; and Veronica Ward.

Brenneau, Susanne #79 (nee Batoche dit Letendre)

Brenneau, Pierre #79 Mistickohoe was discharged from treaty on July 23, 1886 as Pierre Brunneau with seven other members of his family including: Susanne Brunneau; and Pascal Brunneau.

Brenneau, Joseph #79

Bernard, Joseph #46 Wapooscou was discharged from treaty on July 26, 1886 as Joseph Bernard, with seven other members of his family.

Bernard, Susan #46

Brunneau, Peggy #1

3 Philomena Archange Garneau was born at Strathcona, NWT, September 24, 1876. She lived in Winnipeg from 1898 to the time of her Scrip Application in 1901.She became Alberta’s first registered nurse of Métis ancestry. She married James Brady Sr. in Edmonton, on November 28, 1905.

Brunneau, Joe #1

Brunneau, Joseph #1

Cummings, Abraham #77

Cardinal, Pierre #78

Cardinal, Michel #78

Cardinal, Agnes #78

Cardinal, Mary #78

Chatellaine, Marianne #90 (nee Mistawasis)

Cardinal, Francis #52 Francis was discharged from treaty on July 23, 1886 as Francois Cardinal with five other members of his family including: Sophie Cardinal.

Cardinal, Isabella #52 (nee Quinn)

Cardinal, Sophia #52

Couteau, Ellen Petit #5

Douquette, St. Jerneve #77

Decoyne, Isabella #78

Deschamps, Virginie #104

Gladieu, Francois (Headman) #3 Discharged from treaty on July 2, 1886 as Francis Gladieu with three other members of his family including: Catherine Gladieu; Edward Gladieu; and Charles Gladieu.

Gladieu, Edward #3

Gladieu, John Dorion #3

Gladieu, Edward #12 Shatooch was discharged from treaty on July 26 as Edward Gladieu Quin with five other members of his family including: Sophia Gladieu Quin

Gladieu, Sophie #12 (nee Cardinal)

La Pointe, Marie #19

La Pointe, Jean Baptiste #19

Nadin, Pierre #24

Papin, Margaret #66 Maggie was discharged from treaty on July 6, 1886 as Margaret Papin.

Piche, Lambert #86 Casscasscou was discharged from treaty on July 24, 1886 as Lambert Peche, with one other member of his family.

Paul, Susette #27 (nee Dumont) Susette, was discharged from on August 2, 1886 as Susette Paul.

Papaschase 4 , Chief dit John Quinn or John Gladieu #1 was discharged from treaty on July 22, 1886 as John Gladieu Quin with fifteen of his family including: Julia Gladieu Quin, nee Batoche; Oliver Gladieu Quin; John Gladieu Quin, Jr.; Peggy Brunneau; Joseph Bruneau; Joe Brunneau

Quinn, Julia #1 (nee Batoche)

Quinn dit Gladieu, Oliver #1

Quinn dit Gladieu, John Jr. #1

Quinn dit Gladieu, William # 5 “Tahkoots” #5 (Headman) 5 was discharged from treaty on July 22, 1886 as William Gladieu Quin with eleven other members of his family including: Ellen Petite Couteau; His second wife, Emma, did not commute.

  • 4 Papastew dit Papastayo: The Chief was born in the Beaver Hills east of Edmonton. He was the son of John Quinn (Kwenis) and Lizette Gladu. His name means Big Woodpecker in Cree. At the age of 20 he married Julie Batoche. He was also married to Peggy Bruneau dit Bruncan, Marguerite ?, and Isabelle Dumont. His brothers were: “Batteau” dit Charles Gladu Quinn, Tahkohc dit William Gladu Quinn, Satooch dit Edward Gladu Quinn, George Meechim dit George Gladu Quinn and Abraham Gladu Quinn

  • 5 A brother of Papaschase.

Quinn dit Gladieu, Charles (Headman) #2 was discharged from treaty on July 30, 1886 with nine other members of his family including: Angelique Gladieu Quinn, nee Chattelain; Alexis Gladieu Quinn; Veronica Ward.

Quinn, Jean #2 (nee Thomas)

Quinn dit Gladieu, Francis #2 (Headman) was discharged from treaty as Francis Gladieu on July 2, 1886 with three other members of his family including: Catherine Gladieu; Edward Gladieu; Charles Gladieu

Quinn, Angelique #2 (nee Chatellain)

Quinn dit Gladieu, George #13 George Meechum was discharged from treaty on July 20, 1886 as George Gladieu Quin, with seven other members of his family including: Anne Gladieu Quin; Alexis Gladieu Quin.

Quinn, Annie #13 (nee Paul)

Quinn, Alexandre #13

Quinn dit Gladieu, Abraham #14 Abraham was discharged from treaty on July 30, 1886 as Abraham Gladieu Quin, with two other members of his family including: Mary Anne Gladieu Quin.

Quinn, Mary Ann #14 (nee Gladieu)

Quinn dit Gladieu, Lizette #39 Lisette was discharged from treaty on July 31, 1886 as Lisette Gladieu Quin.

Quinn dit Gladieu, Mary #57 Kis-say-wah-kis-see was discharged from treaty on July 31, 1886 as Mary Gladieu Quin.

Rabasca, Virginie

Rowland, Pierre #4 Tahpahchechekanus – Headman, was discharged from treaty on July 23, 1886 as Pierre Rowand with six other members of his family members including: Elise Rowand.

Rowland, Elise #4 (nee Collin)

Stewart, Joseph #97 Alipischees, was discharged from treaty on July 23, 1886 as Joseph Stewart with three other members of his family including: Marguarette Stewart.

Stewart, Margaret #97 (nee LeCombe)

Simon, Louis #55

Tourangeau, Alexandre #96 Seemaginish was discharged from treaty on July 24, 1886 as Alexander Tourangeau, with two other members of his family.

Ward, Veronique #2