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The United Kingdom The United States of America Ireland

Canada Australia New Zealand

NAME: ……………………………………………………………………

NUMBER: ……… GROUP: 4º …

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 1


INTRODUCTION UNIT

LANGUAGE BUILDER

GEOGRAPHY
bank island
bridge mountain
cave north
cliff river
coast south
east west
CLOTHES AND ACCESSORIES
blouse hood
boots jeans
bracelet mini-skirt
cap necklace
dress ring
earrings shoes
flip-flops trousers
high heels
FOOD AND ADJECTIVES
beef cooked
biscuit fattening
butter fried
carrot frozen
crisps oily
eggs raw
fish salty
ice cream sour
popcorn spicy
rice sweet
ADJECTIVES FOR FASHION
casual old-fashioned
fashionable practical
formal sensible
modern trendy

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 2


EXCHANGING PERSONAL INFORMATION

What year are you in at school?

How do you feel about school?

Have you got any interesting hobbies?

What’s your favourite sport?

What type of person are you?

Can you tell me something else about


yourself?

CLASSROOM LANGUAGE

What’s this word in English?

How do you pronounce …?

How much time have we got?

What page is it on?

Can you explain this, please?

Can you repeat that, please?

Can I borrow your …, please?

When is the project / this homework due?

What time is break?

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 3


INTRODUCTION UNIT Grammar Notes

PRESENT SIMPLE
Affirmative Form: Negative Form: Interrogative Form:
I/we/you/they + Infinitive verb Q. A. S. I.
▪ Inf verb -s I/we/you/they + DON’T + Inf v Question auxiliary subject Infinitive
(general rule) Word of the verb
▪ Inf verb -es *He/she/it + DOESN’T + Inf v what
*He/she/it + (when the verb which
finishes in: -s, who
-sh, -ch, -x, -o, when + DO + I/we/you/they + Inf.v.?
or in cons +y) where + DOES + *he/she/it + Inf.v.?
how
Short answers: why
Yes, I/we/you/they DO No, I/we/you/they DON’T whose
Yes, *he/she/it DOES No, *he/she/it DOESN’T

ADVERBS:
USE:
- Frequency adverbs: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, never.
- Habits, routines - Expressions of frequency: every day / week / month / year, once / twice
- Facts, permanent states / three times / four times a day / week / month / year, in the morning, at
- General truths night, at weekends, …

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Affirmative Form: Negative Form: Interrogative Form:
I am I ‘m not Am I
He/she/it is + verb -ING He/she/it isn’t + verb -ING (Q) Is he/she/it + verb -ING…?
We/you/they are We/you/they aren’t Are we/you/they

 Spelling changes: when the verb finishes in


-e: v. -e +ING
-1 vowel + 1 cons.: v. -2xcons +ING
-ie: v –y +ING
Short answers:
USE: Yes, I am.
ADVERBS: Yes, he / she / it is.
- Actions at the same
- Now, at present, right now, at the moment Yes, we / you / they are.
time of speaking
- this week / month / year…
- Temporary actions No, I’m not.
- Tomorrow, next week / year / month / summer
- Future plans No, he / she / it isn’t.
No, we / you / they aren’t

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 4


PAST SIMPLE
Affirmative Form: Interrogative Form:
Q. A. S. I.
Suj + Inf. Regular V. –ed
Question auxiliary subject Infinitive
• Spelling changes: when the verb finishes in
Word of the verb
-e: v. -e + d
-1 vowel + 1 cons.: v. -2xcons + ed
(Q) + DID + suj + Inf.v.?
- consonante+y: v. -i + ed

Negative Form: Short answers:


Yes, I/he/she/it/we/you/they DID
Suj. + DIDN’T + Inf v No, I/he/she/it/we/you/they DIDN’T

USE: ADVERBS:
Finished actions yesterday (ayer), the day before yesterday (anteayer), last night (anoche),
in the past last week (la semana pasada), last month (el mes pasado), last year (el año pasado),
last weekend (el fin de semana pasado), …… ago (hace …), in …… (+ past date),
when I was young (cuando era joven)

PAST CONTINUOUS
Affirmative Form: Negative Form: Interrogative Form:
I/he/she/it was I/he/she/it wasn’t Was I/he/she/it
+ verb -ING + verb -ING (Q) + verb -ING?
We/you/they were We/you/they weren’t Were we/you/they

Spelling changes: when the verb finishes in


-e: v. -e +ING
-1 vowel + 1 cons.: v. -2xcons +ING
-ie: v –y +ING

ADVERBS: Short answers:


USE: - at … (time) yesterday / last night Yes, I / he / she / it was.
- Unfinished actions in the past / last week / last month / last year Yes, we / you / they were.
- Long simultaneous actions in - oraciones temporales
the past (WHILE / AS) precedidas por while (mientras) No, I / he / she / it wasn’t.
No, we / you / they weren’t.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 5


WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE FUTURE

PRESENT CONTINUOUS BE GOING TO DO STH. SIMPLE FUTURE


am am
Suj. + will + Inf. v.
+ Suj. + is + verb-ING Suj. + is + going to + Inf. v.
(`ll)
are are
‘m not ‘ m not
- Suj. + isn’t + verb-ING Suj. + isn’t + going to + Inf. v. Suj. + won’t + Inf. v.
FORMA aren’t aren’t
Am Am
? Is + suj. + verb-ING …? Is + suj. + going to + Inf. v. … ? Will + suj. + Inf. v. …?
Are Are
√ Yes, suj. + am / is / are Yes, suj. + am / is / are Yes, suj. + will
X No, suj. + ‘m not / isn’t / aren’t No, suj. + ‘m not / isn’t / aren’t No, suj. + won’t
Predicciones futuras
Intenciones, planes o (weather forecasts,
Planes personales ya decisiones: ya has decidido horoscopes, …), con
organizados (ej. quedar hacer algo pero puede que expresiones como
USO con amigos, ir al médico o aún no lo hayas organizado I think / believe /
a la peluquería) – Predicciones inmediatas expect / wonder, I’m
anotados en las agendas cuando es muy evidente que sure, perhaps y
algo va a suceder probably, y decisiones
repentinas
What are you doing at the I’m going to buy a new pair of shoes Tomorrow it will be sunny in
weekend? tomorrow. Alicante.
I’m not going out tonight. Are you going to invite John to the I think Diana will pass the
ejemplos party? exam.
Look at the clouds! It’s going to rain. We’ll probably go out this
evening.

ADVERBIOS DE TIEMPO: (pueden ir al principio o al final de la frase)


TOMORROW (mañana), NEXT MONTH (el mes próximo), NEXT WEEK (la semana que viene), NEXT
YEAR (el año que viene), IN ... (+ a future date), LATER (más tarde), SOON(pronto), IN AN HOUR (dentro
de una hora), IN THE FUTURE

DETERMINERS AND QUANTIFIERS

DETERMINERS
a / an + n. en singular (+,-,?) uno, una some + n. incontable (+) algo de
some + n. en plural (+) algunos, -as any + n. incontable (-, ?) “
any + n. en plural (-, ?) “
QUANTIFIERS
How many + n. plural (?) cuántos, -as How much + n. incontable (?) cuánto, -a

a few pocos, as a little poco, a


a lot of / many muchos, as + n. plural (+) a lot of mucho, a + n. incontable (+)
too many demasiados, -as too much demasiado, -a

many + n. plural (-, ?) much + n. incontable (-, ?) mucho, a

enough + n. plural suficientes enough + n. incontable suficiente

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 6


THE COMPARISON IN ENGLISH

= COMPARATIVE
ADJECTIVES
(+ THAN)
SUPERLATIVE
ADJECTIVES
(+ IN / OF)
(COMPARATIVO DE
más … que el/la/los/las más … de …
SUPERIORIDAD)
SHORT ADJECTIVES
 General rule tall Adj. + -er taller The adj. + -est the tallest
 Exceptions:
• 1-syllable adjectives ending in
-e nice Adj. + -r nicer The adj. + -st the nicest
- a vowel and a consonant big Adj. + 2xcons + -er bigger The adj. + 2xcons + -est the biggest
• 1 or 2-syllable adjectives ending in
consonant + -y dry Adj. (-y) + -ier drier The adj. (-y) + -iest the driest
happy happier the happiest
LONG ADJECTIVES
• 2 or more syllable adjectives expensive more + adj. more expensive The most + adj. the most expensive

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES
Good Better The best
Bad Worse The worst
Far Farther / further The farthest / furthest

= (COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDAD)

(NOT) AS + adjective + AS (tan … como)


John is as tall as Tim.
Tim isn’t as tall as John

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 7


Vocabulary

1 Complete the chart with the words below:


baseball bat • theatre • playground • surgeon • hockey stick • engineer
tennis racket • office • shop assistant • power station • hairdresser • wrist guard

Sports
Places Jobs
Equipment

2 Complete the words below:

1 2 3 4

b………………s n………………e s……………r b…………e

5 6 7 8

s……………………s m…………e f………… d………… h…………t

3 Choose the correct answer:


a) Our class is going to plant / prepare / develop some trees in the forest next week.
b) My brother damaged / destroyed / discovered my phone, but it still works.
c) Calvin Klein and Giorgio Armani develop / plan / design clothes.
d) Cacao and sugar are used to produce / display / construct chocolate.
e) Please interrupt / turn off / repeat that. I didn’t hear you.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 8


4 Match the products in A to the materials they are made from in B:
A B
a) ice cream ....... cloth
b) textbook ....... glass or plastic
c) can ....... paper
d) blouse ....... milk
e) bottle ....... metal

5 Circle seven adjectives in the puzzle and write them next to their synonyms:

e x h a u s t e d e r j o 1. angry ……………………
c f f j e h c r s a g l u 2. sensible ……………………
s s u h s l a t f d w i t 3. old-fashioned ……………………
t j r l a u s t u n n e d
4. thrilled ……………………
a d i j q e w u h t f o a
5. surprised ……………………
t f o p r a c t i c a l t
6. embarrassed ……………………
i s u n n q d o k a c l e
7. tired ……………………
c c s f c m a s h a m e d

Grammar

6 Choose the correct answer:


a) Anita often visits / is visiting / visit her cousins in England.
b) Sandra doesn’t prepare / isn’t preparing /prepares lunch now.
c) You are eating / Do you eat / Are you eating at the moment?
d) Stan isn’t thinking / doesn’t think / don’t think Avatar is a great film.
e) Is Ben walking / Does Ben walk / Ben walks to school every day?

7 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple:

Christopher Columbus 1…………………… (sail) across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492.


Travelling across the ocean was expensive, but Queen Isabella of Spain
2……………………
(pay) for the trip. She 3…………………… (want) him to find a new
way to get to India and other countries in the east.
4……………………
Columbus …………………… (find) India? No, he didn’t. The trip
was long and difficult, but Columbus 5…………………… (not stop). After many weeks,
he finally 6…………………… (arrive) at an island near the coast of North America. Then,
he 7…………………… (continue) to Cuba, but he 8…………………… (not know) it was
Cuba. He 9…………………… (think) it was Japan.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 9


8 Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use will or be going to:
a) I need some sugar. …………………… you …………………… (go) to the shop and
buy
some for me?
b) …………………… your parents …………………… (try) to sell your house next year?
c) I don’t think Tom …………………… (arrive) tomorrow afternoon.
d) In the future, cars …………………… (not use) petrol.
e) Sandra …………………… (not study) at university next year. She wants to travel.

9 Choose the correct answer:


a) My friends will complete / completed / completes their projects a week ago.
b) Are you going to call / You are calling / Do you call Mark tonight?
c) It didn’t rain / isn’t raining / won’t rain tomorrow.
d) Barbara is going abroad / goes abroad / go abroad every year.
e) The doctor won’t examine / isn’t examining / didn’t examine any patients right
now.

10 Complete the sentences with the comparative or superlative form of the words in
brackets:
a) Ellie’s dress is ……………………………………… (short) Jade’s dress.
b) That is ……………………………………… (expensive) necklace in the shop.
c) Rachel is ……………………………………… (tall) her sister.
d) Is Tom ……………………………………… (good) athlete in the class?
e) My old shoes are ……………………………………… (comfortable) my new shoes.

11 Complete the sentences with the words below:


the • any • an • many • a
a) There are …………………… good books in the library.
b) I had …………………… cheese sandwich for lunch.
c) She likes …………………… long blue coat.
d) I haven’t got …………………… pencils in my schoolbag.
e) He’s got …………………… apple and a banana.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 10


Reading

12 Read the text. Then tick ( ) the sentences T (true) or F (false) according to the
text:

If you open your cupboard, you’ll probably find at least ten T-shirts! But who
invented the T-shirt? We don’t really know. In 1913, this simple white shirt with short
sleeves was part of the American soldiers’ uniform. During World War II, 12 million
American soldiers wore these shirts under their uniforms. When they returned home
from the war, men continued wearing their T-shirts around the house because they
were very comfortable. But people thought the T-shirt was too casual to wear
outside the house.
Then, in the 1950s, some young film and rock stars like Marlon Brando and Elvis
Presley started wearing T-shirts in public places. Most adults were horrified, but their
young fans were thrilled. They loved the idea of wearing T-shirts outside the home,
especially because it upset their parents!
By the 1960s and 1970s, more people were wearing them, but the T-shirt was
changing. They weren’t white any more – they were colourful. Later, T-shirts had
messages on them. Sometimes, the messages expressed a serious opinion and
sometimes, they were funny. T-shirts were developing a personality!
Today, people of all ages wear T-shirts. You can buy cheap ones in the markets or
you can find expensive T-shirts created by fashion designers. They can be elegant
or casual. People wear them with jeans or suits, long skirts or miniskirts. Fashions
change, but T-shirts are here to stay.

T F
a) The original T-shirts were colourful. …… ……
b) Men liked wearing T-shirts at home. …… ……
c) Elvis Presley and Marlon Brando had an influence on fashion. …… ……
d) In the 1950s, many parents began wearing T-shirts in public places. …… ……
e) Today, some T-shirts are cheap and others are expensive. …… ……

13 Answer the questions:


a) Why didn’t people wear T-shirts in public places before the 1950s?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Why did teenagers like wearing T-shirts outside the house?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) What are two ways T-shirts changed in the ’60s and ’70s?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
d) Who wears T-shirts today?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 11


Writing

WORD ORDER
SUBJECT+(ADVERB OF FREQUENCY)+VERB+COMPLEMENTS (MANNER+PLACE+TIME)

14 Write the words in the correct order to make sentences. Remember to add
capital letters:

a) beautiful / week / a / coat / Susan / last / red / bought /.


…………………………………………………………………………………………….
b) because / has / book / David / lost / his / is / he / upset /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
c) abroad / parents / just / have / Ellen’s / gone.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
d) you / my / where / put / did / phone /?
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
e) the / TV / in / this / is / best / shop / the /?
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
f) buys / first-class / always / he / tickets /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
g) lost / we / last year / luggage / our /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
h) platform / walked / we / quickly / the / to / .
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
i) travelled / you / recently / where / have / ?
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
j) the / midnight / they / at / arrived / hotel / at /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 12


UNIT 1
LANGUAGE BUILDER

TRAVEL
accommodation high-speed train
airline journey
airport luggage
convenient mobile home
countryside passengers
fare station
flight trip
TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS
catch a train return ticket
coach route
first class single ticket
miss a train standard class
platform timetable
MAKING TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS

Do you want single or return tickets?

What time does it leave / arrive?

How long does it take to get there?

How often does the train leave?

Would you like first or standard class?

What time would you like to leave / get


there?

How many tickets do you want?

Which platform does it leave from?

Is it a direct route?

ON THE UNDERGROUND
How do I get to …?
Take the … Line to …
Then change to the … Line
How many stops is it from …?
Only …stops. You can’t go wrong.
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 13
DIALOGUE: AT A TRAVEL AGENCY

A: Me gustaría comprar billetes de avión a A: …………………………………………………


París. …………………………………………………
B: ¿Qué día le gustaría irse? B: …………………………………………………
A: Me gustaría irme el lunes, 1 de agosto, A: …………………………………………………
y volver el lunes, 8 de agosto. …………………………………………………
B: ¿Querría un billete de primera clase o B: …………………………………………………
de clase turista? …………………………………………………
A: Querría un billete de primera clase A: …………………………………………………
¿Cuánto es? …………………………………………………
B: El billete vale 500€. B: …………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 14


UNIT 1 Grammar Notes

PRESENT PERFECT
USO:
- Acciones pasadas sin especificar el momento exacto en que se produjeron (no lo
conocemos o no nos interesa ).
She’s seen that film.
- Acciones pasadas que afectan al presente o tienen consecuencias en el momento
actual.
I’ve been here for 10 minutes.
- Acciones que empezaron en el pasado y aún continúan.
I’ve known my best friend for all my life.
- Para dar información nueva o para contar un suceso reciente.
Ow! I’ve cut my finger.
The road is closed. There’s just been an accident.
FORMA:
Past Participle of the main verb:
I / we / you / they + HAVE
+ + - Inf. of Regular verb –ed
He / she / it + HAS
- 3rd column in the list of Irregular verbs
Past Participle of the main verb:
I / we / you / they + HAVEN’T
- + - Inf. of Regular verb –ed
He / she / it + HASN’T
- 3rd column in the list of Irregular verbs
Past Participle of the main verb:
HAVE + I / we / you / they
? - Inf. of Regular verb –ed
HAS + He / she / it
+ - 3rd column in the list of Irregular verbs
Short √ Yes, I / we / you / they + HAVE No, I / we / you / they + HAVEN’T
X
answer Yes, he / she / it + HAS No, he / she / it + HASN’T

ADVERBS: hay diferentes posiciones en la frase


 Delante del past participle:
Ever (alguna vez) (?) Have you ever been to France?
(en la vida) (+) This is the most boring film I’ve ever seen.
(nunca, jamás) (-) I haven’t ever worked so much.
Never (nunca) I’ve never been to France.
Just (acabar de hacer algo) She’s just had breakfast.
Already (ya) (+) We have already studied.
 Al final de la frase:
Yet (ya) (?) Has he done his homework yet?
(todavía) (-) I haven’t done my homework yet.
For + periods of time (durante, desde hace) I’ve had my car for 5 years.
Since + point in time (desde) We’ve been married since 2008.
Today / This week / month / year / season / term (cuando estos periodos no han
acabado en ese momento) He hasn’t worked very hard this term.
Recently (recientemente) Have you heard from George recently?
Lately (últimamente) I haven’t seen him lately.
So far (hasta ahora/el momento) We haven’t had any problems so far.
Several times (varias veces) They have worked for us several times.
 Al principio de una pregunta:
How long (cuánto tiempo hace) (?) How long have you lived here?

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 15


PRESENT PERFECT ≠ SIMPLE PAST
It is a present tense: it always tells us It tells us only about the past: we are only
something about now. We are interested interested in the action in the past
in the present result of the action. Tom lost his key
Tom has lost his key. (=we don’t know if he has it now or not)
(=he doesn’t have his key now)
Things that happened in the past, but the Things that happened a long time ago, in a
time still continues to the present finished time in the past:
My sister is a writer. She has written many Shakespeare wrote many plays.
books (= she stills writes books) (=he is dead, so he can’t write now)

To give new information If we go on talking about this new


Ow! I’ve burnt myself information
How did you do that?
I picked up a hot dish.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 16


Vocabulary

1 Find ten travel words in the word search:


a v s t i n r x a j f s c g l
i c o n v e n i e n t f o d h
r s c e d f n c q i v x u o p
l e s o x f h r w a f s n f h
i c h o m s c i d j a o t l l
n f u u d m t j v o r d r d u
e d r d s d o s g k e g y f g
s g s x n a f d s i p j s g g
d j o a c l s r a b n l i j a
s t a t i o n y o t f k d n g
s k c o n p s d d f i g e m e
a o n j s u w a y g o o l k r
p a s s e n g e r s y u n l f
j f l i g h t d f g h o j d g
m k w e s d f n c e e r t x j
m k a s s d f g h s f f h e k
s f s d f m o b i l e h o m e

2 Complete the sentences using the words in Exercise 1:


a) British Airways and US Air are names of …………………… .
b) I flew to the USA. The …………………… was ten hours.
c) It’s very …………………… to live opposite a supermarket. It’s easy to do the
shopping.
d) I didn’t pay a lot of money for my bus ticket. The …………………… was cheap.
e) The train left the …………………… at 10.00.
f) My …………………… was very heavy. I asked someone to help me carry it.
g) There were many …………………… on the train with me.
h) I live on a farm in the …………………… .
i) We need …………………… for two nights.
j) They travelled in their …………………… all summer.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 17


Grammar

3 Complete the sentences with the words below:


just • since • for • never • yet • ever
a) I have hated fish …………………… I was a child.
b) I have known Tom …………………… five years.
c) I haven’t heard from him …………………… .
d) I have …………………… finished school. I did my last exam a week ago.
e) Tim is single. He has …………………… been married.
f) This is the best film I have …………………… seen.

4 Complete the answers to the questions. Use the words in brackets and the
Present Perfect Simple:
a) Do I have to clean the kitchen?
No, you don’t. I .......................................................................................................... . (already)
b) Did they do their homework?
No, they didn’t. They ........................................................................................................ . (yet)
c) Was Sally in Paris last summer?
No, she wasn’t. She ..................................................................................................... . (never)
d) Would you like to eat something?
No thanks, I ..................................................................................................................... . (just)

5 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple or
Present Perfect Simple:
a) Bill …………………… just …………………… (suggest) a great idea for our history
project.
b) My friends …………………… never …………………… (have) Mexican food. They
want to try it.
c) Lucy …………………… (read) this book a long time ago.
d) We …………………… (not see) any good films recently.
e) Yesterday I …………………… (visit) my grandmother. She …………………… (be)
very happy to see me. We …………………… (not see) each other for such a long
time.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 18


Vocabulary

6 The words in bold are in the wrong sentences. Write them next to the correct
sentences:
a) A return ticket is more expensive than a standard-class ticket. ……………………
b) I’m very late. I hope I don’t catch a train. ……………………
c) I want to see what time the train is leaving. I will check the route. ……………………
d) The train is leaving from timetable three. ……………………
e) I’m sorry I can’t talk now. I’m running to miss the train. ……………………
f) I’d like to buy a platform to London. I’m only travelling in one direction.
……………………
g) I’ll check my map and decide which is the best single ticket to take.
……………………
h) A first-class ticket allows you to travel in both directions. ……………………

Grammar
7 Write questions with the words below. Use the Present Perfect Simple:
a) you / ever / be / to America
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) your friends / ever / make / you / a surprise party
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) you / have / dinner / yet
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
d) your best friend / ever / forget / your birthday
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
e) you / ever / miss / a train
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

8 Answer the questions in Exercise 7. Make them true for you:


a) . ..............................................
b) . ..............................................
c) . ..............................................
d) . ..............................................
e) . ..............................................

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 19


9 Look at pictures of Sally from her childhood. Complete the sentences with the
words in brackets and the correct form of used to:

a) Sally .............................................................................................. . (live / in the countryside)


b) Sally and her friends ................................................................................. . (walk / to school)
c) Sally’s parents .......................................................................................... . (have / a big car)
d) Sally ............................................................................................................. . (play / a guitar)

10 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Perfect Simple or
Past Simple:

I 1…………………… (want) to be a pilot all my life. When I 2…………………… (be) a


child, I 3…………………… (live) near an airport and I used to watch the planes as they
4……………………
(fly) over my house. My mother 5…………………… (not like) the
loud noise but I 6…………………… (love) hearing and seeing the planes. Today I’m a
pilot. I 7…………………… (work) for many airlines since 1990 and I 8……………………
(travel) around the world. However, I 9…………………… (never fly) over my own
house!

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 20


Reading

11 Read the text. Then answer the questions:

THE LONELY PLANET TRAVELLER


In 1972, Maureen and Tony Wheeler travelled across Asia. It wasn’t easy. They didn’t
have a lot of money, they drove an old car, but they had a sense of adventure. When
they returned, they wrote a book about their travel experiences. The book was
completed in 1973 and it was a huge success. The Wheelers realised that many
other people with only a small amount of money wanted to travel around the world,
and they needed guidebooks to make it easier for them to do it. This is how the
Lonely Planet guidebook series began.
Since those early days, Lonely Planet guidebooks have become the most popular
travel guides in the world. Today, there are over 500 different Lonely Planet travel
guides in eight different languages. Maureen and Tony have got hundreds of travel
writers.
Lonely Planet guidebooks used to be for young travellers without money, but things
have changed in the last 30 years. Today, the Lonely Planet company has got
photography books, food guides, a monthly magazine and a popular website for
travellers.
Some people are critical of the guidebooks. They feel that Lonely Planet guides are
destroying many beautiful places in the world. They say that if a place is written about
in a Lonely Planet guidebook, many travellers will probably go there. As a result, quiet
and beautiful places do not stay quiet and beautiful.
Although the Lonely Planet guidebooks have caused certain places to change, the
company is also trying to make a positive difference to the world. It donates 5% of its
profits to organisations in poor countries. No one can be critical of that!

a) How did the Wheelers’ first guidebook help travellers?


……………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Why do hundreds of travel writers work for the Wheelers?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) Why do some people criticise the Lonely Planet books?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
d) How does the Lonely Planet company help the world?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

12 Write questions with the words below. Use the Present Perfect Simple. Then
answer the questions according to the information in the text:
a) how long / the Lonely Planet company / exist
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) how / the Lonely Planet company / change / over the years
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) how / Lonely Planet guidebooks / affect / places around the world
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 21
Writing

13 Imagine you are a Lonely Planet travel guide writer. Write an entry for the
website describing how to travel in your area without a lot of money. Think of where
to go to eat and sleep:
COMPOSITION 1
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

14 Write the words in the correct order to make sentences, after writing the verbs in
the correct verbal tense:

a) see / anyone / yesterday evening / Mr Thomas / ?


…………………………………………………………………………………………….
b) in London / 2001 / the children / live / since /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
c) every year / visit / Anna / where / the city / grow up / her parents /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
d) at 11 o’clock / the baby / last night / sleep / ?
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
e) start / the party / Beth / by the time / arrive / ?
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
f) this / read / last week / which / I / be / the book /.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 22


15 Correct the following sentences:
a) My friends studied yesterday quietly in the library.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
b) Studied all afternoon and his sister too.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
c) My neighbours help me always whenever I need it.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
d) He always is angry with everybody.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

16 Translate the composition into English:


Useful vocabulary:

HAVE A JOURNEY: hacer un viaje

TO TRAVEL ON A TRAIN: viajar en tren

Nunca he hecho un viaje como el que hice en la India. Estaba viajando en el tren hacia la
ciudad de Mumbai. Junto a mí estaba un grupo de mujeres en saris, un tipo de vestido
hindú. Eran de preciosos colores brillantes. Durante el viaje, un niño pequeño empezó a
hablar conmigo. Me habló de sus dos comidas favoritas: kebabs de ternera y el helado de
chocolate de McDonalds. ¡Qué divertido! Lo sentí cuando llegamos a la estación.

He estado en trenes antes. Mi hermano y yo solíamos viajar en tren todos los días. Pero
en Londres todos se sientan y no hablan. Viajar en tren en la India es mucho más
divertido.
COMPOSITION 2
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 23


17 Read the chart about Ruth’s diary entry:
DATE: Last summer (the beginning of August)
PLACE: Paris
PEOPLE YOU WERE WITH: My parents
WHAT YOU DID: Visit museums, go to a theme park,
go sightseeing, take photographs
WHAT HAPPENED: At the station, a boy dressed like a clown,
throwing balls in the air, a girl sitting down next to
dad. When on the train, camera gone
THINGS YOU WANTED TO DO BUT COULDN’T see a musical, go shopping
YOUR FEELINGS: Happy, excited, but upset and disappointed

18 Now use the information in the chart to write a blog entry about the trip.
Organise your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:

PARAGRAPH 1 (Give the date and place, and some general information).
 Useful language:
It was (date) and I/we were in …
I wanted …
PARAGRAPH 2 (Give details about events and feelings)
 Useful language:
I got …
There was / were…
PARAGRAPH 3 (Sum up the event).
 Useful language:
It was a … day
COMPOSITION 3
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 24
19 Think about a trip (real or imaginary). Then complete the chart below:

DATE: …………………………………………………………

PLACE: …………………………………………………………

PEOPLE YOU WERE WITH: …………………………………………………………

WHAT YOU DID: …………………………………………………………

THINGS YOU WANTED TO DO BUT COULDN’T ……………………………………………

YOUR FEELINGS: …………………………………………………………

20 Now use the information in your chart to write a blog entry about the trip.
Organise your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Give the date and place, and some general information).
 Useful words: visit museums, go for a boat ride, go for a walk, go to a
concert, see exhibitions, go camping, go hiking (dar una caminata), go
sightseeing (visitar lugares de interés), plan (organizar), sunbathe
(tomar el sol), take photographs, go to a theme park …
 Useful language:
It was (date) and I/we were in …
Today was … I wanted …
PARAGRAPH 2 (Give details about events and feelings)
 Useful words: Adjectives to describe feelings: to be afraid of/ sad about/ happy
about/ scared of/ delighted about/ excited about/ upset about / relieved /
disappointed…)
 Useful language:
I got … There was / were…
PARAGRAPH 3 (Sum up the event).
 Useful language:
It’s been a … day
COMPOSITION 4
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 25


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 26


UNIT 2
LANGUAGE BUILDER

NATURAL DISASTERS
ash predict
collapsed rocks
dangerous safe
earthquake strike
eruption survivor
flood trapped
injured volcano
landslide warned
mud
EMERGENCIES
aid missing
break out put out
burn search
drown shelter
flames smoke
hit tragedy
homeless
DESCRIBING A SCENE

What can you see?

What has happened?

What’s happening now?

How do you think the people feel?


What’s going to happen next, in your
opinion?
It looks like …

They are probably …

The … will probably …

I can see …

EMERGENCY PHONE CALLS


Which service do you need?
What’s the emergency?
An emergency vehicle is on its way.
Please stay on the line.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 27


DIALOGUE: ABOUT A PHOTO IN A NEWSPAPER

A: ¿Qué puedes ver en la foto, Mike? A: …………………………………………………


B: Puedo ver a algunas personas huyendo B: …………………………………………………
de un volcán. …………………………………………………
A: ¿Qué ha ocurrido? A: …………………………………………………
B: Parece que el volcán ha empezado a B: …………………………………………………
entrar en erupción. …………………………………………………
A: ¿Cómo crees que se siente la gente de A: …………………………………………………
la foto? …………………………………………………
B: Probablemente estén aterrorizados. B: …………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 28


UNIT 2 Grammar Notes

RELATIVE CLAUSES
 DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES (Oraciones adjetivas especificativas)
They give necessary information.
Ex: The soldiers who were in the front died. (only the soldiers being in the
front, the rest of them didn’t die)
DEFINING RELATIVES:
ANTECEDENT RELATIVE
People WHO / THAT WHO / THAT / ----
(= he/she/they)(= him/her/them)
subject (1) complement (3)
WHOSE
“que” “que”
(=his/her/its/them)
Things WHICH / THAT / --
WHICH / THAT possession (5)
--
(= it/they) “cuyo”
(= it/them)
subject (2)
complement (4)
“que”
“que”
Places WHERE (= there) (6)
Time WHEN / THAT / ---- (7)
Examples:
1. The woman is a doctor. The woman lives next door.
Subj. (= she)
The woman who / that lives next door is a doctor.
2. Where is the cheese? The cheese was in the fridge.
Subj. (= it)
Where is the cheese which / that was in the fridge?
3. Do you know the woman? Tom is talking to the woman.
Object (= her)
Do you know the woman who / that / ---- Tom is talking to? *
4. Have you found the keys? You lost the keys.
Object (= them)
Have you found the keys which / that / ---- you lost?
5. I met a man. The man’s sister knows you.
Possession (= his)
I met a man whose sister knows you.
6. The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed in that hotel.
Place (= there)
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.
7. It was last year. Frank went up north that year..
It was last year when / that / ---- Frank went up north.
* When there is a preposition after the verb: prep + WHOM / WHICH
WHO / WHICH / THAT / ---- + …… + prep
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 29
 NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES (Oraciones adjetivas explicativas)
They give extra information and are between commas.
The soldiers, who were in the front, died. (all the soldiers died)
NON-DEFINING RELATIVES:
We can use WHO, WHICH, WHOSE, WHERE and WHEN, but we can’t use
the relative pronoun THAT. The relative pronoun is never omitted.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
SOME-compounds: ANY-compounds:
In affirmative sentences In negative sentences / questions
Someone / somebody: alguien Anyone / anybody: nadie / alguien
Something: algo Anything: nada / algo
Somewhere: a/en algún sitio Anywhere: en ningún / algún sitio

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 30


Vocabulary

1 Complete the sentences with the words below:


survivors • mud • flood • dangerous • predict • volcano •
earthquake • safe • rocks • warned • trapped • collapsed

a) The building moved during the …………………… .


b) Luckily, there were many …………………… of the accident.
c) Can you …………………… what the weather will be next week?
d) It’s not …………………… to swim in the sea at night.
e) Don’t walk barefoot here because there are many …………………… .
f) It rained a lot so there is …………………… on the ground.
g) He …………………… them but they didn’t listen to him.
h) They rescued people in boats during the …………………… .
i) It’s …………………… to go skateboarding without a helmet.
j) He was …………………… under the house for two days.
k) We hope there are no people in the …………………… building.
l) People used to climb this …………………… before it erupted.

Grammar

2 Choose the correct relative pronouns:


a) That’s the boy which / who / where rescued my cat.
b) The village which / that / where my parents were born is a large town today.
c) I’ll never forget the moment which / when / where my house started to shake.
d) I watched a documentary on TV which / when / who was about natural disasters.

3 Match A to B and add a relative pronoun to form sentences. Write the sentences
below:
A B
a) 2005 was the year … there was an earthquake last year.
b) Did you hear about the volcano … were trapped on the train.
c) We spoke to the passengers … Hurricane Katrina destroyed parts of the USA.
d) This is the village … erupted in Iceland?
a) . .................................................................................................................................................
b) . .................................................................................................................................................
c) . .................................................................................................................................................
d) . .................................................................................................................................................

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 31


4 Join the sentences with the relative pronouns in brackets. Make any necessary
changes:
a) Earthquakes are natural disasters. They are usually devastating. (that)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Haiti is a poor country. More than 250,000 people died in the 2010 earthquake. (where)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) There was a fire last night. It caused a lot of damage. (which)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
d) Dr Morton is a scientist. He studies volcanoes. (who)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
e) I was in Thailand in 2006. There was a tsunami then. (when)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 32


Vocabulary

5 Match the beginnings in A to a logical continuation in B. Pay attention to the


words in bold:
A B
a) The boy has been missing for three days and … to the earthquake victims.
b) There are many homeless people … get out of the rain.
c) We need to find shelter and … in the swimming pool.
d) Many countries are sending aid … I couldn’t breathe.
e) It took over two hours to put out … his parents are very worried.
f) The little girl almost drowned … I couldn’t find my keys.
g) There was a lot of smoke in the room so … after a natural disaster
happens.
h) I searched for hours but … the fire.

Grammar
6 Complete the text with who, which, when or where:

Pompeii was a big and busy city in the year 79 AD. That was also the year
1…………………… a volcano erupted and destroyed it. Pompeii was completely
covered in ash and was only discovered in the 1700s by archeologists
2……………………
wanted to find out more about the volcano. Before it was
destroyed, Pompeii was a port city 3…………………… was located on the Bay of
Naples. The ships brought items from all over the world, so it was a place
4……………………
people could buy almost anything they wanted. For this reason,
archeologists have found many interesting objects at Pompeii.

7 Join the sentences using relative pronouns. Make any necessary changes:
a) John Owens is a firefighter. He has saved many people.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) He was watching television that evening. He felt the earth move then.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) Rescue workers are still searching for survivors. They are trapped under the rocks.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
d) I ran to find shelter. I would be warm there.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
e) This was a tragedy. It must not happen again.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 33


8 Choose the correct answer:
a) I can’t find my keys somewhere / anywhere.
b) I need anyone / someone to help me.
c) Can he stay with you tonight? He needs somewhere / something to sleep.
d) I don’t know anyone / someone who lives here.
e) I must tell you something / someone.
f) Is there anything / anyone I can do to help?

9 Complete the answers to the questions. Use some or any compounds:


a) What did she say?
She didn’t say …………………… , not one word.
b) Where is he?
I think he’s …………………… over there.
c) What are you doing tomorrow?
I’m not doing …………………… special.
d) Who’s in the house?
There isn’t …………………… in the house.
e) Are you hungry?
No, I’m not. I just ate …………………… .

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 34


Reading

10 Read the text. Then complete the sentences below with the correct relative
pronouns. There may be more than one correct answer. Then tick ( ) the
sentences T (true) or F (false):

THE MOUNT ST HELENS DISASTER


Mount St Helens is a volcano in the northwest of the USA. Until 1980, the countryside
around the mountain had magnificent forests and lakes, which were home to many
animals and fish. Thousands of visitors came to Mount St Helens to enjoy its natural
beauty. All that changed on 18th May, 1980. When the side of the mountain
collapsed, Mount St Helens erupted with the energy of a nuclear explosion.
The eruption did not come as a surprise to the experts. In 1980, there were many
events which indicated something terrible was going to happen. On 15th March, there
was an earthquake under the mountain. A week later, an eruption occurred, and a
gigantic crater opened on the top of the mountain. From then until May, there were
more earthquakes and more eruptions. The situation was so dangerous that the
authorities warned people to stay away from the region near the volcano.
Fifty-seven people died on 18th May and hundreds of people became homeless.
Tragically, many of them were in areas that were considered safe!
Forests burned to the ground within minutes, and more than 7,000 bears, deer and
other animals were killed. Millions of fish also died, but many frogs survived! The
beautiful mountain region now resembled the moon – it was all grey stone.
More than 30 years have passed since that terrible day, and nature is slowly returning
to Mount St Helens. Visitors can see some trees and other plants and deer. And what
will happen in the future? By the year 2200, the region will again have beautiful
forests filled with all kinds of animals, unless there is another terrible eruption.

T F
a) 1980 was the year …………………… there was a nuclear explosion
on Mount St Helens. …… ……
b) There were hundreds of people …………………… were left without
a home. …… ……
c) All the people …………………… died were in dangerous areas. …… ……
d) Today, Mount St Helens is a place …………………… there aren’t any
animals. …… ……

11 Describe an event that happened for each date below:

15th March 1980


March-May 1980
18th May 1980

12 Complete the sentences:


a) The region of Mount St Helens used to have ........................................................................... .
b) From March to early May, people couldn’t ................................................................................ .
c) Almost all the animals and fish in the region were killed, but ................................................... .

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 35


Writing

13 It’s the year 2200. Write a travel advert about Mount St Helens. Describe its past
and what you can see and do there today:
COMPOSITION 1
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

CONNECTORS OF SEQUENCE
- AT FIRST: al principio
- FIRST OF ALL: en primer lugar
- BEFORE (THAT): antes
- AFTER (THAT): después
- BY THE TIME: para cuando
- THEN / NEXT : entonces, después, a continuación
- AS SOON AS: tan pronto como
- EVENTUALLY: finalmente (después de muchas dificultades)
- FINALLY: finalmente
- AT LAST: finalmente, por fin
- IN THE END: al final

14 Choose the correct connectors of sequence to complete the narrative:

AT FIRST/ BEFORE, I smelled smoke. THEN/AFTER, when I looked out of the


window, I saw many firefighters. It seemed like hours but EVENTUALLY/BY THE TIME,
someone came to rescue me. AS SOON AS/ FIRST OF ALL I got out of the building, I
started to cry. It was a terrible experience but FINALLY/ NEXT, I was safe.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 36


15 Complete the narrative with suitable connectors of sequence below. There are
more connectors than you need. There are TWO EXTRA connectors:

AT FIRST BEFORE THEN EVENTUALLY AFTER


AS SOON AS FINALLY BY THE TIME

a) …………………………… we were bored but then we started to enjoy the film.


b) …………………………… we arrived, everyone had left.
c) …………………………… I got home, I called my friend.
d) …………………………… the police arrived, the thieves had already gone.
e) I got up, had breakfast and …………………………… I left home.
f) …………………………… he came, I tidied my room.

16 Join the sentences with the connectors given:

a) We were listening to the strong wind. It stopped. (EVENTUALLY)


……………………………………………………………………………………………
b) The helicopter came. We were hungry and scared. (FINALLY)
……………………………………………………………………………………………
c) I arrived home and I watched TV immediately. (AS SOON AS)
……………………………………………………………………………………………
d) The student came in. He handed in his homework .(THEN)
……………………………………………………………………………………………
e) The police arrested the thief and he was taken to prison. (NEXT)
……………………………………………………………………………………………

17 Imagine that a natural disaster has hit your town. Now complete the chart with
your ideas:

DATE: …………………………………………………………

PLACE: …………………………………………………………

PEOPLE AFFECTED: …………………………………………………………

EVENT: …………………………………………………………

WHAT HAPPENED: …………………………………………………………

PEOPLE’S FEELINGS: …………………………………………………………

END OF THE STORY: ………………………………………………………….

CONSEQUENCES OF THE STORY: …………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………..

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 37


18 Now use the information in your chart to write a narrative about the event.
Organise your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:

PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the people, the place, the event and the time).
On … I was/we were … ing in … when …
PARAGRAPH 2 (Write what happened in the story. Describe the characters’ feelings)
At first, then, suddenly, out of the blue /the next moment/as soon as
I was happy/sad that )
PARAGRAPH 3 (Write how the story ends)
Finally…
Useful words: to cause damage –causar daños-, to erupt –entrar en erupción-, to shake –
sacudir-, to rise –subir, ex river-, to hit –golpear, sacudir ex a storm hit the city ….
to blow away –volar-, to fall down –caerse-, to tear off-arrancar-, to pour down –llover con
fuerza, to experience a natural disaster, frightened, to be afraid of …

COMPOSITION 2
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 38


19 Imagine that a thief comes into your house while you are at home. Now complete
the chart with your ideas:

DATE: …………………………………………………………

PLACE: …………………………………………………………

PEOPLE AFFECTED: …………………………………………………………

EVENT: …………………………………………………………

WHAT HAPPENED: …………………………………………………………

PEOPLE’S FEELINGS: …………………………………………………………

END OF THE STORY: ………………………………………………………….

20 Now use the information in your chart to write a narrative about the event. Say
who was with you, what happened, how you felt and how the event ended. Organise
your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:

PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the people, the place, the event and the time).
On … I was/we were … ing in … when …
PARAGRAPH 2 (Write what happened in the story. Describe the characters’ feelings)
At first, then, suddenly, out of the blue /the next moment/as soon as
I was happy/sad that )
PARAGRAPH 3 (Write how the story ends)
Finally…
Useful words: break into (irrumpir, entrar por la fuerza), shoot at (apuntar), pull out (sacar
ex un arma), shoot somebody (disparar a alguien),to force somebody to do something
(forzar a alguien a hacer algo),hit somebody (golpear a alguien), run off (huir)…

COMPOSITION 3
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 39
UNIT 3
LANGUAGE BUILDER

CRIME
arrest punish
break the law rob
burglar shoot
gang steal
hijack surrender
investigate suspect
mug thief
murder witness
TELEVISION
advert documentary
cartoon reality TV
chat show sitcom
crime drama soap opera
current affairs programme
DOING A SURVEY

I don’t think that … are very interesting.

To me, the silliest type of programme is …


If you ask me, the most boring programme
on TV is …
I think that … are a waste of time.
It seems to me that the best programme is

THINGS WE LIKE

It’s / They’re my favourite.

It’s / They’re nothing special.

I’m not crazy about it / them.

I don’t like it / them at all.

I really hate it / them.

I’m not very interested in it / them.

It’s / They’re quite enjoyable.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 40


DIALOGUE: ABOUT A TV PROGRAMME
A: Creo que los programas de telerrealidad
A: …………………………………………………
no son interesantes.
…………………………………………………
B: ¿Qué opinas de las telenovelas, Claire?
B: …………………………………………………
A: En mi opinión, las telenovelas son los
A: …………………………………………………
programas más tontos de la tele.
…………………………………………………
B: Para mí, las telenovelas son muy
B: …………………………………………………
interesantes.
…………………………………………………
A: Las comedias de situación son muy
A: …………………………………………………
buenas.
…………………………………………………
B: Yo también pienso que las comedias de
B: …………………………………………………
situación son divertidas.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 41


UNIT 3 Grammar Notes

PAST PERFECT
USO:
Acción ocurrida antes que otra en el pasado .
When I arrived, the police had arrested the suspect..
FORMA:
Past Participle of the main verb:
I
+ He / she / it + HAD + - Inf. of Regular verb –ed
We / you / they - 3rd column in the list of Irregular verbs
Past Participle of the main verb:
I
- He / she / it + HADN’T + - Inf. of Regular verb –ed
We / you / they
- 3rd column in the list of Irregular verbs
Past Participle of the main verb:
I
? HAD + He / she / it - Inf. of Regular verb –ed
We / you / they
+ - 3rd column in the list of Irregular verbs

Short Yes, I / he / she / it / we / you / they + HAD
answer X No, I / he / she / it / we / you / they + HADN’T

ADVERBS:
Before (antes) I had cleaned the car before I went to the party
After (después) He ate an ice cream after he had finished lunch.
As soon as (tan pronto como) As soon as I had got up, I had a shower.
By the time (para cuando) By the time he was five, he had read many books.
Until (hasta que) Until I went to Italy, I hadn’t eaten real Italian food.
When (cuando) Tom had finished his homework when I arrived.
Already (ya, +) We had already studied when he came to visit us..
Yet (ya -; todavía ?) It was 3 am and the pub hadn’t closed yet.
When he arrived there, had the train left yet?

PAST PERFECT ≠ SIMPLE PAST


Una acción que había ocurrido antes que Una acción que ocurrió en el pasado.
otra en el pasado.

Bob had read the text before he answered the questions.


Para explicar el motivo por el que ocurrió Oración principal que acompaña a la
algo en el pasado: oración subordinada oración subordinada de causa.
introducida por because
He was angry because he had failed the exam.
*Pero si dos acciones ocurren casi de manera simultánea en el pasado y la segunda
es consecuencia directa de la primera, ambas van en SIMPLE PAST:
When he heard the news, he cried.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 42


Vocabulary

1 Complete the newspaper articles with the words below:


suspects • investigate • arrested • murder • surrendered • gang
break the law • mugged • punish • thieves • shot • witnesses

A young man was 1…………………… by police yesterday


after a bank robbery in the centre of London. The man is
cooperating with police. He 2…………………… without
a fight when police took him from his home. The police
have also begun to 3…………………… several other
4
…………………… who are connected to the robbery.

The Prime Minister wants tougher punishments for young


criminals. He said: “Society must 5……………………
young people who 6…………………… .”

Eighty-year-old Marge Stacey was attacked and


7…………………… outside her home yesterday evening.
The attackers stole Stacey’s bag and ran away. Police
believe that the 8…………………… are members of
a local 9…………………… . Unfortunately, there were
no 10…………………… to the crime, so it will be difficult
to identify the attackers.

A policeman died in hospital yesterday after he was


11……………………
by a bank robber. The robber had
a gun and injured the policeman while he was trying to
arrest him. The policeman died from his injuries so the
robber will be charged with 12…………………… .

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 43


Grammar

2 Match A to B to form sentences:


A B
a) David had already seen the film … because he hadn’t changed in years.
b) The teacher was angry with Sue … the train had already left.
c) It was easy for me to recognise John … after someone had broken into the house.
d) We arrived home … so he didn’t come with us to the cinema.
e) By the time I arrived at the station, … who had forgotten to do her homework.

3 Choose the correct answer:


a) The police had arrested / arrested the thief because he broke / had broken the
law.
b) By the time the police had arrived / arrived, the man surrendered / had
surrendered.
c) The police investigated / had investigated the woman who robbed / had robbed
the bank.
d) The witnesses had identified / identified the suspect after they had seen / saw the
murder.

4 Write sentences with the words below. Use the Past Perfect Simple and Past
Simple:
a) by the time / we / arrive home / the burglars / run away / .
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) I / not leave / the party / until / my friends / go / .
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) Sally / already / book a ticket / when / she / cancel / her trip / .
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
d) you / already / see the film / before / you / read the book / ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 44


Vocabulary

5 Tick tick ( ) the sentences true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false sentences:
T F
a) There is often violence in crime dramas. …… ……
b) A current affairs programme tells you what happened in the world. …… ……
c) Documentaries are true stories. …… ……
d) Today, there are many channels on television. …… ……
e) Cartoons are usually sad. …… ……
f) There is a lot of romance in soap operas. …… ……
g) Adverts try to get people to buy things. …… ……
h) A sitcom is a serious TV programme. …… ……
..............................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................

Grammar

6 Answer the questions. Use the Past Perfect Simple:


a) John lied to his mother. When she found out the truth, she was very angry.
Why was John’s mother angry?
............................................................................................................................................
b) Jason ate all the ice cream. When Laura opened the fridge, there was none left.
Why didn’t Laura have any ice cream?
............................................................................................................................................
c) Paul forgot to send Debby an invitation to his party. Debby missed the party.
Why did Debby miss Paul’s party?
............................................................................................................................................
d) Lisa’s parents went to bed early. They were sleeping when she got home.
Why was the house quiet when Lisa got home?
............................................................................................................................................

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 45


7 Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Perfect Simple
or Past Simple:
a) My friends …………………… (eat) before I …………………… (arrive).
b) Tom …………………… (not pass) the test because he …………………… (not
study).
c) There …………………… (be) a lot of mud outside because it ……………………
(rain) earlier
in the day.
d) I …………………… (go) to bed after I …………………… (watch) my favourite show.
e) By the time I …………………… (get) to the party, everyone ……………………
(begin) dancing.

8 Complete the text using the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Perfect Simple or
Past Simple:

On 10th December, 1968, a car filled with a large amount of money was on its way to a
Japanese bank. A young policeman on a police motorbike 1…………………… (stop)
the car. He 2…………………… (tell) the bank workers in the car that someone
3……………………
(put) a bomb under the car. The four workers 4……………………
(get out) of the car and the policeman 5…………………… (go) under it to look for the
bomb. A few minutes later, the workers 6…………………… (notice) smoke and flames
under the car. They 7…………………… (not realise) that the police officer
8……………………
(be) really a thief. He 9…………………… (start) the fire before he
10……………………
(appear) from under the car. After the workers 11……………………
(run) far away, the “policeman” quickly 12…………………… (put out) the fire. He
13……………………
(get) into the car and 14…………………… (drive) away with all the
money. By the time the “real” policemen 15…………………… (arrive), the thief
16……………………
(disappear). He was never arrested.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 46


Reading

9 The words below appear in the text in Exercise 10. Find the words and guess their
meanings in your own language. Use a dictionary to check your guesses:
1. ransom money …………………… 4. suspicious ……………………
2. parachuted …………………… 5. jets ……………………
3. boarded …………………… 6. trace ……………………

10 Read the text. Then answer the questions:

THE PERFECT CRIME?


DB Cooper hijacked an aeroplane in the United States on 24th November, 1971. He
received $200,000 in ransom money and parachuted from the plane. He was never
arrested. In fact, he was never found, and neither was most of the money. The FBI
continued to investigate the incident for many years. They investigated more than a
thousand suspects. In the end, they decided that Cooper hadn’t survived the jump,
but many people believe that Cooper managed to escape. They would like to know
what happened to him.
Cooper boarded the aeroplane in Seattle. Witnesses said that he didn’t look
suspicious in any way. After the plane had taken off, he handed a note to a flight
attendant. The note said: “I have a bomb.” It also demanded $200,000 in cash and
some parachutes.
The pilot didn’t take any chances. He quickly landed at Seattle International Airport,
where Cooper was given $200,000 and the parachutes that he had asked for. Cooper
then ordered the flight crew to take the plane back into the air. Once the plane was
back in the air, Cooper attached something to his body. He ran to the door of the
plane, opened it and jumped out. He was never seen again.
At the time Cooper jumped, the plane was flying through a heavy rainstorm and it was
very difficult to see anything. That is why the jets that were instructed to follow the
plane didn’t notice him when he jumped. Although the FBI carefully searched the
area, no trace of Cooper or his parachute was ever found. Did he die or did he
commit the perfect crime and escape? It seems we will never know.

a) What does the FBI think happened to Cooper?


.....................................................................................................................................................
b) Why did the pilot quickly land the aeroplane?
.....................................................................................................................................................
c) How did the weather help Cooper?
.....................................................................................................................................................

11 Complete the sentences according to the information in the text. Use the Past
Perfect Simple:
a) Cooper didn’t give the ransom note to the flight attendant until ................................................
................................................................................................................................................... .
b) Cooper jumped out of the plane after he ................................................................................. .
c) Some people believe that before the FBI arrived to search the area, Cooper ..........................
................................................................................................................................................... .

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 47


Writing

12 Imagine you were one of the passengers on the plane that Cooper hijacked.
Describe what happened on that day:
COMPOSITION 1
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

CONNECTORS OF CONTRAST

- ON THE ONE HAND / ON THE OTHER HAND: por un lado/ por otro lado
On the one hand, travelling is interesting but on the other hand it is very expensive.
- BUT: pero
She is very friendly but she has got a very strong personality.
- HOWEVER (+ sentence): sin embargo
He is very good at maths, however he failed the test.
- ALTHOUGH: (+ sentence): aunque
Although he was late, he stopped to have a sandwich.

13 Choose the correct answers:


a) ALTHOUGH/ HOWEVER there were many witnesses, the police couldn’t solve the
crime.
b) I don’t watch a lot of reality TV, ON THE OTHER HAND/ BUT I love soap operas.
c) Adverts are often entertaining. ON THE ONE HAND/ ON THE OTHER HAND, they
can have serious messages.
d) I enjoy watching Crimewatch. ON THE ONE HAND/ HOWEVER, I seldom have
time watch TV.
e) ALTHOUGH/ BUT someone tried to rob the bank, this neighbourhood is usually
safe.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 48


14 Rewrite the following sentences with the connectors given:

a) The suit was very cheap. I bought it. (ALTHOUGH)


……………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Their car broke down. They managed to get to the garage. (HOWEVER)
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
c) She failed the test. She studied a lot for the exam. (BUT)
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
d) I still went to the party. I was tired. (ALTHOUGH)
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

15 Complete the sentences. Each time use ALTHOUGH + a sentence from the box:

I didn’t speak the language We don’t like her very much


I had never seen him before He had promised to be on time.
It was quite cold He has a very responsible job.

1) …………………………………………………………..,he isn’t particularly well-paid.


2) …………...……………………………………….., I recognized him from a photograph.
3) I didn’t wear a coat …………………………………………………………………….
4) We thought we’d better invite her to the party ………………………………………
5) ……………………………………………………., I managed to make myself
understood.
6) He was late ……………………………………………………………………………...

16 Complete the chart about Big Brother, the famous TV programme:

NAME OF THE PROGRAMME: …………………………………………………………


TYPE OF PROGRAMME: …………………………………………………………
WHAT IT IS ABOUT: …………………………………………………………
PEOPLE PLAYING IT: …………………………………………………………
WRITER’S OPINION: …………………………………………………………
RECOMMENDATION: …………………………………………………………

17 Now use the information in your chart to write a review of Big Brother. Organise
your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:

PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the programme. Include its name and type. State your opinion).
(Name of the programme) shows … /is about …
The show is a combination of ….

PARAGRAPH 2 (Give more details: the main characters, what the programme is about and
what you like/don’t like about it).
I enjoy/don’t like watching X because …

PARAGRAPH 3 (Say why you think readers will enjoy/won’t enjoy the programme)
I feel/ I think you will enjoy the drama/romance/action/humour in this show …

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 49


COMPOSITION 2

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

18 Complete the chart about your favourite TV programme:

NAME OF THE PROGRAMME: …………………………………………………………


TYPE OF PROGRAMME: …………………………………………………………
WHAT IT IS ABOUT: …………………………………………………………
PEOPLE PLAYING IT: …………………………………………………………
WRITER’S OPINION: …………………………………………………………
RECOMMENDATION: …………………………………………………………

19 Now use the information in your chart to write a review of your favourite TV
programme. Organise your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:

PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the programme. Include its name and type. State your opinion).
(Name of the programme) shows … /is about …
The show is a combination of ….

PARAGRAPH 2 (Give more details: the main characters, what the programme is about and
what you like/don’t like about it).
Name of character) is played by (name of actor
/I enjoy/don’t like watching X because …

PARAGRAPH 3 (Say why you think readers will enjoy/won’t enjoy the programme)
I feel/ I think you will enjoy the drama/romance/action/humour in this show …
I highly recommend it …
Useful words: sports programme, game show, quiz show, cookery programme, educational
programme, wildlife programme, to broadcast –retransmitir-, to broadcast live –retransmitir
en directo, quality, past-time -pasatiempos, well-known –conocido, popular-, entertaining,
funny, touching –conmovedor-, contestant –participante..

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 50


COMPOSITION 3

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 51


UNIT 4
LANGUAGE BUILDER

TECHNOLOGY VERBS
browse scroll
click search for
delete send
drag store
insert transmit
post type
record
VERBS
hide portray
identify preserve
imagine represent
include sign
make sense of wonder
REACHING AN AGREEMENT

Let’s …

I don’t mind …-ing …

How about some …?

I don’t think so.

That’s a great idea.

Why don’t we …?

Maybe we shoud …

I’d rather not.

GIVING INSTRUCTIONS

Excuse me. How do …?

First of all, …

The next step is to …

Well, after that, …

Well, … and then …

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 52


DIALOGUE: ABOUT A SCHOOL PROJECT

A: Liam, quizás deberíamos escribir sobre A: …………………………………………………


la televisión. …………………………………………………
B: No pienso que eso sea una buena idea. B: …………………………………………………
A: ¿Qué te parece escribir sobre el A: …………………………………………………
teléfono? …………………………………………………
B: ¿Por qué quieres escribir sobre eso, B: …………………………………………………
Cathy? Eso es una idea horrible. …………………………………………………
A: Podemos escribir sobre el coche. A: …………………………………………………
B: Eso es una idea muy buena. B: …………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 53


UNIT 4 Grammar Notes

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
TYPE Conditional clause Main clause
1st Conditional:
Future Simple
IF + Present Simple
POSSIBLE situations (WILL / WON’T + Inf.)
and their consequences If it rains, I won’t go out.
She’ll have a present if she passes all her exams.
2nd Conditional:
Conditional Simple
IF + Past Simple
IMPROBABLE or (WOULD / WOULDN’T + Inf.)
imaginary situations and If I won the lottery, I’d buy a wonderful house.
their consequences If I were you, I would tell the truth.
She would live in England if she didn’t have a Spanish boyfriend.
3rd Conditional:
IF + Past Perfect Conditional Perfect
IMPOSSIBLE situations (HAD + Past Participle ) (WOULD / WOULDN’T + HAVE + Past Participle)
that will never happen
(they are referring to the If we had known your problem, we would have helped you.
past) They wouldn’t have stayed at home if you had invited them to your party.

IF (si)
UNLESS = IF NOT (si no, a no ser que, a menos que)
If he doesn’t finish this, he will stay in the office.
Unless he finishes this, he will stay in the office.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 54


Vocabulary

1 Complete the sentences with suitable verbs to solve the puzzle:


1

3 4

5 6

Across 
3. …………………… websites for the latest information.
5. …………………… information in this folder.
7. …………………… on the mouse.
8. …………………… the paragraph from the top of the page to the bottom.
Down 
1. …………………… up and down the screen.
2. …………………… unnecessary information from the page.
4. …………………… on the keyboard.
6. …………………… TV programmes on a DVD.

Grammar

2 Choose the correct answer:


a) I will go / go / don’t go to the party if I finish my homework on time.
b) Unless we will record / record / don’t record this information, we will forget about
it one day.
c) Nobody will find this time capsule if you will hide / hides / hide it here.
d) Will he perform if it will rain / rains / rain tonight?
e) If you read The Time Machine, you enjoy / don’t enjoy / will enjoy it.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 55


3 Write the sentences with the words below. Use the First Conditional:
a) you / be / invisible / if / you / wear / this cloak
............................................................................................................................................
b) everyone / know / your secret / if / you / tell / Jane
............................................................................................................................................
c) unless / we / catch / the AVE / we / not arrive / on time
............................................................................................................................................
d) if / a hurricane / hit / this island / there / be / many victims
............................................................................................................................................
e) I / not speak / to Steve / if / he / not apologise
............................................................................................................................................

4 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Second Conditional:
a) If I …………………… (have) more time, I …………………… (stay).
b) I …………………… (fix) it if I …………………… (understand) the problem.
c) I …………………… (can) answer the question if I …………………… (not be) so
tired.
d) If I …………………… (know) the answer, I …………………… (tell) you.
e) If I …………………… (be) taller, I …………………… (reach) it.

5 Complete the sentences. Use the First or Second Conditional:


a) If I had a lot of money, ........................................................................................................... .
b) My parents will be disappointed if ......................................................................................... .
c) Unless the weather is bad this weekend, .............................................................................. .
d) If there were no computers, .................................................................................................. .
e) If I were an inventor, .............................................................................................................. .

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 56


Vocabulary

6 Find eight verbs in the word search below:


i d e n t i f y i i p h o
i m o n v e n i e n t a p 1. ……………………
r s a w e t e o e c e i r 2. ……………………
l p i g n s i r s l s w e
3. ……………………
p g d r i n c l u u e o s
p h g o t n p e a d g r e 4. ……………………
o o j l p d e i t e v p r 5. ……………………
r f w o s i g n i d e x v 6. ……………………
t p r o p b e s e n t w e
7. ……………………
r k w o n d e r p t u h p
8. ……………………
a l a v y a w p b s i v e
y w r b r e p r e s e n t

7 Complete the sentences with the verbs in Exercise 6:


a) I can’t …………………… life in a hundred years’ time.
b) I …………………… where he is. He hasn’t called all day.
c) The witnesses were able to …………………… the suspect.
d) His new novel will …………………… a young girl’s life in India.
e) I don’t understand what all these numbers …………………… .
f) Please …………………… your name here.
g) Does the price …………………… the flight?
h) The time capsule will …………………… the objects that are inside.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 57


Grammar

8 Write another sentence about what might have happened in the situations below.
Use the Third Conditional and the words in brackets:
a) Greg missed the bus this morning.
(catch the bus / wake up on time)
............................................................................................................................................
b) Diane fell and broke her leg.
(not fall / the floor not be wet)
............................................................................................................................................
c) I enjoyed the party because you were there.
(you not come / not have a good time)
............................................................................................................................................
d) We didn’t know you were in hospital.
(visit you / someone tell us)
............................................................................................................................................
e) Luckily no one was killed in the fire.
(firefighters not arrive quickly / many people not survive)
............................................................................................................................................

9 Read Emily’s e-mail and complete the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use
the First, Second or Third Conditional:

Hi, Jack! It’s a pity you couldn’t come to the Inventors’ Fair with me. If you
1……………………
(be) there, you 2…………………… (have) a great time. If you
3……………………
(see) all the amazing inventions, you 4…………………… (want) to
buy all of them!

My favourite invention was the MI3 robot. If I 5…………………… (not see) this robot, I
6……………………
(not believe) this machine existed. The MI3 does everything. If you
7……………………
(tell) it to wash the dishes, it 8…………………… (do) it in five
minutes. If your mother 9…………………… (ask) you to take out the rubbish, the MI3
10……………………
(take) it out for you. That isn’t all – the MI3 can also do your
homework for you! If I 11…………………… (own) an MI3, I 12……………………
(receive) excellent marks at school. If I 13…………………… (be) a genius, I
14……………………
(build) one myself. OK, OK, I know what you’re thinking. But my
15……………………
parents definitely (not buy) me one if I 16…………………… (ask)
them!

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 58


Reading

10 Read the text and underline a First and Second Conditional sentence:

THE FIRST MODERN TIME CAPSULE


What would you expect to see if you found a time capsule from thousands of years
ago? Well, at the Ogelthorpe University in Georgia, USA there is a room that was
locked more than 70 years ago and it is intended to stay locked for the next 6,000
years. The room is filled with objects that are meant to portray modern civilisation.
This project was the idea of Dr Thornwell Jacobs. He was a teacher of ancient history
and it disturbed him that there was not a lot of information about how people lived in
ancient times.
He decided to preserve modern civilisation because he wanted to make it easy for the
historians of the future to understand life in the early 20th century. So, he decided to
store items which represent modern civilisation.
Jacobs and his students included famous books, such as the Bible and the Koran, in
the time capsule. They also collected photographs, films and voice recordings of
world political leaders.
In addition, they collected items from daily life, including a sewing machine, an early
television and a telephone.
Jacobs was very worried that someone would open the room, so he put a sign over
the locked door. The sign requests that nobody open the room until the year 8113.
However, if the time capsule remains locked for the next 6,000 years, how useful will
it be when it’s finally opened?
It’s possible that the items in the room won’t survive for such a long time. What’s
more, we won’t know if the people in the future will be able to identify the objects, and
understand what they were used for. However, if people do make sense of them, they
will certainly learn a lot about life in the 20th century.

11 Answer the questions:


a) Why did Dr Jacobs create the time capsule?
.....................................................................................................................................................
b) Why are the Bible and the Koran mentioned?
.....................................................................................................................................................
c) How did Dr Jacobs try to make sure that the room would remain locked for 6,000
years?
.....................................................................................................................................................
d) What are some problems of the time capsule?
.....................................................................................................................................................
12 Complete the sentences according to the text. Use conditionals in your answers:
a) If someone opened the time capsule, .........................................................................................
b) Dr Jacobs wouldn’t have been disturbed if .................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................... .
c) Dr Jacobs wouldn’t have put a sign over the room if ..................................................................
................................................................................................................................................... .
d) Unless people make sense of the items, .................................................................................. .

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 59


Writing

14 Imagine that it’s the year 8113 and the time capsule is opened. Write a news
article describing this event. Use information from the text to help you:
COMPOSITION 1
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

CONNECTORS OF ADDITION

- AND: y
Susan came in 1994 and has lived here ever since.
- ALSO: también.
Puede tener diferentes posiciones:
(1) Después del verbo “to be”. He was also at the stadium
(2) Antes de los verbos simples. They also like reading the classics
(3) Entre el auxiliar y el verbo principal. I have also been to Europe.
- IN ADDITION: además
In addition, there were meetings with the children’s parents.
- IN ADDITION TO (+ n / v-ing): además de
In addition to being beautiful, she is talented.
- AS WELL AS: al igual que, también
He likes vegetables as well as fruit.

15 Choose the correct answer. There is sometimes more than one answer:
a) Press start AND/ALSO/AS WELL AS it will work.
b) It’s got a camera AS WELL AS/ IN ADDITION/ALSO an MP4 player.
c) The film was boring. IN ADDITION/ AS WELL AS/ AND it was too long.
d) It’s an amazing device to have. It’s ALSO/ AS WELL AS/ IN ADDITION not too
expensive.
e) We’re bringing the salad AND/ IN ADDITION/ AS WELL AS the dessert.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 60


16 Translate the following sentences:
a) Tengo un portátil y también un reproductor de MP4.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
b) Además de ser un excelente abogado, es una gran persona.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
c) Tiene 17 años y es mi mejor amiga.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
d) Peter es también muy inteligente.
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
e) A mis padres les gusta ver la televisión y también caminar.
……………………………………………………………………………………………

17 Use the information given to complete the sentences with the connectors of
addition in brackets:
a) Mary bought a new computer. She bought a mouse. / AND
Mary bought ………………………………………………………………… mouse.
b) The class put a mobile phone in the time capsule. They put earphones there, too. /
AS WELL AS
The class put …………………………………………………in the time capsule.
c) Greg plays the electric guitar. He writes music, too. /ALSO
Greg plays …………………………………………………………………music.
d) They need a screen for the next meeting. They need a laptop computer, too. / IN
ADDITION
They need ……………………………………………………….laptop computer.

18 Complete the chart about one of the latest inventions: the e-book:
INVENTION: ………………………………………
OPINION: ……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
FACTS AND EXAMPLES TO SUPPORT OPINIONS:
…………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………..

19 Now use the information in your chart to write an opinion essay about the e-
book. Organise your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:

PARAGRAPH 1 (Identify the invention you’ve chosen and state your opinion)
There have been many (adjective) inventions in the last one hundred years.
In my opinion, the most important/one of the most important inventions of all is …
PARAGRAPH 2 (Give facts and examples to support your opinion).
Thanks to … you can … (gracias a … tú puedes)
You can also … In addition, you can use the … to …
PARAGRAPH 3 (Restate your opinion. Use connectors of addition to connect your facts
and opinion)
No other invention has had such a great effect on people. If someone hadn’t
invented this invention …
And, also, in addition,, as well as …

Useful words: companies, to sell (vender), paper books, convenient (cómodo), to store
(almacenar), reader (lector)

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 61


COMPOSITION 2
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

20 Complete the chart about another important invention:

INVENTION: ………………………………………
OPINION: ……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
FACTS AND EXAMPLES TO SUPPORT OPINIONS:
…………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………..

21 Now use the information in your chart to write an opinion essay about that
important invention. Organise your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some
tips:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Identify the invention you’ve chosen and state your opinion)
There have been many (adjective) inventions in the last one hundred years.
In my opinion, the most important invention of all is the …
PARAGRAPH 2 (Give facts and examples to support your opinion).
Thanks to … you can … (gracias a … tú puedes)
You can also … In addition, you can use the … to …
PARAGRAPH 3 (Restate your opinion. Use connectors of addition to connect your facts
and opinion)
No other invention has had such a great effect on people.
If someone hadn’t invented this …
And, also, in addition,, as well as …

Useful words:3D films, anti-virus software, e-mail, air-conditioning, instant messaging,


laptops, penicillin, internet, telephone, computer word processor, to have a great impact on
something

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 62


COMPOSITION 3
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 63


UNIT 5
LANGUAGE BUILDER

ART
abstract masterpiece
charcoal oil
day portrait
drawing realistic
exhibition sculpture
ink sketch
landscape watercolour
ADJECTIVES
cheerful rough
complex shiny
curved simple
flat smooth
lovely three-dimensional
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING
These sculptures are similar because they
both represent …

It looks like both sculptures are made of…

The sculptures are different because


sculpture A is … but sculpture B is…
In sculpture B you can see …, but in
sculpture A you can’t.
Sculpture A looks …, but sculpture B has
got a … texture.
AT THE ART GALLERY

Please don’t touch …

Can I take photos of …?

No, it isn’t permitted / allowed.

Is it possible to …?

There is a … on the … floor.

Can I help you?

Yes, I need some information about …

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 64


DIALOGUE: AT AN ART MUSEUM
A: Este cuadro de Picasso es parecido a A: …………………………………………………
este cuadro de Van Gogh porque ambos …………………………………………………
tienen colores vivos.. …………………………………………………
B: Los cuadros son diferentes porque el B: …………………………………………………
Picasso es más abstracto que el Van …………………………………………………
Gogh. . …………………………………………………
A: El cuadro de Van Gogh es más realista A: …………………………………………………
que el Picasso. …………………………………………………
B: Se puede ver gente en ambos cuadros. B: …………………………………………………
A: Parece que ambos cuadros no son A: …………………………………………………
cuadros tradicionales. …………………………………………………
B: El cuadro de Picasso es más complejo, B: …………………………………………………
pero el cuadro de Van Gogh es bastante …………………………………………………
sencillo. …………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 65


UNIT 5 Grammar Notes

THE PASSIVE VOICE

ACTIVE SENTENCE Active Subject + Active verb + DO *

PASSIVE SENTENCE Passive Subject + Passive verb + BY Agent


BE+ Past
Participle

VERBAL TENSE ACTIVE SENTENCE PASSIVE SENTENCE


PRESENT SIMPLE AM / IS / ARE + past participle
… es hecho… My mum cleans my room My room is cleaned by my mum
PAST SIMPLE WAS / WERE + past participle
… fue hecho … My mum cleaned my room My room was cleaned by my mum

En inglés se utiliza mucho más la pasiva que en castellano, para destacar la acción y no el
sujeto que la realiza, y cuando el sujeto de la acción es muy obvio, desconocido o no se
quiere nombrar. Se suele traducir el verbo en la forma impersonal o en la voz activa:

This tower is used as a museum = esta torre se usa como museo

Cuando el verbo principal de la oración rige una preposición, ésta se pone al final de una
pregunta:

What is Goya known for?

También hay una peculiaridad en inglés que no se utiliza en castellano: si hay dos
complementos (Direct Object o Indirect Object) el pronombre personal (IO) se convierte en
el sujeto de la oración pasiva:

Paul told me all his plans. I was told all his plans.
IO DO

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 66


Vocabulary

1 Unscramble the words below and then match them to each definition:
a) ylac: …………………… … a liquid that is found in pens
b) apcesandl: …………………… … a painting or picture of a person
c) nik: …………………… … material that is used to make flower pots
d) tdelneat: …………………… … a display of art in a gallery or museum
e) rtecepeiams: …………………… … a painting of the countryside
f) tropatir: …………………… … to be very good at something
g) ntoihixebi: …………………… … a picture without paint
h) ignwrda: …………………… … an excellent work of art

Grammar

2 Choose the correct answers:

The statue of David is one of the most famous sculptures in the world. In 1501, the
artist Michelangelo 1 gave / was given a block of marble. He 2 told / was told to make
a sculpture to decorate the cathedral in Florence. The sculpture is a masterpiece.
Michelangelo 3 portrayed / was portrayed the Biblical character David in a very
different way to artists before him. Goliath
4
doesn’t include / isn’t included in the sculpture, so art experts 5 think / are
thought that the sculpture 6 shows / is shown David before his battle with the giant.
After the sculpture 7 finished / was finished, a committee of artists 8 decided / were
decided to put it in the main square of the town. It was the first time that a sculpture of
a naked person 9 exhibited / was exhibited in a public place since ancient times.

3 Write questions with the words below, and complete the answers. Use the
Present Simple Passive, affirmative or negative:
a) this sculpture / make of / clay
............................................................................................................................................
No, ……………………………… . It ……………………………… of wood.
b) where / the Mona Lisa / keep
............................................................................................................................................
It ……………………………… in the Louvre, in Paris.
c) the / exhibition / close / on Sundays
............................................................................................................................................
No, ……………………………… . It ……………………………… on Saturdays.
d) these / portraits / paint / with watercolours
............................................................................................................................................
No, ……………………………… . They ……………………………… with oils.
e) cars / drive / on the right-hand side of the road / in England
............................................................................................................................................
No, ……………………………… . They ……………………………… on the left-hand
side.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 67


4 Complete the sentences with the words below. Use the Past Simple Passive,
affirmative or negative:
send • damage • steal • take • show
a) Some masterpieces …………………… from the museum yesterday.
b) This photograph …………………… when we were on holiday in London.
c) His paintings …………………… to art critics at an exhibition last week. Everyone
loved his work.
d) Luckily, his drawings …………………… in yesterday’s fire.
e) In the past, letters …………………… online.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 68


Vocabulary

5 Choose the correct adjective:


a) I don’t like modern furniture. I prefer cheerful / rough / traditional furniture.
b) This painting is hard to understand because it’s lovely / complex / simple.
c) This painting has got pieces of metal in it, so it’s three-dimensional / shiny /
curved.
d) This material is comfortable to wear because it’s smooth / cheerful / traditional.
e) I can’t write on this table. It’s not rough / flat / complex.

Grammar

6 Complete the sentences. Use the Present Simple Passive or Past Simple Passive:
a) The project ……………………………… (not finish) yesterday.
b) Penicillin ……………………………… (discover) by Alexander Fleming.
c) English ……………………………… (speak) all over the world.
d) The Internet ……………………………… (use) for many things.
e) I ……………………………… (not teach) to swim until I was a teenager.
f) The library ……………………………… (open) on Saturdays.
g) Which materials ……………………………… (use) to make this ancient sculpture?
h) …………………… their pictures …………………… (take) yesterday?

7 Complete the answers to the questions with the verbs below. Use the Past Simple
Passive or Present Simple Passive affirmative or negative:
make • advertise • keep • invite • announce
a) Where is the chocolate?
It ……………………………… in the fridge.
b) Why didn’t David come to the party?
Because he ……………………………… .
c) When will you know if you passed your exam?
I already know. The results ……………………………… last week.
d) How did you hear about the exhibition?
It ……………………………… in the newspaper.
e) Will this cup break if I drop it?
No, it ……………………………… of glass.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 69


8 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Simple or Past
Simple active or passive:

The Taj Mahal 1…………………… (build) in 1631 by Shah Jahan. He


…………………… (dedicate) it to his wife, who had died. A thousand elephants
2

…………………… (use) to carry the materials that 4…………………… (need) to


3

complete the building. To this day, the Taj Mahal 5…………………… (consider) to be
one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. The white walls of the monument
…………………… (cover) with precious stones. It 7…………………… (visit) by four
6

million people every year. Some people are worried that air pollution will damage the
Taj Mahal one day. They are looking for ways to protect the famous monument.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 70


Reading

9 The words below appear in the text in Exercise 10. Find the words and guess their
meanings in your own language. Use a dictionary to check your guesses:
a) sunset …………………… c) dust ……………………
b) evidence …………………… d) bright ……………………

10 Read the text. Then answer the questions:

BEAUTIFUL LANDSCAPES – MORE THAN JUST A PAINTING


When most people look at a painting of a sunset, they see a beautiful work of art.
When Professor Christos Zerefos looks at a painting of a sunset, he sees valuable
scientific evidence. He believes that these paintings contain important information
about the effect of volcanoes on the climate.
Scientists know that after a volcanic eruption, sunsets are very red. This is caused
from the dust and ash that is sent into the sky. Volcanoes also lower the temperature
of the Earth.
Professor Zerefos and his team decided to study paintings of sunsets before and
after volcanic eruptions. They wanted to use the paintings to measure how the
volcanoes had affected the climate in the past.
The team studied 554 watercolours and oils of sunsets that were painted between
1500 and 1900. The scientists used a computer to calculate the amount of red in
each picture. They found that the sunsets that were painted after a volcanic eruption
were bright red.
Many scientists are not convinced by this theory. According to them, it is impossible
to make scientific conclusions based on art that was painted so long ago, because it
is possible that the colours have changed since they were originally painted. What is
more, artists often try to make something look very impressive when they paint. As a
result, they may not always paint an accurate picture of nature.
Professor Zerefos disagrees. He is certain that artists accurately copy the actual
colours of the sunsets they see. He is now studying paintings that were painted in the
20th century.
So the next time you look at a painting of a beautiful sunset, examine the colours
more carefully.

a) Why did Professor Zerefos decide to study paintings of sunsets?


.....................................................................................................................................................
b) Why are sunsets very red after a volcanic eruption?
.....................................................................................................................................................
c) Why do some scientists disagree with this study?
.....................................................................................................................................................
d) Explain the meaning of the title.
.....................................................................................................................................................

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 71


11 Complete the first part of the sentences using the appropriate passive form of
the verb in brackets. Then complete the second part of the sentences according
to the information found in the text:
1. The Earth’s temperature .......................................... (lower) by ............................................. .
2. In the past, bright red sunsets ..................................... (paint) ............................................... .
3. In the study, a computer ............................................... (use) to ............................................. .
4. According to some scientists, nature ................................. (not copy) ................................... .

Writing

ADJECTIVE ORDER

OPINION + SIZE+ AGE+ SHAPE+ COLOUR


He is looking at a small, old grey house on the hill.

12 Complete the sentences. Add the adjectives in brackets in the correct order:
a) I’m looking for a ………………………................ table for my new flat. (BROWN,
SMALL)
b) The artist uses a lot of ………………………………………glass. (BEAUTIFUL,
ANCIENT)
c) We drove along a …………………………………… road. (LONG, MODERN)
d) It’s a painting of a …………………………………………… landscape. (FLAT,
GREY, DULL)
e) She’s got a lot of ……………………………………………… pieces of furniture.
(LARGE, OLD, UNUSUAL)
13 Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

a) The princess wore a white long dress. .


……………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) The missing child has got brown short hair.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) She bought a round brown small table.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

14 Write the ADJECTIVES in the correct order to describe the people or things:
a) An …………………………… OLD / ELEGANT lady.
b) A …………………………… YOUNG / TALENTED artist
c) A …………………………… ROUND / BLUE / LOVELY / MODERN sculpture.
d) A …………………………… HUGE / NEW / CURVED / BLACK / PLAIN bridge.
e) A …………………………... PINK / LONG / LARGE / PRETTY pair of trousers.
f) A ………………………….. LOVELY / MODERN painting.
g) ……………………………… BLACK / THICK lines.
h) …………………………….. FLAT / STRANGE / BRIGHT shapes.
i) An …………………………… ORANGE / OLD / BIG / UGLY armchair.
j) A …………………………….. SQUARE / RED / CHEAP / SMALL table.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 72


15 Write 6 sentences following the structure below:
SUBJECT+ VERB+ COMPLEMENT ( ADJECTIVES :SIZE+ AGE+ SHAPE+ COLOUR + NOUN) + ADVERB

a) ……………………………………………………………………………………………
b) ……………………………………………………………………………………………
c) ……………………………………………………………………………………………
d) ……………………………………………………………………………………………
e) ……………………………………………………………………………………………
f) ……………………………………………………………………………………………

16 Complete the chart about a painting by Pablo Picasso. Use the information given
in the chart and complete the rest of it:

NAME: SELF PORTRAIT


DATE OF WORK OF ART: 1907
NAME OF ARTIST: PABLO PICASSO
STYLE: CUBIST PAINTING
OBJECTS AND PEOPLE (IF ANY): ………………………………………
………………………………………
SHAPES AND COLOURS: ………………………………………
WHAT THE ARTIST WANTED TO EXPRESS: …………………………
WRITER’S OPINION: ………………………………………

17 Write the description of the painting by Pablo Picasso. Use the information in the
chart and organize your ideas into paragraphs:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the work of art: name/ date/ style/objects/people)
This painting was drawn by X in PLACE in DATE
It is called X
It shows …
PARAGRAPH 2 (More details about the painting: physical appearance, clothes , place…
PARAGRAPH 3 (Write what you think the artist was trying to express. Give your opinion)
In my opinion, the painting presents …

COMPOSITION 1
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 73
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

18 Complete the chart about a work of art, the one you like the most in the world:

NAME: …………………………………………………………………..
DATE OF WORK OF ART: …………………………………………………………………..
NAME OF ARTIST: …………………………………………………………………..
STYLE: …………………………………………………………………..
OBJECTS AND PEOPLE (IF ANY): ……………………………………………………………
SHAPES AND COLOURS: …………………………………………………………………..
WHAT THE ARTIST WANTED TO EXPRESS: …………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………..
WRITER’S OPINION: …………………………………………………………………..

19 Write the description of the work of art you have chosen. Use the information in
the chart and organize your ideas into paragraphs:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the work of art: name/ date/ style/objects/people)
(Name of work of art) was drawn/ painted / sculpted by X in PLACE in DATE
It is called X
It shows …
PARAGRAPH 2 (More details about the painting: physical appearance, clothes , place… )
The shapes are …
The …. Is painted in (colours)
It looks like (+ A NOUN)
PARAGRAPH 3 (Write what you think the artist was trying to express. Give your opinion)
The artist shows …
In my opinion, the painting presents …
I like it because … and it makes me feel …
Useful words: art movement, scene, seascape, colours (bright, cheerful, warm, dull…),
moving, tragic, expressive, elegant, abstract,…

COMPOSITION 2
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 74


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 75


UNIT 6
LANGUAGE BUILDER

ADJECTIVES
abandoned neglected
considerate shocking
cruel thoughtless
exotic tough
extraordinary uninformed
irresponsible unwanted
mistreated well-meaning
REPORTING VERBS
admit mention
agree promise
announce report
complain shout
explain warn
REPORTING THE NEWS

It seems that …

She announced that …

Apparently, …

He asked …

It looks like …

He admitted that …

According to the news, …

IN THE NEWS

Do you ever read the newspaper?

Which one?

What is your favourite section of the


newspaper?

Why do you like that section?

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 76


DIALOGUE: ABOUT THE NEWS

A: Julia, ayer leí un artículo interesante en A: …………………………………………………


el periódico. …………………………………………………
B: ¿De qué trataba el artículo?. B: …………………………………………………
A: Por lo visto hubo un gran incendio en el A: …………………………………………………
bosque y murieron algunos animales. …………………………………………………
B: ¿Qué pasó? B: …………………………………………………
A: Parece que algunos campistas A: …………………………………………………
encendieron un fuego en el bosque.. …………………………………………………
B: Eso es una historia terrible. B: …………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 77


UNIT 6 Grammar Notes

REPORTED SPEECH

 DIRECT SPEECH: We repeat the original speaker’s words. The speaker’s words
are always between inverted commas (‘…’ / “…”)
Subj. + SAID + (to SB.), ‘ ……’: John said, ‘I like playing tennis’.
 INDIRECT OR REPORTED SPEECH: We give the exact meaning of a remark
without necessarily using the speaker’s words.
Subj. + SAID + (THAT) + ……: John said (that) he liked playing tennis.

 When we turn Direct Speech into Reported Speech in statements , some


changes are usually necessary:
- Reporting verbs: SAY (to SB.) / TELL SB.
ADMIT, ANNOUNCE, COMPLAIN, EXPLAIN, INSIST,
REMIND, AGREE, CONVINCE, REPLY, HEAR, READ
- THAT (= que) can be omitted.
- No inverted commas in the speaker’s words.
- Verbal tenses (when the reporting verb is in the past tense).
- Personal pronouns and possessives (when the speaker doesn’t report
his/her own words).
- Time expressions and other words.
- Ex.: He said, ‘She’s coming this week’  He said she was coming that week.
She said, ‘I go to school here’  She said she went to school there.

 When we turn Direct Speech into Reported Speech in questions , some


changes are usually necessary:
- Reporting verbs: ASK SB., WANT TO KNOW, WONDER.
- In Wh-questions: WHAT/WHO/WHEN/WHERE/HOW/WHY/WHOSE, …
- In Yes/No-questions: IF / WHETHER
- No inverted commas nor question marks in the speaker’s words.
- The question form becomes affirmative.
- Verbal tenses (when the reporting verb is in the past tense)
- Personal pronouns and possessives (when the speaker doesn’t report
his/her own words)
- Time expressions and other words.
- Ex.: He asked, ‘What do you want?’  He asked me what I wanted.
She asked, ‘Do you know Bill?’  She asked if I knew Bill.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 78


General Changes:
1. Personal pronouns and possessives:
When the speaker doesn’t report his/her own words, the personal pronouns and
possessives referring to the 1st and 2nd person change into the 3rd person.
I said, ‘I like my own house’  I said I liked my own house. (NO CHANGE)
He said, ‘I like my own house’  He said he liked his own house. (CHANGE)

2. Time expressions:
Today / tonight  That day / night
This week / month / year  That week / month / year
Now  Then
Yesterday  The day before / the previous day
Last night / week / month / year  The night / week / month / year before
The previous night / week / month / year
A week ago  A week before
Tomorrow  The next / following day
Next week / month / year  The following week / month / year

3. Other words:
This / These  that / those
*This / that / these / those + n.  the + n.
She said, ‘I bought these pearls for my mum’ She said that she had bought the pearls for
her mum.
*This / these (pronouns)  it / they, them
She said to the shop assistant, ‘I like this’ She said to him she liked it.
Here  there

4. Verbal tenses:

Present Simple  Past Simple


She said, ‘I often go to the cinema’. She said that she often went to the cinema.
Present Continuous  Past Continuous
He said, ‘I’m waiting for Ann’. He said that he was waiting for Ann.
Present Perfect  Past Perfect
She said, ‘I have found a flat’. She said that she had found a flat.
Past Simple  Past Simple / Past Perfect
He said, ‘I saw Ann yesterday’. She said that he saw/had seen Ann the day before.
Past Continuous  Past Continuous
He said, ‘I was waiting for Ann’. He said that he was waiting for Ann.
Future Simple  Conditional Simple
She said, ‘I will be in Paris in May’. She said that she would be in Paris in May.
Modal CAN  Modal COULD
She said, ‘I can drive’. She said that she could drive.
Modal MUST  Modal HAD TO
She said, ‘You must study’. She said that I had to study.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 79


Vocabulary

1 The adjectives in bold are in the wrong sentences. Write them next to the correct
sentences:
a) The photographs from the earthquake were abandoned. I couldn’t look at them.
……………………
b) I don’t trust Tom. He is considerate. ……………………
c) Many people don’t know about the dangers of global warming. They are exotic.
……………………
d) It was cruel of you to call and ask how I was feeling. ……………………
e) The car was shocking under the bridge. ……………………
f) I would like to go on holiday to an irresponsible location. ……………………
g) I think it’s tough to keep animals in cages. ……………………
h) Bob is uninformed. He will survive. ……………………

2 Choose the correct answer. Pay attention to the adjectives in italics:


a) These animals are unwanted because they make good / bad pets.
b) It was well-meaning of Tom to insult / help me.
c) That was an extraordinary day. I’ll never forget / remember it.
d) It was thoughtless of you to say those terrible / wonderful things about me.
e) When people mistreat animals, I feel happy / sad.

Grammar

3 Complete the reported sentences:


a) “It’s raining now,” Anna said.
Anna said that it ……………………………… then.
b) “I’ll call you tomorrow,” James said.
James said that he ……………………………… me the next day.
c) “I saw Henry last night,” said Diane.
Diane told us that she ……………………………… Henry the night before.
d) “I’m afraid of dogs,” said Susan.
Susan said that she ……………………………… of dogs.
e) ”I’ve never eaten here,” Amy said.
Amy said that she ……………………………… there.
f) ”I can’t hear them,” Sally said.
Sally said that she ……………………………… them.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 80


4 Write the direct speech sentences and questions in reported speech. Make any
necessary changes:
a) “I passed my driving test yesterday,” Sarah said.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
b) “Will Tim be at the party tomorrow?” Lucy asked.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
c) “I’m working now,” Monica said.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
d) “I must finish my homework today,” Jason said.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
e) “I have looked everywhere, but I can’t find my dog,” Jill said.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
f) “We can’t come to the party tonight,” my cousins said.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 81


Vocabulary

5 Read the sentences and choose a suitable verb that describes each one:
admit • complain • explain • announce • warn • promise • shout • mention • agree
a) “The exhibition ended last night.” ……………………
b) ”Can you hear me now?” ……………………
c) “Yes, I think that’s a good idea.” ……………………
d) ”I forgot to feed the dog today.” ……………………
e) “I’ll help you find a home for these puppies.” ……………………
f) ”Rescue Ink is an organisation that helps animals.” ……………………
g) ”Don’t touch the dog.” ……………………
h) ”I saw Pam at the shopping centre.” ……………………
i) “The food isn’t hot enough.” ……………………

Grammar
6 Complete the mini-dialogues with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Use reported speech:
a) A: The zoo will be open tomorrow.
B: Tomorrow? But you said that it …………………… (be) closed until September.
b) A: I’m reading a book about lions.
B: Lions? You said that you …………………… (study) elephants.
c) A: We saw The Lion King on television last night.
B: Really? But you told me that you …………………… (not like) cartoons.
d) A: My dog can open the door with his mouth.
B: Oh, come on! Last week you told me that he …………………… (do) it with his
feet.
e) A: There’s Susan’s cat.
B: What? She told me that she …………………… (be) allergic to cats.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 82


7 Read Andrea’s e-mail. Then complete the phone conversation below in reported
speech:

Hi, everybody!
I got back from Kenya this morning. I can’t stop
thinking about my trip, and I want to tell you
about it.
We saw rhinoceroses, elephants, leopards,
zebras and giraffes in the wild. Every night, we
slept in tents, and we heard lions and hyenas all
night long. I’ve never had such an exciting
experience!
I must go back there again one day, so I’m
saving money for another trip. Maybe I’ll
volunteer at an animal reserve.
C U,
Andrea

Andrea said that she 1…………………… back from Kenya 2…………………… . She said
that she 3…………………… stop thinking about 4…………………… trip, and that she
5…………………… to tell 6…………………… about it. She told us that they
7…………………… rhinoceroses, elephants, leopards, zebras and giraffes in the wild. She

said that every night, they 8…………………… in tents, and that they 9……………………
lions and hyenas all night long. She said that she 10…………………… such an exciting
experience. She told us that she 11…………………… back there again one day, so she
12…………………… money for another trip. She said that maybe she 13……………………

at an animal reserve.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 83


Reading

8 Read the text and decide if the following statements are T (true) or F (false). Then
find evidence in the text to support your answers:

A TOUGH DOG
In November 2009, Jan and Dave Griffith decided to take their dog, Sophie, on a sailing
trip off the coast of Queensland, Australia. They weren’t watching Sophie, and suddenly
she was gone. She had fallen into the water. They began to search the area but there
was no sign of the dog. “We didn’t find her because it was such a grey day,” said Mrs
Griffith.
The Griffiths were sure that Sophie had drowned. They were very upset and decided to
return home without their dog. But four months later, they received some good news.
Sophie had not drowned. She was alive.
After she had fallen off the ship, Sophie continued to swim. She swam about 10
kilometres through a rough sea. She arrived at a small island where she survived for
more than four months by killing baby goats and other animals.
The people who were living on the island saw a dog running around, and thought that it
must be a wild dog. When they saw that there were many dead goats on the island,
they called animal rescue workers to come and investigate.
When the Griffiths heard that the animal rescue workers had caught a dog on an island,
they wondered if it could be Sophie. As soon as Sophie saw the Griffiths, she
immediately recognised them.
“We called her name and she got really excited. She began to bark and banged on the
cage. They opened the cage and she ran over to us. It was wonderful!” Mrs Griffith said.
Sophie’s story really is extraordinary and she is very lucky to be alive.
“There are a lot of dangerous animals in the sea,” said a local fisherman. “It’s amazing
that they didn’t attack Sophie.”

T F
a) The Griffiths didn’t see Sophie fall off the boat. …… ……
.....................................................................................................................
b) The Griffiths always believed that Sophie was alive. …… ……
.....................................................................................................................
c) People on the island gave Sophie food. …… ……
.....................................................................................................................
d) Sophie remembered the Griffiths. …… ……
.....................................................................................................................
9 Choose the correct answer. Then complete the sentence according to the
information found in the text. Use reported speech:
a) The rescue workers / weather conditions made it difficult for the Griffiths to find
Sophie. We know this because Mrs Griffith said that …………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………...
b) The fisherman was / wasn’t surprised that the sharks didn’t attack Sophie. We
know this because the fisherman said that ……………………………………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………...

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 84


Writing

10 You are a reporter who is interviewing one of the local people who found
Sophie. Write your questions to him and his answers in direct speech. Then
write a report of what he told you using reported speech:
COMPOSITION 1
INTERVIEW IN DIRECT SPEECH:
A: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
A: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
A: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
A: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
A: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 85


CONNECTORS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT

- BECAUSE:+ clause
I couldn’t go out bec8use it was raining heavily.
- BECAUSE OF: + noun/ pronoun/ -ing
The party was cancelled because of the storm.
- SINCE:+ clause
The bake was successful since the cakes were delicious.
- DUE TO: + noun/ pronoun/ -ing
Due to the storm, many trains and buses stopped working.
- AS A RESULT OF: + noun/ pronoun/ -ing
As a result of the storm, a number of trees fell.
- SO: + clause
I mustn’t eat a lot of sugar, so I didn’t buy anything at the bake sale.
- THEREFORE: + clause
Many people bought cakes and biscuits. Therefore, the profits were good.

11 Choose the correct answers:


a) AS A RESULT OF/ THEREFORE her excellent work, she received an award.
b) Her cat was ill SO/ BECAUSE it had eaten bad food.
c) DUE TO / SINCE the snow, they stayed home.
d) I returned the rabbit BECAUSE OF/ SINCE you didn’t clean its cage.
e) The water was polluted, SO/ BECAUSE the fish died.

12 Complete the sentences with the connectors of CAUSE and EFFECT:


a) DUE TO/ AS A RESULT
A. The game was cancelled ……………………………………….. bad weather.
B. The weather was bad and …………………………….., the game was cancelled.
b) THEREFORE/ SINCE
A. Barry took the dog to a shelter ………………………. he couldn’t take care of it.
B. Barry couldn’t take care of the dog. ……………………, he took it to a shelter.
c) SO/ BECAUSE OF
A. Susan’s dog can’t climb stairs ………………………………….. an injury.
B. Susan’s dog was injured, ……………………………… it can’t climb stairs.

13 Complete the sentences with the connectors below:


because therefore because of so due to

a) There are many homeless animals …………….. last month’s storm.


b) Sam is sad …………………… his dog has just died.
c) Their flat is very small. ………………………… they are looking for a small dog to
own.
d) The animal shelter is closed ………………………….. the terrible conditions.
e) It was raining …………………………….we decided to cancel the beach party.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 86


14 Look at the chart about the SAVE THE FOREST DAY:

- REASON FOR EVENT: ANIMALS HAVEN’T GOT ENOUGH FOOD BECAUSE


HOUSES ARE BUILT ON LAND FROM THE FOREST.
- WHEN AND WHERE IT TOOK PLACE: LAST MONDAY / OUR CITY
- WHO WAS THERE: STUDENTS IN YEAR 11
- WHAT THEY DID: GO ON BIKES IN THE FOREST TO KNOW ABOUT ANIMALS AND
PLANTS / TALK TO THE MAYOR TO FIND A SOLUTION
- THE RESULT: THE CITY WILL PLANT TREES ON 100 ACRES OF LAND NEXT TO
THE FOREST.

15 Write a news report about that event. Use the information in the chart and
organize your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Give the background to the event: what’s the problem?)

PARAGRAPH 2 (Describe when and where the event took place and who was involved)

PARAGRAPH 3 (Describe the result)


As a result of the … ‘s hard work, it was a great success

COMPOSITION 2
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 87


16 Have a look at a newspaper or watch the news today and choose a shocking
event for you. Then complete the chart about the information:

REASON FOR EVENT: ...……………………………………………………


WHEN AND WHERE IT TOOK PLACE: ...……………………………………………………
WHO WAS THERE: ...……………………………………………………
WHAT THEY DID: ...……………………………………………………
THE RESULT: ...……………………………………………………

17 Write a news report about that event. Use the information in the chart and
organize your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Give the background to the event: what’s the problem?)

PARAGRAPH 2 (Describe when and where the event took place and who was involved)

PARAGRAPH 3 (Describe the result)


As a result of the … ‘s hard work, it was a great success

COMPOSITION 3
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 88


UNIT 7
LANGUAGE BUILDER

HEALTH
allergic reaction rash
breathe runny nose
broken foot severe pain
cough sore throat
flu stomach ache
headache swollen
injection symptoms
itchy treatment
pills
KEEPING FIT
achieve your goals personal trainer
get fit put on weight
get in shape relax
lifestyle stretching
lose weight work out
AGREEING AND DISAGREEING
That’s true, but …
I suppose you are right
That’s not how I see it.
You’ve got a point.
Exactly!
I’m sorry, but I disagree.
You’re wrong.
I agree with you.

I recommend …

Lie down and I’ll examine you.


Sorry, you must have a prescription for
that.
Can I help you?

Does it hurt here?

I want you to have an X-ray.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 89


DIALOGUE: ABOUT PLANNING A CLUB FOR STUDENTS

A: Janet, deberíamos hacer ejercicio por la A: …………………………………………………


mañana antes del colegio. …………………………………………………
B: Lo siento, pero no estoy de acuerdo. B: …………………………………………………
Todo el mundo estará demasiado …………………………………………………
cansado por la mañana. …………………………………………………
A: Supongo que tienes razón, pero todo el A: …………………………………………………
mundo está ocupado después del …………………………………………………
colegio. …………………………………………………
B: Tienes razón, Mike. Puede que sea B: …………………………………………………
mejor los fines de semana. …………………………………………………
A: Así no es como lo veo yo. Un club A: …………………………………………………
escolar debería reunirse los días de …………………………………………………
colegio. …………………………………………………
B: Eso es cierto, pero no tenemos B: …………………………………………………
elección. …………………………………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 90


UNIT 7 Grammar Notes

MODAL VERBS

CAN Can you lend me your pencil, please?


Request (petición) (?) May I use your pencil?
MAY
CAN/CAN’T (informal) Can I go out, Mum? No, you can’t
Permission
COULD/COULDN’T (polite) Could I go to the toilet, please?
(PODER) MAY (polite) You may use my camera, but don’t break it.

I can swim, but I can’t play the piano.


CAN/ CAN’T (present ability) When I was 3, I could speak but I couldn’t
Ability/capacity
COULD/COULDN’T (past ability) read.
(SABER, PODER) BE ABLE TO (other tenses) If you study hard, you will be able to pass all
your exams

MUST (usado por personas con


Obligation autoridad: profesores, medicos, You must study harder.
He has to keep his room tidy.
(DEBER, TENER QUE) padres, …) I had to go to the bank yesterday.
HAS/HAVE TO, HAD TO
I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to
Absence of obligation DON’T/DOESN’T HAVE TO get up early.
We didn’t have to wait very long, as the bus
(NO TENER POR QUÉ, DIDN’T HAVE TO soon came.
NO SER NECESARIO) WON’T HAVE TO I passed all my exams, so I won’t have to do
them again.

Prohibition
MUSTN’T You mustn’t smoke.
(NO DEBER, NO TENER QUE)

Advice You should eat more vegetables and fruit to


SHOULD/SHOULDN’T lose weight.
(DEBERÍA / NO DEBERÍA) You shouldn’t go out tonight when you are ill.
He’s got a very expensive car. He must
be rich.
They go to the cinema every week.
De mayor a menor grado de They must love films.
probabilidad: She hasn’t got any books. She can’t
Possibility
MUST MAY MIGHT enjoy reading.
(PROBABILIDAD) CAN’T He’s never won a race. He can’t be very
fast.
90% 50% 40% Her name is María. She may / might be
Spanish or South-American.

Los verbos modales no utilizan auxiliares para formar oraciones negativas y preguntas,
excepto la forma HAVE TO*
Can I go to the toilet, please?
You can go to the toilet when you are at home.
You can’t go to the toilet during the lesson.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 91


Vocabulary

1 Write the words below the correct pictures:


runny nose • cough • sore throat • broken foot • stomach ache • rash

1. …………………… 2. …………………… 3. ……………………

4. …………………… 5. …………………… 6. ……………………

2 The words in bold are in the wrong sentences. Write them next to the correct
sentences:
a) His injection isn’t very healthy. ……………………
b) He was given a painful pill in his arm. ……………………
c) You must take one pain twice a day. ……………………
d) He has got a headache. The lifestyle in his head is very bad. ……………………

Grammar

3 Complete the sentences. Use a modal below:


doesn’t have to • mustn’t • can’t • could • should • must • might
a) He’s having trouble breathing. We …………………… call a doctor right away.
b) He’s got a stomach ache. Perhaps he …………………… stay home today.
c) I‘m busy. …………………… I call you later?
d) He’s allergic to nuts. He …………………… eat them or he’ll have a bad reaction.
e) My hand is swollen. I …………………… write.
f) I’m not sure what’s the matter with Andy. He …………………… have the flu.
g) His arm isn’t broken. He …………………… go to hospital.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 92


4 The modals in bold are in the wrong sentences. Write them next to the correct
sentences:
a) You might not talk a lot today. You’ve got a sore throat. ……………………
b) You shouldn’t read the instructions before you take these tablets.
……………………
c) We might go to school today because it’s a holiday. ……………………
d) People don’t have to drive and talk on their mobile phones. It’s dangerous.
……………………
e) I mustn’t go to the party tomorrow. If I do, I’ll call you. ……………………
f) It must rain tomorrow, but it’s a good idea to take an umbrella. ……………………

5 Complete the sentences for each of the signs below. Use modals:

a) You …………………… feed the animals.

b) You …………………… park here.

c) It …………………… rain tomorrow.

d) You …………………… wear a seatbelt.

e) You …………………… take a jacket.

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 93


Vocabulary

6 Choose the correct answer. Pay attention to the words in italics:


a) I’m going to hire a personal trainer to help me study for the exam / train for the
marathon.
b) You will put on weight if you eat too much / exercise every day.
c) Stretching is good for your muscles / weight.
d) John should relax. He sleeps / works all the time.
e) I hope to get in shape before the exam / race.
f) I work out at the new supermarket / sports club in my neighbourhood.

7 Complete the sentences to show that you have understood the meaning of the
words in bold:
a) People go to the gym to ........................................................................................................ .
b) You should ..................................................................................................... to lose weight.
c) You will get fit if you .............................................................................................................. .
d) People change their lifestyle when they .............................................................................. .
e) If you achieve your goals, you will feel ............................................................................... .

Grammar

8 Choose the correct answers:

Dear Mary,

I’m so sorry, but I 1 must / can’t meet you tomorrow. I have got a runny nose and I
2
can’t / don’t have to breathe so I 3 have to / can go to the doctor. He 4 must / may
tell me that I 5 should / mustn’t take some medicine and stay in bed. He 6 has to /
might also tell me that I 7 should / can stay away from other people because they 8
have to / might catch my illness.

Anyway, I’ll call you next week when I’m feeling better. I have so much to tell you.

Speak soon,

Amy

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 94


9 Complete the sentences so they are true for you:
a) When I’m older, I might ......................................................................................................... .
b) At our school, the students have to ....................................................................................... .
c) People my age can’t .............................................................................................................. .
d) I’m lucky because I can ......................................................................................................... .
e) This year at school, I don’t have to ....................................................................................... .
f) There was a time when I couldn’t .......................................................................................... .
g) Tomorrow, I might not ........................................................................................................... .
h) I think my best friend should ................................................................................................. .

10 What would you say in the following situations? Use a suitable modal in each
sentence:
a) You ask your teacher permission to leave the room.
.................................................................................................................................................
b) You tell your friend that you need to leave the party or you will miss the bus home.
.................................................................................................................................................
c) Your sister asks permission to use your camera and you agree.
.................................................................................................................................................
d) Your sister is playing her music very loudly and it is bothering you.
.................................................................................................................................................
e) You think your best friend is too thin.
.................................................................................................................................................
f) You are invited to a swimming party, but you don’t know how to swim.
.................................................................................................................................................

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 95


Reading

11 The words below appear in the text in Exercise 12. Find the words and guess
their meanings in your own language. Use a dictionary to check your guesses:
a) lifts …………………… c) spread ……………………
b) air conditioning …………………… d) fireproof ……………………

12 Read the text. Then answer the questions:

CLIMB THOSE STAIRS!


According to fitness experts, climbing stairs is a good way to work out, because you
don’t need to climb for a long time to see positive results. At the gym, step machines
are very popular, but in many buildings where people work and live, the stairs are not
used. Instead, people use lifts to move from one floor to the next.
According to researchers, people don’t use the stairs in buildings because they are
often not convenient. First of all, stairs are often in areas that are hard to find. In
addition, the lighting is not bright and there is no air conditioning there. Most
importantly, people generally think of stairs as a way to leave a building when there is
a fire, because that is what people are supposed to do. Not surprisingly, the stairs are
designed for this possibility. Stairs are usually found behind very heavy doors, which
people must shut behind them during a fire. The stairs are also not covered with
carpets, so that a fire will not spread quickly.
The researchers believe that designers need to design stairs in a way that will
motivate people to use them but still be safe during emergencies. They also
recommend that employers begin to make improvements to stairs in older buildings.
They can add fireproof carpets to the stairs, paint walls in lovely colours, put up
artwork and even play music in and around the stairs. In this way, people will be more
likely to use the stairs.
Most buildings where people live and work haven’t got a gym, but using the stairs is a
cheap and simple way that could help people to get in shape in the place where they
spend a lot of their time.

a) Why is stair climbing a good choice to keep fit?


.....................................................................................................................................................
b) Why is it often not convenient to use stairs in a building?
.....................................................................................................................................................
c) How can employers make improvements in older office buildings?
.....................................................................................................................................................

13 Complete the sentences according to the text using suitable modals:


a) In most buildings, people …………………… reach the stairs very easily.
b) People …………………… use the stairs when there is a fire, but they
……………………
use the lift.
c) Researchers believe that designers …………………… just focus on the safety
features of
the stairs in new buildings.
d) Researchers believe that employers …………………… improve the stairs in old
buildings.
IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 96
Writing

14 Write a letter to your headmaster and suggest ways that he / she could help
raise the fitness levels of the students at the school:
COMPOSITION 1
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REFERENCING

15 Write pronouns or possessive adjectives to replace the nouns in CAPITAL


LETTERS:
Sharon went to Dr Dave Milestone’s clinic. 1) DR MILESTONE examined 2)
SHARON’s leg. Then 3) DR MILESTONE gave 4) SHARON treatment. 5) SHARON
asked 6) DR MILESTONE many questions and 7) DR MILESTONE answered 8)
THE QUESTIONS. 9)SHARON thanked 10) DR MILESTONE for 11) DR
MILESTONE’S patience.
1)………………………… 2) ………………………… 3) ……………………………
4) …………………………… 5) …………………………… 6) ……………………………
7) …………………………… 8) …………………………… 9) ……………………………
10) …………………………… 11) ……………………………

16 Read the text and write the nouns that the pronouns and possessive adjective in
bold refer to:
Hal was in the emergency room yesterday. 1) IT was very crowded. Has was there
because he had hurt 2) HIS arm while he was playing basketball and 3) IT was very
swollen. When he finally saw a doctor, 4) SHE told 5) HIM it was broken.
1) …………………………… 2) …………………………… 3) ……………………………
4) …………………………… 5) ……………………………

IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 97


17 Improve the sentences by using pronouns or possessive adjectives to replace
the nouns in CAPITAL LETTERS:
a) Jim has got a broken foot. I saw JIM in the emergency room.
………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Many people are excited about the exercise pill but not everyone believes THE
EXERCISE PILL is safe.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
c) Diabetics take insulin to reduce DIABETICS’ blood sugar.
………………………………………………………………………………………
d) We met our new neighbours yesterday. OUR NEW NEIGHBOURS are both
personal trainers.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
e) I suffer from allergies so I take pills to help me cope with MY ALLERGIES.
………………………………………………………………………………………

18 Look at the chart about an important medical discovery - the POLIO


VACCINATION:

- NAME OF DISCOVERY: polio vaccination


- WHO DISCOVERED IT: Jonas Salk, medical researcher
- WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED: 1952
- HOW IT WORKS: The body is injected with the virus, so it can fight illness
- WHY THE DISCOVERY IS IMPORTANT: Polio caused death and paralysis in many
people. Vaccination helps prevent polio
- THE DANGERS OF USING IT: allergic reaction

19 Write an informative essay about the POLIO VACCINATION. Use the information
in the chart and organize your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the discovery. Write what it is and why it is important)
PARAGRAPH 2 (Give facts and information about the discovery)
X was/were discovered in … by …
PARAGRAPH 3 (Sum up and repeat the main ideas)
X is/are used today to …/ … is/are one of the most …
COMPOSITION 2
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IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 98
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20 Look at the chart about SPINNING BIKES:

- NAME OF DISCOVERY: spinning bikes


- WHO DISCOVERED IT: Jonathan Goldberg
- WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED: 1987
- HOW IT WORKS: sit in a frame, don’t go anywhere
- WHY THE DISCOVERY IS IMPORTANT: to stay in shape all year

21 Write an informative essay about SPINNING BIKES. Use the information in the
chart and organize your ideas into paragraphs. Here you have got some tips:
PARAGRAPH 1 (Introduce the discovery. Write what it is and why it is important)
PARAGRAPH 2 (Give facts and information about the discovery)
X was/were discovered in … by …
PARAGRAPH 3 (Sum up and repeat the main ideas)
X is/are used today to …/ … is/are one of the most … / … is/are a great way to …
COMPOSITION 3
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IES Canónigo Manchón English Department Workbook 4ºESO 99