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r . . ~

, r·. '
MATHEMATICS
for
Joint·Entranc_e Examination
JEE (Advanced)
2nd edition

Vectors and 30 Geometry · .

G. Tewani

-W\\H BEST W\SHES


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Mathematics: Vectors and 0 2015, 2010 Cengage learning India Pvt. Ltd
30 Geometry, 2e
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Printed in India
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Brief Contents
Preface lX

1. Introduction to Vectors 1.1-1.53

2. Different Products of Vectors and


Their Geometrical Applications 2.1-2.91

3. Three-Di~ensional Geometry 3.1-3.80

Appendix: Solutions A.l-A.120


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Contents
Preface ix
1. Introduction to Vectors 1.1-1.53
Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three-Dimensional Space 1.1
Coordinates of a Point in Space l.l
Distance between Two Points 1.2
Section Fonnula -. 1.2
Evolution of Vector Concept 1.3
Definition 1.4
Position Vector · 1.4
Direction Cosines 1.4
Type's of Vectors 15
Zero Vector 1.5
Unit Vector 1.5
Coinitial Vectors 1.5
Equal Vectors 1.5
Negative of a Vector 1.5
Free Vectors' 1.5
Localised Vectors 1.5
Parallel Vectors L6
Like and Unlike Vectors 1.6
Collinear Vectors 1.6
Non-collinear Vectors 1.6
Coplanar Vectors 1.6
Addition ofVectors 1.6
Properties of Vector Addition 1.8
Components of a vector 1.11
Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 1.14
Vector Joining Two Points 1.15
Section Fonnula 1.17
Internal Division 1.17
External Division 1.18
Vector along the Bisector of given Two Vectors 1.25
Linear Combination, Linear Independence and Linear Dependence 1.28
Linear Combination 1.28
Linearly Independent 1.28
Linearly Dependent 1.29
.Etercises 1.40 ·
Subjective Type 1.40
Single Correcl Answer Type 1.41
Multiple Correct Answers Type 1.44
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vi Contents

Reasoning Type 1.46


Linked Comprehension Type 1.47
Matrix-Match Type 1.49
Integer Type 1.50
Archives 1.50
Answers Key 1.52
2. Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical App.Ucations 2.1-2.91
Dot .(Scalar) Product 2.1
Physical Interpretation of Scalar Product 2.1
Geometrica.l Interpretation of ~calar Product 2.1
Properties of Dot (Scalar) ·Product 2.2
Applications of Dot (Scalar) Product 2.3
Finding Angl.e between Two Vectors 2.3
Cosine Rule Using Dot Product ... 2.3
Finding Components of a Vector b Along and Perpendicular to Vector or a
Resolving a Given Vector in the Direction of Given Two Perpendi~ular Vectors 2.4
Vector (or Cross) Product of Two Vectors 2.18
Propenies of Cross Product 2.19
Physical Interpretation of Cross Product as a Moment of Force 2.19
Geometric Interpretation of Cross Product 2.20
Scalar Triple Product 2.33
Geometrical Interpretation 2.34
Volume of Tetrahedron 2.34
Properties of Scalar.Triple Product 2.35
Vector Triple Product 2.42
Lagrange's Identity 2.42
Reciprocal System of Vectors 2.50
Exercises 2.55
Subjective JYpe 2.55
Single Correct Answer Type 2.56
Multiple Correct Answers JYpe 2.67
Reasoning Type 2.72
Linked Comprehension Type 2.73
Matrix-Match Type 2.77
integer Type 2.80
Archives 2.81
Answers Key 2.90
3. Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.1-3.80
Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios 3.1
Direction Ratios 3. 1
Equation of Straight Line Passing Through a Given Point and Parallel to a Given Vector 3.8
VectorFonn 3.8
Cartesian Form 3.9
Equation of Line Passing Through Two Given Points 3.9
Vector Fonn 3.9
Cartesian Fonn 3.9
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Contents vii

Angle between Two Lines 3.14


Perpendicular Distance of a Poin! from a Line 3 .~ 6
Foot of Perpendicular from a Point on the Given Lin~ 3.16
Image of a Point in the Given Line 3.17
Shortest distance between Two Lines · 3.18
Shortest Distance between Two Non-coplanar Lines 3.19
Condition for Lines to Intersect 3.20
Distance between Two Parallel Lines 3.20
Plane 3.26
Equation of a Plane in Normal Form 3.26
Vector Equation of a Plane Passing through a Given Point and Nonnal to a Given Vector 3.28
Equation of a Plane Passing through Three Given Points . 3.29
a
Equation of the Plane that Pass~s through Point A with Position Vector and
c
is Parallel to Given Vectors band · . 3.31
Equation of a Plane Passing through a Given Point and Line , 3.32 ·~
Intercept Form of a Plane 3.32
Equation of a Plane Passing through Two Parallel Lines 3.33
Equation of a Plane Parallel to a Given Plane 3.33
Angle between Two Planes 3.33
Condition for Perpendicularity 3.34
Condition for Parallelism 3.34
Line of Intersection of Two Planes 3.35
Angle between a Line and a Plane 3.39
Equation of a Plane Passing through the Line oflnt~rsection of Two Planes 3.40
Cartesian Fonn 3.41
Distance of a Point from a Plane 3.42
Vector Form 3.42
Cartesian Form 3.43
Image of a Point in a Plane 3.44
Distance between Parallel Planes 3.44
Equation of a Plane Bisecting the Angle between Two Planes 3.46
Bisector of the Angle between the Two Planes Containing the Origin 3.47
Bisector of the Acute and Obtuse Angles between Two Planes 3.48
Two Sides of a PJane 3.48
Regular Tetrahedron 3.50
Angle between Any Edge and Face Not Containing that Edge of Regular Tetrahedron 3.50
Angle between the Two Faces of Regular Tetrahedron 3.51.
Height of Regular Tetrahedron 3.52
'
Spheres 3.52
Equation of a Sphere 3.52
Diameter Form of the Equation of a Sphere 3.55
Exercises 3.58
Subjective Type 3.58
Single Correct Answer Type 3.59
Multiple Correct Answers Type 3.68
Reasoning Type 3.70
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viii Contents

Linked Comprehension Type · 3.71


Mairix-Match Type 3.73
Integer Type 3.75
Archives 3.75
Answers Key 3.79
Appendix: Solution~ A.l- A.120
Chapter 1 A. l
Concept Application A. I
Exercises A.S
Chapter 2 A.25
Concept Application A.25
Exercises A.32
Chapter 3 A.83
Co~c~pt Application A.83
Exercises J\ .90 ·
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Preface
hile the paper-setting pattern and assessment methodology have been revised many times over and

W newer criteria devised to help develop more aspirant-friendly engineering entrance tests, the need
to standardize the selection processes and their outcomes at the national level has always been felt.
·The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) to India's prestigious engineering institutions (IlTs, HITs. NJTs, ISM,
USERs, and other engineering colleges) aims to serve as a common national-level engineering entrance test.
thereby eliminating the need for aspiring engineers to sit through multiple entrance tests.
While the methodology and scope of an engineering entrance test are prone to change, there are two basic
objectives that any test needs to serve:
1. The objective to test an aspirant's caliber, aptitude, and attitude for the engineering field and profession.
2. The need to test an aspirant's grasp and understanding of the concepts of the subjects of study and their
applicability at the grassroots level.
Students appearing for various engineering entrance examinations cannot bank solely on conventional
shortcut measures to crack the entrance examination. Conventional techniques alone are not enough as most
of the questions asked in the examination are based on concepts rather than on just formulae. Hence, it is
necessary for students appearing for joint entrance examination to not only gain a thorough knowledge and
understanding of the concepts but also develop problem-solving skills to be able to rei at~ their understanding
of the subject to real-life applications based on these concepts.
· This series of books is designed to help students to get an alJ-round grasp of the subject so as to be able
to make its useful application in all its contexts. It uses a right mix of fundamental principles and concepts,
illustrations which highlight the application of these concepts, and exercises for practice. The objective of
each book in this serie.s is to help students develop their problem-solving skills/accuracy, the ability to reach
the crux of the matter, and the speed to get answers in limited time. These books feature aiJ types of prob-
lems asked in the examination-be it MCQs (one or more than one correct), assertion-reason type, matching
column type, comprehension type. or integer type questions. These problems have skillfully been set to help
students develop a sound problem-solving methodology.
Not discounting the need for sldllcd and guided practice, the material in the books has been enriched
with a number of fully solved concept application exercises so that' every !'tep in learning is ensured for the
understanding and application of the subject. This whole series of books adopts a multi-faceted approach to
mastering concepts by including a variety of exercises asked in the examination. A mix of questions helps
stimulate and strengthen multi-dimensional probJem-solving ski1ls in an aspirant.
It is imperative to note that this book would be as profound and useful as you want it to be. Therefore,
in order to get maximum benefit from this book. we recommend the followi~g study plan for each chapter.
Step 1: Go through the entire opening discussion about the fundamentals and concepts.
Step 2: After learning the theory/concept. follow the illustrative examples to get an understanding of the
thoory/conccpt.
Overall the whole content of the book is an amalgamation of the theme of mathematics with ahead-of-time
problems, which equips the students with the knowledge of the field and paves a confident path for them to
accomplish success in the JEE.
With best wishes!
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Introduction to Vectors

COORDINATE AXES AND COORDINATE PLANES IN


THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE
Consider three planes intersecting at a point 0 such that these Z
three planes arc mutually perpendicular to each other as shown X'
in the following figure.
These three planes intersect along the lines X' OX, Y' OY and
ZOZ, called the x-. y- and z·axes, respectively. 'we may note
that these lines are mutually perpendicular to each other. These Y' Y
lines constitute the rectangular coordinate system. The planes
XOY, YOZ and ZOX, called respectively, the XY-plane, the
YZ-plane and the ZX-plane, are known as the three coordinate
planes. We take the XOY plane as the plane of the paper and the X
line Z OZ as perpendicular to the plane XOY. Jf the plane of the Z'
paper is considered to be horizontal, then the line Z'OZ will Fig. 1.1
be vertical. The distances measured from XY-plane upwards in
the direction of OZ arc taken as positive and those measured downwards in the direction of OZ are taken as
negative. Similarly, the distances measured to the right of ZX-plane along OY arc taken as.positive, to the left
ofZX-plane and along 0 Y' as negative, in front of the YZ-plane along OX as positive and to the back of it along
OX' as negative. The point 0 is called the origin of the coordinate system. The three coordinate planes divide
the space into eight parts known as octants. These octants can be named as XOYl, X'OYZ, X' OY'Z, XOY'Z,
XOYZ', X'OYl', X'OY'Z' andXOY'Z' and arc denoted by I, II, JIJ, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII, respectively.

Coordinates of a Point in Space



z

P(x,;y, z)
z ...
.:z

X
~----H-:

...... )~.. . ..
M
..
.
(x, y, 0)
c-:--• r

X
(i) (ii)
Ffg. 1.2
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1.2 Vectors and .30 Geometry

Consider a point Pin space, we drop a perpendicula~ PM on the XY-plane with Mas the foot of this
perpendicular. Then, from point M, we draw a perpendicular ML to the x-axis, meeting it at L. Let OL be x,
LM bey and MP be z. Then x, y and z arc called the x-, y- and z-coordinates, respccti vely, of point P in the
space. In Fig. 1.2, we may note that the point P(x, y, z)'lics in the octant XOYl and so all x, y, z arc positive.
lf P was in any other octant, the signs of x, y and z would change accordingly. Thus, to each point Pin the
space-, there corresponds an ordered triplet (x, y, E) of real numbers.
We observe that if P(x, y, z) is any point in the space, then x, y and z arc perpendicular distances from Y2,
ZX and XY planes, respectively.

1Note: The coordinates of the origin 0 arc (0, 0, 0). The coordinates of any point on the x-axis will be (x, 0,
0) and the coordinates of any point in the YZ-planc will be (0, y, z).
~ . - . , ...
The sign of the coordinates of a point determines the octant in which the point lies. The following table
shows the signs of the coordinates in the eight octants:

Octant Coordinates I II III lV v VJ VII Vlll


X + - - + + - - +
y + + - - + + - -
z + + + + - - - -
D;stance between Two Points
LetP(x 1, y 1.z1) and Q(x2,y2, z2) be two points referred to a system z
of rectangular axes OX, OY and OZ. Through the points P and
Q draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes so as to fonn a
rectangular parallelepiped with one diagonal PQ.
Now, since LPAQ is a right angle, it follows tha~ in triangle
PAQ,
(i)
Also, triangle ANQ is right-angled with LANQ being the right
angle. Therefore,
A(/- = AN2 + N(f (ii)
From (i) and (ii), we have X
2
P(f- = PA + AN2 + NQ'- Fig. 1.3

Now PA·- y2 - y 1, AN- x2 -x1 and NQ =z2 - z 1


Hence, P(f- = (x2- x,)2 + U'2- y,)2 + (z2- 21)2
~

PQ = ~(x2- Xt) + (Y2- Y1l + (z2- 21)


2 2
This gives us the distance between two points (x 1, y 1, z1) and (x2,y2, z2) .
ln particular, ifx 1 =y 1 =z 1 - 0, i.e., point Pis origin 0 , then OQ= ~xi+ y~ + z~ , which gives the distance
between the O!igin 0 and any point Q(x2, y 2, z2).
Section Formula
Let the two given points be P(x 1, y 1, z1) and Q(x2, y 2, z2). Let point R (x, y, z) divide PQ in the given ratio
m : n internally. Draw PL, QM and RN perpendicular to the ..\rr-planc. Obviously PL 11 RN II OM and the feet
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Introduction to Vectors 1.3

of these perpendiculars Jie in theXY-plane. Through point R draw a line z


ST parallel to Jinc LM. Line ST will intersect line LP externally at point Q
Sand line MQ at T, as shown in Fig. 1.4.
Also note that quadrilaterals LNRS and NMTR are parallelograms.
The triangles PSR and QTR are similar. Therefore, p
m PR SP SL- PL NR- PL z -z1
- = - =-=
n QR QT QM -TM
=QM -NR
=--...:....
z2 -z
~
.. _
£-
11lZz + nz1
-~-...!..

m+n
Hence, the coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment
X
joining two points P(x1, y 1, z 1) and Q(x2, y 2, z2) internally in the ratio
mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 d mz 2 + nz1 Fig. 1.4
m: narc , an ·
m+n m+n m+n
If point R divides PQ externally in the ratio m : n, then its coordinates are obtained by replacing n with - n
. mx2 - nx1 my2 - nv1 mz - nz1
so that the coordmates become • • and 2 •
m- n m-n m-n
- .-- - ..._ .. -·....
· Notes:
2
1. If R is the midpoint of PQ, then m : n - 1:1; so x :::: x1 + Xz , y ;:: Yt + Yz , z = Zt + 2 •
2 2 2
These are the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment joining P(x 1, y 1, z1) and Q(x2 ,y2, z2).
m .
2. Tite coordinates of the point R which divides PQ in the ratio k: 1 are obtained by taking k = - , which ~
.
are g1ven y
b (k.t2+x, /Q'2+y, k=2+zl)
k+ • k+ , k + .
n t
1 1 1
3. If vertices of triangle are A(x1, y 1, z 1), B(x2, y 2, z2) and C(x3 , y 3, z3), and AB = c, BC ==a, AC = b, then

centr01.d of t he. tnang . ( xl + x2 + x3 'v, + Y2 + YJ zl + Zz + zl ) and tts


. Ie IS . mccnter
. .
JS
3 , 3 , 3
ax1 + bx2 + cx3 , ay1 + by2 + cy3 , az1 + bz 2 + cz3 )
( a+b+c a+b+c a +b+c
..
EVOLUTION OF VECTOR CONCEPT
In our day·to·day life, we come across many queries such as 'What is your height?' and 'How should a football
player hit the ball to give a pass to another player ofhis team?' Observe that a possible answer to the first query
may be 1.5 m, a quantity that involves only one value (magnitude) which is a real number. Such quantities are
called scalars. However, an answer to the second query is a quantity (called force) which involves muscular
strength (magnitude) and direction (in which another player is positioned). Such quantities are called vectors.
In mathematics, physics and engineering, we frequently come across with both types of quantities, namely
scalar quantities such as length, mass, time, distance, speed, area, volume~ temperature, work, money, voltage,
density and resistance and vector quantities such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum
and electric field intensity. ,
Let '/'be a straight line in a plane or a three-dimensional space. This line can be given two directions by
means of arrowheads. A line with one of these directions prescribed is called a directed Jine [Fig. I .5 (i}, (ii)].
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1.4 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Now observe that if we restrict the 1ine I to the I :' l .'


1
line segment AB, then a magnitude is prescribed
on line (i) with one of the two directions, so that
we obtain a directed line segment, Fig. 1.5 (iii).
Thus, a directed line segment has magnit:Ude as
well as direction.
·Definition : :
..
A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction (i) (ii) (iii)
is called a vector. Fig. 1. 5 ·
Notice that a directed line segment is a vector
~ ' .... ----+ ....
[Fig. 1.5(iii)], denoted as AB or simply as a, and read a& 'vector AB ' or •vector a ' .
---+
Point A from where vector -:tiJ starts is called its initial point, and point B where it ends is called its tenninal
point. The distance between initial and terminal points of a vector is called the magnitude (or length) of the
----+ .... '
vector, denoted as I AB I or Ia I or a. The arrow indicates the direction of the vector.
Position Vector
Consider a point Pin space having coordinates (x,y, z) with respect to the origin 0 (0, 0, 0). Then, the vector
. .
----+ .
OP having 0 and Pas its initial and te~inal points, respectively, is called the position vector of the point .P
. . ---+ .... ---+ ~ 2 2 2
with respect to 0 . Using the distance fonnula, the magnitude of O.P (or r ) is.given by I O.P I= X +Y + Z •

z z
A
B

P(x ,y,z) A

X (i) X (ii)
Fig. 1.6

.... ........
In practice, the position vectors of points A, B, C, ·etc., with respect to origin 0 are denoted by a, b , c ,
etc., respectively [Fig. l.~(ii)]. ·

Direction Cosines
---+ ....
Consider the position vector OP (or r) of a point P (x, y, z). The angles a, {3 and r made by the vector
....
r with the positive directions of x-, y - and z-axes, respectively, are called -its direction angles. The cosine
....
values of these angles, i.e., cos a, cos f3 and cosy, are called direction ~osines of the vector r and are usually
denoted by 1, m and n, respectively.
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Introduction to Vectors 15

From Fig. 1.7, one may note that triangle OAP is right angled, z
-+
and in it, we have cos a= xlr (r stands for I r 1). Similarly, from
the right-angle.d triangles OBP and OCP, we may write cos
r
fj c: ylr and cos c zlr. Thus, the coordinates of point p may also
be expressed as (/r, mr, nr). The numbers lr, mr and nr, proportional
to the direction cosines, are called the direction ratios of vector
-+
.
. p
A• ".".. . ..••••• •• ... . .··
r and are denoted by a, b and c, respectively (see this .topic in
detail in Chapter 3). X

TYPES OF VECTORS ftg. 1.7

Zero Vector
A vector whose initial and terminal points coincide is called a zero vector (or nuH vector) and is denoted as
......
0 . A zero vector cannot be assigned a definite direction as it has zero magnitude or, alternatively, it may be
~~

regarded as having any direction. The vectors AA , BB represent the zero vector.
Unit Vector ·
A vector of unit magnitude is called a unit vector. Unit vectors are denoted by small letters with a cap on them.
1\ ...... 1\ -+ ......
Thus, a is unit vector of a, where Ia I = 1, i.e., if vector a is divided by magnitude I a I, then we get a unit
.......
a " ............ "
-+
vector in the direction of a . Thus, -::;- = a ¢::) a =Ia Ia , where a" is the unit
vector in the direction of ~.
. Ia I
Coinitial Vectors
Two or more vectors having the same initial point are called coinitial vectors.
Fig. 1.8
Equal Vectors
.... .......
Two vectors a and b are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude and direction regardless of the
....... .......
positions of their initial points. They are written as a = b.
Negative of a Vector ~

A vector whose m~gnitude is the same as that o~ a given vector (say, AB ), but whose direction is opposite
~ ~

to that of it, is called negative of the given vector. For example,' vector BA is negative of vector AB and
~ ~

is written as BA = - AB .
Free Vectors • ~ .
Vectors whose initial points are not specitie4 are called free vectors.
Localised Vectors
A vector drawn parallel to a given vector, but through a specified point as the initial point, is called a localised vector.
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1.6 Vectors and'30 Geometry

-4
Parallel Vectors a
.. ._ /2
O• ::::} •A
Two or more vectors are said to be parallel if they have the same support or c• •B
-7
parallel support. · E• llllc •D
Parallel vectors may have equal or unequal magnitudes and their directions Ftg. 1.9
may be same or opposite as shown in Fig. 1.9.

like and Unlike Vectors


Two parallea vectors having the same direction are called like vectors [s.ee Fig. l.lO(i)).
Two parallel vectors having opposite directions are called unlike vectors [see Fig. l .lO(ii)].

-
__..,
a
a B
0 A A
__.., ~

b b
B c D c
(I) (ii)
Fig. 1.10

Collinear Vectors
-7 -7

-
are different, we can find some scalar A for which a - -·
Vectors a and b are collinear ifthey have same direction or are parallel or anti-parallel. Since their magnitudes
= A b . If A> 0, ~
a and ~
b are in the same direction; if
A< 0, a and ~b are in the opposite directions. Collinear vectors are often called dependent vectors.
Non-collinear Vectors

-+ .
-
Two vectors acting in differe~t directions are called non-collinear vectors. Non-collinear
vectors are often called independent vectors. Here we cannot write vector a in terms
~
of b , though they have the same magnitude. However, we can find component of one b
vector in the direction of the other. Two non-collinear vectors describe plane. Fig. 1.11

~opla~ar Vectors
Two parallel vectors or non-collinear vectors are always coplanar or two vectors
- ~ . -+
a and b in different directions determine unique plane in space. Now if vector c
-7 -+ -+~-

lies in the plane of a !'lnd b , vectors a , b, c are coplanar vectors. Generally more
than two vectors are coplanar if all are in the same plane.
Three non-coplanar vectors describe space. Fig. 1.12

ADDITION OF VECTORS c
---+
A vector AB simply means the displacement from point A to point
B. Now consider a situation where a boy moves from A to Band then
from B to C . The net . boy from point A to
. displacement made by the
---+
point Cis given by vector AC and is exjlressed as A
Fig. 1.13
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Introduction to Vectors 1.7

---+ --+ ---+


AC- AB + BC •
This is known as the triangle law of vector addition.
~ . ~

In general, if we have two vectors a and b [Fig. l .l4(i)], then to add them, they are positioned such that
the initial point of one coincides with the tenninal point of the other [Fig: 1.14(ii)].

For example, in Fig. l .14(ii}, we have shifted vector b without changing its magnitude and direction so
~ -+ -+
that its initial point coincides with the terminal point of a. Then the vector a + b , represented by the third
~ -+
side AC of the triangle A.BC, gives us the sum (or resultant) of the vectors a and b, i.e., in triangle ABC
[Fig. 1.14 (il)], ~e have

-+ ---+ ----+
AB + BC- AC
-. __._.
Since AC =- CA , from the above equation, we have
----+ ----+ --+ -+ ~

AB + BC + CA = AA - 0
This means that when the sides of a triangle are taken in order, it leads to zero resultant as the initi'll and
terminal points get coincided [Fig. 1.14 (iii)].
---+ . -+
Now, construct a vector BC so that its magnitude is same as that of vector BC , but_the direction is
---+
opposite to that of BC (Fig. 1.14 (iii)], i.c.,
--+ --+
BC :;; -BC'
Then, on applying triangle Jaw from Fig. J. J4(iii), we have
-. --+ ----+ -----+ ----+ ~ -+
AC' = AB + BC' = AB + (- BC)- a - b
---+ -+ -+
Vector AC' is said to represent the difference of a and b .
Now, consider a boat going from one bank of a river to the other in a direction perpendicular to the flow of
the river. Then, it is acted upon by two velocity vectors-one is the velocity imparted to the boat by its engine
and the other one is the velocity of the flow of river water. Under the simultaneous influence of these two
velocities, the boat actually starts travelling with a different velocity. To have a precise idea about the effective
speed and direction (i.e., the resultant velocity) of the boat, we have the following law of vector addition.
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1.8 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-+
B .•..... . ....~ ....... ... .. + . C

...1-
.
..
'-+
:' b
.
...
a~-----------------.A
.-+
a
Ffg. 1.15
_. _.
Jfwe have two vectors a and b represented by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram in magnitude.
. _. _.
, and direction (Fig. 1.1S), then their sum a + b is represented in magnitude a~d direction by the diagonal
of the parallelogram through their common point. This is known as the parallelogram law of vector addition.

Notes:
1. From figure, using the triangle law, one may note that
----+ __._.. ---+
OA + AC = OC
----+ ----+ ---+ ---+ ---+
or OA + OB = OC (":- A C = OB )
which is the parallelogram Jaw. Thus, we may say that the two laws of vector addition arc equivalent
to each other.
--._. ---+ ----+ I

2. If OA and AC arc collinear, their sum is still OC . Although O••-~..~-A••---t•---e• C ·


'in this case we do not have a triangle or a parallelogram in F'19· 1.1 6
their usual sense.
3. As from the figure:
- --+ ---+ ---+
OA + A1A2 + .... + An-tAn == OA,, by the polygon law of addition.

Ftg. 1.17 _____ j


- - - -· . ---- ---"
Properties of Vector Addition
_. _. -+ _.
1. a + b = b + a (commutative property)
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Introduction to Vectors 1.9

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
2. (a+b)+c = a+(b+c) (associative property)
-+ -+ -+
3. a+O=a (additive identity)
-+ -+ -+
4. a+(-a)=O (additive inverse)
..... -+ -+ ..... ..... '-+ -+ -+
s. 1a + b I~ 1a I+I b 1and Ia - b I;::: Ia 1-1 b I
r·-·- --- - . . . . - · ··- · .. . -· ··- - - - . . ·-- - -- ---~-.

·Illustration 1.1
~
If vector o+ 'b bisects the angle between aand b, then prove that 1a1= 1'b 1.
Sol. We know that vector a + b is along the diagonal ofthe parallelogram whose adjacent sides are vectors a
a
and b . Now if + b bisects the angle between vectors and b , th~n the parallelogram must be a rhombus; a
- -
hence, Ia I =-lb 1.
1- . . - - .. _ - - ·*'~ . ·- . - . -· -·-- - - - ·.. ·--- .. . ...... - - . - - -- · - -· ,
=
: Jl.lustration 1.2 If AO + OB BO + OC, then prove that B is the midpoint of A C. 1

Sol. - ---
AO+OB=BO+OC
~
- -
A.B=BC
- -
Thus, vectors AB and BC are collinear
=> Points A, B, C are collinear
Also IABI=IBCI
B is the midpoint of A C
·- ___.-- ··-- . .
--+ ---+
Illustration 1.3 . ABCDE is a pentagon. Prove that the resultant of forces AB , AE, BC , DC, ED ·
I
. --· . - .- ... · -··- - - ·-.. .
___. ___. -·
---+ -
. and AC is 3 AC . . ---·
..... ---+ --+ ---+ ___. --+ -+
Sol. R = AB + AE + BC + DC + ED + AC
---) ___. -+ ---+ ---+ ___.
= ( AB + BC) + (AE + ED+ DC) + AC
---+ --+ ---+ ___.
= AC + AC + AC=3AC
.. -· . --· _,._ -- . - - - - - - · - ·- ... -·-· .
--==+''1 ~-

· Illustration 1.4 Prove that the resultant of two forces acting at point 0 and represented by OB and OC l
: is given by 2 OD, where D is the midpoint of BC. _ .. ·-···- . . ·- - - J
-+ --+ ----. A
Sol. R = OB +· OC
--+ ---+ ---+ --+
= (OD + DB)+(OD +DC)
___. ---+ ___. ---+ ...... ----+
= 2 OD + (DB + DC) = 2 OD + 0 = 2 OD
--+ ---+
(Since D is the midpoint of BC, we have DB =-DC)
Ftg. 1.18
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1.10 Vectors and 30 Geometry

- - - - - ·- - ---- :t

~
----·--~ ~ -... - - . - " " ' I(
lustration t.SProve that the sum of three vectors detcnnincd . A
y_~-mcdia!l~ ~fa ~ri~n~Le dirc_cted_!r~m the verti~-ejJ! ~~!'2: _j
--+ - ~ ~

Sol. AB + AC =2AD
--+ --+ --+
BC + BA =2 BE
--+ --+ --+
CA + CB = 2 CF D
Fig. 1.19
Adding, we get
--+ --+ --+ ~ --+ --+ --+ --+ --+
(AB + BA)+(AC + CA) + (BC + CB) "'"2 (AD+ BE+ CF)
--. ... ... --+ ~ --+
or 0+0 + 0 = 2 (AD + BE + CF)
--+ ~ --+ -t .
or AD + BE + CF -= 0
r---------------------·----------
ABC a
Illustration 1.6 P BC. U PQ
is triangle and any point on
--~- --- ~ -~---- ::.=.:+ ·- - . - ..
is the sum of AP + PB + PC , show
that ABQC ·is a parallelogram and Q~ therefore, is-a fixed ·point.
- -- . ·~- - . ------ .. ;-

----+ --+ --+ --+


Sol. Here PQ = AP + PB + PC
--+ --+ --+ --+
PQ - PC =A AP + PB
--+ --+ --+ --+
PQ + CP =A AP + PB
--+ --+ A
CQ = AB ~CQ=ABandCQIIAB Fig. 1.20

Therefore, ABQC is a parallelogram.


But A, Band~ are given to be fixed points and ABQC is a parallelogram. Therefore, Q is a fixed point.
- --- ---.. --- . . - .. · -·
---~-- - --
__..,. -4

Illustration 1.7 Two forces AB and AD are acting at the vertex A of a quadrilateral ABCD and two '
--+ ----+ --+
forces CB and CD at C. Prove that their resultant is given by 4 EF, where E and Fare the midpoints .
of AC and BD, tespectivcly.
---- --- - - --------.
~ --+ --+ D
Sol. AB + AD = 2 AF , where F is the midpoint of BD. ...,....._ _ _ _ _ _.__ _ _ _ _ _.......,
--+ ---+ --+
CB +CD =2CF
--+ --+ --+ --+ --+ --+
AB +AD+ CB +CD = 2(AF.+ CF)
--+ --+
=- 2(FA + FC)
Fig. 1.21
--+
=- 2 [2 FE] , where E is the midpoint of A C
--+
= 4EF
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Introduction lo Vectors 1.11

. .. , .. _ __ ·--·<o • - ·----- ~-- --· - - - - - -- -- . - · - -- ~ ~

~ i
Illustration 1.8 If 0 ( 0) ) is the circumcentre and CY the orthocentre of a triangle ABC, then prove tha~ :
---t --+ -- --+
i. OA + OB + oc = 00 I

- --+ ---+ --+


ii. 0' A + 0'B + 0' C ;;;; 20' 0
--+ - ---+ --+ ---t
....
iii. AO'+O'B+O'C =2AO= AP
where AP is the diameter through A of the circumcircle. ·.-,
. . I

Sol. 0 is the circumcentre, which is the intersection of the A


right bisectors of the sides of the triangle, and 0' is the
orthoccntcr, which is the point of intersection of altitudes
drawn from the vertices. Also, from geometry, we know that
20D=ACY.
--+ ---+
20D = AO' (i)
---+ ---+ ---+ --+
i. To prove: OA + OB + OC;;;; 00'
---+ ---+ --+ -
Now OJJ + OC = 2 OD = A 0' Fig. 1.22
---+ ___, --+ ---+ ---+ ---+
~ OA + OB + OC = OA + AO' = 00' (by (i)]
- --- --+ ---+
ii. To prove: 0' A + 0' B + 0' C = 200'

L.H.S.,. 2 --+
DO + 2 0---
'D [by (i)]
---+ ---+ ---+
== 2(0'D +DO)= 20'0

- --+ - --+ --+


iii. To prove: AO'+O'B+O'C;;;;;2AO = AP
---+ - --+ ---+
L.H.S. = 2 AO'- AO' + 0' B + O'C
--+ - --+ --+
= 2 A0' + (0' A + 0' B + 0 ' C
---+ - --+
= 2AO' + 20'0= 2 AO
---+
= AP (where AP is the diameter through A of the circumcircle).

COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR z
Let us take the points A(l , 0, 0), B(O, I, 0) and C(O, 0, I) on the x-axis, y-axis and
z-axis, respectively. "k C(O, 0, 1)

Then, clearly I-OA I= 1, I-OBI = I and I--+


OB I = l j
" y
0
----+ --+ ___. B(O, I, 0)
The vectors OA , 08 and OC , each having magnitude l, arc called unit
A(l , 0, 0)
" 1\ "
vectors along the axes OX, OY and OZ, respectively) and are denoted by i, j and k, x
respectively. fig. 1.23
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1.12 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-----t z
Now, consider the position vector OP of a point
P(x, y, z) as shown in Fig. 1.24. LetP 1 be the foot of
the perpendicular from P on the·plane XOY.
We, thus, see that P 1P is parallel to the z-axis. As
1\ 1\ 1\

i , j and k are the unit vectors along 'the x-, y..: and P(x,y,z

z-axes, respectively, and by the definition of the zk"' ·


----+ ....!..--+ .1\ 1\
yj
~oordinates of P, we have J'..P =OR = zk.

Similarly, OS
---+
=yj
"
and OQ
---+
= xi .
1\ ..
-----t ----+ ---+
Therefore, it follows that 0~ ::; OQ + Ofl
1\ 1\ ---+ ---+ ----+ /\ 1\/\
=xi + y j ·and OP ::; 0.11 + PtP =xi + y j + z k X
Fig. 1.24
Hence, the position vector of P with reference to
0 is given by
----+ -t 1\ " 1\
1 OP I (or r) =xi+ y j + z k
-+
This form of any vector is called its component form. Here, x, y and z are called the scalar components of r,
1\ .1\ " -t
and xi, y j and z k are called the vector components of r along the respective axes. Sometimes x, y and z
are also called rectangular components.
-t .1\ 1\ 1\

The length of any vector r =xi + y j + z k is readily determined by applying the Pythagoras theorem
twice. We note that in the right-angled triangle OQPh
___. ---+ ____..... I
IO~ 1= IOQI +IQ~ 1 = vx2 + )'2
2 2

And in the right-angled triangle Off P, we have

_.. A A A

Hence, the length of any vector r =xi + yj + zk is given by


~ 1\ 1\'1\ ~
Ir I = lx i + y j + z kl = x 2 + y 2 + z2

Notes:
~ ~ .1\ 1\ " 1\ 1\ 1\

If a and b are any two vs:ctors given in the component form a 1 ; + a 2 j + a3 k and ~ i + 'b2 ) + ~ k ,
respectively, then
. /

i. The sum (or resultant) of vectors a and b is given by


... ~

-t .... 1\ 1\ • .1\

a + b = (a 1 + b1) i + (a2 + b2) j + (a3 + b3) k


-t -+
ii. The difference between vectors a and b is given by
,.... ~ A 1\ 1\

a- b = (a 1 - b2) i + (a2 - b2) j + (a 3 - b3) k


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Introduction to Vectors 1.13


----------------------------------------------------------------
-+ ~

iii. Vectors a and b are parallel if and only if


-t -+ A A A

b = Aa = (Al1a i + (A.a2) j + (Al13) k


The addition of vectors and the multiplication of a vector by a scalar together give the following distributive
laws:
-+ -+
Let a and b be any two vectors, and k and m be any scalars. Then
-+ -+ -+
i. k a+ m a = (k + m) a
-+ -+
ii. k (m a):: (A7") a
-t -+ ~ -+
iii. k(a+b)=ka+kb

Remarks
-+ -+
i. One may observe that whatever be the value of A, vector Aa is always collinear to vector t;1 • In
-t -+
fact, two vectors a and b are col1inear if and only if there exists a non-zero scalar A. such that
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ A A A
b = il a . If the vectors a and b are given in the component fonn, i.e., a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k and
-t A A A
b :: ~ i + b2 j + ~ k , then
A A A A A A
q i + b2 j + b3 k = A. (a 1 i + a2 j +a 3 k)
A A A A A A

b 1 i + b2 j + ~ k = (M7 1) i + (A.a2 ) j + (A.a3 ) k


b1 = IW 1, b2.= ila2, b3 = A.a3
!!J_ = b2 = !2_ = A.
-) A 1\ 1\ -+
ii. If a= a, i + a 2 j + a3 k, then a 1, a2 , a 3 are also called direction ratios of a .
• A A 1\

iii. In case it is given that /, m, n are direction cosines of a vector, then I i + m j + n k = (cos a)
A 1\ 1\

i +(cos /3) j +(cos r) k is the unit vector in the direction of that vector where a, f3 and r arc the
angles which the vector makes with the x-, y- and z-axes, respectively.

Illust ration 1.9 A unit vector of modulus 2 is equally inclined to x- and y ..axes at an angle rr/3 . Find the
length of projection of the vector on the z-axis.

Sol. Given that the vector is inclined at an angle rr/3 with both x- andy-axes. Then
I
cos a = cos {3 =-
2
Also we know that cos 2 a+ cos 2 ,B + cos 2·r = L Therefore,
2 J
cos r:;:
2
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1.14 Vectors and 30 Geometry

I
or cos r = ± ,-;;
v.2
Thus, the given vector is

2(cos ai +cos ,8} +cos yk) =2(~ + ~ ± ~)= i + j±.J2k


Hence, the length of projection of vector on the z-~xis is fi units.
. ....,
Illustration 1.10 lfthe projections of vector a on x-, y- and z-axes are 2, 1 and 2 units, respectively, find
_ _.. ,. __
the angle at which vector ;.....-,.-'-·
is inclined
.,_ ,,,.___~

....,
to the..z-axis.
.---- --- -
.;.... ........... .. ,_
- . ~- - ________ _ ___ J
___..:..._

Sol. Since projections of vector a on x-, y- and z-axes at:e 2, 1 and ~ units, respectively, we have
I
-+ "'
Vector a :::; ~; + j + ~k

1;1=~22 +12 +2 2 =3
Then co·s y= ~ (where y is the angle of vector ; with the Z-!}Xis), i.e.,
3
r ::;cos-1 32
MULTIPLICATION OF A VECTOR BY A SCALAR
-+ -+ -t
Let a be a vector and A. a scalar. Then the product of vector a by scalar ·A., denoted 'by A. a , is called the
-+ -+ -+ ....
multiplication of vector a by the scalar .A. Note that Aa is also a vector, collinear to vector a . Vector 4 a
-+
has the direction same (or opposite) as that of vector a if the value of .it is positive (or negative). Also, the
-+ -+
magnitude of vec·tor Aa is I ~ I times the magnitude of vector a , i.e.,
-+ -+
IAai:::;I.AIIal
. .
A geometric visualization of multiplication of a vector by a scalar i~ given in the fol1owing figure.

Fig. 1.2S
~ -+ -+
When J~ =- 1, A. a ==- a , which is a vector having magnitude equal to the magnitude of a and direction
-+ •
. opposite to.that of the direction of a .
-+ ....
Vector - a is called the negative (or additive inverse) of vector a and we always have
.... -+ -+ .... ~

a +(-a)::;(-a)+a:::; 0 .
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Introduction lo Vectors· 1.15 ..

. 1 -+ -+
Also, if A. = -:::;- , provided a ¢ 0, i.e., a is not a null vector, then
Ia I
-+ -+ J-+
IA.al=llllal=-::;-lal = 1
Ia I
Illustration 1.11 Find a vector i~-tb;d;-;;~;i-~n of vec;~;·Si ~-} + 2k which has magnitud~~~~~) 1
.. ---------- ... _.. .. . . . . .. ..- --·--·-- . . . .. - ---- ·- --· ·----. . ., ,_ -- - ------ -- . .. - -~
~ ,.. ,.. ,..
Sol. Let ·a= Si- j + 2k

I;I=Js 2 +(-1)2 +22 =J2s+l+4=.f3o


~ 4"11 ,. ~

..
,.,
a- - --~=--
a Si - j + 2k
-,;, - .J30
Hence, the vector in the direction of vector si - J+ 2k which has mag~itude 8 units is .given by
sa~s(si -li2k)~ :0 i -}a J:o k j+

VECTOR JOINING TWO POINTS


y

~~~-------------------------.x
c.

z
Fig. 1.26
-+
ln Fig. 1.26, vector AB is shifted without rotation and placed at origin.
-+ .....
· Now vector AB = OC .
-+ -+
Since IABI =lOCI\, coordinates of point Care (x2 -x1,; 2 - y 1, z2 -z 1) 1

-+ ..... """ A

Hence, Vector OC = (x2·- x1)i + (y2 - y 1}) + (z2 - z1)k


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1.16 Vectors and 30 Geometry

--. -+ • A A A

Thus, AB = OC = (x2 - x1)i + (y2 - y 1)j + (z2 - z1)k


4'll ,.. "" A A .A

= (x2i+ y 2 j+z2 k)-(x1i+ y 1j+z1k)


_. -+
= OB - OA

= Position vector of B- Position vector of A


-+ -+ _.
Also fr9rn above, we have OB OA = +AB which describes triangle rule of vector addition.
-+ -+ _. _. -+ -+ -+
Further OB = OA + AB = OA + OC (·:· OC = AB), which describes parallelogram rule of vector addition. '
~----...-
. -+ . 0

Illustration 1.12 Find the unit vector in the direction ofvector PQ ·, where P and Q are the points ( 1, 2, 3)
and (4, 5, 6), respectively. (NCERT) '
- · - - - · · - - - · • • - ---~--- - · · - - - - - - - - -~-- . -- -·· - - - - - - - - - · ·- · . · - - - - - - · - - - - - - .. · - 0 .. J
Sol. The given points are P (1, 2, 3) and Q.(4, 5, 6). Therefore,
~ A " ,_ ~'~ A

PQ =(4-1) i +(5-2)} +(6-3) k-= 3i+3j+3k

IPQl=J32 +32 +3 2 =J9+9+9 =ffi =3J3


_. 0

Hence, the unit vector in the direction of PQ is


-+ ~ ~
PQ 3i + 3j + 3k I -: 1 -: 1 k.
--::;--= =-1 +-j+-
IPQI . 3J3 Jj Jj J3

r~llust;a~.: 1.1-; For_!iv~ -vectors, ; =2i - } + zk-and b= - i + j - k, fi:; ;~c unit vector in ~~~-,
direction of the vector a + b. (NCERT) I
l.::.=----··. . .. . ---------•--- - . ., ... , ----·-------- ···---· _ ... .. - -------.- ---·- .. , . .. ... ·-··--- ---·- . I

-+ A A A --+ A ;.. A

Sol. The given vectors are a= 2i- j + 2k and b = -i + j - k . Therefore,


-t-+ ,., ,. "'""",..
a + b = (2 - 1) i + (-1 + I) j + (2 - 1) k = i + k
-+ -+ ,---
.!a+ bl=~1 2 .+ 12 =.Ji
-+ -+
Hence, the unit vector in the direction of (a + b) is

~ ·- -
t
-- -...,........ ---... -- - '---..-- _.- ..-.-..- 411
- A
----t ---·----
A..,.
-- , A _,., I

! Illustration 1.14 Show that the points A, B and C with. position vectors a = 3i - 4 j - 4k, b = 2i - j + k !
I -+ ,. A ,... t I

·i and c .= i ~ 3! ~ -5~: res_!>_~~·~~cl~ fonn _th~-~~~ices -~~-~ ~-i~ht--~ng_~~~~~~n~~::. .. ~ . _·- __ (N~E~!). ;


Sol. Posi~ion vectors of points A, B and C are, respectively given as
-+ A "'- A ...... A A A ~ A, A A.

a = 3i - 4 j - 4k, b = 2i - }.+ k and c = i - 3j - 5k


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Introduction to Vectors 1.17

-+ -i~ A"",.. A

=b- a =(2- 3)i +(-1 +4)j + (J +4)k=-i + 3j+ Sk


A A

AB
_. -+-+ Ill "" A AI #II A

BC = c- b = (1 - 2)i + (- 3 + l)j + (-5 - l)k =-i - 2j- 6k


-+ _. , A • A. A A A

CA =a- c =(3 -1) i + (- 4 + 3)j + (-4 + 5)k =2i- j + k


_.
IABI2 = (-1)2 + 32 +52 =35
-+
IBCI2 = (-1)2 + (-2)2 + (-6)2= 41
-+
ICAI2 = 22 + (-1)2 + 12 = 6
_. -+ _.
... IABI
2 2
+ICAI = 36 + 6 = 41 = !BCI2
Hence, ABC is a right-angled triangle.
--t _.,. ---+ --+ --+
Illustration 1.15 If 2 AC = 3 CB, then prove that 2 OA + 3 OB = 5 OC where 0 is the origin.
--
Sol. 2AC = 3CB or 2(0C - OA) = 3(0B - OC)
----
or 20A + 30B =SOC --
A A A"' ,.,. A ,.. A - /'

Illustration 1.16 Prove that points i + 2}- 3k, 2i - j + k and 2i + 5j- k fonn a triangle in space.
. . -

Sol. Given points' are A(i + 2]- 3k), B(2J-] + k), C(ii + 5] - k)
~
Vectors AB == i- 3j + 4k and AC
"" "" A .-.

=i + 3j + 2k k
A A A

_. _. -+ -t
Clearly vectors AB and AC are non-coJJinear as there does not exist any real A. for which AB = A.AC.
_. -+ 0 .

Hence, vectors AB and AC or the given thrc~ points form a triangle.

SECTION FORMULA
Internal Division ..
. ..
-t -+
LetA and B be two points with position vectors a and b, respectively and C B--.....:n~_..;c...": .. A
be a point dividing AB internally in the ratio m : n. Then the position vector of . •
-+ _. 1~ •
. . ---+ mb + na ~b· lit . "'c -~
C1s g1ven by OC =---- : : a

Proof:
m+fl ...
.,.
______. _. ---+ -+ 4
0
0 .

Let 0 be the origin. Then OA = a and OB = b . Let c be·the position vector


Fig. 1.27
of C which divides AB internally in the ratio m : n. Then-
AC m
-:;-

CB n
---+ ___.,.
or n AC = m CB
or n(P.V. of C- P.V. of A) = m(P.V. of B- P.V. of C)
-+ -+ ~ _.
or n(c-a) = m(b-c)
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1.18 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-+ -+ --+ -+
or ne - na =mb -me
--+ -+ -+
or e(n+m)=mb+na
-+ -+ -+ -+
--+ mb+na ---+
OC mb+na
or c = - - - - or =----
m+n m+n
.. ,. ...... ................
ll
.. ........ .
External Division A m
n·.----.-------e
.c
Let A and B be two points with position vectors a and b, respectively, and
-+ --+ .. .. .·
-·- ·. -; ,,.· -;'
---+
C be a point dividing AB externally in the ratio m : n. Then the position b ·•
-+ -+ :
.
'

-+ ---+ 111 b
vector of C is given by OC = - na
m- n 0
Proof: Fig. 1.28
............ -+ ---+ -+ ·-+
Let Obe the origin. Then OA =a , OB =b . Let c ·be the position vector of point C dividingAB externally
in the ratio m : n. Then ·
AC m
Then, -=-
BC n
or nAC = mBC
----+ ----+
or 11AC=mBC
or n(P.V. of C - P.V. of A)= m(P.V. of C- P.V. of B)
-+ -+ -+ -+
or n n ( c - a) =m( c - b)
-+ --+'-+-+
or n e - na ... me - mb
-+ -+ -+
or c(m-n)=mh -na
-+ -+ -+ -+
-+ mb -na mb -na
' ----+
or c= or OC = - - - -
m-11 m-n
--- ~--~-------------~~--··--- -- ~--

Notes:
1. If Cis the midpoint of AB, then it divides AB in the ratio 1 : I. I
l · a+l · b 'a+b
-+ ..... -+ ..... I
Therefore, the P. V. of C is = . . Thus, the position vector of the midpoint of AB is 1
1 -+ -+ 1 +I 2
-(a+ b). I
2 .
-+ -+
2. We have ; = m b + n a = __!!!_ + Therefore, h _!!_;.
m+n m+11 m+n
-+ -+ -+ n · in
e = J. a + 11·b 1 where J. = - - and )J = - -

.L.~.u~,positi~n v~ctor~~ any poi.nt?_~n :;_':~n always:.::e~_s ;.~ ~-;+ Jl ;+ ~~ ~ I .


b, where_
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Introduction to Vecto~· 1.19


.. - .. . .......... ~ - - -,
~ ~ I
4
3. We have c =mb+na
m +n
· Therefore,
.... -+ -+
(m + 11) c = m b + n a
-t--+ ~ .... -t
n OA + m 08 = (m + 11) OC , where C is a point on AB dividing it in tl1e ratio m : n.
--+ .... ...
In D.ABC, having vertices A( a), B(b) and C(a).
.... .... ....
a+-b-+ -
Centr01'd.ts - c
3
-+ -...+ -)
. BC a + AC b +ABc:
Lncentre ts - - - - - - -
AB+AC+AB
.... -+ ....
tan A a + tan B b + tan C c
Orthoccntre is - - - - - - - - - -
tan A + tan B + tan C
.... -+ ....,
. . sin 2A a +sin 28 b + sin 2C c
Ctrcumcentrc JS - - - - - - - - - - -
sin 2A +sin 28 +sin 2C j
-..J

Illustration 1.17Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q
whose position vectors are i + 2]- k and- i +] + k, respectively, in the ratio 2 : I.
i. Internally ii. Externally (NCERT)

Sol. The position vector of point R dividing the line segment joining two points P and Q in the ratio m : n
is given by
-+ .... .... --+
mb+na mb -na
i. Internally: - - - - ii. External1y: - - -
m+n m-n
Position vectors of P and Q are given as
... A A A -+ A ... A

OP = i + 2 j - k and OQ = - i + j + k
(i) The position vector of point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q internally in the
ratio 2 : 1 is given by
DR = .2 (- i + J+ k) + I (; + 2} - k) ::: (- 21 + 2J+ 2k) + (i + 2 j - k)
2+1 3
-i + 4} + k I" 4 ~ 1"
;;; 3 =-3i +3 j +3k
(ii) The position vector of point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q externally in the
ratio 2 : 1 is given by

DR.= 1 <-1+ J+k)-J(i + 2 ] - ic)·=<-21 +2]+2k)-<i +2]-ic)


2-1
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1.20 Vectors and 30 Geometry

_. -+ -+ -+
Illustration t .18 If a ,.b, c, (/ are the ·po~ition vectors of points A, B, C and D, respectively referred ·
~ -+ -+ . ....
to the same origin 0 such that no three of these points are collinear and a + c = b + d' then prove that
quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram. !
... ··------ -
-+ -+ -+ _.
Sol. Since a + c = b + d , we have
-+ -+ ·_. ~
a+c b+d
--=--
2 2
i.e., Midpoint of A C and BD coincide.
Hence, quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram.

IlluStration 1.19 Find the point ofiotersection ofAB and CD, w.hereA(6, "-7, 0), B(l6, - 19, -4), C(O, 3, --6)~
and D(2, -5, 10). ..
·-- . . --
,. .. . . . ...... __ __ ----- ----------------- .. .. - ------------ ----- -. . ..
Sol. Let AB and CD intersect at P.
Let P divides AB in ratio it: 1 and .CD in ratio Jl: 1.
( I6A.. + 6 -19A.. - 7 -4 A. ) -5,u + 3 IOJ.l.- 6)
, A. · , -,- or ( -2J.J
..
Then coordmates of P are A -, ,--'---
+1 +I A+l ,u+l .u+l J.l.+)
. 1
Comparing we have A.= -• or J.1 = 1.
3
Using theEe values, we get point of intersection as ( 1, -1 , 2).
Here it is also proved that lines AB and CD intersect or points A, B, C and D are coplanar.

~~stra_ti.o~ ~._20 Find the a~~te ~fv_~~~~r ; = 6f + ~j ~-3~ ~i~ x:~~~---··· . . ~~~~-j
_. A A A

Sol. a =6i + 2j- 3k

or 1;1 = ~(6)2 + (2)2 + (- 3)2 = 7


. -16
Hence, the angle of vector with the x-axis is cos 7.
-- ~
Illustration 1;21
i.. Show that the tines joining the vertices of a tetrahedron
I
I

to the centroids .o f opposite faces arc concurrent.


ii. Show that the joins of the midpoints of the iopposite
edges of a tetrahedron inters~ct ·and bisect eich other.
&L
- - --
-+
--· .. -.
-+ -+
-- ....-.... .... ----~

.
J, G I , t hC centrO\'d 0 f uo
A °CD .
1 IS
b + c + ·d ' and A IS
. -+
a.
3
The position vector of point G which divides AG1 in c
the ratio 3 : l is Fig. 1.29
-+ -+ -+
b+c+d _. -+ . --. -+ -+
3· a+b+c+d + 1· a
----=3~---:--- = - - - - -
3+1 4
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Introduction to Vectors 1.21

The symmetry of the result shows that this point wHJ also lie on BG2, CG3 and DG4 (where G2, G3,
.G4 are centroids offaces ACD, ABO and ABC, respectively). Hence, these four lines are concurrent
-1 -1 -1 ...

at point a + b : c + d , which is call~d the centroid of the tetrahedron.


-1 -1 -1 -+

u. · o f D·:r1.A ts
·· The mt'dpomt • a . b + c and the mt'dpomt
+ d and th at of Be ts . of th ese mt'dpomts
. .
ts
.... .... -1 .... 2 2 .
a+b + c+d
- - -- - and symmetry of the result proves the fact.
4

' Illustrati~n 1.22 The midpoints of~~ opp~sit~ sides ~f~ q~adrll~te~l-and th~~idJ,~int~ ~ftb~di~g~~~tsl
!·. are the vertices of a parallelogram. Prove this using vectors. ........ - - -.... - - . - ·- --- .- - -. ·-- ..
;
.~

-+ -1 -1 -+
Sol. Let a , b , c and d be the position vectors of vertices A, B, C and D, respectively.
Let£, F, G and H be the midpoints of AB, CD, AC and BD, respectively.
-1 -+ -+
D (d)
P.V. of E = a + b
2
-1 -1
c +d -+
C(c}
P.V.ofF= - -
2

P.V. ofG= a+ c
2
-+ E
-1 -1 A (a)
P.V. ofH= b +d
2 Fig. 1.30
-+ -1 -1 -+ -1 -+
~ a+ c a+b . c - b
EG = P.V. of G - P.V. of E =
2 2
- 2
-+ -1 -1 -+ -1 -1

HF = P.V. ofF - P.V. of H =· c + d - b +d = c- b


2 2 2
-.. -..
EG =HF ~ EGIIHF andEG = HF
Hence, EGHF is a parallelogram.

SOME MORE SOLVED EXAMPLES


·--·--·-·-·- -··-- .. ~ . . . ·-
.. ··- . - _.. _- .. - - -·- .. --- - ----. . .
.
...,. -
- "
- ---- ----.
.A. ,A A tA A
-- _ ___ A A

j lltustration 1.23 Check whether the three vectors Zi + 2} + 3k,-3i + 3j + 2k and 3i + 4k fonn a triangle !
or not. · . . . ... . ... ~ . . .. -. _ . . . . ... __.. _____ j
-+ ,., -+ " ~
Sol. If vectors a= 2i + 2} + 3k, b =-3i + 3} + 2k and c = 3i + 4k form a
A Ao A """' A "

~riangle, then we must have


-+ -1 -+
a+ b + c =0.
-1 -+ -+
But for given vectors, a + b + c '# 0. Hence, these vectors do not fonn a triangle.
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1.22 Vectors and 30 Geometry

--- .- - --·-· -~
-+ . ,.. --·---
.. ,.. -+ ,. ..... ,.. (
lustration 1.24 Find the resultant of vectors a -= i - j + 2k and b = i + 2j- 4k. Find the unit ve<:tor in
he direction of the resultant vector. ·
- -------·- -· .. ---....- ----- ·- . .. . .. . -- _.. - .- '"'----"--- ·---· .. . - ~ ·

-+ " -+ -+ -+ "' A A -+
Sol. Let the resultant vector of a and b is a + b = 2i + j - 2k = c
-+ A
0
2i + j - 2k 1 A A A

Now unit vector in the direction of c is c""' I = -(2i + j - 2k)


. v(2)2 + (1)2 + (-2)2 3

Es~~.:~~n ~-25-~i~-::;.;o;ram AB~D. di~~:.·~--~!c~or·s · -ar. :_A_C = 2f + 3} + 4k ... •_1d.JI c. a.

t BD
~...___
=-6i +.-.7 j - 2k,. .....tben- find the adjacent
___ . , ___
side vectors AB and AD .
.. ·- . ·- · ... .. -·-
_
-+ -+ -+ -+
Sol. Let AB = a and AD = b . Then
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
A C = a + b and BD = b - a
-+
- -
AC+BD -+
- -.
AC-BD
b= anda=---
2 2
-f A ,. _,. A A ol'l

AB =-2i + 35 + k and AD= 4i- 2j + 3k

_. "' "' -+ ... .....


Sol. Given sides of the triangle are a =i + 2) and b = i + k .
-+ -+ -+ -+
If vector along the ·third side is c , then we must have a+ b + c = 0 . Then
...-) A A A A ,..

c ;:::-(i+2j)-(i+k) = -2i-2j - k
Therefore, the length of the third side ·1;1is Jc-2) 2
+ (-2)2 + (-1)2 = 3 .

~llust~-tion 1.27 three coinitial vcct~rs~f magnitudes ~~2~-and meet at a point and their dire9ti~~ 3;
are along the diagonals of three adjacent faces of a cube. Determine their resultant R. Also piove t~at the ·I
I sum of the three vectors detennined by the diagonals of three adjacent faces of a cube passing through the .
I same comer, tbe vectors being directed from. the comer, is 'twice the vector determined by the diagonal :
l of the cube.
L __ - - ... . . -- . ~ ·--.. -· - - ... - ----·------ ---· . - .... ........ ..... ·- ·- ·-·--··--·---- . - . . .... _ - - ·- · - - - _ __.
Sol. Let the length of an edge of the cube be taken as unity and the vectors
represented by OA , OB and OC (let the three cotcnninous edges of unit be Ltt
1\ 1\ 1\
i , j and k, respectively). OR, OS and OTare the three diagonals of the three
adjacent faces ofthe cube along which act the forces of magnitudes a, 2a and
3a. respectively. To find the vectors representing these forces, we will first find
unit vectors in these directions and then multiply them by the corresponding
given magnitudes of these forces.
1-· . .
----+ "-
Since OR = j 7 k, the unit vector along OR is
"
"'IJf (j" + k).
"
Fig. 1.31
••N
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Introduction to Vectors 1.23

-t
Hence, force Fj of magnitude a along OR is given by
-+a " "
Fj =-(i+k)
J2
-t
Similarly, force .Fj of magnitude 2a along OS is
3a " A
3i (k .-+
+ 'i) and force F3 of magnitude 3a along OT is
J2 (i + j).
......
If R is their resultant, then
-+ -+-+ ......
R=Fj +F2 +F3
a " " 2a " A 3a " "
= - ( j +- k) + --r= ( k + i ) + - ( i + j)
J2 ..J2 J2

~ ~ ~ A· 1\ A 1\ A 1\

Again, OR + OS + OT = j + k + i + k + i + j
" 1\ "
= 2{i+j+k)
~--+ ~ """ ~ ""--+ ~ 1\
Also OP = OT + TP = {i + j + k) (·: OT = i + j and TP = OC ·= k)
-+ ---+ ---+ --+
OR + OS + OT = 2 OP
. . . .
Illustration 1.28 The axes of coordinates are rotated about the z-axis through an angle of n/4 in the ·
anticlockwise direction and the components of a vector are 2.J2 , 3.Ji , 4. Prove that the components of .
the same vector in the original system are -1 , 5, 4.
" " 1\
Sol. If [ , j , k are the new unit vectors along the coordinate axes, then
-+ 1\ " 1\
a =2 J2 i + 2 J2 j + 4k (i)
" " 1\
i, j, k arc obtained by :otating by 45° about the z-axis.
1\ 1\

Then f is replaced by 'i cos 45° + } sin 45° = i + j


1\
J2
and j is replaced by

" ",
k=k

; =2J2 LV] "


+3J2
1\
[-~I]+ 4k
1\
= (2- 3) i + (2 + 3) j + 4k
1\ " 1\
= - i + 5 j + 4k
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1.24 Vectors and 30 Geometry

----·
Illustration 1.29 If the resultant of two forces is equal in magnitude"
to one of the components ~ and j --
perpendicular to it in direction, find the other component using the vector method.
--- --· ----;. ~-

1\
--
- ----· ,_ ... . - --- .. . - .... ·-- .. - - ...- .. ·--·---
Sol. Let P be horizonta1 in the direction ofunit vector i. The resultant is alsoP but perpendicular to it in the
1\

direction _of unit vector j . If Q is the other force making an angle 8 (obtuse) as the resultant is perpendicular
" /\ 1\ 1\
toP, then the two forces are Pi and Q cos() i + Q sin 8 j . Their resultant is P j. Therefore,
/\ " 1\ 1\
j
P j = Pi +.(Q' cos () i + Q sin 8 j)
Q
Comparing the coefficients of "i and "j , we get
p + Q cos a = 0 and Q sin a = p
or Q cos e ""' - P and Q sin e =P
Squaring and adding Q = P J2 and .dividing give p
tan 8=-1
8 = 135°
Illustration 1.30 A man travcUing·towards east at 8 km/h finds that the wind seems toblo-;-directly fro~-l
the north. On doubling the speed, he finds that it appears to come from the north-east. Find the velocity
of the wind. . l
---- ·----- -~--- ~ ~~-·-" ·· - ..._ • - -- - - · -- - • - --- • ' ·- A

Sol. Velocity of wind relative to man N


= Actual velocity of wind -Actual velocity of man (i)
N-E .
" " .
Let i and j represent unit v~ctors along east and north. Let the
" 1\
actual velocity of wind be given by xi + y j .
1\
In the first case, the man's velocity is 8 i and that of the wind W--~--'*..Lr.-=-=--t--E

blowing from the north relative to the man is - p "j . Therefore,

- p "j = (x "i + y j" ) - 8 "i [from Eq. (i)]


Comparing coefficients, x - 8 == 0, y = - p (ii) s
In the second case, when the man doubles his speed, wind seems to fig. 1.33
come from the north-east direction, i.e.,
.. q(i + j ) = (X i + y j ) - 16 i
1\ " " " "

x-16=-q,y=-q (iii) .
Putting x = 8, we get q:::: 8
y=-8
Hence, the velocity of wi~d is x "i + y "j = 8 ("i - "j)

Its magnitude is )C82 + 82 ) =8 .J2 and tan 8 = -1 or 8 =- 45°


Hence, its direction is from the north to the west.

,
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Introduction to Vectors 1.25

. . . .. . - - . ..- - -- - ... -- . --. - ... - ....... - - ...


· IUustration 1.31 OABCDE is a regular hexagon of side 2 units in theXY-plane in the first quadrant. 0 ·
: being the origin and OA taken along the x-axis. A point Pis taken on a line parallel to the z-axis through !
; the centre of the hexagon at a distance of 3 units from 0 in the positive Z direction. Then find vector AP .
0- 0 0 ....------

Sol. G= (i +J3j)
Let position vector of P be P )'

GPIIk
Then (i + .[j}) = A.k
jJ -
...
E B
p=i+J3J+Ik
Also jm>j =3
~------~-------+X

JI + 3 + A. 2
=· 3
Fig. 1.34
A(2b

or ;t2 = 5
or A.=±JS
=> p=f+J3}±.J5k
For positive z-axis, p = l + J3 j + J5 ~
So AP = p- 2i =-1 + .J3} + J5 k

VECTOR ALONG THE BISECTOR OF GIVEN TWO .VECTORS


We know that the diagonal in a parallelogram is not necessarily the bisector of the angle fonned by two adjacent
sides. However, the diagonal in a rhombus bisects the angle between two adjacent sides.
-----+ --+ ----+ --+
Consider vectors AB =a and AD = b forming a parallelogram ABCD as shown in Fig. 1.35.

A 8' 8
Fig. 1.35

Consider the tWo unit vectors aJong the given vectors, which fonn a rhombus AB'CD'. Now
-+ ......
---~> a b --+
AB' =-and AD'=-
,;, lbl
--+ --+
_.,. a b
... AC'=-+--
_. --+
lal lbl
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1.26 Vectors. and 3D Geometry

So any vector along the bisector is ~ -+


: + : ..
~)
(
Jal lbl
Similarly, any vector along the external bisector is A(?, =)..( : -
laJ
!lbl).
- • . .. • ~ • - - -·o. . . •

-+ " " " -+ " 1\ 1\ -+


Illustration 1.32 If a= 7 i - 4 j - 4k and b =- 2 i - j + 2k, detcnnine vector c along the internal
' -+ ~ -+
bisector of the angle between vectors a and b such that Ic I = 5 -/6.
~

Sol. "a = -1 (7 "i - 4 "j - 4 k)


"
9
1\1 ""
b = 3 (-2i-j+2k)
1\

~ "" I " 1\1\


c = A.[a+b] =A.'9 (i-1j+2k) (i)
....
lei =5J6
A.2
St{l +49+4)=25x6
).2 = 25 X 6 X 8 I =
225
54
A. =±l5 •
Putting the value of I~ in (i), we get
..... 5 "" 1\
c =±- (i-7j+2k)
3 .
-+ 1\1\1\ ... 1\"

Illustration 1.33 Find a unit vector c if:... i + j - k bisects the angle between vectors c and 3 i + 4 j.
-+ A 1\ A
Sol. .Let c = x i + y j + z k, where .,2 + i +; = 1. (i)

" " 3 "1' +4'"


Unit vector along ·3 i + 4 j is 1
5
1\1\1\ .

The bisector of these t~o is - i + j - k (given). Therefore,


"1\" 1\ 1\ "3i+4' 1" ) .
-i+j-k =A. xi+yj+zk+ 1\
( 5
1\1\1\ 1 .1\ .1\ 1\

- i + j- k = S A((5x + 3) i + (Sy + 4) j + 5z k) (ii)

5A. (5x + 3) =-I, 5A. (Sy + 4) = 1,


A.
S 5z = -1
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Introduction to Vectors 1.27

5+3A. 5-4A. 1
:x =- 5).. ,y = SA. ' z=--
,t
.Putting these values in (i), i.e., Xl + l + z2 = J, we get
(5 + 3A.)2 + (5- 4A.)2 + 25 = 25A.2
25A.2 - 1O,l + 75 = 25A.2
A.=~
2
_.. I " " "
c = - (-11i+l0j-2k)
15

Concept Application Exercise 1.1


J. Find the unit vector in the direction of the vector ~ = i +} + 2k.. (NCERT)
2. Find the direction cosines of the vector l + 2} + 3k . (NCERT)
3. Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A(l, 2, - 3) and B(- 1, - 2, 1) directed from
A to B . (NCERT)
4. The position vectors of P and Q are si + 4] + ak and -i + 2} - 2k , respectively. If the distance
between them is 7, then find the value of a. (NCERT)
S. Given three points arc A(-3, -2, 0), 8(3, -3, I) and C(5,0,2). Then find a vector having the same
direction as that of AB and magnitude equal to IACI
6. Find a vectot of magnitude 5 units, and paral,lel to the resultant of the vectors
a=2i +3}-k and h=f -2}+k. (NCERT)
7. Show that the points A( I , -2, -8), 8(5; 0, -2) and C( 11 , 3, 7) are collinear, and find the ratio in which
B divides AC. (NCERT)
~ ____. ~ -+
8. If ABCD is a rhombus whose diagonals cut at the origin 0 , then prove that . OA + OB + OC + OD
...
= 0.
9. Let D, E and F be the middle points of the sides BC, CA and ABJ respectively of a triangle
~ ----+ ~ ....
ABC. Then prove that AD+ BE + CF = 0 .
10. Let ABCD be a parallelogram whose diagonals intersect at P and Jet 0 be the origin. Then
~ - ----+ ----+ -
prove that OA + OB + OC + OD =40P.
11. Jf A, 8, C and D are any four points and E and F are the middle points of AC and BD,
----+
respectively then prove that CB + -CD+ -AD+ ____.
AB -
= 4 EF.

12. If ~------.
AO + OB; BO + OC , then A, Band C arc (where 0 is the origin)
a. coplanar b. collinear c. non ~co llincar d. none of 'these
... 1\,... 1\ .... " " 1\
13. Jf the sides of an angle are given by vectors a= i -2 j + 2k and b = 2 i + j + 2k, then find the
internal bisector of the angle.
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1.28 Vectors and 3D Geometry

14. ABCD is a parallelogram. If L and M be the middle points of BC and CD, respectively express
~ --. ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~

AL and AM in terms of AB and AD. Also show that AL +AM == (3/2) AC.
15. ABCD is a quadrilateral and E the point of intersection of the Jines joining the middle points
~ --. ___.,. ~ ~ \
of opposite sides. Show that the resultant of OA, OB. OC and OD is equal to 4 OE , where
0 is any point.
~ 1\ 1\ 1\ ~

16. What is the unit vector parallel to a =3; + 4 j - 2 k? What vector should be added to a so
1\

that the resultant is the unit vector i?


• -+ " 1\" ~ 1\1\"
17. The position vectors of points A and B w.r.t. the origin are a =i + 3 j - 2 k and b =3 i + j - 2 k.
~ .
respectively. Determine vector OP which bisects angle AOB, where P is a point on AB.
·~ ~~

18. If 'i, 'i' r3 are the position vectors of three collinear points and scalars p and q exist such
-t ~ ~

that r3 = p 'i + q r2 , then show that p + q c: I.


a
19. If and b are two vectors of magnitude I inclined at 120°, then find the angle between b and b- a.·
20. Find. the vector of magnitude 3, bisecting the angle between the vectors a~ 21 +)- k and
b=f- 2) + k.
LINEAR COMBINATION, LINEAR INDEPENDENCE AND LIN~AR
DEPENDENCE
Unear Combination
-t ..... ~ -t
A vector r is said to be a linear combination of vectors a1, a 2 , ···, a,. , ifthere exist scalars m1 , m2, .. · , mn
.. ~ -+ -+
such that r = m1 a 1 + m2 a2 + ··· + mn an .
Linearly Independent
-+ ~ -+
A system of vectors a1, a2 , ... , a,. is said to be linearly independent if
-+ -t -+ -+
m1a1 + m2 a2 + ··· + mn a,. = 0 ~ m1 = m2 == ... = m,. = 0
It can be easily verified that ,
i. P\. pair ofnon~collinear vectors is linearly independent.
Proof
- - - - -
Let a 1 and a2 are non-c<?llincar vectors such that m1a1 + m2 a 2 = 0
Let m 1, m 2 * 0
- m2 -
al = --a2
ml

This means a 1 and a 2 arc collinear, which contradicts the given fact
Hence, m 1, m2 = 0
ii. A triad of non-coplanar vector is linearly independent.
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Introduction to Vectors 1.29

Linearly Dependent
--. -+ --.
A set of vectors a1, a2 , •. • , an is said to be linearly dependent if there exist scalars m 1, m2,.··, mn, not all zero,
-+ -+ -+ -+
such that m1 a1 + m2 a2 + ··· + mn an = 0.
It can be easily verified that
i. A pair of collinear vectors is linearly dependent.
ii. A triad of coplanar vectors is linearly dependent.

Theorem 1.1
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
If a and b are two non-collinear vectors, then every vector r coplanar with a and b can be expressed in
-+ -+
one and onJy one way as a linear combination x a + y b ; x and y being scalars. JJ
Proo~ R
~ -+ ~ -+
i. Let 0 be any point such that OA = a and OB = b.
--. -+ --.
As r 1s coplanar with a and b , the lines OA, OB and OR are coplanar.
Through R, draw lines parallel to OA and OB, meeting them at P and Q,
o----~~--~P~-+A
respectively. Clearly,
~ ----+ -+ ----+ --1 Fig. 1.36
OP =x OA =xa (·: OP and OA are collinear vectors)
----+ ----+ -+ --+ ~

Also OQ=y OB ;:;:yb


-+--+----+---+---+
, = OR
--.
= OP +
--.
PR = OP + OQ
- --
(·: OQ and OB are collinear vectors)
~
(': OQ and PR are equal)
=xa+yb (i)
-+ --. -+
Thus, r can be expressed in one way as a linear combination x a + y b.
-+ --. -+ -+
ii. To prove that this resolution is unique, let r =x' a + y' b be another representation of r as a linear
-+ -+
combination of a and b . Then,
-+ -+ -+ -+
x a + y b = x' a + y' b
-+ -+ -+
or (x- x') a + (y - y') b = 0
-+ -+
Since a and b are non-collinear vectors, we must have
x- x' =0, y- y' = 0
i.e., x=x',y=y'
Thus, the representation is unique.

Note:
If OA and 08 are perpendicular, then these two lines can be taken as the x- and they-axes, respectively. Let
A A
be the unit vector along the x-axis and j be the unit vector along they-axis. Therefore, we have
-+ ... -+
r=xi+yj
Also r = Jx2+ y2
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·.
1.30 Vectors and .30 Geometry

Theorem 1.2
-+ ... -+ c
If a, band c are non-coplanar vectors, then any vector
...
r can be uniquely expressed a's a linear combi~ation
... -+ ...
x a+ y b + z c; x, y and z .being scalars.
Proof:
i. Take any point 0 so that
OA =a, OB =b, OC =cand OP; ; ,
On OP as diagonal, construct a parallelpiped having edges A
OA', OB' and qc along OA, OB and OC, respectively.
The~ there exist three scalars x, y and z such tha.t
~ - ... _...... - -+~ ~ -+
OA' = x OA = x a , 08' = y 08 =y b , OC' = z OC =z c
-+ _......
r = OP
---+ ---+
= OA' + A'P
_...... ---+ _____.
=OA' +A'D+ DP (by definition of addition ofvec.tors)
---+ ---+ ---+
=OAI + 08' + OC'
-+ . . . . -+
xa+yb+zc (i)
... -+-+ -+
Thus r can be represented as a linear combination of d , b and c .
-+ -+ -+ -+
ii. To prove that this representation is unique, let,, if possible, r = x' a + y' b + z' c be another
-+ -+ -+ -+
representation of r as a linear combination of a, b and c . (ii)
'
Then from (i) and (ii), we have
...... .... -+-+ ... ~

xa+yb+zc=r=x a+y b +z c ' I I I

-+ -+ -t-+
or (x- x') a + (y- y') b + (z- Z
1
) c=0
-+ ... -+
Since a , band c are independent, x -x' = O,y- )l = 0 and z -z' = 0, or =x1 ,y = y' andz = z'. Hence x
proved.

Theorem 1.3
-+ 1'\ 1\ A-+ /\ A A .... /\/\A

If vectors a= a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i '+ b2 j + ~ k and c = c1 i + c2 j + c3.k are coplanar, then


a1 a 2 a3
~ b2 ~ =0
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Introduction to Vectors 1.31

Proof:
~~ ~ -+ -+ ~

If vecto~s a, b and c arc coplanar, then there exist scalars A and fJ such that c :::; A. a + fJ b . Hence,
A A A A A A A A A

c1 i + c2 j +c3 k:::; A. (a1 i + o2 j + o3 k) + f..l (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k)


Now i, Jand k are non-coplanar and hence indepemient. Then,
c 1 = A.a 1 + f..ih 1, c2 = .M2 + f..lb2 and c3 = A.a3 + J1b3
The above system of equations in tcnns of Aand fJ is consistent.. Thus,
o1 ~ c1
a2 b2 c2 = 0
a3 bJ c3
-+ ~ -+ ~ ~ ~ -+ ~ ~

Similarly, if vectors x 1 a + y 1 b + z 1 c, x 2 a + y 2 b + z2 c and x3 a+ y 3 b + z3 c are coplanar (where


-+ -+ -+
Xt zl
a , band c arc non-coplanar). Then x 2 y2 z2 = 0 can be proved with the same arguments.
z3
-+ -+ -+ -+
To prove that four points A (a), B (b), C (c) and D(d) arc coplanar, it is just sufficient-to prove that vectors
~~ ~

AB, BD and CD are coplanar.


. ,
Notes:
1. Two collinear vectors are always linearly dependent.
2. Two non-collinear non-zero vectors are always linearly independent
3. Three coplanar vectors are always linearly dependent.
4. Three non-coplanar non-zero vectors are always linearly independent.
5. More than three vectors are always linearly dependent.
-+-+ ~

6. Three points with position vectors a, b and c are collinear if and only if there exist scalars x~ y and
~ ~ -+
z not all zero such that (i) x a + y b + z c =0 and (ii) x + y + z = 0.
Proof:
~-+ ~

Let us suppose that points A, B and C are collinear and their position vectors are a , b and c ,
-+ ~

respectively. Let C divide the join of a a.nd b in the ratio y : x . Then,


~ -+
~ xa+yb
c=
x+y
~ -+ -+-+
or x a + y b - ( x + y) c = 0
-+ -+ ~-+

or x a + y b + z c = 0 , .where z = - (x + y)
Also, x + y + z = x + y - (x +y) = 0.
~ ~ -+ -+
Conv,erscly, Jet x a + y b + z c = 0 , where x + y + z =0. Therefore,
-+ -+ -+ -+
x a + y b =- z c = (x + y) c (': x +y =-z)
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1.32 Vectors and 30 Geometry

... ...
-+ xa+yb
or c =-____;-
x+y
--; ... -t
This relation shows that c divides the join of a and b in the ratio y : x. Hence, the three points
A, Band Care collinear.
-t -t -t -t
7. Four points with position vectors a , b, c and d are coplanar if there exist scalars x,y, z and w (sum
-t -t -t -t --+
of any two is not zero) such .that x a +y b + z c + wd =0 with x + y + z + w = 0.
Proof:
-+ -+
x a+ y b + z c + wd = 0
... -+ --+
- -
B(b)

-t -+ ... -t
or xa+yb;-(zc+wd) (i)
x+y+z+w=O
or x + y= -(w+z) (i'i)
-t ... ... -+
From (i) and (ii), we have x a + y b =z c + wd
x+ )I z+w
Thus. there is point P
D(d)
-+ -t -+ -+ A(a)
xa+yb zc+wd Fig. 1.38
_ ___;;....._ = - - - - (iii)
x+ y z+w
-+ ...
xa+yb
_ __....:;....._ is the position vector of a point on AB which divides it in the ratio y : x.
x+y
-t -+
zc +wd
- - - is the position vector of a point on CD which divides it in the ratio w : z.
z+w
From (iii), these points are coincident; hence, the points are coplanar.

" " " 1\ 1\ 1\


Illustration 1.34 The vectors 2 i + 3 j, 5 i + 6 j and 8 i +A j have their initial points at (1, 1). Find the
value of A. so that the vectors terminate on one straight line.
1\ " 1\ 1\
Sol. Since the vectors 2 i + 3 j and 5 i + 6 j have (1, 1) a·s the initial point, their terminal points are (3, 4)
and (6, 7), respectively. The equation of the line joining these two points is x- y + I = 0. The terminal point
of 81 + A.j is (9, A.+ 1). Since the vectors terminate on the same straight line, (9, A.+ 1) lies on x- y + 1 = 0.
Therefore,
9-A.-1+1=0
or A.= 9
-t --+ -+
Illustration 1.35 If a , b and c are three non-zero vectors, no two of which are collinear, a+ 2b is
--+ ... ... ... -t --+ --;
collinear with c and b + 3 c is collinear with a , then find the value of I a + 2 b + 6 c 1.
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Introduction to Vectors 1.33

..... ..... .....


Sol. Given a+ 2 b;;;:).. c (i)
..... ..... .....
and h+3 c= J.1a, (ii)
..... ..... .....
where no two of a , b and c are collinear vectors .
.....
Eliminating b from the above relations, we have
..... ..... ..... .....
a - 6 c = ).. c - 2J.1 a
-+ .....
a (l + 2J.1) = (A + 6) c
1 ..... .....
p = - - and A= -6 as a and c are non-collinear.
2
Putting p = _.!_ in (ii)
2
or A.= -6 in (i), we get
-t ..... -t .....
a+2b+3c=O
-+ ..... .....,
or Ia+2b+3 c =0

Illustration 1.36
..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
i. Prove that the points a - 2 b + 3 c, 2 a + 3 b - 4 c and -7 b + I 0 c are collinear, where a, h and c
are non-coplanar.
ii. Prove that the pointsA(l, 2, 3), 8(3, 4, 7) and C (- 3, -2, -S) are collinear. Find the ratio in which point
C divides AB.
Sol.
i. Let the given points be A, Band C. Therefore,
~

AB = P.V. of B - P. V. of A
..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
= (2 a + 3 b - 4 c) - (a - 2 b + 3 c)
..... ..... .....
= a+5b-1c
~

AC = P.V. ofC - P.V. of A


..... ..... ..... ..... .....
=(-7 b + 10c )-(a -2b +3 c )
............... ~

=- a - 5 b + 7 c =- AB

Since AC =- AB. , it follows that the points A, Band Care co1linear.

ii. Let C divide AB in the ratio k: 1; then C(-3, -2, -5)


.
=(Jk
1 4 2 1 3
+ , k+ , k+ )
k+l k+l k+l
3k + 1 ;;;: _ , 4k + 2 = _ 2 and 7k + 3 = _ 5
=> 3
k+l k+l k+1
k =- ~ from all relntions
3
Hence, C divides AB externally in the ratio 2:3.
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1.34 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Illustration 1.37 Check whether the given three vectors are coplanar or non-coplanar:
'"' "' A A A A A ""' ,._

- 2i- 2j + 4k, -2i + 4j - 2k, 4i- 2j- 2k


"""" A ;.. ,.. A A "" A A

Sol. Given vectors are :....2i-2j +4k, -2i+4j -2k,4i -2j-2k


-2 -2 4
-2 4 -2 ""'16+16+16-64+8+8=0
4 -2 -2
Hence, the vectors are coplanar.
"' ,.. A .... A ,.. A A

Illustration 1.38 Prove that the four points 6i -7 j, 16i -19 j - 4k, 3j- 6k and 2i + Sj + 10k fonn a
; tetrahedron in space.
. - ·~ .
,... A A .A A A A A A A

Sol. Given points are A(6i- 7 j), B(l6i -19 j- 4k), C(3j- 6k), D(2i + Sj + IOk)
-+ A A ,... ~ A A A -. A A A

Hence, vectors AB = IOi - 12j- 4k, AC = -6i + lOj- 6k and AD= -4i + 12j + 1Ok
.... .... ....
Now determinant of coefficients of AB, AC, AD is
10 -12 -4
-6 10 -6 =IO(l00+72)+12(-60-24)-4(-72+40);t0
-4 12 10
Hence, the given points are non-coplanar and therefore form a tetrahedron in space.
-t -t . -t -+ .... ....
Ulustration 1.39 If a and b are two non-collinear vectors, show that points /1 a + m1 b, 12 a + m2 b and
-+ -+
ll 12 13
13 a + m3 b are collinear if m1 m2

-+ .... -+
Sol. We know that three points having P.V.s a , b and c are collinear if there exists a relation of the fonn
-+ -t .... ....
x a + y b + z c, = 0, where x + y + z == 0.
-t .... -t -+
Now x a + y b + z c = 0 gives
.... -t .... .... .... -+ -+
x(l 1 a + m 1 b)+ y(l2 a + m2 b)+z(13 a +m3 b)= 0
-+ .... ....
or (x/ 1 + y/2 + z/3) a + (xm 1 + ym2 + zm3) b =0
.... -+
Since a and b are two non-collinear vectors, it follows that
xl1 + y/2 + z/3 = 0 (i)
xm 1 + ym2 + zm3 ·- 0 (ii)
-+ -+
Because otherwise one is expressible as a scalar multiple of the other which would mean that a and b are
collinear. Also
x+y+z=O (iii)
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Introduction to Vectors 1.35

Eliminating x, y and z from (i), (ii) and (iii), we get


/1 /2 /3

1 1
Alternate method:
~ -t -t -t ~ -t
A(/1 a + m1 b), B(/2 a + m2 b) and C (/3 a + m3 b) are collinear.
-t -t _.. -t -t
Vectors = (/2 - /3 ) a + (m2 - m3) b and AB =(/1 - /2) a + (m1 - m2 ) b are collinear.
/1-/2 m1- m2
--=---:.---=-
/2 -/3 m2 -m3
/1 '2 /3
m1 m2 m3 =0
1 1
....
-+ -t -t -+ -t
Illustration 1.40 Vectors a and b are non-collinear. Find for what value of x vectors c == (x- 2) a + b
-t -t -t
and d = (2x + 1) a- b are collinear?
~ ~ -t
Sol. Both the vectors c and d are non-zero as the coefficients of b in both are non-zero.
..... -t
Two vectors c and d arc collinear if one of them is a linear multiple of the other. Therefore,
-+ -+
d = AC
-t -t -t -t
or (2x+l} a-b=A {(x-2) a+b} (i)
-+ -+
or {(2x+ J)-.A(x-2)} a -(l +A.) b =0
-+ -+ -+ -+
The above expression is of the form p a + q b = 0, where a and b are non·collinear, and hence we have
p = 0 and q "" 0. Therefore,
2x + l - A. (x - 2) = 0 (ii)
and 1 + .A=O (iii)
1
From (iii), A.=- I, and putting this value in (i), we get x = 3
Alternate method:
-t -t -+ -t -t -+
c = (x- 2) a + b and d = (2x + 1) a - b are collinear.
x- 2 1 1
I f - - = - , thenx=-
2x + 1 -1 3
...
Illustration 1.41 The median AD of the triangle ABC is bisected atE and BE meetsAC at F. Find AF: FC.,.
Sol. Taking A at the origin
-+ -+
Let P.V. of B and C be b and c, respectively.
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1'.36 Vectors and 30 Geometry

... -+ -+ ... A
P.V. of Dis b + c and P.V. of E is b + c
2 4
Let AF:FC """p: 1.

Then position vector ofF is P c · (i)


p+I
-Let BF:EF- q: l.
...... D
-+
C(c)
(b+c) -+b
q - Fig.l.39
The position vector ofF is -----'4'---- (ii)
q-1
Comparing P.V. of Fin (i) and (ii), we have
-+ -+
-+ (b+c) · 4
- pc = _q ____:____;
4 __ - b
p+l q-1
... 4
Since vectors b and c are independent, we have
__!!__ -. q · and q - 4 c 0
p + 1 4(q- 1) 4(q- I)
. P """ l/4andq"""4
AF:FC= 1:2
rmu~·t-ratt;;-1.42. Prove that the ncce;sacy and~sufficient conditiOn for any-four points in three-dimensionatl
I space to be coplanar is that there exists a linear relation connecting their position vectors such that the !
L~~~eb!_aic s~~-?fthe coefficients (not all zero) in i~er~~~~-·_ _ . ~ ;
...... -+ -+
Sol. Let us assume that the points A, B C and D whose position vectors are a 1 b, c and d 1 respectively,
1

are coplanar. Jn that case the lines AB and CD w:ill intersect at some point P (it being assumed that AB and
CD are not parallel, and if they are, then we will choose any other pair of non-parallel lines formed by the
given points). If P divides AB in the ratio q: p and CD in the ration : m then the position vector of P written 1

from AB and CD is
... -+ -+ -+
pa+qb=mc+nd
p+q m+n
p ~ q ~ m ~ n ~ ~
or --a+ - - b - - - c - - - d=O
p+q p+q m+n m+n
.... ~-+ -+-+
or La+Mb+Nc+Pd=O
p q m n
where L+M+N+P= -+-------- = 1 - 1= 0
p+q p+q m+n m+n
Hence, the condition is necessary.
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Introduction to Vectors 1.37

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Con verse: Let Ia + m b + n c + p d = 0


where I+ m + n + p = 0 . (i)
We will show that the points A, B, C and Dare coplanar.
Now of the three scalars I+ m, I + nand 1+ p, one at least is not zero, because if all of them are zero, then
I+ m = 0, I + n = 0, I+ p = 0
.. m = n =p .-= - I ·
Hence, I+ m + n +p = 0 or 1- 31 = 0 or I = 0
Hence, m = n = p =-I::: 0
Thus, I= 0, m = 0, n = 0, p = 0, which is against the hypothesis.
Let us suppose that I + m is not zero.
I+ m =- (n + p) 0, * [From (i)] (ii)
Also from the given relation, we have
~ ~ -+ -+
1a +m b = - (n c + p d)
-+ -+ ~ -+
la+mb_n c+ pd
or [From (ii)] (iii)
l+m n+p
The L.H.S. represents a point which dividesAB in the ratio m : I and the R.H.S. represents a point which divides
CD in the ratio p : n. These points being the same, it follows that a point on AB is the same as a point on CD,
showing that the lines AB and CD intersect. Hence, the four points A, B, C and Dare coplanar.
. ·,
Illustration 1.43
-+ ~ -+ -+ -+ ~ -+ .... -+
i. If a, b and c are non-coplanar vectors, prove that vectors 3 a - 7 b - 4 c, 3 a -2 b + c and
-+ -+ -!'
a + b + 2 c are coplanar.
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

ii. 1f the vectors ~i - j + k , i + 2 j - 3 k ~nd 3 i + a j + 5 k are coplanar, then prove that a = 4.


"I

Sol.
i. U the given vectors are coplanar, then we should be able to express one of them as a linear
combination of the other two.
-+-+-+ .... ~~ -+-+ ....
Let us assume that 3 a - 7 b - 4 c = x (3 a - 2 b + c) + y (a + b + 2 c),
~ ~ ~ -+ .....
where x andy are scalars. Since a , b and c are non-coplanar, equating the coefficients of a , b
~

and c, we get
. 3x+y = 3,-2x+y=-7, x+2y =- 4
Solving the first two, we find that x =2 andy=- 3. These values of x andy satisfy the third equation
as well.
Hence, the given vectors are coplanar.
• 1\ 1\ 1\1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

ii. Given vectors 2 i - j + k , i + 2 j - 3k and 3 i +a j + 5 k are coplanar. Then


2 -1 1
I 2 -3 =0
3 a 5
or 3 - 1a + 25 = 0
or a=4
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1.38 Vectors and 30 Geometry

.... ~ -+ -+ -+-+
1
Jtlustration 1.44 If a , b and c are non-coplanar vectors, prove that the four points 2 a+ 3 b - c,
: -+ ....... -+ -+ .... .... ........

.
· a - 2b + 3 c , 3 a + 4 b - 2 c and a - 6 b + 6 c arc coplanar.
Sol. Let the given points be A, B, C and D. If they are coplanar, then the three coterminous vectors
~ ----+ ----+
AB, AC and AD should be coplanar.
~~~-+-+-+

AB ::: OB - OA = -a - 5 b + 4 c
.--....~~-+~-+

AC = OC - OA = a + b - c
~ ~ ~ .........
and AD =OD- OA =-a -9b +7 c
-1 -5 4
~ ~~

Since the vectors AB , AC, AD arc coplanar, we must have 1 1 - I =0, which is true.
-) -9 7
Hence proved.
Illustration 1.45 Let P be ~ in-terior point of a triangle ABC and AP, BP, CP meet the sides BC, CA, .4/F
. D, E, F , respective
m . Iy. Show that -AP =AF
- +AE
-.
PD FB EC
Sol. Since A, B, C, Pare co-planar, there exists four scalars x, y, z, w not all zero simultaneously such that
xa + yb + zc + wj; = 0
where .l;+y+z+w=O
xii + wp _ yb + zc
Also,
x+w y+z
AP w
Hence, - = - - - -1
PD X

Also xa + yb = zc + wp
x+y z+w
fig. 1.40
AF y
- =-
FB X
AE z
Similarly, -=-
EC X
Thus, to show that -~ - I = Y +!..
X X X
~ x + y + z + w = 0 which is true.
Hence proved.
.... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....
Illustration 1.46 Points A(a),B(b) , C(c) andD(d) arerelatedas xa +yb +zc +wd = Oand
x + y + z + w = 0, where x, y , z and w are scalars (sum of any two of x, y, z and w is not zero). Prove that
........ -+-+
if A , B, C and Dare concyclic, then lx Yll a - bl 2 = Iwi ll c- dl 2.
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Introduction to Vectors 1.39

-+ -+ -+ 4
I
Sol. From the given conditions, it i~ clear that points A (a) , B (b) , C (c) and B(b}
-+
D (d) are coplanar.
Now, A, B, C and D are concyclic. Therefore,
AP X BP = CP X DP
• -+-+X-+-+ W -+-+ Z -+-+
_Y_!a- bj-la-b!= - l c - d l - l c -d!
x+y x+y w+z . w+z I

i
~~
-+ -+ -+ -+ ~ D(d)
Ix y II a - b 12 = Iw z I I c - d1
2
A (a}
Fig. 1.41

Concept Application Exercise 1.2


-+ -+ -+ -+
J. If a , b, c and d arc four vectors in three-dimensional space with the same initial point and
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
such that 3 a - 2 b + c - 2 d '= 0 , show that tcnninals A, B, C and D of these vectors are ·
coplanar. Find the point at which AC and BD meet. Find the ratio in which P divjdes AC
and BD.
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
2. Show that the vectors 2 a - b + 3 c , a + b - 2 c and a + b - 3 c are non-cop]anar vectors
-+ -+ -+
(where a, b, c arc non-coplanar vectors).
3. Examine the following vectors for linear independence:
-+-+-+-+ -+-+ .... -+ ....
i. i+j+k,7i+3j-k , -i-2j+2k
-+ -+ -+ .... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
ii. 3 I + j - k, 2 i - j + 7 k , 7 i - j + 13 k
-+ -+ .... .... -+ .... ....
4. lf a and b are non-collinear vectors and A= (p + 4q) a + (2p + q + 1) b and B = (-2p + q + 2) a
.... -+ -+
+ (2p- 3q- J) b, and if 3A = 2B, then determine p and q.
.... .... .... -+ -+ -+
S. If a, b and c are any three non-coplanar vectors, then pr?ve that points /1 a + m1 b + n1 c,
I, /2 /3 /4
-+ -+ -+ -+ . -+ .... -+ .... -+ ml 1112 m3 m4
12 a + m2 b + n2 c, /3 a + m3 b + n3 c, /4 a + m4 b + n4 c arc copJanar if =0
Ill "2 113 n4
'l
-+ -+ ....
6. If a, b and c are three non-zero, non-coplanar vectors, then find the linear relation between
-+ .... -+ -+ -+ _. -+ -+ -+ -+ .... -+
the following four vectors: a - 2 b + 3 c, 2 a -3 b + 4 c, 3 a - 4 b + 5 c, 7 a - 1 1b + 15 c.
7. Let a, b, c be distinct non-negatlve numbers and the vectors ai + aj + ck, 1+ k, ci + c} + bk lie in a
plane, then prove that the quadratic equation ax'l + 2c.\' + h = 0 has equal roots.
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1.40 Vectors and 30 Geometry

IL. Exercises ~
..:II
'i ·~ . .:

Subjective Type ·
- ..
' 1\ 1\1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

1. The position vectors of the vertices A, Band C of a triangle are i + }, j + k and i + k, respectively.
1\
Find a unit vector r lying in the plane of ABC and perpendicular to /A, where I is' the incentre of the
triangle.
2. A ship is sailing towards the north at a speed of 1.25 mls. The current is taking it towards the east at the
rate of l m/s and a sailor is climbing a vertical pole on the ship at the rate of 0.5 m/s. Find the velocity
of the sailor in space. .
3. Given four points P 1, P 2, P 3 and P4 on the coordinate plane with origin 0 which satisfy the condition
- ---+ 3 ---+ .
OP n- 1 + OP n+t = - OP n.
2
i. · If P 1 and P2 lie on the curve xy = 1, then prove that P3 does not lie on the curve.
ii. If P 1, P 2 and P 3 lie on the circle x2 + y 2 = 1, then pro~ that P4 also lies on this circle.
4. ABCD is a tetrahedron and 0 is any point. lfthe lines joining 0 to the vertices meet the opposite faces
at .P, Q, RandS, prove that OP + OQ +OR+ OS = 1.
. AP BQ CR DS
S. A pyramid with vertex at point P has a regular hexagonal base ABCDEF. 'Position vectors of points
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

A and B are i and i + 2 j, respectively. The centre of the base has the position vector i + j + k. J3
Altitude drawn from P on the base meets the diagonal AD at point G. Find all p'ossible position vectors
of G. It is given that the volume of the pyramid is 6.[3 cubic units and AP is 5 units.
6. A straight line L cuts.thc lines AB, AC and AD of a parallelogram ABCD at points 8 1, C1 and D1,
- -----+ -----+ ~ ----+ - I I I
respectively. If AB 1, =A, AB , ADt::;;; ~AD and AC1 = ~ AC , then prove that ~=A, + A.z.
1\ " 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\
7. The position vectors of the points P and Q are 5 i + 7 j - ~k and - 3 i + 3 j + 6 k, respective} y. Vector
-tA = 3/ - j + k passes through point P and vector B = -3 i + 2 j + 4 k passes through point Q. A third
1\ 1\ 1\ -i 1\ 1\ 1\

1\ 1\ 1\

vector 2 i + 7 j - Sk intersects vector~ A and B. Find the position vectors of points of intersection.
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

8. Show that x1 i + y 1 j + z1 k. x2 ; + y 2 j + z2 k and x3 i + y 3 j + z3 k are non-coplanar if!x 11> tvd + lzd,


lY2I > lx2l + lz2l and lz31 > lxJI + lYJI·
-+ -t
9. If A and B are two vectors and k any scalar quantity greater than zero, then prove that

IA + B12 $ (I + k) IA 12 + l + kt) I-t8 12.


..... -i -i (

1\ A 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

10. Cons ider the vectors i +cos (/3- a) j +cos (r- a) k, cos (a- /3) i + j +cos (y- {3) k and
1\ 1\ 1\

cos (a- Y); +cos (/3- y) j +a k, where a, {3 and yare different angles. If these vectors are coplanar,
show that a is independent of {3 and y. a;
11. In a triangle PQR, Sand Tare points on QR and PR, respectively, such that QS = 3SR and PT = 4TR.
Let M be the point of intersection of PS and QT. Determine the ratio QM : .MT using the vector method.
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Introduction to Vectors 1.41

12. A boat moves in stiJI water with a velocity which is k times less than the river flow ve]ocity. Find the
angle to the stream direction at which the boat should be rowed to minimize drifting.
13. Jf D, E and Fare three points on the sides BC, CA and AB, respectively, of a triangle ABC such that the
lines AD, BE and CF arc concurrent, then show that
BD . CE . AF == -l
CD AE BF
· ~ -.~ -.~ ..... -+ --
14. In a quadrilateral PQRS, PQ = a, QR == b, SP = a - b, M is the midpoint of QR and X is a point
on SA1 such that SX = ~5 SM. Prov~ that P~.X and R are collinear.
Single Correct Answer Type
Each question has four choices a, h, c and d, out of which oniJ' one answer is correct. Find the correct answer.
1. Four non-zero vectors will always be
a. linearly dependent b. linearly independent c. either a or b d. none of these
-+-+ -+ -+ ~ -+
2. Let a, b and c be three units vectors such that 3 a + 4 b + 5 c = 0 . Then which of the following
statements is true?
-+ -+ -+ -+
a. a is parallel to b b. a is perpendicular. to b
-+ -+
c. a is neither parallel nor perpendicular to b
d. none of these ~'~ ~'~ ~'~
3. Let .ABC be a triangle, the position vectors of whose vertices are respectively i + 2 j + 4k,
1'1 "" " " "
- 2 i + 2 j +k and 2 i + 4 j - 3k . Then 6ABC is
a. isosceles b. equilateral c. right angled d. none of these
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
4. If Ia + b I< Ia - b I, then the angle between a and b can lie in the interval
a. (-rr/2, Trl2) b. (0, n) c. (tr/2, 3n/2) d. (0, 2n)
5.
-
A point 0 is the centre of a circle circumscribed about a triangle ABC. Then OA
-
sin 2A + OB sin 28
__...,.
+ OC sin 2C is.equal to
____.
a. (0A+OB+OC)sin2A
-- ~ --+
b. 3 OG , where G is the centroid of triangle ABC

--
-+
c. 0 d. none of these
__...,. ~
6. lf G is the centroid of a triangle ABC, then GA + GB + GC is equal to
-+ ~ ~ ~

a. 0 b. 3 GA c. 3GB d. 3GC

-+ -+
7. 1f a is a non-zero vector of modulus a and m is a non-zero scalar, then m a is a unit vector if
a. m = ± 1 b. a = lml c. a = 111m I d. a = l lm
8. ABCD a parallelogram, and A1 and B 1 are the midpoin~s of sides BC and CD, respectively. If
-
AA 1 + -
AB- --t
1 =A. AC, then A. is equal to

a. 1 b. 1 c.-
3 d. 2
2 2
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1.42 Vectors and 30 Geometry

1'\ A 1\

9. ·The position vectors of the points P and Q with respect to the origin 0 are
'"'+ A · A 1'\
a= i + 3 j - 2 k and ·
b; 3i. -·) - . 2k, respectively. .If }.1 is a point on PQ,
___. such that OM is the bisector of POQ, then
OM. is
" "j + k)
a. 2 (i- " b. 2i + j -.;2k c. 2 (-;" + "j - k)
" A 1\

d.2(i+j+k)
1'\
1\ " "

10. ABCD is a quadrilateral. E is the point of intersection of the line joining the midpoints oft~c opposite.
~ ----) _. ---+ --t
sides. If 0 is any point and OA + OB + OC + OD ::; xOE, then x is equal to
a. 3 b. 9 c. 7 d. 4
~ " " --+ 1\ 1\ "
11. If vectors AB = -3; + 4k and AC = 5 i - 2j + 4k are the sides of a MBC, then the length of the
median through A is
a. .JI4 b. $8
... ...... ... c. J29 d. 5
... .... ... ....
12. A, B, C and D have position vectors a, b, c and d , respect~vcly, such that a- b;;;:; 2(d- c). Then
a. AB and CD bisect each other b. BD and AC bisect each other
c. AB and CD -trisect each other d. BD and AC trisect each other
.... .... 0 •

13. If a and b are two unit vectors and 8 is the angle between them, then the unit vector along the
... ....
angular bisector of _a and b will be given by
.... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a -b a+b a - ·b
a. - --- b.---- c. d. none of these
2 cos (8/2) 2 cos (8/2) cos (9/2)
1\ 1\ "
14. Let us define the· length of a vector a i + b j + c k as Ia I + Ib I + Ic 1. This definition coincides with
" 1\ 1\
the usua.l definition of length of a vector a i + b j + ck if and only if
a. a = b = c = 0 b. any two of a, b and c are ~ero
c. any one of a, hand c is zero d. a+ h + c = 0
,_. 1\ 1\-t 1\ 1\ _. 1'\ 1\ _. _. -t _.
1S. Given three vectors a =6 i - 3 j, b = 2 i - 6 j and c = - 2 i + 21 j such that a = a + b + c . Then
0 ... -+ ....
the resolution of the vector a into components with respect to a and h is given by
... -+ -t ... -+ -+ -+ -+
a. 3a- 2b b. 3 b- 2 a c. 2 a- 3 b d. (/- 2 h
....................... -+-+... .... ... _. ....
16. If a +'.fJ + r =a oand {3 + r + o.=ba, a and o are non-collinear, then a+ {3 + r + ~ equals
....
a. aa b. c. 0 . bo · d. (a+ b) r
17. In triangle ABC, LA= 30<>, H is the orthoccntre and Dis the midpoint of BC. Segment HD is produced
to T such that HD = DT. The length AT is equal to
a. 2BC b. 3BC c. inc d. none of these
.... .... _. -+
3
18. Let 'i' r2 , r3, . .. , rn be the position vectors of points .P1, P 2, PF .. , Pn relative to the·origin 0. If the
... -+ -+
vector equation a1 'i + a2 12 + ... +an· rn =0 holds, then a similar equation will also hold w.r.t. to any
other origin provided ·
a. a 1 + a2 + ... +an= 11 b. a 1 + a 2 + ... + an= I c. a 1+ a2 + ... +a,= 0 d. a1=a2 =a3 =···=an=O
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Introduction to Vectors .1.43

19. Given three non-zero, non-coplanar vectors a, hand c.


-.~ ~
~
-
= pa + qb + c and r2 ;;; a+ pb + qc. Jf
-
-+-+ -.~

the vectors 'i + 2'i and 2'i + 'i arc collinear, then (p, q) is
a.(O,O) b. (I, - 1) c.(-1,1) d. (J' 1)
-+ -+ -+ ~

20. Jf the vectors a and b are linearly independent satisfying (..J3 tan 9 + 1) a + ( sec() - 2) b = 0, J3
then the most general values of 8 arc
rr . lhr n lllr
a. nrc- -, n e Z b. 2mr± - , n e Z c. nn± -, n e Z d. 2mr+ - , n e Z
6 6 6 . 6

-
--+ ~ -+ ~ ~ ---+
21. In a trapezium, vector BC;:: a AD . We will then find that p = AC + BD is collinear with AD .
....
If p = J1 AD, then which of the following is true?
a. J1 =a+ 2 b. J1 +a= 1 c. a= J.1 +I d. J..l =a+ I
~ 1\1\ 1\~ 1\1\1\ -+ 1\1\ 1\

22. Vectors a = i + 2 j + 3 k , b = 2 i - j + k and c = 3 i + j + 4 k are so placed that the end point


of one vcc~or is the starting point of the next vector. Then the v.ectors are
a. not coplanar b. coplanar but cannot form a triangle
c. coplanar and fonn a triangle d. coplanar and can form a right-angled triangle
1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+
23. Vectors a =- 4 i + 3k ; b = 14 i + 2 j - 5 k are laid off from one point. Vector d , which is being
-+ -+
laid off from the same point dividing the angle between vectors a and b in equal halves and having
the magnitude .J6, is
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ '1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

a. i ·+ j + 2 k b. ; - j + 2k c. i + j - 2k d. 2 i - j - 2k
1\ 1\ " 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

24. If i - 3 j + 5k bisects the angle between a and- i + 2 j + 2 k, where a is a unit vector, then
1\ 1 ' 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ J 1\ 1\ 1\

a. a=-(4Ii+88j - 40k) b. a=-(41i+88j+40k)


105 105 .
1\ 1 1\ 1\ 1\ A '} 1\ 1\ 1\

c. a=tos(-41i+88j-40k) d. a= - (4li-88j-40k)
105 .
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\

25. If 4 i + 7 j + 8k, 2 i + 3 j +4 k and 2 i + 5 j + 7 k are the position vectors of the vertices A, Band
C, respectively, of triangle ABC, then the position vector of the point where the bisector of angle A
meets BCis ·
2 " ' 1\ 1\ 2 1\ " 1\ · J '" 1\ 1\ I ,... "
a. 3(-6i -8j-6k) b. (6i +.8}+6k) c. -(6i+13j+18k) d. -(5f+l2k)
3 3 3 ·.
~ . 1\ 1\ •

26. Jf b is a vector whose initial point divides the join of 5 i and 5 j in the ratio k: 1 and whose tenninal
~

point is the origin and Ib I ~ ffi , then k lies in the interval


a. [- 6, - 1/6] b. (-oo,-6]u[-116,oo)
c. [0, 6) d. none of these
27. Find the value of~ so that the points P, Q, RandS on the sides OA , OB, OC and AB, respectively, of
. . OP 1 OQ 1 OR 1 OS
a regular tetrahedron OABC arc coplanar. It 1s gtven that - =-,- =- , - =- and -;;;A..
· OA 3 OB 2 OC 3 AB
a.A. ==.!. b .A. =-1 c.A. == O d.fornovalueofA.
2
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1.44 Vectors and 30 Geom~try

28. 'I' is the incentre of triangle ABC whose corresponding sides are a, b, c, respectively.
__.. __.. __..
a lA + b _IB + c IC is always equal to
.... -+ -+ .... .... __.. --+
a. 0 b. (a+b+c)BC c. (a+b+c)AC d. (a+b+c)A.B
29. Let x!" + 3y :::: 3 be the equation of an ellipse in the x-y plane. A and B are t:vo points whose position
1'\ 1'\ 1\

vectors are - .J3 i and - .J3 i + 2k. Then the position vector of a point P on the c1li pse such that
LAPB = Trl4 is
1'\ 1'\ 1'\ 1'\

a.±) b. ±(i + )) c. ±; d. none of these

30. Locus of the point P; for which OP


represents a vector with direction cosine cos a= (where 0 .!.
is t.he origin) is 2
a. a circle parallel to the y-z plane with centre on the x-axis .
b. a cone concentric with the positive x-axis having vertex at the origin and the slant height equal to
the magnitude of the vestor
c. a ray emanating from the origin and making an angle of 60° with the x-ax is
0 __..

d. a disc parallel to the y-z plane with centre on the x-axis and radius equal to I OP I sin 60°
.... ....
31. lf x and y are two non-collinear vectors and ABC is a triangle with side lengths a, band c satisfying
-+ .... ... ... -+
(20a - 15b) x + (15b -12c) y + (12c - 20a) (x x y) =·');then triangle ABC is
a." an acute-angled triangle b. an obtuse-at:tglcd triangle
c. a right-angled triangle d. an isosceles triangle
32. A uni-modular tangent vector on the curve x·= + 2, y = 4t- 5, z = 2fl-6t at t = 2 is r
1 1'\ 1\ " 1 " 1'\ ·" 1 1\ 1'\ 1'\
0

2 1'\ 1'\ 1'\


a. -(2i+2j+k) b . -(i-j-k) c. -(2 i+j+k) d . -(i+j +lr.)
3 3 6 3
....
33. If x and Y are two non-collinear. vectors and a, b and c represent the sides of a AABC satisfying
-+ -+ ......
(a - b) x + (b - c) y + (c- a) (x x y) = 0, then llABC is (where x x y is perpendicular to the
-
plane of x and y )
-
a. an acute-angled triangle b. an obtuse-angled triangle
c. a right-angled triangle d. a scalene. triangle
-+
34. A is a vector with direction cosines cos a, cos {3 and cos r. Assuming the·y-z plane as a mirror, the
....
direction cosines of the reflected image of A in the y-z plane are
a. cos a, cos {3, cos r
. ~. cos a, -cos {3, cos r
c. -cos a, cos /3, cos r
d. -cos a, -cos {3, - cos r
Multiple Correct Answers Type
0 0

Each question has four choices a, b, c, and d, out of which one or more arc correct.
A • A A <A A ,.. A J'\ """'

1. The vectors xi+ (x + 1)) + (x + 2)k, (x + 3)i + (x + 4)} + (x + 5)k and (x + 6)i + (x + 7)} + (x + 8)k
are coplanar if x is equal to
a. 1 b. -3 c. 4 d. 0
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Introduction to Vectors 1.45

A A A A A A
2. The sides of a parallelogram are 2 i + 4 j - 5k and i + 2 j + 3k . The unit vector parallel to one of the
diagonals is
J A A A ) 1\ 1\ A
a. (3 i + 6 j - 2k) b. -(3i-6j-2k)
7 .
7
l A A 1\
I " " A
c. ~(i +2j+8k) d. ~(-i -2j+8k)
'1/69 v69
-+
3. A vector a has the components 2p and 1 w.r.t. a rectangular Cartesian system. This system is rotated
through a certain angle about the origin in the counterclockwise sense. If, with respect to a new system,
-+
a has components (p + 1) and 1, then p is equal to
a. - 1 b. -I 13 c. 1 d.2
4. If points i + j, I- j and pf + ii + rk are collinear, then
a. p = I b. r = 0 c. q e R d. q :1; 1
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
5. If a , band c are non-coplanar vectors and A. is a real number, then the vectors a + 2 b + 3 c, A. b + J1 c
-+
and (2A.- I) c are coplanar when
a. 11 e R b. A. = .!. c. A.= 0 d·. no value of A.
2
-+ 1\ 1\ A -+ 1\ A -+ 1\ A 1\
6. 1f the resultant of three forces Fj = p i + 3 j - k, F2 = 6 i - k and F 3 ::::: - 5 i + j + 2 ~ acting on a
particle has a magnitude equal to 5 units, then the value ofp is
a. - 6 b. - 4 c. 2 d. 4
A /\A A -+ -+
7. If the vectors i - j, j + k and a form a triangle, then a may be
A 1\ 1\ A A 1\ 1\ A A A
a. - i - k b. i - 2j-k c. 2 i + j + k d. i + k
1\ 1\ A

8. The vector i + x j + 3k is rotated through an angle (J ahd is doubled in magnitude. lt now becomes
1\ A 1\

4 i + (4x - 2) j + 2 k . The values of x are


a. l b. - 2/3 c. 2 d. 4/3
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
9. a, b and c are three coplanar unit vectors such that a + b + c =0. If three vectors p, q and r
-+ --+ -+
are parallel to a, b and c, respectively, and have integral but different magnitu<;les, then among the
-+ -+ --+
following options, Ip + q + rl can take a value equal to
a. 1 b. 0 . c. J3 d. 2
-+ -+ --+ -+
10. If non-zero vectors a and b are equally inclined to coplanar vector c , then c can be
-+ -+ --+ --+
Jal -+
lbl -+
lbl .... Jal ....
a. "-+ -+
a+ --+ -+
b b. -+ -+
a+ -+ -+b
la l+2lbl lal+lbl lal+lb l la l+lbl
-+ -+ -+ -+
c. Ia I -+
a+ lbl -+ .
d. l bl -+
a+ Ia! -+
...... ...... -+ -+ b -+ -+ -+ -+ b
la.l+2lb l la l+2lbl 2lal+ lb l 2Ja l+lbl
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1.46 ·Vectors and 3D Geometry

11. IfA(- 4, 0, 3) and B (14, 2, - 5), then which one of the following points lie on the bisector of the angle
~ ~

between OA and OB (0 is the origin of reference)?


a. (2, 2, 4) b. (2, 11, 5) c. ( -3, - 3, -6) d. (1, 1, 2)
1\1\1\ " ~ ~ ~ ~
12. In a four-dimensional space where unit vectors along the axes are i, }, k and I , and a1, a 2 , a 3 , a4
are four non-zero vectors such that no vector can be expressed as a linear c<?mbina~ion of others and
-t ~ -t ~ ~ -t -t -t -t-t
(A.- I) (at- a2) + J1 (a2 + a3 ) +r (a3 + a4 - 2a2 )+a3 +Oa4 = 0 , then
a. A= 1 b. ,u = - 2/3 c. y;;;;; 2/3 d. o = 113
II 1\ 1\ II II

13. Let ABC be a triangle, the position vectors o·1 whose vertices are 7 j + 10 k, - i + 6 j + 6,k and
1\ 1\ 1\

- 4 i + 9 j + 6k . Then LlABC is
a. isosceles b. equilateral . c. right angled d. none of these

Reasoning Type
Each question has four choices a, h, c;and d, out of which only o11e is correct. Each question contains
Statement 1 and S~atement 2.
a. Both the statements are true, and Statement 2 is the correct explana~ion for Statement 1.
b. Both the statements are true, but Statement 2 is not the correct explanation for Statement 1.
c. Statement. I is true and Statement 2 is false.
d. Statment 1 is false and Statement 2 is true.
1. A vector has components p and I with respect to a rectangular Cartesian system. The axes are rotated
through a~ angle a about the origin in the anticlockwise sense.
Statement 1: If the v~ctor has components p + 2 and 1 with respect to the new system, then p = - 1
Statement 2: Magnitude of the original vector and the new vector remains the s~me.
-t -t -t
2. Statement 1: If three points P., Q and R have position vectors a , b and c, respectively, and
-t ~ ~

2a +3b - 5c = 0, then the points P, Q and R must be collinear.


~ ~

Stateme~t 2: If for three points A, B and C, AB =A AC., then points A, Band C must be C<?llinear.
3. Statement 1: If ii and v are unit vectors inclined at an angle a and x is a unit vector bisecting the
angle between them, then ;== (;+ ~)/(2sin(a/2)).
Statement 2: If LlABC is an isosceles triangle with AB ;;;;; AC = 1, then the vector representing the
~ ~~

bisector of angle A is given by AD = ( AB + A C )/2.


4. Statement 1: If cos a, cos {J and cos yare the direction cosines of any line segment, then cos2a
+ cos2{3 + cos2 y= 1.
State~ent 2: If cos a, cos f3 and cos yare the direction cosines of a line segment, then cos 2a + ·
cos 2{3 + ~s 2y= - 1.
5. Stat~ment 1: The direction cosines o(one of the angular bisectors of two intersecting lines having
direction cosines as /1 , m1, n 1 and /2, m2, n2 are proponional to ! 1 - / 2, m 1+ rn 2, n 1 + n2 .
Statement 2: The angle between the two in.tersecting lines having direction cosines as / 1, m 1, n 1 and
!2, m2, n 2 is given by cos 8 = / 1 12 + m 1m2 + n 1n2 • ·
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Introduction to Vectors 1.47

----+ ----+ ----+


6. Statement 1: In llABC, AB + BC + CA = 0
----+ -+ - - t -+ --t -+ -+
Statement 2: If OA ""a, OB = b, then AB =a+ b
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
7. Statement!: a=3i +pj+3k and b=2i +3j+qk areparallelvectorsifp c: 9/2andq == 2.
-+ -+ -+ _. -+ -+ -+ -+ a a a
Statement 2: If a ;;;;; a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k and b = ~ i + b2 j + b3 k are parallel, then - 1 = __£_ = ~.
-+ ..... -+ ..... -+ .....
ht b2 i>:3
8. Statement J: If Ia + b I = Ia - b I, then a and b arc perpendicular to each other.
Statement 2 : If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal in magnitude, then the parallelogram is a
rectangle.
. -+ ..... -+ ..... 1\ ,... ..... " 1\ "
9. Statement 1: Let A (a), B(b) and C( c) be three points such that a= 2 i + k, b = 3 i - j + 3k and
..... 1\ 1\ 1\

c = - i + 7 j - 5k. Then OABC is a tetrahedron.


-+ ..... _. -+-+ ..... .
Statement 2: Let A( a), B( b) and C( c) be three points such that vectors a , b and c are non-coplanar.
Then OABC is a tetrahedron, where 0 is the origin. ·
-+-+-+ -+
10. Statement 1: Let a , b, c and d be the position vectors of four points A, B, C and D and
..... ..... -+ -+ -+
3 a- 2 b + 5 c- 6d c 0. Then points A, B, C and Dare coplanar.
-+ -+ -+
Statement 2: Three non-zero, linearly dependent coinitial vectors (PQ, PR and PS) are coplanar.
Then PQ = J..PR + )lPS , where A. and j1 arc scalars. ·
. -+ -+ -+-+ -+-+
11. Statement l: If Ia I= 3, lbl = 4 and Ia + b I= 5, then Ia- bf- 5.
Statement 2: The length of the diagonals of a rectangle is the same.

Linked Comprehension Type


Based on each paragraph, some multiple choice questions have to be answered. Each question has four
choices a, b, c, and d, out of which only o11e is correct.

For Problems 1-3


ABCD is a parallelogram. L is a point on BC which divides BC in the ratio 1 : 2. AL intersects BD at P. M is
a point on DC which divides DC in the ratio 1 : 2 and AM intersects BD in Q.
1. Point P divides AL in the ratio
a. 1 : 2 b. I : 3 c. 3 : I d. 2 : 1
2. Point Q divides DB in the ratio
a. 1 : 2 b. 1: 3 c. 3 : I d. 2 : 1
3. PQ : DB is equal to
a. 2/3 b. 113 c. 1/2 d. 3/4
For Problems 4- 5
Let OABCD be a pentagon in which the sides OA and CB are parallel and the sides OD and AB are parallel.
Also OA : CB =2 : 1 and OD : AB = 1 : 3.
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1.48 Vectors and .30 Geometry

.
4. The ratio-
ox IS.
XC
a. 3/4 b. 1/3 c. 2/5 d. l/2
. AX .
.
5Thc ratto- JS
XD
a. 5/2 b.6 c. 7/3 d.4
For Problems 6-7
Consider the regular hexagon ABCDEF with centre at 0 (origin).
--+ --+ --+
6. · AD + EB + FC is equal to
--+ --+ --+
a. 2 AB b. 3 AB c. 4A AB d. none of these
--+ --+ --+ --+ --+ .
7. Five forces AB , AC, AD, AE , AF act at the vertex A of a regular hexagon ABCDEF. Then their
resultant is
--+ --+ . --+ ----+
a. 3AO b. 2AO.. c. 4AO d. 6AO
For Problems 8-9
Let A, B, C, D, E represent vertices of a regular pentagon ABCDE. Given the position vector of these vertices
be a, a+ b, E. A.a and Ab, respectively.
. AD . ·
8 . The ratto - ·1s equa1 to
BC
. 3tr 3tr . 2tr 1C 1C 1t
.- .
a. 1- cos- : cos - b. 1 + 2cos- :cos- c. 1+ 2 cos-: 2 cos- d. None of these
5 5 5 5 5 5 -.
9. AD divides EC in the ratio
2tr . 3tr
a. cos- :·1 b. cos- : I c. I : 2 COS -21t d. I : 2
5 5 5
For Problems 10-11
,In a parallelogram OABC, vectors a, b, c are, respectively, the position vectors of venices A , B, C with,
reference to 0 as origin. A pointE is taken on 'the side BC which divides it iil the ratio of 2 : 1. Also, the line
segment AE intersects the line bisecting the angle- LAOC internally at point P. If CP when extended meets
AB in point F, then '
J0. The position vector of point P is .

a.
lal lc l (a c)
3lcl + 2lal Ia I+ lei
b. 3lallcl ( a + e)
3lel + 2lal Vii lei
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Introduction to Vectors 1.49

2lallcl (a c J d. None of these


c. 3lcl + 21a1 Ia I+ lei
11. The ratio in which F divides AB is
2lal . 3lcl
a. llal-3lcll d. 3lcl-lal

Matrix-Match Type
Each question contains statements given in two columns which have to be matched. Statements (a, b, c,
d) in Column I have to be matched with statements (p, q, r, s) in Column U. If the correct matches are
a ~ p, s; b ~ q, r; c ~ p, q and d ~ s, then the correctly bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should be as fo1lows:

p q r ·s

a(V@(0®
b®®0®
c@@Q)®
d®®Q)Q)
1. Refer to the following diagram:

· Fig. 1.43

Column I Column II
-+
a. Collinear vectors p. a
-+
b. Coinitial vectors q. b
-+
c. Equal vectors r. c
.--+
d. Unlike vectors (same initial point) s. d
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1.50 Vectors and 30 Geometry

... ...
2. a and h form the consecutive sides of a regular hexagon ABCDEF.

Column I Column II
-+ ........
p. X=- 2
a. If CD= xa + yh·, then
-+ ... ...
b. If CE = x a + y b. then
q. i---1
-+ ... -4
r. y= 1
c. If AE = x a + y b, then •
---1 ... s. y=2 •
d. AD= -x b, then

Integer Type
1. Let ABC be a triangle whose centroid is G, orhtocentre isH and circumcentre is the origin '0' . .lf D
is any point in the plane of the triangle such that no three of 0, A~ C and Dare collinear satisfying the
..... ...
..... ... ...
relation AD+ BD + CH + 3HG = A HD, then what is the value of the scalar •)..'?
-+ ,.. .. ~ -+ ... ... ,.. -t ... ""
2. Ifthe resultant of three forces /·'j = pi + 3j - k, F2 = - Si + j + 2k and f) = 6~ - k acting on a particle
has a magnitude equal to 5 units, then what is difference in the values of p?
..... ..., ... ..... ... ~

3. Let a , b and c be unit vectors such that a + b - c = 0. If the area of triangle formed by vectors
... ...
a and b is A, then what is the value of 4A 2? ... " 1\1\

4. Find the least positive integral value of x for which the angle between vectors . a =xi - 3 j - k and
..., 1\ 1\f\

b = 2x i + x j - k is acute.
__./\ 1\1\ ... 1\ AA

5. Vectors along the adjacent sid~s of parallelogram arc a = i + 2 j + k and b = 2 i + 4 j + k . Find the
length of the longer diagonal of the parallelogram.
__. A 1\ A __. 1\ 1\ 1\ ..... 1\ 1\ 1\

6. If vectors a = i + 2 j ._ k, b = 2 i - j + k and c = M + j + 2k are coplanar, then find the value of


(.A - 4).

Archives

Subjective 1ype
1\ 1\ " " ./\ " f\ "
1. Find all values of A such that x, y , z :f! (0, 0, 0) and (i + j + 3k)x + (3 i - 3j + k)y + (-4 i + 5 j)z
1\ 1\ " ..... ..... .....
= A.(x i + y j + z k) , where, i, j and k are unit vectors along the coordinate axes. (JJT-JEE, 1998)
2. A vector has components A 1, A2 and A3 in a right-handed rectangular Cartesian coordinate system
0.,\1'2. The coordinate system is rotated about the x-axis through an angle Tr/2. Find the components
of A in the new coordinate system in tenns of A 1, A2 and A3. (JIT-JEE, 1983)
" " 1\ 1\ " " 1\ 1\ 1\
3. The position vectors of the point A, B, C and D are 3 i - 2.j- k, 2; + 3 j - 4k,- i + j + 2k and
'1\ 1\ A

4 i + 5 j + Ak , respectively. lf the points A, B, C and D lie on a plane, find the value of ll.
(IIT-JEE, 1986)
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Introduction to Vectors 1.51

4. Let OA CB be a parallelogram with 0 at the origin and OC a diagonal. Let D be the midpoint of OA.
Using vector methods prove that BD and CO intersect in the same ratio. Determine this ratio.
(IIT-JEE, 1988)
5. In a triangle ABC, D and E are points on BC and AC, respectively, such that BD = 2DC and AE = 3EC.
Let P be the point of intersection of AD and BE. Find BPIPE using the vector method.
(IIT-JEE,1993)
6. Prove, by vector method or otherwise, that the point of intersection of the diagonals of a trapezium
lies on the line passing through the midpoint of the parallel sides (you may assume that the trapezium
is not a parallelogram.) (IIT-JEE, 1998)
7.. Show, by vector method, that the angular bisectors of a triangle are concurrent and find an expression
for the position vector of the point of concurrency in tenns of the position vectors of the· vertices.
(IIT-JEE, 2001)
-t 1\ 1\ -t 1\ (1.

8. Let A(t)=ft(t)i + J;(t)jandB(t)=g 1(t)i +g2 (t)j, te[0, 1], wherefi ,.f2, g 1, g2 are continuous
-t -t -t A A-+ A II
functions. If A(t) and B(t) are non-zero vectors for all and A(O) "'= 2 i + 3 j , A(l) = 6 i + 2 j,
-+ f\. II -t 1\ f\. -t -+
B(O) = 3 i + 2 j and B(l) = 2 i + 6 j, then show that A(t) and B(t) are parallel for some t.
(IIT-JEE, 2001)
9. In a triangle OAB, E is the midpoint of BO and D is a point on AB such that AD : DB = 2 : 1. If OD
and AE intersect at P, detennine the ratio OP : PD using the vector method. (IIT-JEE, 1989)

Fill in the blanks


a a2 1+ a3
. -+ -t ~ .
1. If b b2 l.+b3 = 0 and the vectors A = (1 , a, a2), B = (1 , b, b2), C = (1, c, c2) are non-coplanar,
c2 3
c 1+ c
then the product abc = - - - - - (II'f-JEE,l985)
1\ II 1\f\. f\. 1\ 1\ 1\ A

2. If the vectors a i + j + k, i + b j + k and i + j + c k (a, b, c -:;: 1) are coplanar, then the value of
1 1 1
-+- +- = (JIT-JEE,l987)
1- a 1-b 1-c
True or false -t ~-? ~ -t ~

l . The points with position vect9rs a + b, a - b and a + k b are collinear for all real valu.es of k.
(UT-JEE, 1984)
Single correct answer type
II 1\1\ 1\f\. f\.

1. The points with position vectors 60 I + 3 j, 40 i - 8j, a i - 52 j are collinear if


a. a= - 40 b. a= 40 c. a= 20 d~ none of these
(IIT-JEE, 1983)
II 1\ Ill\ 1\ A 1\ II

2. Let a, b and c be distinct non-negative numbers. If yectors a i +a j + c k , i + k and c i + c j + b k are


coplanar, then c is
a. the arithmetic mean of a and b b. the geometric mean of a and b
c. the harmonic mean of a and b d. equal to zero (IIT-JEE, 1993)
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1.52 Vectors and 30 Geometry

~ -+ ...... ~ ...... ~ ...... -+ ~ -+ ...... ~~ -+


3. Let a = i - k , h = x; + j +(I - x) k and c =y i + x j + (1 + x- y) k . Then a, hand c are non-
coplanar for
a. some values of x b. some values ofy
c. no values of x andy d. for all v~lues of x andy
(llT-JEE, 2000)
{\ ' A

4. Let a, f3 and r be distinct and real numbers.. T~e points with position vectors ai + f3 j + yk,
{\ {\ {\ " {\ {\

. f3 i + r j + a k and r i + a j + f3 k
a. are collinear b. form an equilateral triangle
c. form a scalene triangle d. form a right-angled triangle
(JIT-JEE, 1994)
. A A' A A A A

5. The number of distinct real values of )., for which the vectors· -A.2 i + j + k, i - ).2 j + k and
{\f\ " .

i + j - A. 2 k are coplanar is
a. zero b. one c. two d. three
(JIT-JEE, 2007)
~ A 1\ flo -+ A A A -+A 1\ A . ......
6. If a = i + j + k, b = 4 i + 3 j + 4k and c = i +a j + f3 k are linearly dependent vectors and I c I
_; J3, then
a. a = 1, b =-I b. a= I , b =±I c. a = - I , .8 = ± I d . .a =±l , a= I
(IIT-JEE, 1998)
M~~~e .
1. Consider the set of eight vectors'JI= {ai + bj + ck; a, b, c e {-1, 1}} . Three non-coplanar vectors can
be ·chosen from V in 2P ways. Then pis (JEE Advanced 2013)

II
Subjective Type
1
t . ;: =± .fi. (i + J) -(i + 2j + 2J3k), 3f + 2j + 2J3k
A A

2. 1.677 m/sec. 5.

1. 21 + sJ - 3k, j + 2k 11. ] 5: 4 12. cos- 1 (1/k)

Single Correct Answer Type


1. a. 2. d. 3. c. 4. c. 5. c. 6. a. 7. c. 8. l:. 9. b. 10. d.
11. b. 12. d. 13. b. 14. b. 15. c. 16. c. 17. a. 18. c. 19. d. 20. d.
21. d. 22. b. 23. a. 24. d. 25. c. 26. b. 27. b. 28. a. 29. a. 30. b.
. 31. c. 32. a . 33. a. 34. c.
Multiple Correct Answers Type
'1. a, b, c, d. 2. a, d. 3. b, c. 4. a, b, d. 5. a, b, c.
6. b, c. 7. a, b, d. 8. b, c. 9. c, d. 10. b, d.
. 11. a, c, d . 12. a, b, d. 13. a, c.
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Introduction to Vectors 1.53

Reasoning Type
1. a. 2. a. 3. d. 4. b. s. b. 6. c. 7. a. 8. a. 9. a. 10. a.
11. a.
Linked-Comprehension Type
1. c. 2. b. 3. c. 4. c. . 5. b. 6. c. 7. d. 8. c. 9. c. 10. b.
11. d.
Matrix-Match Type
1. a --+ p, r, s; b -4 q, r, s; c -4 p, r; d -+ r~ s 2. a --+ q, r; b -+ p, r; c --+ q, s; d -+ p
Integer Type
1. (2) 2. (6) 3. (3) 4. (2) 5. (7) 6. (9)
Archives
Subjective type

1. 0, - I 3• . 146 4. 2 : 1 5. 8:3.
17
Fill in the blanks
1. -1 2. 1
True or false
1. True
Single correct answer type
1. a. 2. b. 3. d. 4. b. 5. c. 6. d • ..
Integer type
1. (5)
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Different Products of
Vectors and Their
Geometrical Applications
DOT (SCALAR) PRODUCT
~ ~ ~~ ~~

The scalar product of vectors a and b , written as a · h , is defined to be the number Ia II b I cos 8, where 8
~ -+
is the angle between a and b , i.e.,
~ ~ ~ ~

a·b = 1a II b 1cos 8, where o~ es n.


Notes:
~ ~

J. a · b is positive if 8 is acute.
-+ -+
2. a · b is negative if 8 is obtuse.
-+ -+
3. a · b is zero if 8 is a right angle.

Physical Interpretation of Scalar Product


---+ -+ ~ -+
Let OA = a represent a force acting on a particle at 0 and let OB = b represent the displacement of the
particle from 0 to Bas shown in the :figure. Then the displacement in the direction of the force is OC = b cos 8.
Therefore, the work done by a force is a scalar quantity equal to the product B
of the magnitude of the force and the resolved part of the displacement in the
~

direction of force. Work done by force a in moving its point of application


~ ~ -+ -+
from 0 to B is Ia II b Icos8 =a · b . -+
a
0'~--~~c~-------+A
Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Product
~ bcos 9.,.
-+ -+ --+ ---+
Let a and b be two vectors represented by OA and OB , respectively. Fig. 2.1
~ -+ -+ ~

Here OL and OM are known as projections of b on a and a on b ,


respectively.
-+-+ ~-+

Now, a·b = 1a II b 1 cos e ·.


·. ..
-+
I I(OB cos 8)
== a ..
-+ ·.. A
0
=I a I(OL) -+ ~ -+
== (magnitude of a ) (projection of b on a) (i) fig. 2.2
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2.2 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-.~ -+ _.
Again, a · b = 1a II b I cos 8
_. -+
= 1 b I <1 a I cos 8) .
-+
=I b I(OA cos8)
-+
= I b l(OM)
-4 -+ -+
::: (magnitude of b) (projection of a on b) (ii)
Thus. geometrically interpreted, the scalar product of two vectors is the product of modulus of either vectors
and the ~rojection of the other in its direction. Thus,
_. _. -+
-+ -+ a·b _. b -+"
Projection of a on b =__:_
-+
= a · - -+ = a ·b
Ib I Ib I
-+ -+ -+
a ·b a -+ "-+
-+ -+
Projec-tion of bon
.
a =--=-·b
-+ -+
=a·b
I aI Ia I

-;.;
Properties of Dot (Scalar) Product ·
=I ;~I; lcosO:=I; F~ ::::t·f·~ J·j=k·k ~-~ - -·· ---~ ------· -··-···- ...·---,
1:
I
-+ -+

-+ 4
-+-+
a · b = b · a (commutative)
-+ -+-+ -+-+
3. a · ( b + c) = a · b + a · c (distributive)
·

Proof:
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Let OA = a, OB = b, BC = c so that
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
OC = OB + BC =b + c
i . From B draw BM ..L OA and from C, drawn CN J. OA
l -+ -+ -+
L.H.S. =a · (b +c)
-+ .....
= OA : QC
= (OA) (OC)cos8 (where 8~ LCON)
c (OA)(ON) (as ON = OC cos9)
=·(OA)(OM+MN) -+
a
A
= (OA) (OM)+ (OA) (MN)
Ftg. 2.3
-+ -+ -+ .....
=OA · OB + OA · BC
.......... -+
=a · b + a · c = R.H.S.
..... .... .... -+
4. (I a) ·(m b)= lm(a · b); where I and mare scalars
..
-+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ .
5. If a and b are two non-zero vectors; then a · b = 0 (::::) a and b are perpendicular to each other i
"" "" 1\1\
. ·--- i · j =j_· ~ ~ k· ~-~-Q.. .
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 23 .

~---· ·- - -· - ·-----· ---- ·- ----- --- -----~--~-~----....


-+ ... -+ - -+ ~
6. (a ± b i == (a ± b) ·(a ± b)
-+ -+ -+ -+
~ laf+lb f ±2a · bb
-+ -+ -+ -+
=I a f + I b F± 21 a II b Icos e
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
7. (a+b) ·(a - b) = laf - lbf
-+ A A A -+ A A . 1\ _.. ...

8•., If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b =q i + ~ j + ~ k , then a · b = a 1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3


AA AI\ AA AA AA AI\

(·: i·i::j-j=k·k =1andi·j ; j-k=k · i = O)


-+ 1\ A 1\ •) \ A A A

9. ·Let r =xi+ y j+ z k. Taking dot product with i ,} and k, alternatively, we have


-+A -t A -+A
x =r·i, y =r · j and z = r · k
-4 -+AA -t AA -t AA

~ r =(r · i) i + ( r · j) j + ( r · k) k

APPLICATIONS OF DOT (SCALAR) PRODUCT


Finding Angle between Two Vectors
-4 "' A A -t A A 1\

lf a = a1i + a2 j + a3 k and b = qi + ~ j + ~k arenon-zerov~tors, then the angle between them is given by

Also

or
Cosine Rule Using Dot Product
Using vector method, prove that in a triangle a2 = b2 + c2- 2bc cos A (cosine law)
In L1ABC,
--4 -+ ~ -+ --+ -+
Let AB = c, BC = a , CA ;: b,
-+ -+ -+ -+ ..... -+
Since a + b + c = 0 , we have a = -( b + c)
-+ .-+ -+
I a ~ = 1-(b + c ) I
.. ~ -+ -+
or I a F= I b + c F
Fig. 2.4
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
or I a F=I b F+ 1c F+ 2 b · c
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
or I a f = I b F+ I c F+ 21 b II c Icos (tr - A)
-+ -+
(·: angle ~etween b and c = angle t>etween CA produced and AB)
or a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos A
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. 2.4 Vectors and 30 Geometry

_. -+
Finding Components of a Vector b Along and Perpendicular to Vector a or Resolving a
Given Vector in the Direction of Given Two Perpendicular Vectors

fig. 2.5 ,
_. ... --+ --+
Let a and b be two vectors represented by OA. and OB , respectively and let 8 be the angle between
_. -+
a and b. Then
..... --+ --+
b =OM+ MB
----. 1\

Also OM= (OM)a


1\

=(OB cos(J)a
-+ 1\
== (! b Icos 8) a

... (;·b))"a
= I b I _. .....
( I a II b I

a ·b " _ -t-+
_ -+-+) a·b -+ _ (-+-+)
a·b -+
- -. . .a - . . . . -+ a - --+- a
( lal Ja!Jal ]a~
-+ ----+ --+
Also b = OM + MB .
. . . -+
· ·---+ ----+ -+ ( -+-+)
a · b -+
=> · MB=b-OM=b-l;f a (-+ -+) (-+-+]
· · -+ -+ a·b -+
Thus, the components of b along and perpendicular to a are --:::;- a and b - -- - a , respectively.
-+ a·b -+
Ia F . Ia f . ·
Illustration 2.1 Find th~ angle between the vc~tors i- 2} + 3k and 3i- 2) + k.· (NCERT) .
-
Sol. The given vectors are

IaI=J12 +C-2?+ 32 = Jr + 4 + 9 = Jl4


Jbi =J32 +(- 2)2 +t2 = ~9 +4+ 1 =M I'

Now, a.E= ci- 2} + 3k)·(3i - 2} + k)


= 1. 3 + (- 2)(- 2) + 3 . 1
==3+4+3
= 10
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.5

Now a · E= IaII EIcos e.


10 = Jl4 J14 cos 9
10
or cos 8=-
14

or 8= cos-'(~)
... ..... .... -+-+ .......
Illustration 2.2 If a, b and c are non-zero vectors such that a· b = a · c , then find the geometrical .
relation between the vectors .
....... ........
Sol. a · b =a · c
...............
or a · b-a · c=O
... ... .... ...
or a·(b-c)=O
.............
Either b- c ;;;; 0 or a .l (b- c)
---
... -+ -+-+-+
b = c or a ( b - c)
,., A ,. -+ -+
Illustration 2.3 If ;: . i = r .j = r. k and I r I = 3, then find vector r .
..... " " 1\ ..... " ..... 1\ ..... "
Sol. Let r ::;; x i + y j+ z k . Since r · i = r · j = r · k ,
.x =y=z
Also I; I=~,_x'-_+___v2_+_z_2 = 3
=> x = J3
-+ 1\ " 1\
Hence, the required vector r = ±J3(i+ j+k)
......... .... ... ..............
Illustration 2.4 If a, b and c are unit vectors such that a + b + c =0 , then find the value of
......... -+-+ ..........
a·b+b·c+c·a.
..... ..... ..... ...
Sol. Squaring (a + b + c)= 0, we get
..... ..... ..... .......... ........ ... ...
Ia f +I b f +I c f + 2 a· b + 2 b· c + 2 c· a= 0
....... . ............... ...
or 2( a· b + b · c + c · a)= -3
-+-+ -+-+ ........ 3
or o · b + b ·c + c·a =--
2
..... -+ ....
Illustration 2.5 Jf a , b and c arc mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitudes, then find the
.... -+ -+ ....
angle between vectors a and a + b + c.
... ..... ..... ........ -+-+ ..... .....
Sol. Since a, b and c are mutua11y perpendicular, a· b = b · c = c ·a = 0
..
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2.6 Vectors and 30 Geometry

... ... ... -+


Angle between a and a + b t c is
-+ -+ -+ -+
cos 6 a·(a+b+c)
= _...;...__ _,;_ (i)
-+-+-+-+
lalla+b+cl
-+ ... -+ .
Now lal=lbl=lcl=a
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Ia + b + cF = laf+lbf+lcf+2a · b+2b· c+2c ·a
=al+a2+al+O+O+O
=3al
-+ -+ -+
or I a + b + c I = J3a
Putting this value in (i), we get 8 = cos-• ~
. "3
-+ -+ :...,. . -+ -+ -+ . ... -+
Illustration 2.6 lfl a I+ I b I·= I c I and a+ b = c, then find the angle 'between a and b •
-+ -+ -+
Sol. a+ b =c
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
or 1a F+ 1b F+ 2 a · b = 1c F (i)
..... -+ -+
and lal+lbl=lcl
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
or I a F+I b F+ 21 a II b I =I c F (ii)

...
-+ -+ -+ -+
a· b=!allbl [from (i) and (ii)]
cos 9 = 1 or 8 = 0°
-+ -+ -+
·-------·- ...
-+ -+ -+
~---
-+
Illustration 2.7 If three unit vectors a, b and c satisfy a+ b+ c :::: 0, then find the angle between ·.
-+ -+ I
a and b . • I
'

-+ -+ -+
Sol. a+b=- c
-+ -+ -+
or 1a + b f = I·c F= 1
-+ -+ -+ -+
or laf+lbf+2a·b=1
-+ -+ 1
or a :b =--
2
... -+ 1
1 a 11 b 1cos 9 = --
2
]
or cos 8 =-
2
or . 9 = 21r
. 3
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.7

-+ ~

Illustration 2.8 If 8 is the angle between the unit vectors a and p, then prove that
. (J ] ..... -+
i. cos 2 = 2 Ia + b I
(} 1 ..... .....
ii. sin - = -I a - b I
2 2
Sol.
-+ -+ -+ ..... -+ -+ -+-+
i. <a+ b >·<a+ b > = 1 a F+ 1 b F+ 2 a· b
== I + 1 + 2(1)(1) cos 8
= 2 + 2 cos(}
-+ ..... 8
I a + b f = 2 · 2 cos2 -
2
8 I ,.... _.
or cos-= -I a+ b I
2 2
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+
ii. (a - b) · (a - b) = Ia f + I b f - 2 a·b
=l + I - 2( I)( 1) cos 8
= 2-2 cos 8
..... ... (}
I a - b F= 2 · 2 sin2 -2
8 1 -+ ...
or sin-=-1 a+ b I
2 2

Illustration 2.9 Find the projection of the vector i + 3} + 1k on the vect~r 1i-} + 8k. (NCERn- ' .
Sol. Let a= i + 3j + 1k and b = 7l-} + 8k .
Now, projection of vector a on b is given by
1 - I
-::--(a· b)=
lbl 1 + (-1)2 + g2 {1(7) + 3(-I) + 7(8)}
"'2
7-3 +56 60
= J49 +I+ 64 = 7li4
Illustration 2.10 Jf the scalar projection of vector xi"- " "
j + k on vector'2"i - "
j +" 1 , then find
5 k is ~
the value of x. "30
, 1\1\1\ AI\ A

" " " " " " (xi- j+k)·(2i- j+5k)


Sol. Projection of x i - j + k on 2 i - j + 5 k = .J
4+1+25
2x+ 1+5
=
J30
. 2x+6 1 -5
But, gJVen ~ = ~ ~ 2x + 6 = 1 or x = -
"30 v30 2
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2.8 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-+ A A A -+ A A A
Illustration 2.11 If a =xi+ (x-I) j + k and h = (x + .1) i + j + a k make an acute angle 'tt x e R,
then find the values ofia.
-+-+ A A A 1\ 1\ 1\

Sol. a·b = (xi+(x-l)j+k) ·((x+l)i+j+ak)


= x(x + 1) + x -1 +a
= x2 +2x+a-1
-+ -+
We must have a· b > 0 'tt x e R
:::} r+2x+a-1 >OV'xE R
:::} 4 - 4(a- I)< 0
or a> 2
-+ A -+A 1\ -+A 1\ A -+
Illustration 2.12 If a · i = a· (i + )) =a· (i + j + k), then find the unit vector a.
. -+ A A A
Sol. Let a =xi+ yj+zk
-+ A 1\ A A 1\ -+A I\
Then a · i =(xi + y j + zk) · i = x and a · (i + j) = x + y
-+ A A 1\

and a· U + j + k) = x + y + z (given that x = x + y = x + y + z)


Now x = x + y => y = 0 and x + y = x + y + z ~ z = 0
.....
Hence, x = 1 (since a is a unit vector)
-+ 1\

a= i

· Illustration 2.13 Prove by vector method that cos (A + 8} =cos A cos B- sin A sin B.

Sol. Let i and ) be unit vec.tors along OX and O.Y, respectively. y

..... .....
Let OP, OQ be two unit vectors drawn in the plane XO)" such that p
LXOP = A, LXOQ = B
.. . POQ =A+ B
..... ~

Now OP = i cos A + j sin A


..... ... ...
OQ = ; cos B - j sin B
-+ -+
OP · OQ = cos A cos B - sin A sin B
Fig. 2.6
( 1) (I) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B - sin A sin B
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B - sin A si1~ B

Hltustration 2.14 In any triangle ABC, prove the projection fomlUia a= b cos C + c cos Busing vector
method.
-+ -+-+ -+-+-+
Sol. Let BC = a, CA =b, A8 = c , so that
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Different Products of vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.9

BC = a, CA = b, AB = c
...... -+ -+ -+
Now a+b+c=O ·
...... ...... ...... -+
a · (a+b+c)=O
............ -+--+ ...... ..,
a · a+a·b+a·c=O
a2 + ab cos (180° - C) + ac cos (180° - B) = 0
a 2 - ab cos C - ac cos B = 0
a - b cos C - c cos B = 0 -+
a
a = b cos C + c cos B Fig. 2.7
. . . . . . ·- . .... -0 .. . . .. .
Illustration 2.15 Prove that an angle inscri~cd in ~ semi-circle is a-~~h.! angle. ~sing vector rne~od. I
.~

Sol. Let 0 be the centre of the semi-circle and BA be the diameter. Let P be any point on the circumference
of the semi~circle.
...... ...... -+ ......
Let OA c:: a, then OB =-a
-+ ......
Let OP = r
..... -+ -+ ...... ......
AP = OP- OA = r - a
-+ 0-+ 0-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ A(dL------"""*"---...;....~B(_:;)
8 P = P - '/J = r - (-a) = r + a a)
........................ -+-+
Fig. 2.8
AP·BP = (r-a)·(r+a)
..... -+ ..
= r2 - a2
= al- al [·: r = a as OP = OA]
_. _.
Therefore, AP is perpendicular to .BP , i.e.,
~ LAPB = 90°
- - ~

Illustration 2.16 Using dot product of vectors, prove that a parallelogram, whose diagonals arc equal,
is a rectangle.
Sol. Let OA CB be a parallelogram such that OC =AB
...... -+ -+ ......
Let OA = a, 08 = b
Now OC = AB
or -+
b
or
. . . _,. J2 ( .......... J2
OA+~C = AO+OB
(
............ J2 = (- OA
. . . + OB
. . . ]2 o71
or ( OA + OB Fig. 2.9
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2.10 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-+ -+ -+ -+
(a+b)=(-a+hi
-+2 -+2 -+ -+ ....2 _.2 -+ ...
or a +b +2a · b = a+b - 2a · b
-+ ' -+ -+ -+
or 2a · b=-2a·b ·
~ ...
or 4a · b=O
-+ -+ -+
or a·b= 0
... -+
Hence, a and b are perpendicular, i.e.,
LAOB = 90°
Therefore, OACB is a rectangle .

. ~~-stration 2.17 ~a__:_~~ ?,c =~hen f1~d the~:l~~.~-a!u_~-~~a2 + b+ c'-. 2


..- . . . . ......... - ·~
- · -·...
-+ ~
Sol. Consider vectors p =ai + bj + ck and q = i + 2j + 3k
A ,.. • • •,_ A ,. A

a+ 2b+ 3c .
Now cos 8 = -;====:::::::::--;===:==~
J
a2+ b2 + c'- )t2+ 22 + 32

or cos2 8 = (a + 2b + 3c)2 ~I
14(a2 + b2 + c2 )

=> a2 + b2 + c2 ?; .!
7
2 8
Hence, least value of a + b + c2 is
2
7
..,...
~ _!_ ::)l.·-~ -~-unit ~~:~~~: ~-----.--------
--

-+ . . . . -

-~
lustration 2.18 Fi'nd a unit vector a which makes ·an angle of m'4 with the z-axis and it is such that
-+
!! +
1\

-+
A

" " "


.... _ _ _ __ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _
.

_ ____ j
Sol. Let a = xi+ y j +·z k
-+
\ . Given I a I= 1, therefore
r+yl+ z2 = 1 (i)
. ....
Angle between a and z-axis is rr/4; therefore,
"(

(rr) ;.z
/ cos 4 ~ I; II kI
1
z= -
. J].
~ "" 1\ ""
Now a + i.+ j =(x+l)i +(y +l)j+zk
.... " "
Given that a + i + j is a unit vector. There~ore,
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.11

-+ " " r--------


1a+ i + j I= ~[(x+l)2 +(y+l)2 +zl] =1
or r
+y2 + z2 + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0
or 1 + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0 [using (i)]
or y =- (x + 1)
From (i), we have
r+(x+ 1)2 +(1/2)= 1
4r + 4x + 1 =0 or (2x + 1)2 =o
1 1
x= - =>y=-
2 2 . ..
-+ 1~ 1~ 1 1\
Hence, a = -2'-2]+ J2k
-+ ~ -+
Illustration 2.19 Vectors a, b and c are of the same length and when taken pair-wise they fonn equal
-+ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -+
angJes. If a = i + j and b =j +k, then find vector c .
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ -+ -+
Sol. Let c = Xi+ y j + z k . Then I Cl I = I b I= I c I => r + y2 + z2 = 2
It is given that the angles between the vectors taken in pairs are equal, say 0. Therefore,
-+ -+
cos 8 = a · b = 0 + l + 0 = .!.
I; II bI J2J2 2
-+-+ -+-+
a· c
I
- --=-and
O·C =-
2 2
1;11;1 lbll;l

x + y - 1 and y + z = 1
y = l - x and z = I - y = I - ( 1 - x) =x

Also r +I+ z2 = f ~ r + (1 - x) 2 + r =2
::) (3x + 1)(x - 1) = 0 ~ x = 1, -1/3
Now, y "" 1 - x ~ y = 0 for x = 1 and y = 4/3 for x = -1/3
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ 1 1\ 4" ) "
Hence, c = i + 0 j + k and c =-- i +- j-- k
3 3 3
-+-+ -+ -+
Illustration 2.20 If a, b and c are three mutually perpendicular unit vectors and d is a unit vector
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
which makes equal angles with a, b and c, then find the value of I a + b + c + d f.
' -+ -+-+-+ -+ -+-+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+-+-+
Sol. I a + b + c + d f = !.I a f +2I. a · b = 4 + 2 d ·(a + b + c) (': a , b, c are mutuaiJy perpendicular).
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Let d = ). a + J1 b + v c . Then d · a = d · b = d · c = cos 9. Therefore,
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2.12 Vectors and 3Q Geometry

.A = J1 ;:; v = cos (}
1
Also A.2 + J12 + ~ = I ~ 3cos2 () = 1 or cos () = -
J3
~ ~ ~ ~ 2·3
1a + b,+ c + d

- F= 4 ± .J3 = 4 ± 2J3

r
· ------·---·~ ·
1\ /\ " 1\ " " "
~lustr~tion ~.21 A part~Jc ac~cd ~Y consta~t forces 4,~ + j - 3k and 3 i. + /~ k is d~s~laced from.poin~ '
i + 2 j + 3 k to point 5 i + 4 j + k. Find the total work done by the .forces in units. . :
~ -- ·- ... --- -· ____ _____ _. .... ... ~.... .. ....... -----~------ - ··------ -- ------·--------····· ......-- -------· -----~
_.

-+ ~ ~ 1\1\ 1\ AI\ A 1\ 1\ 1\

Sol. fierc F = Pj + F2 = (4i + j - 3 k) + (3 i + j - k) = 7 i + 2j - 4 k


~ ... ~ 1\1\1\1\1\1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

and d =d2-dl (5i+4j+k)-(i + 2j+3k) = 4i + 2j -2k


~ ~

Work done= F · d
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

= (7i+2j-4k)·(4i +2j - 2k)


= (7) (4) + (2) (2) + (-4) (_.2)
= 28 + 4 + 8 = 40 units
~ -- --· - .,.....__
c
I Illustration ~.22 If .a, b, are .~utually perpendicular ycctors of equal magnitudes, show that. the vector i
!. a+ b + c is equally
-· ·-· -
inclined to ii,b and c . .
-----. . ·---· .. - - - . ......... . __...__..______

. Sol. Since a,b,and c are mutually perpendicular vectors, we have a· b =b · c =c ·a= o.·
- .. -
(NCERT) /
_ ____ -- - ---- - ~

. .
lt is given that

Let vector a+ b + c be inclined to a, b and c .at angles 8., 82 and 93, respectively. Then, we have
(:J (a + b-- + c) . a= _ -. a+ c.a
a .a_+_,_,.-.---
b
cos VJ =
la+b+cllal ia+b+ cllal
= Laf [b·a=c·a=OJ
ia+b+cllai
= lol
lii +h+cl
_(a+ E+c) .E_a .E+E .E+c .E
cos 82 - - - - - . -
lii+b+cllb l !a+b+cl ·lbl
=
Ell1 , _ (a. b- = c·b- =OJ
_
lii+b+cl
' ·lbl ·
= lbl
la+b+cl
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.13

(a+ E+c). c a.c +b .c +c. c


cos 8 = - =--=----
.3 ]a+b+cllcl Jo+b+ci·Jcl
= Jcf ra .c=E. c =OJ
Jo+b +cl ·lcl
= Jcl
]a +b +cl
Now as 1a1 =lbl =lei, cos 8, =cos 82 =cos 83

Hence, the vector (a+ b +c) is equally inclined to a, band c .


-+ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -4 -+
Illustration 2.23 If a =4 i +6 j and b =3j + 4 k, then find the component of a along b .
-+ -+ -+
-+ -+ (a b)b 18 " "
Sol. The component of vector a along b is · = - (3i +4k)
25
lb F
~ -+ -+ -+ ...... -+
Illustration 2.24 If I a I=I b I= I a+ b I= 1, then find the value of I a- b I·

Sol. We have
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
I a+ b F+I a - b F= 2(1 a F+I b f)
-+ -+ -+ -+
or 1+ I a~ b 1
2
=4 or I a- b I J3
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ " -+
Illustration 2.2 S If a = - i + j + k and b = 2 i + 0 j + k , then find vector c satisfying the foJJowing
-+ -+ -+ -+ ......
conditions: (i) that it is coplanar with a and b , (ii) that it is .l to b and (iii) that a · c = 7.
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\

Sol. Let c =x x i + y j + zk
· Then from condition (i),
X y Z

-I I 1 = 0 or x + 3y - 2z - 0 (i)
2 0
From condition (ii),
2x+z=O (ii)
From condition (iii),
-x+y+z=1 (iii)

Solving (i), (ii) and (iii), we get the values of x, y and z; hence, vector ; = .!. (-3 + 5
2
t J+ 6 k)
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2.14 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-4 ~ -+ ~ ~ -+ -+ ~ I

Illustration 2.26 Let a, b and c are vectors such that I a I = 3, r~I = 4 and I c I = 5, and (a+ b) I
..... ~-+ ~ -+ ~ -+
is perpendiculat to c, ( b + c) is perpendicular to a and ( c + a) is perpendicular to b . Then find the ·
-+ -+ -+
value of I a + b + c 1.
... .. - ··-- ---- ··- ... ~ -- ... -----
..... -+-+ ~-+ .........
Sol. Given, (a+ b) · c = 0 :::::::) a· c + b · c. =0
-+-+ ..... . -+-+ -+-+
(b+c)·a=O ==> a · b+c·a =0
-+ ..... -+ -+-+ ..... ~

(c+a) ·b =0 ==> b · c + a ·b = 0
......... -+-+ -+-+
2(a·b + b ·c +c ·a) =0
-+ .... -4 . .... -+ .... -+-+ -+-t .........
Now, 1a f = 1a F+ 1b f + 1 c F+ 2( a · b + b · c + c · a> , so
+b+c
-+ -+ -+
=> 1a + b + c 1= sJ2
ll ustration 2.27 Prove that iii atetrabe<liQn if ~0 pairs Ot opposite" edges are perpendicular, ihen the~
~ird pa~.!_~_als~ pe!P.£t:ldicular. . _.. ___. ..... _ _ __ __ . ... ;
Sol. Let ABCD be the tetrahedro1:1 and A be at the origin.
--+ .... --+ -+ ---+ -+
Let AB = b, AC = i: and AD = d
Let the edge ABbe perpendicular to the opposite edge CD. Then
--+ --+
AB · CD -= 0
-+ ..... .....
or b ·(d-c)=O
-+ -+ ..... -+
or b-d = b · c· (i)
Also let AC be perpendicular to the opposite edge BD. Therefore,
--+--+ .
AC· BD =0
..... -+ -+
or .c ·(d - b) = 0
-+ -+ -+ -+
or c·d = b · c (ii)
Now from (i) and (ii), we have
-+ ...... -+ ....
b· d=c · d
-+ ..... -+
or (c-b) · d=O
--+--+
or BC· AD = 0
Hence, AD is perpendicular to opposite edge BC.
:--~-·-··- -- -- ·~ --+- . --+ ~l

! mustration 2.28 In isoscele~triangleABC, I AB I= I BC I= 8, apointEdividesABintemallyintheratio II

--+ --+ --+


!1 : 3, then-find
. - ·--the..-angle between CE ·and CA (where I CA I = 12).
........ ._ ----- - ...... -- -·-·· .
_....,_,_ ··-- ,... .. -- ... '• -·· - --~
1
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Different Products of. Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.15

Sol. Given
..... .....
I c I = 12 and I b I= I b - c I=
~ ~

s
-
B(b)

..........
b· c = 72
A
0
Fig. 2.10
144-18
cos 9 ~ ~ ~
..... ..... b ~ b .....
b
I c I c-- 4
12 c--
4
12 c--
4

Now ;~.br=,;f+lbf _;.; =144+4-36=112


4 16 2

21 21. 3.J7
cos6 = = =-
2X Jill 2 X 4J7 8

lllustratton 2.29 ArcAC of; circle subtends; right angle at the centre o:Point B divides the.arc in ~he ratio l
1

---+ ..... ---+ ..... _.. ..... ..... I


1 : 2. If OA = a and OB = b , then calculate OC in tcnns of a and b. .
- . -- - - - ---~- . ·-- -· - - ... .... .. . ...
..... ..... .....
Sol. Vector c is coplanar with vector a and b . Therefore,
..... -+ .....
c =xa+yb (i)
Point B divides arc AC in the ratio I : 2 so that LAOB = 30° and
LBOC = 60°.
We have to find the values ofx andy when we are given
... ... -+
I a I= I b I= I c I = r (say).
... ... ..J3 -+ ~
a . b = ,.2 cos 30° = r - and a . c = 0
2 Ftg. 2.11
~..... ,2
· b. c = r cos 60° = -2
~ .......... -+ ..... ..... ..... ~

Multiplying both sides of (i) scalarly by c and a, c · c = x a · c + y b · c


-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
and c·a =xa·a + yb·a
. ,z
r=o+ y,y=2
2
and O=xr+yr -
J3
. 2
Putting y = 2, x= - .J3
..... -+ -+
· c =-.J3 a + 2 b
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2.16 Vectors and 30 Geometry

----+ 1\ 1\ 1\

Illustration 2.30 Vector OA = i + 2 j + 2 k turns through a right angle passing through the positive ~
1\ 1\ 1\

x-axis on the way. Show that the vector in its new position is
4
; ~- k
----+ 1\ 1\ 1\
Sol. Let the new vector be OB = xi + y j + z k .
According to the given condition, we have
----+ ---+
I OB I =I OA I =3 ==> x2 + y + z2 = 9 (i)
---+ ---+
Also OA OB ~x+2y +2z= O (ii)
---+ ---+ ~ 1\

Since while turning OA , it passes through the positive x-axis on the way, Vectors OA , OB and ).. i are
coplanar. Thus,
X )' Z
1 2 2 =0
A 0 0
or y - z == 0 (iii)
Solving (i), (ii) and (iii) for x, y and z, we have x =- 4y = - 4z
16y +y + ),2 = 9
I 1 1
y = ± .fi ,z = ± .fi and x = =F .J2

---+ 1\ ---+ 4 1\ 1 1\ l "·


Since angle between OB and i is acute, OB = ..fi i - J2 j - .fi k
Illustration 2.31 The base of the pyramid AOBC is an equilateral triangle OBC with 'each side equal to
4 .fi, 0 is the origin of reference, AO is perpendicular to the plane of llOBC and lAO! = 2. Then find the
cosine of the angle between the skew straight lines~ one passing through A and the mid point of OB and
the other passing through 0 and the mid point of BC.
Sol. According to the question, we have tetrahedron as shown in·Fig. 2.12.
AD= 2.J2i- 2k
and OE = 3J2i +-J6}
Cosine of angle between the vectors is
12
cos e = 7:-:: r;:;;
-v l2-v24
I
- ../2 . z
Ffg. 2.12
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.17

Concept Application Exercise 2.1


(NCERT)
2. Show that lalb +lbla is a perpendicular to !alb -lbla, for any two non-zero vectors a and b.
. (NCERT)
3. If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are (I , 2, 3), (-1, 0, 0), (0, .1. 2), respectively, then find LABC.
(NCERT)
-. -. -. -. -+ -+
4. ) f I a I= 3, I b I= 4 and the angle between a and b is 120°, then find the value of J4 a+ 3 b 1.
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ A .

5. If vectors i - 2x j- 3y k and i + 3x j + 2 y k are orthogonal to each other, then find the locus of
the point (x, y) .
-+ -+ -. -+ -+ -.
6. Let a , b and c be pairwise mutually perpendicular vectors, such that Ia I = 1. I b I= 2, Ic I
-+ -+ -+
= 2. Then find the length of a+ b +c .
-+ -. -. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
7. If a + b + c = 0, Ia I = 3, I b I - 5! I c I = 7, then find the angle between a and b ..
..... -+ -+ -+
8. [f the angle between unit vectors a and h is 60°, then find the value of I a - b J. ·
-+ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -+ " " 1\ /\ -+ 1\ -+ 1\
9. Let u = i + j, v = i - j and w = i+ 2) + 3k . If 11 is a unit vector such that U"n = 0 and v ·n = 0,
-+A
then find the value of I w·n j.
~ ---+ ~ ---+ --i ---+
10. A, B, C, Dare any four points, prove that AB · CD + BC · AD + CA · BD ;::: 0.
---+ ---+
11. P( I, 0, -1 ), Q(2, 0, -3). R (- l , 2, 0) and S(3, -2, -I), then find the projection length of PQ on RS .
~ ~ ~ ~ -+ -+ ~ ~

12. If the vectors 3 p + q ; 5 p -3 q and 2 p + q ; 4 p- 2 q arc pairs of mutually perpendicular vectors,


~ -+
then find the angle between vectors p and q .
-+ -+ ~ ~

13 Let A and B be two non-parallel unit vectors in a plane. If (a A +B) bisects the internal angle
~ -+
between A and B , then find the value of a.
-. -+ -+ • -+ ~ -+ -+ _.... ~-+ 3 ~

14. Let a, band c be unit vectors, such that a+ h + c = x , a · x = 1, b · x = 2, I x I = 2. Then find


-+ -+
the angle between c c and x x .
-+ ~ -.-. ~-+

15. If a and b are unit vectors, then find the greatest value of I a + b I + I a - b I.
AI\ A 1\1\1\ 1\1\

16. Constant forces P, = i - j + k , P 2 = - i + 2j - k and PJ = j - k act on a particle at a point


1\ " /\
A. Determine the work done when particle is displaced from position A( 4 i- 3) - 2k) to
/\ 1\ /\

8( 6 i + j - 3 k ).
17. Jflai=5, Ja-bJ=8andja+bi=IO, then find lbl .
18. If A, 8, C, Dare four distinct points in space such that AB ·is not perpendicular to CD and satisfies
- -
AB · CD = k (I AD 12 + I BC 1
2
-I AC 12 - I BD 12) , then find the value of k.
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2.18 Vectors and 30 Geometry

VECTOR (OR CROSS) PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS


The cross proquct is just a shorthand invented for the purpose of
quickly writing down the angular momentum of an object. Here's how
the cross product arises naturally from angular momentum. Recall that
if we have a fixed axis and an object at distance r away with velocity
v and mass m is moving around the axis in a circle, then the magni-
tude of the angular momentum is mjrllvl, where lrl is the magnitude
of vector r. But what direction should the angular momentum vector
point in? Well, if you follow the path of the object, it lies in a plane,
an infinite two-dimensional surface. One way'to represent a pl~ne is
. to write down two different vectors that lie in the plane. ,
Another method used by mathematicians to represent a ·plane is
to write down a single vector that .is nonnal to the plane (normal is
a synonym for perpendicular). If a plane is a flat sheet, the normal
vector points straight up. Now, for any plane, there are two vectors
that are normal to it, since if a vector n is normal to a plane, - n will
be normal as well. So how do we determine whether to use n or - n?
A long time ago, physicists made an arbitrary decision known today
-+ -+ •
as the right-hand rule. Given vectors a and b , just curl your fingers
-+ -+
2 13
from a to b and the thumb points in the direction of the normal used. Fig. •
-+ -+ -+ -4 -+ II

The vector product of two vectors a a~d b, written as a x b, is the vector c = !alibi sin 8 n, where (} is
--+ --+ . II . . -+ -+
the angle between a and b (0 s 0 S 1r ) , and n is a unit vector along the line perpendicular to both a and ·b.
-+ -+ -+ -+
Then direction of c is such that a , b and c form a right-handed system.
-+ -+ --+ -+
We see that the direction of b x a is opposite to that of a x b as shown in Fig. 2.14.
-+ -+ -+ --+
b >< a = - a x b
._. ._.
axb

"
ll

"
- ll

._. --+
bxa
fi.g . 2.14
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.19

So the vector product is not commutative. In practice, this means that the order in which we do the
calculation does matter.
Properties of Cross Product
.... .... ~ ~

1. axb=-bxa
.... -+
2. a x a= 0
-+ .... ~ .... .... .... ....
3. a x ( b + c) = a x b + a x c
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1'1 1'1 1'1 A /\ 1'1 A 1\ 1'1 /\ 1\

4. i X i =j X j = k X k = 0 and i >< j =: k, j X k = i, k Xi =j
.... .... -+ .... -+
5. Two non-zero vectors a and b arc coJlinea~ if and only if a x b = 0.
-+ 1\ 1'1 1\ -+ A /\ 1\

6. If a= a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k and , b =~ i +I?_ j + ~ k, then


.. ..
i j k
~ (a2b3 - a3b2) i + (0:3q - a1 ~ )j + (a11?_ - a2~ )k
1\ " "

.... -+

7. The unit vector perpendicular to the plane of ; and b is<: x :) , and a vector of magnitude A. .
-+ ....
I ax b I
-+ -+ A.( a x b)
Perpendicular to the plane of a and b is ± .... .... .
I ax b I
Physical Interpretation of Cross Product as a Moment of Force
Moment of force (often just moment) is the tendency of a force to twist or rotate an object. This is an important,
basic concept in engineering and physics. A moment is valued mathematically as the product of the force and
the moment ann. Moment arm is the perpendicular distance from the point of rotation to the line ofaction of
the force. The moment may be thought of as a measure of the tendency of the force to cause rotati.on about
an imaginary axis through a point.
Image A Image B
-+ -+ Image C
forceF forceF
-+
force F

point 0 point 0
X point 0

Fig. 2.15

The moment of a force can be calculated about any point and not just the points in which the line of action
of the force is perpendicular.
Image A shows the components, the force F and the moment ann x when they are perpendicular to one
another. When the force is not perpendicular to the point of interest, such as point 0 in Images B and C, the
.... ....
magnitude of moment M of a vector F about point 0 is
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2.20 V~tors and 30 Geometry

~ ~ ~ ~

M 0 = r0 F x F , where r0 F is the vector from point 0 to the position where quantity F is applied.
-+
Image C represents the vector components of the force in Image B. In order to determine morrient M of
~ -+ -+
vector F ~bout point 0, when vector F is not perpendicular to point 0 , one must resolve the force F into
its horizontal and vertical components. The sum of the moments of the two components of F about point 0 is
~ -+ ~

M 0 F = F sin8(x) + F cos8(0)
. ~

The moment arm to the vertical component of .F is a distance x. The moment arm to the horizontal
~ .
component of F does not exist. There is no rotational force about point 0 due to ~he horizontal component
-+
of F . Thus, the moment arm distance is zero.
~ ~

Thus, M .can be referred to as "moment M with respect to the axis that goes through
.
point 0", or simply.
.
~ .
"moment M about point O". lf O.is the origin, or informally, if the axis involved is clear from context, one
often omits 0 and says simply moment, rather than moment about 0. Therefore, the moment about point 0 is
-+· ~ -+ ~

indeed the 'cross product, M 0 = r0 F x F, s~nce the cross product = F sin 8(x) .
Geometric Interpretation o.f Cross Product
-+ ~ ~ ~ A
1. a x b = I a II b Isin 8 n
~ ~ -+ ~

or . ·1a x b I = Ia II b Isin 8
= 2G I; II bIsin 6)
= 2 (Area of triangle AOC) 0
=Area of parallelogram . Fig. 2.16
1 -+ -+
Area ofthe triangle OAB is -I a x b I·
. 2
-4 ~

a x b is said to be the vector area of the parallelogram with adjacent sides OA and OB.

2. If ; ) b are diagonals of a parallelogram, its area = .!.2 I; X bI·


~ ~ ~ ~

In Fig. 2.17, OC =a and AB = b


1 ~ ~
=> Area parallelogram = 4 x- I PC x PB I
. 2
) -7

= 4x.!.!:xk.
2 2 2
Fig. 2.17
1 ~ -4
= - la x bl l
2
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OIHerent Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.21

3. If AC and BD are the diagonals of a quadrilateral, then its vector area is ..!_
2
AC x BD.
Vector area of the quadrilateral ABCD = Vector area of AABC +Vector area of M CD
1 ~ --+ 1 ........_. --+
= - AB x AC +- AC x AD
2. 2
1~ --+ 1 ............ --+
= --AC x AB+-AC x AD
2 2
1~ --+ --+
= - AC x (AD - AB)
2
]--+ --+
= - AC X BD Fig. 2.18
2
-+-+-+ . ......................... .....
4. The area of a triangle whose vertices arc A(a ), B(b ), C(c) is 1ax b + b x c + c x a I
2
1 ---+ --+
Area of triangle = -I AB x AC I
2
1 .......... -+-+
= 2l(b-a)x(c-a)l

'! -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
= -jbxc-bxa-axc+axaj
2
] -+-+-+-+-+-+
=-jax b+b xc+cxa l
2

Illustration 2.32 Find la xbj, if a=i -1}+7kandb =3f -2}+2k. (NCERT)

Sol. a=i - 7J+ 7i: and b =3i - 2J+ 2k


,.. .. ..
i j k
axb=l -7 7
3 -2 2

= l(-14 + 14)- }(2- 21) + k(-2 + 21) = 19J + 19k


. .

A 0 0 0 0 0 0

Illustration 2.33 Let.the vectors a and b be such that Ia I = 3 and lb I= .Ji, then ax b is a unit vector,
3
a
if the angle between and b is? (NCERT)

Sol. It is given that 1a1 = 3 and lbl = J2 .


3
We know that ax b = lallbl sin 8;, , where ;, is a unit vector perpendicular to both a and b and 8 is the
angle between a and E..
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2.22 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Now, ax b is a unit vector if Iii x bI = 1.


or llallblsin9nl=1
or lliillbl sin91 ~ 1
or 3x J2 x sin 6 = 1
3
1C
or 6=-
4 .
Hence, a X b is a unit vector if the angle between aand b is 1'C •
4
r. ·• ~ . . ·~ .. ~· -
.Illustration 2.34
• •
Show that (ii- b) x (a+ b)= 2(a x b) .
4lo .,
(NCERT)

Sol. (a- b) x (ii +b)= (ii- b) x a+ (a - b) x b [By distributivity of vector product over addition]
= a X a-EX ii +a X b-E X b (Again, by distributivity of vector
product over addition]
' c O+a x b+axb-0
= 2axE

Illustration 2.35 Let ii = i + 4] + 2k, b = 3{- 2] + 1k and c =2t-] + 4k. Find a vector d which is
: perpendicular to both a and E and c.J = 15. (NCERT)

Sol. ·Vector d is perpendicular to vectors a= i + 4} + 2k,b~ 37 - 2} + 7k


A A ~

; j k
... d=A.l 2 =A-(32i-}-14k)
4
3 -2 7

Also c ·d c: IS
J.(2i- J+ 4k) · (32f - J-t4k)= 15
or 9A.= 15

or A=~
3
- 1 II> "' • """

Hence, the required vector d =- (l60i -5 j - ?Ok)


3

Illustration 2.36 IfA, Band Care the vertices ofa triangleABC. then prove sine rule - -
0
=_!__ =_c- .
sin A sin B ..
sin C
-+-+-+
Sol. Let BC = a • CA - b , AB
..... -+-+
= c , so that a + b = - c
-+-+-+
. Therefore,
..
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
axa+axb=-axc
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.23

--+ --+ .... --+ ....


O + a x b=c x a
-t --+ --+ --+
la x bi = Jc x aj
ab sin(180° - C) = ca sin. (180° - B)
ab sin C = ca sin B
Dividing both sides by abc, we get
sin C sin B
- - =-
c b
b. c
- - = -- (i)
sin B sin C
c a
Similarly, - =- - (ii)
sin C sin A
From (i) and (ii), we have
a b c
- - = -- = - -. Fig. 2.19
s.in A sin B sin C
. . . - ..
Illustration 2.37 Using cross product of vectors, prove that sin (A +B)= sin A cos B +cos A sin B.
Sol. Let OP and OQ be unit vectors making angles A and B with the X-axis such that
LPOQ =A + B
-+ A A

OP = i cos A + j sin A
-+ A A

OQ = i cos B - j sin B
-t -t
Now OPxOQ ,
= (J) (1) sin (A + B)(- k)
= - sin (A + B) ic (i) y'
A

;
.
j
A

k
--+ -t
p
A lso OPxOQ = cos A sin A 0
cos B - sin B 0 0 X
,.
= (- cos A sin B - sin A cos B) k
A

=- (sin A cos B + cos A sin B) k (ii) Q


From (i) and (ii), we get Ftg. 2.20

sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B


Illustration 2.38 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane determined by the points (1 , - 1, 2), (2, 0,
- 1) and (0, 2, 1).
Sol. Given points are A(l , -1 , 2), B(2, 0, - 1) and C(O, 2, l)
- -t f\ f\ f\ - -t f\ 1\ f\

AB =a= i + j -3k, BC= b ;;;-2i+2j + 2k


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2.24 Vectors and 30 Geometry

,..,
k"
1\

_. j
~ 1\ /\ /\

axb= - 3 ==8i+4j+4k
-2 2 2
,..
,.. ,..
. . 2i+j+k
Hence, Umt vector = + J6
0 . ••• • ••

. ~ - -. ~ ~

I -+ -+ -+ -+ a·a a· b
: Illustration 2.39 If a and b are two vectors, then prove that (a x b )2 c
-+ -+ _. -+
b·a b·b
_. -+ "
Sol. (axb)2 =(absin9 · n)2
= a 2b2 sin2 e
= a2b2 - a2b2 cos2 8 ·
_. _. -+ _. _. -+
= (a · a) ( b · b) - (a · b )2
_. ... _. ...
a·a a·b
= .... _. -+-+
a·b b·b
? •

-t -+ A -4/\ -+"
: Illustration 2.40 If I a I -= 2, then find the value of I a xi f +I a X j f ~ I a x k 1.
2
L
/\ 2
/\

i "j k
-+ _. ,.., "
I a xi" f=
/\

Sol. al a2 a3 (·: a = a 1 i + a 2 j + a3 k)
0 0

a2 k f = a~ + ai
" 1\
= Ia3 j -
-+ _. _. .... .
Similarly, I a X j F= ar +a; and ' a X k f = ar + ai
~

Hence, the required resul t can be given as "2(ar +ai + a1) = 21 a f =8


_. _. _. _. ... '- + _. _. ~ _. -+ .... -+ _. -+
· Illustration 2.41 ,. x a = h x a ; r x b =ax b; a* 0 ; b :~; 0; a~). b, and a is not perpendicular
-+ -+ -+ ....
to b, then find r in tcnns of a arid b .
-+-+ ..... _. .-.~-. ....
Sol. r x a - b x a = 0 and r x b + b x a = 0
... _. -+
Adding, we get rx (a + b)= 0
... ...
But as we are given a -:f:. A. b , therefore
_. ..... _.
r =Jl(a +b)
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Different Products of Vect9rs and Their Geometrical Applications 2.25

.. . .. <
Illustration 2.42 A~ B, C and D are any four points in the space, then prove that
~ ---. ---+ -----1> ~ ___....

I AB x CD+ BC x AD+ CA x BD I= 4(area of !:!ABC).


~ ~ ~ ~

Sol. Let P.V. of A, .8, C and D be a, b, c and 0 , respectively. Then


- --+ -+ -+ . -+ --+ --+ -+ -+ -+
AB x CD= (b- o)x(- c), BC x AD= (c- b)x(-a)
- ~ -+ -+ -+
and CA x BD = (a - c) x (- b)
--.~-~--+
AB x CD + BC x AD + CA x BD
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
= cxb +axe+ ax c + bx a -a xb + c x b
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
= 2( C X b + b X a + a X C)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
= 2(c x (b-a)-ax(b-a))
-+ -+ -+ -+
= 2((c-a)x(b- o))
----+ --+
= 2(AC X AB)
~~-~--+----+ ]~--+

=> I AB x CD+ BCx AD+ CA x BD I = 4 "i(AC x AB) =4MBC

-+ -+ -+
Illustration 2.43 If a, b and c are the position vectors of the vertices A, B and C, respectively, of
MBC, prove that the perpendicular distance of the vertex A from the base BC of the triangle ABC is
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
laxb+bxc+cxal
-+ -+
I c-b I
----+ ~ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Sol. I BC x BA I = I a x b +b x c +c xaI A(a}

~ --+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
or I BC II BA Isin B = Ia x b x b x c + c x a I
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
or I c- b I(ABsin B)= I ax b+ bx c+ ex a I
Therefore, the length of perpendicular from A on BC is
B(b) L
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
_ AB SID
. _ Ia x b + b x c + c x a I· Fig. 2.21
AL ... 8-
' -+ -+
I b-e I
Illustration 2.44 Find the _area of the triangle with vertices A (1 , 1, 2), B (2, 3, 5) and C (1, 5, 5).
(NCERT) .
Sol. The vertices of triangle ABC are given as A (I, 1, 2), B (2, 3, 5), and C (I, 5, 5).
-
The adjacent sides AB and BC of !:!ABC are given as -
AB = (2 - I) i + (3 -1) J +(5-2) k = i + 2} + 3k
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2.26 Vectors and 30 Geometry

BC = (1 - 2) i +(5-3) j +(5-5) k =- J+ 2}
1--
AreaofMBC= -IABxBCI
. 2
A A

; j k
AB x BC = 1 2 3 = i(-6) - }(3) + k(2 + 2) =- 6,1 - 3 j + 4k
-1 2 0
lAB X BCI= JC-6)2 + (-3)2 + 42 = ~36 + 9 + 16 = .J6i

Hence, the area of !1ABC is .J6i .square units.


2
'I . .. • • .. - •

· Illustration 2.45 Find the area of the parallelogram whose adjacent sides are determined by the vector:s
=
. a i - } + 3k and b = 2'i- 7} + k . (NCERT)

Sol. The area of the parallelogram whose adjacent sides are aand b is IaX bI .
Adjacent sides are given as
a= i - j + 3k and E: 2i - 7} + k .
A A

k ; j
... axb= 1 -1 3 = i(-1 +21)- }(1-6)+ k(-7+2)= 20i+S} - Sk
2 -7

Ia x ~I= J2o2 +52 + (-5)2 =)4oo + 25 + 2s.=1sJ2


Hence, the.' area of the give~ parallelogram is ISJ2 square units.
-+ 1\1\ A
Illustration 2.46 Find the area of a parallelogram whose diagonals are a = 3 i + j - 2 k and
-+ 1\ 1\ A

b = i-3j+4k.
1 -+ -+
Sol. 6 = -la xb l
2
1\ 1\ 1\

i j k
-+ -+ /\ 1\ 1\

But a xb = 3 1 -2 = -2i -14j - lOk


-3 4

1 -+ -+ 1
Hence, !l = -I a x b I = - "4 + 196 + 100
2 2
= s.J3
-+-+ .... -+ -+ -+ -+
. Illustration 2.47 Let a, b and c be three vectors such that a ~ 0, Ia I= I c I = 1, Ib I - 4 and
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
I b x c I = .Jf5. If b - 2 c = A. a , then find the value of A.
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.27

~ ~

Sol. Let the angle between b and c be a. Then


-+ ~

jbxcl=M
~ -+ .
or I b II c I sin a -= Jl5 ·
or
.
sma=-
Ji5
4
l
or cos a= -
4
-+ -+ ~

b -2c =A. a
or
-+ -+ ~~ -+
or Ib F+ 41 c F- 4 · b · c = A.2 1 a f
-+ ~

or 16 + 4 - 4{ 1 b 11 c 1cos a} = ;..2
1 2
or 16+4-4x4x 1 x -=A.
4
or

Illustration 2.48 Find the moment about (1,- 1, - I) of the force 3i + 4}- Sk acting at (1, 0, - 2).
-+ A A Ill\

Sol. F = 3i + 4j - 5k P{l,-1 ,-1)


-+
PA =P.V. ofA-P.V.ofP
= (i-2j}-(i-}-k)
A

= -j+k
-+ -+
Required vector moment = PA x F
A( I, 0, -2) ~ .... ,..
.r = 3i + 4j- 5k
= (- } + k) X (3f + 4 j - 5k)
.. .. .. Fig. 2.22
i j k
= 0 -1 1
3 4 -5
;;;:
i + 3j + 3k
Illustration 2.49 A rigid body is spinning about a fixed point (3, - 2, -1) with an angular velocity of
4 rad/s, the axis of rotation being in the direction of ( 1, 2, - 2). Find the velocity of the particle at point
(4, 1, 1).

:..... i+2 " '- 2k" ] 4 1\ 1\ "


Sol. W=4 1\ ) =-(i +2j-2k)
( +4+4 Jt 3

-+
r =_ . -
OP- OA
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· 2.28 Vectors and 3D Geometry

A 1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\

= (4i + j + k)-(3i- 2}- k) (I)

" " 1\
""i+3j+2k
-t-+ -t 4" 1\ 1\ .1\ A A•

v = m x r ·= - (i + 2}- 2k)x(i + 3} + 2k)


. 3 .
· 4 A 1\ A
= -(1
3
0i - 4 j + k)
. . Fig. 2.23
-·--
l
--- .. . . .. ... ·------·
......
···---
-+
..
......
-- ...............
....
--- ---- --.---
...... ...... .--. ....
_____._
·----------· , ... ....
-· ---~ -
.
-·· - --+
....
- - ...'
I Illustration 2.50 Jf ax b = c x d and ax c = b x d, then show that a-d, is para1lel to b- c :
'
I -+ _.
. --+ --+
· provided ·a ~ d and b ~ c.
-----------
]
) :___ _______ . -·
0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _. . . . ._ • !

Sol. We have .... b = ....


ax ...... cxd .... (i)
--+ .... --+ ......
and a x c = b ·x d I .

--. .... .... --.


a - d will be parallel to b - c
..... ..... ..... --. .....
if (a - d) X ( b - c)= 0
~ --. --+ .... .... --. --. .... ....
i.e., if a X b - a X C - d X b + .d X C = 0
--+ ..... --. --+ ..... ..... .... ...... ......
i.e., if (a X b+d X C)- (a X C +d X b) = 0
...... ...... --. --+ .... .... ...... --. ....
J.e., if (a X b - c X d)- (a X C - b X d)= 0
.... ..... -+
t.e., if 0 - 0:::; 0 [from (i)]
--+ ......
1.e., 0 = 0 , which is true
Hence the result.
r --- - - --- - · -·--· ..,. .... .... --. 1
· --·-----~·-··- -.....----··---
1 Illust ration 2.51 Show by a numerical example and _geometrically also that a x b = a x c does not ;
• .... --+
i imply b = c.
l ... --··-- ·--·' .
-t A 1\ 1\-t 1\ 1\ 1\-t A 1\ 1\

Sol. Let a = 3 i + 2 j + 5 k, b :;:: 6 i + 5 j + 8 k, c = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k


1\ A A

.... .... iJ k
axb = 3 2 5
6 5 8
A 1\ 1\

= ( 16- ~5) i - (24 - 30) j + ( 15 - 12) k


1\ 1\ 1\

=-9i+6j+3k
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.29

1\ 1\ 1\

i j k
--+ --+
ax c = 3 2 5
3 3 3
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

= (6-lS)i - (9-15)} +(9-6)k =- 9i + 6j + 3k


--+ --+ --+ --+ --+ --+
a x b = a x c, but b * c.
~eo metrically
----+ --+ ---+ --+ ---+ --+
Let .AB =a, AD= b, AD'= c. Then
--+ --+
Vector area of parallelogram ABCD = a x b
-+ -+
Vector area of parallelogram ABCD' - a x c
Now Vector area of parallelogram ABCD
~Vector area of parallelogram ABCD'
(·: both parallelograms have same base and same height) · Fig. 2.24
--+ _. --+ --+ -+ -+
a x b = a x c but b ·¢ c
-+--+-+ --+ D ... .. •.. - . ....•
. Jltustration 2.52If a, b, c and d are the position vectors
of the vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, prove that .
--+ ......
Ia x b + b x
...... .....
d+d
..... ...... -+
x a I + I b X c + c x d + d x b I = O.
-+ ..... . -f ... .....
.... ...
..
-+
(b- a) · (d- a)
-f ... -f -f -+
(b- c ) · (d- c)
... ..... ..
Sol. Consider ....'
...... ...... ...... --+ ...... --+ --+ --+ -+ _. .. ..
la xb +b xd+dxa l l(a -d)x(b-a) l
-+ -+ ..... -+ --+ --+ -+ -+ ·. .
(b- a) ·(d- a) (b- a)·(d- a) •. . ... . ... .......... •• B
--+ -+ -+ ..... Fig. 2.25
= Ia - d II b- a Isin A
-+ --+ ..... --+
Ib - a II d - a Icos A
= tan A (i)
--+ --+ --+ ...... -+ -+ _. --+ --+ --+
j(b-c)
jbxc+c xd+dxb l = .:._;....._ x(c- d)l
Also _. -+ _. -+ -+
__....;.._....;....__~

--+ --+ --+


(b- c)·(d - c) (b- c)·(d- c)
-+ _. --+ -+
Ib - c II c - d Isin c
-+ --+ -+ .....
I b - c 1·1 d - c 1cos c
=tan C (iii)
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2.30 Vectors and 30 Geometry

As it is a cyclic quadrilateral, we have


A= 180°- C
or tan A = tan (180° - C)
or tan A + tan C = 0
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Ia x b +b x d + d x a 1+I b X c +c X d +d X b I;:; 0
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

(b- a) ·(d- a) (b- c) ·(d - c)


~ ~

Illustration 2.53 The position vectors of the vertices of a quadrilateral with A as origin are B(b ), D(d)_
-+ -+ 1 ~ ~
and C(/ b + m d). Prove that the area of the quadrilateral is - (/ + m) I b x d ].
2
1 ----+ ___... 1 -+ ~ -+ ~
Sol. Areaofquadrilateralis
21AC x BD! =
2 ](/b +md)x(d -b)]
1 ~ ~ -+ ~
= -]l.b x d- m d x b I
2
1 ~ -+
= - (l+m)]bxd]
2
~ ~ ~ ~

Illustration 2.54 Let a and b be unit vectors such that I a + b I= J3. Then find the value of
~-+ -+-+-+ ~

(2 a + 5 b) · (3 a + b +a X b) .
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ -+~ .... ~ ~ ....
Sol. (2 a + 5 b) · (3 a + b + a x b) ::! 6 a · a + 17 a · b + 5 b · b = 11 + l 7 a · b
-+-+~ -+-+-+ ~ ~ -+~

(":a · (ax b)= b·(axb)=O,as a and b areperpendicularto ax b)


-+ -+
Now I" a+ b I = J3
~ ~

or + b F= 3
I •
1a
~ -+ ~-+

or laf+lbf+2a · b=3
~ ~ 1
or a · b =-
2
-+ ~ ~ ~ .... ~ 17 39
~ . (2 a + 5 b) · (3 a + b + a x b) = 11 + 2 =2

" 1\

Illustration 2.55 u" and "v are two non-collinear unit vectors such that -u+v + u" x "v = 1. Prove that
1\ 1\
2
" " u-v
]uxvl=-
2
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.31

A A
U+V A A
Sol. Given that --+u XV =)
2
1\ A
2
u+v " A
or --+uxv =1
2
2 + 2 COS 8 . 2 n l 1\1\A A/\A

=> ----+sm u= (·: u·(u x v) = v·(uxv) = 0)


4
.cos 29 =cos2 8
2
8
8 =me± ne Z
2'
21C
or
3
A 1\

" A u- v • 2rr . rr
ju x vi = stn-=sm-= - -
3 3 2
. ..
Illustration 2.56 In triangle ABC, points D, E and Fare taken on the sides BC, CA and AB, respectively,
BD CE AF . n2 - n + l
such that -
DC
=- = - = n. Prove that 110 u =
EA FlJ (n + 1)2
1:1 ABC.

-+ -+
Sol. Take A as the origin and Jet the position vectors of points B and C be b and c , respectively.
-+ -+ -+ -+
Therefore, the position vectors of D, E and F arc, respectively, nc+ b, _c_and ..!!....!!__ , Therefore,
n+l n+l n+l
. -+ -+ -+ -+
ED= AD-AE = (n-1)c+b and EF = 1lb-c
n t-1 n+l
1 -+ -+
Now Vector area of 6.ABC = -( b x c)
. 2
I ---+ ---+
and Vector area of l:lDEF = - ( EF x ED)
2
I -+ -+ -+-+
= 2
[(nb -c)x{(n - l)c+b}]
2(n+J)
I 2
-+ -+-+-+
= 2
((n - n) b x c + b x c]
2(n+ 1)
I -+ -+ n2 - n +1
= 2
[(n2 -n+l){b X c)J = l:lABC
2(n+l) (n +li

ltlustration 2.57 . + k,i + 2] + k and


Let A, B, C be points with position vectors 2i. -] 3t + J+ 2k .
respectively. Find the shortest distance between poi11t Band plane OAC.
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2.32 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Sol. Shortest distance between B and plane OA C is perpendicular distance of . B(b)


point B from the plane BM, M is foot of perpcndicualr from B on plane OA C.
Now BM =projection vector AB on vector perpendicular to the plane.·
Now vector perpendicular to the plane is OA x OC = ii x c . Therefore,

BM = OB · (ii x c)
--
'o/l ~
•A(a) • C(c)
~

Fig. 2.26
Ia x cl
b. (ax c)
:::::-~-..;.

Ia x cl
.
i j
A

k
Now ii X c= 2 -1 I ::::: - 3f - } + Sk
3 2
b.(ax c)= <i + 2] + 3k). (-3i- J:r sf)::::: -3- 2 + ts = 10
and lii xcl=l-31- ]+5kl=~9+1+25 ::::$s

BM= ~=2.ft
Concept Applicat;on Exercise 2.2
~ " 1\ 1\ ~ " 1\ 1\ ~ ~ ~
1. lf a::::: 2 i +3} -Sk, b = m i + nj + 12k and ax b = 0 , then find (m, n).
~ -!> ~ -!> ~-+

2. If I a I =21 I b I =5 and I a x b I : : : 8, then find the value of a · b .


-!> ~ -4 -!> -+ ~ -+
3. lf a x b = b x c *' 0, where a b and c are coplanar vectors, then for some scalar k prove that
I

-!> ~ -!>
a+c=kb.
~ .... -+-+~-+-+-+ -+ .... ~~ ~ ~ .... -+
4. If a = 2 i + 3 j- k 1 b =- i + 2 j- 4 k and c = i + j + k , then find the value of (a x b) ·(a x c) .
-+-+ 1\ " " ~ 1\ -+-+ ....
5. Ifthe vectors c 1 a = xi + y j + z k and b =j arc such that a, c and b fonn a right-handed system,
....
then find c .
-+-+ -+-t -!> ~ -+ -+ ~ -+ ~

6. Given that a · b = a · c 1 a x b = a x c and a is not a zero vector. Show that b =c .


~ ~ -+ -+ ~ -+
7. Show that (a - b) x (a + b)= 2 a x b and give a geometrical interpretation of it.
-+-+ -+ 2 -+ ... -+-+
8. If x and y are unit vectors and I z I = ~ such that z + z x x = y then find the angle 9 between. 1
-+ -+ -v7
x and z .
..
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.3.3

-+A-+ 11 _.II-+-+ -+A-4/\ -+


9. Prove that (a · i)(a x i)+(a · j)(axj)+(a ·k)(a >< k) = 0.
-+ -+ -+ .... -+ -+ ....
10. Let a, b and c be three non-zero vectors such that a + b + c = 0 and
..... -+-+-+ -+-+ ....
).. b x a + b x .c + c x a = 0, then find the value of J...
11. A particle has ao angular speed of 3 radls and the axis of rotation passes through the points (l, 1, 2)
and (1, 2, - 2). Find the velocity of the particle at point P(3, 6, 4).
-+-+ -+ . ........ -+-+ -+ -+ Tr
12. Let a, b and c be unit vectors such that a · b = 0 =a· c . If the angle between b and c is -,then
-+ 6
find a.
-+-+ ......... -+ -+
13.1f(a x b)2 +(a·hi= l44and lal=4, thennndthevalueofl b 1.
.... -+ .... -+ .... -+-+-+-+ .....
J4. Given I a I =I b I = ·1 and I a + b I ;: Ji If c is a vector such that c - a - 2 b =3( a x b), then find
-+ -+
the value of c · b .
~ ~ A A A

15. Findthemomentof F aboutpoint(2, - 1,3),whenforce F '=3i +2j-4k isactingonpoint(.1,-l ,2).

SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT


The scalar triple product (also called the mixed or box product) is defined as the dot product of one of the
vectors with the cross product of the other two.
Thus, scalar triple product of three vectors ; ,
-+-+-+
band ; is defined as (; x b) ·; .
We denote it by [a b c].
The scalar triple product can be evaluated numerically using any one of the following equivalent
characteri7..ations:
(; X;).; =;.(,; X;)=;.(; X-:)~;.(; b) X

(The parentheses may be omitted without causing ambiguity, since the dot product cannot be evaluated
first. If it were, it would leave the cross product of a scalar and a vector, whicp is not defined.)
...-+ -+ -+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+ ... ........ -+ -+ -+
i.e., [a b c]=[b c a]=[ c a b]=-[b a c]=-[c b a]

A A A A A A A fllrl" A A A

i · (ql+ c2 j+c3 k) j : (c1 i+~j+CJk) k · (c1 i+~j+'3k)


=
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2.34 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Also

e1 e2 e3
Geometrical Interpretation
--+ --+ --+
Here (a x b)· c represents (and is equal to) the volume -.-4 ---+
bx c.
ofthe parallelepiped whose adjacent sides are represented
-+ --+ --+
by the vectors a, b and c .
--+ --+ --+ -+ II
a·(b xc) = a · (bcsin8n)
--+ II
= be sin 8 (a · n )
= be sin 8 · a · 1 · cos a
= (a cos a) (be sin 8)
= Height x (Area of base)
=Volume ofparallelepiped Fig. 2.27

Volume of Tetrahedron
0
Tetrahedron is a pyramid havil~g a triangular base. Therefore,

Volume= .!.(Height) x (Area of base)


3
I 1- -
=3h ' 2 iAB X ACI
=!hlaxb+bxc+c x al Ftg. 2.28
6
Now h is projection of OA on vector which is normal to the plane.
Vector nonnal to the plane ABC.i.s a X b + b X c +. c Xa. Therefore,
h= a . ca ~ E~ 6 x c + c x a)
· . Iii x b + b x c + c x a1
[ab c] Fig. 2.29
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.35

, 1 [abc) _ b- b- _ _ _
1
vo 1ume = - - _ 1a x + X c + c x a1
6ja X b + b XC+ C X iii
1[-b- -1
=-a c
6
== One sixth the volume of parallefepiped having cotenninous vectors a, b and c
The figure in Fig. 2.29 with vertices 0 , A, B and C is a tetrahedron, and its volume is .!..[abc] or
6
one sixth of the volume of the parallelepiped. We justify this statement by noting that the parallelepiped
can be exactly divided up into six non-overlapping tetrahedral; three of these, with vertices (0, A, B, q,
(A, C, B, B') and (A, B, C , B') are shown in figure. If we consider tetrahedron (A, C, B, B'), for example, the
vectors along three edges are AB =b- ii, AC =c- aand -AB' =c.- - -
Our assumption then gives the volume of this tetrahedron to be .![(b - ii) (c- ii) ~]=![a b c].
6 6
In similar way, the assumed formula gives the same result for the volumes of an six tetrahedral. Since the
tetrahedral are non-overlapping, the volume of the para11clcpiped should be the sum of the volumes of the
tetrahedra; the factor 1/6 ensures that this is so.
Properties of Scalar Triple Product
~ ~ ~ ........... -+
1. (a x b) · c = a· ( b x c), i.e., position of the dot and the cross can
be interchanged without altering the product.
............... ..... ..... .....
2. [k abc]= k[a b c ] (where k is scalar)
-+ ~-+-+ ............... ..... ..........
3. [a+bcd] = [ acd ] +[bcd]
..... ~ ~ -+~-+

4. a, b and c in that order fonn a right-handed system if [a b c J> 0;


~ ~ ...,. -+-+-+
-+
a, b and c in that order fonn a left-handed system if [a b c] < 0. c
5. The necessary and sufficient condition for three non-zero, non-
-+~ -+ ~-+-+

co1Jinear vectors a, b and c to be coplanar is that [ a b c] = 0.


Fig. 2.30
-+-+-+ -+ -+ -+ ..... -+ -+
6. [a a b)=O (·: a is ..L to a x b , · a · (a x b) = 0)
7. [x1ii + y1 b + z1c x2ii + y2 h + z2c x 3 a+ y3 b + z3c]
XI Yt zl

= x2 Y2 z2 raE cJ
x3 Y3 z3

Proof
[x1ii + y1 b + z1c x2a+ y2 b + z2c x3ii + y3 b + z3c]
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236 Vectors and 30 Geometry

- -
= (x1a + y1b + z1c) · (~a+ y2 b + z2c) X (J.3a + y3 b + zi)
-
=(xta + Yt b +~c) · [(x2y3 - ~Y2)a X b + (y2z3- Y3Z2)b X c + (x3z2- ~ZJ)C X a]
= xt(Y2Z3- YJZ2)a · b XC+ Yt(X:!Z2- X2Z3) b · c X a+ Zt(XzY3- X:JY2)c · a X b
xi Yr z,
=l2 y 2 z2 [a EcJ
X:l Y3 Z3

IUustratfon 2.58 Let a= xi+ 12]- k, b 2i + 2x} + k and = c= l + k. If the ordered set [b ca] is left
handed, then find the values of x.
Sol. For a left-handed system,
[bcaJ <O
2 2x 1
or 1 0 <0
.· X 12 - 1
or 2(0-12)-2x(-l -x)+ 1(12)<0
or x2 +x - 6<0
or X E (-3, 2)

-+ -+ -+
lltustratton 2.59 If a, b and c are three non-coplanar vectors, then find the value of
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a·(bxc) b·(cxa) c·(bxa)
-+ -+ -+
+ -+ -+ -+
+ -+ -+ -+
.
b·(cxa) c · (axb) a · (bxc)
-+-+-+
Sol. Since [a b c1'# 0, we have
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a ·(b xc ) b · (cxa) c·(bxa) [abc] [bca) [cba)
-'-------+
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
+ -+ -+ -+
=
-+ -+ -+
+ -+ -+ -+ + '"'-----'"'
-+ -+ -+
b ·(cxa) c ·(axb) a ·( bxc) [bca] [cab] [abc]
-+ -+-+ -+-+-+ ............
[a b c] [a b c] [a b c]
= +
-+ -+ -+
--=----~
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
[ab c ] [ab c ] [abc]
= 1+1 - 1 = 1
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ J\ 1\ J\

lllustratfon 2.60 If the vectors 2 i - 3 j, i + j - k and 3 i - k form three concurrent edges of a


parallelepiped, then find the volume of the parallelepiped.
---+ 1\ 1\ -+
Sol Here, OA =2 i -3j =a (say),
---+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+
OB = i + j - k = b (say),
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.37

~A/\-+

and OC =3i -k= c (say)

............. -+ .... -+
2 -3 0
Hence, Volume = [a b c ] = a · ( b x c) = 1 1 -1 =4
3 0 -1
.. -- - ~

Illustration 2.61 The position vectors of the four angular points of a tetrahedron are
" " ' A A A A A A,. A

A(j + 2k), B(3i + k), C(4i + 3) + 6k) and D(2i + 3j + 2k). Find the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD.

Sol. Vertices of tetrahedron are A()+ 2k), 8(3{ + k), C(4f + 3} + 6k) and D(2i + 3) + 2k). Therefore,
AB = 3t- j- k, AC = 4i + 2} + 4k and AD= 2f + 2}

... Volume, V = (;[AB AC AD]


)---

3 -1 -1
=!4 2 4
6
2 2 0
= 2 cubic unit
- '
Illustration 2.62 Let a,E, c be three unit vectors and a. E=a. c= 0. If the angle between E and c is
rr, then find the value of ![a b c]l.
3
Sol. ii · b ii ·= c=
0
ii is perpendicular to vectors b and c . Thus,
a=l(E x c)
or lal=llt(bxc)I=A.J3 =1
2
Now l[ii EcJI =Iii · (b x c)I
= IIlii( Ex c>F

= J32l-t21-12
bl c sm. 2(1t) 2 (J3)2 J3
"3 =J)x T =T
-+ .... .... -+ .... .... -+ -+ ....
Illustration 2.63 Prove that [a + b b + c c +a J = 2 [a b c].
..... ..... ..... .... - ) .... ..... ..... ..... ..... .... -+
Sol. [a + b b + c c +a] =(a +b)· (( b +c) x ( c +a))
...................................
= (a+b) · (bxc+bxa+cxa)
........ -+ .... .... .... .... ........
=[a b c]+[b c a]=2[a b c]
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2.38 Vectors and 30 Geometry

~--- :----- ----~~--------'--·---


--+ -+ -._. ~----
-+--+
----- ---··-----~---~

I·a I ·b / -c
-+-+-+ -+__.-+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ --+
Illustration 2.64 Prove that ( I m n ][a b c ] :::; m· a m·b m·c.
-+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+
n·a n ·b n·c ,
I
, ___ j
-+" ",.. ... """--+,.,.,.
Sol. Let l :::;/1 i +12 j+/3 k, m = -m1 i +m2 J"!'m3 k and n = n1i+n2 j+n3 k
-+
.a =a1 "i + a2 "j + a3 k, b :::; ~ i + ~ j
/\-t " .... " -+ " "
+ ~ k and c = c1 i + ~ j + C:J k
"

-+ -+
.. I ·a = 11a1 +12a2 + /3aj = 'L/1a1
-+ -+
Similarly, I · b = 'LI1bt, etc.
11 /2 13 al a2 a3
-+-+-+ -+-+-+
Now [ l mn ](abc ] = ml m2 m3 ~ ~ ~
"t n2 n3 c, ~ ~
'L/1a1 r.t,~ 'LI,q
= Im1a1 'Lml-'1 In11C1
'Ln1a1 r.n,~ 'Lnlcl
-+ -+ -+ -+ --+ -+
I ·a I ·b I ·c
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
= m·a m·b m·c
...... -+ -+ --+ -+ ......
n .a n .b n.c
r - - ___ ..__ - ·----- -----·- --- .•
. .
a-a a·b a·c
Illustration 2.65 If a= i +) + k b = t-) + k, c=i + 2)- k, then find the value of ~ · a
1
b ·b b ·c .
c-a c·b c·c

Q· Q o·b a·C
Sol. E-a b.b b·c =[a Ec][a Ec]=[a Ecf ....

c·a c· b c·c
I
Now [abc]=I -1 =4
2 -1
a·a a·E a·c
... b·o b·b h · c = 42 = 16
c·a c·b c·c
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.39

Illustration 2.66 Find the value of a so that the volume of the parallelepiped formed by vectors
. -. -·-
1\ 1\1\1\ A 1\1\

i +a j +k, j +ak and a i +k becomes minimum.

1 a
Sol. V= 0 1 a =1-a+al
a 0

dV = 3a2 -1
da
. . . 1
V IS mtmmum at a = J3

... ... ...


Illustration 2.67 If u, v and w are three non-coplanar vectors, then prove that
....., ....., ... ....., ...... -t ......... -+
(u + v - w) · (u - v) x ( v - w) =u · v X w
.............. _...__. ..... ~ -+-+-+ ... .......... ... ......... ...
Sol. ( u + v - w) · ( u - v) X ( v - w) = ( u +v - w) · ( u x v - u x w- v x v + v x w)
... -t -t _... _... ... ... -t ...
= (u + v -w)· (u x v- u x w+ v X w)
...... -t ........ -t -+ -+ ....
=0 - 0+ u·(v xw)+O- v · (u xw)+O-w· (u X v)+0-0
............. ......... ............ .... .... -+
= [u v w] + [ v w u)-[ w u v] = u · ( v x w)
... .... -t ... -+-+-+ ....
Illustration 2.68 If a and b are two vectors such that I a x b I = 2 , then find the value of [a b a x b] .
... ... .... ... ... -+ ... -+
Sol. [a b ax b] = (ax b) ·(a x b)
-+ ....
= i axbf
=4
Illustration 2.69 Find the altitude of a parallelepiped whose three cotenninous edges are vectors
... 1\1\" .... 1\ 1\1\ -+ "" 1\ -+ ...
A= i+j+k, B=2i+4j-k and C=i+j+3k with A and B asthesidesofthebaseofthe
parallelepiped.

h = Volume of parallelepiped
Sol.
Area of base

2 4 -1
-+ .... -+
=[ABC] = 1 3 4 2.J3s
... ...
1\ 1\ 1\
=
1\ 1\ 1\
=--
19
IAxBI i j k 1- 5 i + 3j + 2 kl
J
2 4 -1

'" "'• ..
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. ·t

2.40 Vectors and 30 Geometry

~- - ..... - .. ., . - ·r- -... - .. 0 .. • - • -·

Illustration 2.70 If [abc] = 2, then find the value of [(a+ 2b - c) (a - b) (a- E- c)].
.. - . .

Sol. [(a+ 2E- c)(a- b)(ii- E- c)J


1 2 -1
=1 -1 o [a b cJ
-1 - 1
=3[a b cJ= 6
_. _. _. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Illustration 2.71 If a, band c are mutuaJly perpendicular vectors and a = a (ax b)+ f3 (b X: c)
-+ _. .... _._.
+r ( c x a) and [a b c] = 1, then find the value of a + {3 + y.
_. .... _.
Sol. Taking dot product w_ith a , b and c , respectively, we get
_. -t _.-+
laf=f3·[a b c]=f3
-+-+-+
O=y.[abc]=r
_._. ....
and O=a·[abc] = a
-t

a+f3+r=laf
_. _. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -t _. -+ -+
1Uustrat1on2.72 Jf a , band c arenon-coplanarvectors,thenprovethat I(a · d) (b x c)+ (b · d) (c x a)
-+ -+ _. -+ _. -t
+ ( c · d) (a x b) I is independent of d, where d is a unit vector.
-+-i -+ .... _. ....
Sol. Given [a b c] ~ 0 as a, b, c are non-coplanar. Also there does not exist any linear relation between
them because if any such relation exists, then they would be coplanar.
........ -t-+ ........
Let A = X ( b X c) + y ( c X a) + z (a X b),
-+ -+ -+ -t -+ -t
where x= a · d ,y= b · d , z = c · d
-+ -+ -+
We have to find the value ofm~dulus of A, i.e., I A I, which is independent of d .
-+ .... -+
Multiplying both sides scalarly by a, b and c, and knowing that scalar triple product is zero when two
vectors, are equal, we get
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
A· a =x[a b c] +0
Putting for x, we get
-+-+ ........ ....., -+-+
(a · d)[a b c ] = A · a
Similarly, we have
-+ _. -+ -+ -+ -+ __.
(b · d)[a b c]=A · b
-+-4 ............ -t-+
(c ·d)[ a b c]= A · c
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.41

Adding the above relations, we get


-. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -.
[(a+b+c) · d ] .[o b c] = A·(a+b+c)
-. -. ~ -.-. -+-+ -+
or (a+b+c) · [d[a b c] -AA =0
........ -. -. .... -.
Since a, b and c are non·coplanar, a + b + c ;;; 0 because otherwise any one is expressible as a linear
combination of other two. Hence,
.... _. .... -+ -t

[abc]d=A
-+ ............ -+
I A I::: I[a b c] Ias d is a unit vector.
-+
It is independent of d .

Illustration 2. 73 Prove that vectors


-+ 1\ 1\ 1\

u =(a/+ a .f) i +(am+ a1m1) j +(an+ a ,n,) k


-. 1\ 1\ 1\

v =(bl + h/1) i + (bm + b 1m 1) j + (bn + b1n 1) k


-+ 1\ 1\ "
w = (cl + c/ 1) ; +(em+ c 1m1) j + (~n + c 111 1) k
are coplanar.

a/ +a111 am+a1m1 an+a1n1


............
Sol. [ u v w] = bl+qll bm+qm1 bn+qn1
cl +ct/t cm+qm1 en +c1n1
a a• 0 I /I 0
= b ~ 0 m ml 0 =0
c cl 0 n nl 0
Therefore, the given vectors are coplanar.

Illustration 2.74 Let GP G2 and G3 be the centroids of the trianglular faces OBC, OCA and OAB,
respectively, of a tetrahedron OABC. If V1 denotes the volume of the tetrahedron OABC and V2 that of the
paraHelepiped with OGI' OG2 and OG3 as three concurrent edges, then prove that 4V, = 9V1•
.... -+ -+
Sol. Taking 0 as the origin, let the position vectors of A, B and C be a , b and c, respectively. Then the
........ _. ............
position . Iy. ThcreJore,
.. vectors G " G andG are b+c , c+a and a+b , respecttve r-.
2 3
3 3 3

---+ ---+ ---+


Now, V2 = [OG1 OG2 OG3 ]
1 ...... -+-+ -+-+ -+
= - [b+cc+aa+b]
27
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2.42 Vectors and 30 Geometry

2 --+--+-+
= -[a b c]
27
2
= - x 6 V or 9 V = 4 V
27 I 2 I

VECTOR TRIPLE PRODUCT .


--+ ..... .....
The vector triple product of three vectors a, b and c is the vecto~
-+ .... -+ -+ .... --+ -+ .... ....
a x(b xc);(a·c)b -(a· b)c
.... --+ -+ -+ -+ --+ --+ -+ -+
Also (a xb)x c =(a · c)b-(b · c) a
-+ -+ -+ --+ -+ -+
Jn general, a x(b x c)*(a x b)x c
-+ -+ --+ -+ -+ .... --+ -+
If a x ( b x c) = (a x b) x c , then the vectors a and c are collinear.
-+-+ --+--+ .... -+-+ -+ -+
b XC
p = a x ( b x c) is a vector perpendicular to a and b x_c, but
-+ -+ .... -+
b x c is a vector perpendicular to the plane of b and c.
-+ .... --+
Hence, vector p must lie in the plane of b and c . ·
.... -+ .... .... .... -+
=> p =a X (b X c)= X b + y C (i)
....
Multiplying (i) scalarly by a , we have
-+ -+ .... -+ -+ ....
Fig. 2.31
p · a =:: x (a · b)+ y( a · c) (ii)
.... .... --+ ....
But p j_ a => p. a = 0. Therefore,
I
-+ -+ -+ -+ X -y
x (a · b) = - y(c · a), i.e. ' -.... ..... = --+ -+ ; A
c ·a a· b
--+ -t --+ --+
x =A ( c ·a), y;- A (a· b) (iii)
-+-+--+ -+--+-+ ............
Su~stituting x andy from (iii) in (i), a x ( b x c)= A[( c · a) b - (a : b) c] (iv)
' -+ 1\-t 1\--t 1\

The simplest way to determine A is by taking specific vectors a = i, b = i, c =j


1\ 1\ 1\ 1\1\1\ 1\1\1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

We have from (i v), i x ( i x j)


.
=A. [( i · j) i- (i · i) j], i.e.• i x k = A (0 i - 1j], i.e.,-
.
j =- Aj
. A=l
.... -+-+ ............ -+-+-+
Substituting.Ain(iv), a x(b xc)=(a · c)b-(a · b)c
lagrange's Identity ·
--+--+--+-+ ................
(a xb)·(c xd) = a ·[b x(c xd)]

. .'
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2.46 Vectors and 30 Geometry

r:::-----·-·
, Illustration 2.82
~ ~ ~
·---
If a, b and c are three non-coplanar vectors, then prove that
~--~--~~~·

t
I
~
~~

a·d -. ~ c·d -+ -4
d= ~~~ (bxc)+ -.~~ (cxa)+ .....
~
(axb)
~
~~

b·d
- f ....

~-+
I [abc] [abc] [a .b c]
L_
~~ ~ -+~-+~ ~ .....
Sol. Since a, b and c are non-coplanar, vectors a x b, b x c and c x a are also non-coplanar. Let
~ ~~-.~~~~~

d;;;;J(bxc)+m(c xa)+n (a xb) (i)


~

· Now multiplying both sides of (i) scalarly by a , we have


-+ ~ ..... -+ ~ -+ -f ~ ~ -+ ~ ~~-+ -+-+-+ -+ ~ ~

a·d = la ·(bxc)+ma ·(cxa)+na · (a x b) = l[abc] (-.·[a c a] =0= [a a b])


.... ~ ~ .......
I= (a · d)l[a b c]
-+ ~ (
Similarly, multiplying (i) sc~larly by b and c successively, we get
~-+ ............ ~~ ~ .... ~

· m= .(b ·d)l[a b c]' andn= (c·d)l[a b c]


Putting these values of/, m and n in (i), we get the required relation .
.--~--·- ------ ---····
.. ·-. -·---·
-+ ~ - -· --· ... -~ ·~

'!Illustration 2.83 If b is not perpendicular to c, then find the vector r satisfying the equation
~ ~ -+ ~ ~-+

r _r ~..~ =: ~. ~ ~--~~-~: ~. = .o... ·-.-···-· --- --· ...


.... ~ ........ -+-+ ~

Sol. Given r x b = a x b => ( r - a) x b =0


-+ ~ -+
Hence, ( r - a) and b are parallel.
-+ -+ ....
r-a=tb (i)
~-+

Also r · c =0
~ ~ ~ -+-+ ~~

I
Therefore, Taking dot product of (i) by c , we get r · c - a : c = t ( b · c)

or
~-+
0 - a · c = t ( b · c)
~-. or t = -
( ;. ; ]
:::;-:::; (ii)
b·c

F~om (i) and (ii), solution of r is r = a- ~ b


-. ~ ~
-fa ·c-fJ -.
(b · c .
r-· -- . _. ---+ • - . --~-- -·· ~--.. - -·---.-~

j Illustration 2.84 Jf a and b are two given vectors and k is any scalar, then find the vector r satisfying
.... ~
-+ ~
I rxa+kr=b. - -·-- - -- - ..... ----~- .. - - · · !
I

...... -+ ~ -t
Sol. r x a + k r = b (i)
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. .
Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.47

~ --+ --+ ~ --+ --+ -+


or (r xa)xa +kr'xa = b xa
-+ --+ ~ --+ --+ ~ -+ -+ ~ --+
or (r · a) a-(a · a) r +k (b-k r) = b X a
~ -+ -+ -+ -+ --+ --+ --+
or ( r · a) a + k b - b x a = (I a F+ .tl) r
-+ -+ ~ ~ --+ --+
--+ (r · a)a+kb-bxa
or r = ...:.--..:------
-+
laf+.tl
-+
Also in Eq. (i), taking dot product with a , we have
-+ ~-+ -+-+ -+-+
(rxa)·a+kr·a=b·a
-+ -+
-+-+ b·a
or • r·a = - -
k

[
--+ 1 --+-+
a ·b ~a --+ --+ -+ ]
r= --+ ( k) +kb+(axb)
. k2+ I a f
r·- · ... ... ... ... ... ~ 4 ... ... ... ... ... ... l
Illustration 2.85 If r · a = 0, r · b =1 and [ r a b] = 1 , a· b -:~: 0 , (a · b )2 - I a FI b F = I, then find \
-+ --+ -+ ·I
r in terins of a and b .
--+
..--
--+ -+
. ____.
.. ,

-+ -+
-- . ,

Sol. Writing r as a linear combination of a, b and a x b , we have ·
-+ --+ --+ --+ -+
r =x a + y b + z( a x b)
For scala!S x,y.and z, .'
--+ --+ -+ -+ --+ --+
0 = r · a =xl a
1
f +ya · b (taking dot product with a)
--+ --+ --+ -+ -+ --+
1= r · b=xa · b+ylbf (taking dot product with b)
--+

Solving, we get y =
. --+
·
-+
I a f --+ -+ 9 ; f
laflbf-(a·bi
--+ -+
a·b --+--+
and x= -------=
-+ --+ -+ --+
a ·b
(a·bi - 1a fl b f
-+ --+ -+ -+ --+ --+ -+
Also l=[rab]=zjaxbf (taking dot product-with ax b)
1
or z= --.,...
laxbF
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.43

~ ~-+~ ~~ ...
= oa · [(b · d) c-(b · c) d]
-+ -+ -+~ ... ~ ~ ...
=(a · c)(b · d)-(a ·d)(b · c)
~ ... -+-+
a ·c a·d
= -+-+ ......
b ·c b ·d
This is called Lagrangc,s identity.

Note:
~ ......... -+ ... -+-+ -+ ...... -+ -+-+-+ -+ ..............
·- --, .. I

(ax b)x(c x d) =[(ax b)· d] c-[(a x b)· c ) d =[a b d]c-[a b c ]d


-+ ..... . ... ..... -+ -+
Thus, vector (a x b) x ( c x d) lies in the plane of c and d ; otherwise
-+ -+ -+-+ -+-+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ I
(a x b)x(cxd)=-(c xd)x(a xb)=-[(c x d)·b]a +[(c x d)a]b I

· which shows that the vector lies in the plane of ; and b.Thus, the vecto; lies along the common section I
-+ ~ ..... -+
of the plane of c and d and the plane of a and b .
0 . .. . A .::. - ·:;:.- oA • . -+ - 1\ 1\ -+ ;..- · . 0--:..f' .. ... . _... ·--·--,
, Illustration 2.75 Prove that i x(a xi)+ j x(a xj) +k x(a xk) = 2 a. I
I
A -+ 1\ 1\1\ -t -+ A - + - + ooootl\1\

Sol. ix(axi)::(i · i)a - (a · i) i = a-(a · i)i


A -+ 1\ -+ -+ 1\ A A -+ • 1\ -t -+ 1\ A
Similarly> jx(a xj) =a-(a · j)j and kx(a xk)::a- (a ·k)k .
A -+ 1\ 1\ -+ A A -+ A -+ -tl\ 1\ ~A A -+ AA ~

i x (a x i)+ j x (a x j) + kx (a x k) = 3 a-((a · i) i+(a · j) j+(a x k) k) =2 a


Illustration 2.76 lf f X ((a - }) X f] +}X [(a-
. .
k) X }J + kX ((a - f) X k] = 0,... then. find vector a.
.. - ..
Sol. 1x [(a-}) xi]= (i. i)(a- }) - (i ·(a - }))i
=a - J- (i a)i 0

Similarly, Jx [(a - k) x ]J := a - k. + cJ a)J 0

And kx[(a - i) xk) :: a-i -(k-a)k


j X [(a - }) X f)+] X [(a- k) X }J + kX [(a- f) X k]
=a - J- (i .a)i +a - k+ cJ. a)j +a- i- ck .a)k;: o
3a-(f.+}+k) - a=O
I l
a=-2 (i + j
A .. ,.

or + k)
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2.44 Vectors and 3D Geometry

-~ -- - ---- - - - -· - - . - -+ -+ - ~--~ - -. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+- - --+ .:... -:.... 1


_ mu~-~~-"-~-:~~ ~-e~ __a:_~_ and_c -~c-~!~~-v~~to~~-t~e~-~:o~~t~~t[·~-~-~---· b-~-~-~~~~ ~ l-~ b c] . ~
2

-+ -+ -+ -+ -. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Sol. (a X b b X c c X a) = (a X b)· (( b X C) X ( c X a))
-+ -+ -+-+-+-+ -+ ... -+-+
=(ax b) · {[b c a] c-[b c c] a]
-+-+ -+
==[abcf

r·utustraifon 2. 7~· -For any7o\irvector5~ prove that


I
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
(b XC). (a X d)+ ( C X a) . ( h' X d)+ (a X b). ( C X d) = 0. .
.
.
--~--- ·
.
.... · ~

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
Sol. (b x c) · (a xd),;<£ (b · a)(c · d)-(h · d)(c · a)
_.,. -+ -+-+ -+-+ _._.,. -+-+ .......
( c x a) ·(b x d)= (c · b) (a · d)-(c · d) (a · b)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ _.,. -+ -+ -+
(ax b) · (c _x d)= (a · c)(b · d)-(a · d)(b · c)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ '-+ -+ -+ _.,. _.,. -+
~ (b xc) ·(a xd)+(cxa)·(bxd)+(ax b) · (cxd)=O
('' - ' " '___ .. ~, -- ----~---- - ~ - --~-----~-

i~~~"~'it>···<~:~.~.;~.~q;:~.~:.l:f<r~l~~·~lli~e-ar ~ect:~_··~~.~·~ ~~~~E__: c ),.~·n. P~~· ·tbat '


Sol. a ll(b x c)
a= A.(b x c) and a= a1.. band a.l c
_ a-a a·c
Now (axb)·(ax.c)= b~ _
· a b ·c
a.ii 0
= __ =!a 112 (b- ·c)
0 b.c
•• • -.. .... , -- - - · - - - 0 - - - -- - . - -·- - - - - - - - -- - -· - - - - - - -·

: Illustration 2.80 .Find the vector oflength 3 unit which is perpendicular to i + j + k and lies in the plane :
' ,.. A ... ,. "' I
; of i + j + k and 2i - 3j.
Sol. Given vectors are
ii=f+]+k
b=t+]+k
and . c= 21 - 3]
- -
Vector perpend~cular to v_ectors band cis b x c.
-
Vector perpendicular to a and b X c is aX(b X c) which lies in the plane of.b and c. Therefore,
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.45

a X (b X c)~ [(i + j + k) X {(i + j + k) X (2f - 3} )}]


=- (i + j + k)- 3(2i- 3}}
=-1i +8}-k
a x (b x c) -?i + sj - ic
... Ia x (b x c)l = '-'114

... Requared vector = 3 -


.
= 3 · 1:7";
a x (b xc ) -1i+8}-k
,---- - -- - - la ~ (bx ~l "1~4-
!Illustration 2.81 Let ~, b and ~ be ·the non·coplanar unit vectors. The angle between b and ~ l
I 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

1 is a, between c and o is fJ and between o and b is y. If A (ocosa), B(bcosf3) and C (c cos y),·
1,

Ithen show that til. triangle


. ABC
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\1\ 1\ 1\1\1\ A A A

jax(bxc)l jbx(cx a)l = lc x (a x b) ·l lllox (b xc).l


sin A
= sin B . sin C
=
~ "
,,
,

A 1\ 1\
'

1\ 1\ 1\
I~ sin a·cos fJ·cos rm I I

" bxc " cxa " a xb


Where n1 --~ A ,
n1 = and n3 =- -
~" "1\ " "
I
4o-... • . ... ...
jbxcl jcxa ) lo xbl
Sol. From the sine rule, we get
AB AC BC (AB)(BC)(CA)
-sin C =-- = - - = ------------'-
sin B sin A 26.ABC
---+ A 1\ 1\ A A 1\ 1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\

BC = I BC I= Jccosy-bcos /JI=I(a ·b)c-(c·a)bl =:= l(a x(b xc))l


Similarly,
-t ---t
I A C I= Ib x (c x a) I and AB ;:; I AB I=Ic x (o x b) I
1\ 1\ " 1\ " 1\
AC =
Also,
1 ___. --+
AABC = -I BCx BA I
2
l " " " "
= -I (c cosr -bcos /J) x (acosa - bcos /3) I
2

= -I (c X a) cos a cos r + (b"X "


)" "
c) cos rcos fJ + (a"X"
b) cos /3 cos a I
2
or 2ll.ABC = IUi1 sin a cos fJ cos r I
1\ 1\ ' 1\ "1\" ,...,.. " "" 1\
Ia x(b xc) l_lb x (c x a)l_jc x(o x b)l _ fll a x(b xc) I
sin A
- sin B - sin C - "
· I:t sin a cos fJ cos r m I
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2.48 Vectors and 30 Geometry

--. --.
-+ ~~--.axb --.
2
__.
Thus, r :((a · b)a-1 a 1 b)+ __. __.
I ax b 12
. --. --.
__. __. -+ axb
= a x(a x b)+-__.--_.-
la xb f
-t ~ --. --. --. ... ... --.
...ax(d xc--.)
-+ -+
~

Ulustration 2.86 If vector x satisfying x x a + ( x ·b) c = d is given by x=A.a+a X ... --. --. ,
then find the value of A.. (a ·c)laF

Sol.
~ ...
xxa+(x · b)c=d
--. --. ... .......

--. ... ~ --. --+ ~ ..... --.


{X X a +(x · b) C} XC= d XC
--. ~ -t ~ ....... --. ....... ... --.
or ( x xa)x c+(x· b)(c x c)= d x c
... __.--. ....... ~..... --. ~

or (X · C) a-·( a · C) X =(d X C)

or
--. --. ..... ...
..... ..... --. --. .....
a x{(x·c')a-(a·c)x}= a x(d x c)
...
--. --. --. ..... ..... --. --. ..... .....
or -(a · C) (a X X) = a X ( d X c) (":ax a= 0)
-j ..... --+
-+
X
ax(dxc)
--.
X a = _ __..;__ _.:;_
or --.--.
a ·c
--.--. .....
--. -+ -+ -+ ax(dxc)
or a x(x xa)= ax-__;_-~
--+ --+
a·c
-t -+ --.
__. __. __. -+ -+ -+ -+ Q X (d XC)
or (a·a) x-(a · x)a =a x . -+ .....
a ·c
__. ........ ax(dxc) _..__.-+-+
--. ... --.
or (a·a)x =(a·x)a +ax-----
_. --.
a ·c
-+-+-+' ~.......... .....~
-+ (a·x) a --. a x(d x c) a·x
or x = --. +ax --. --. --. , where A.. = - --.
l af (a·c)laf laf
....... --. -+ --.
IUustration 2.87 a , b and c are three non-coplanar vectors and r is any arbitrary vector. Prove that
- t --. ... --. --. ..... --. ..... ..... --. --+ ..... ..... --. --. --.
[bcr]a+[car]b+[qbr]c
..
=[abc]r . .
.
--. ..... --. .
..... ..... --. --. -t ..... --. --. --. --+ [r b c]
Sol. Let r = x1 a +x2 b + x3 c ~ r · ( b x c) = x1 a · ( b x c) or x 1 = --+-+_.
[abc]

·.
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.49

---+-+-+
---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ -+ · [rca]
Also, r · ( c x a) = x2 b . ( c x a) or x2 "'"' -+-+-+
[abc]
---+-+---+
-+-+ -+ -+ -+-+ [rab]
and r · (ax b) = x3 c . (ax b) . or x3 ::; .;;......- ....
- ....-=-
[abc]
-+-+-+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+
-+ [rbc]-+ [rca] .... [rab]-+
r ;:: ............ a+ -+-+-+ b+ -+-+-+ c
[abc] [abc] [abc]
-+-+-+ -+ -+-+-+ -+ -+-+-+ .... _. .... _.-+
or [bcr]a+[car]b+[abr] c ::;[abc]r
~ -+ -- 1
-+ ---+' -+ -+ -+ -+ b + c -+ -+ I
Illustration 2.88 Jf a, b and c arc non-coplanar unit vectors such that a x ( b x c)= b and c J2 ,
-+ -+ 2
are non-parallel, then prove that the angle between a and b is 3n 14. - _~ ..
-+ -+
---+ -+ -+ b+c
Sol. a x ( b x c) = .Ji
---+ -+-+ -+-+-+ J-+ J-+
(a- c) b-(a·b)c =-b +-c (i)
---+ -+
Ji
---+
J2
Since b and c are non-collinear, comparing coefficients of c on both sides of (i), we get
-+-+ 1 -+ -+ )
- a· b = .Ji or a-b=--
./2
1
=> ( 1) ( 1) cos 9 = - ..J2
---+ -+
where 9 is the angle between a and b . Therefore,
1
cos 9=- - or . cos 8 =cos I35° or f)= 135° = 31f/4
.Ji
---+ ---+ -+ ---+
---+ ---+ -+ -+ -+ ---+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
-- - - ·~
.
-+R [R·(/Jx(,Bxa))]a [R· (ax(axfJ))]{J
Illustration 2.89 Prove that +
-+ -+
+
-+ -+
=[Ra{J](ax{J)
~__;_~-~
-+ -+
jaxfJf jax{Jf lax,Bf
-. .
---+ -+ -+ ---+ -+
Sol. a, {3 and a x {3 are three non-coplanar vectors. Any vector R can be represented as a linear combination
of these vectors. Thus,
-+ -+ ---+ -+ -+
R = k1 a+ k2 fJ + k3 (ax {J) (i)
---+'-+
Take dot product of(i) with (ax /3). We have
-+ -+ ---+ ---+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
R· (a X {J) =k3 (a X {3) ·(a X {J) = k3 j a X ,6 f
-+ ---+ -+ ---+ -+ -+
k = R·(a x{J);:: [Ra,B]
or
3 -+ -+ -+ -+
laxf312 la x{Jf
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2.50 . Vectors and 3D Geometry

-t -+ -+
Take dot product of (i) with a: x (a x {3) . We have
-+ -+ _. -+ _. -+ -+ -+
R· (ax (ax {3)) = k2 (a x(a x {3)) · f3·
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
= k2 [(a· {3)a- (a · a) {3]- {3 =k2[(a· /3)2 -I a 1
2
1{3 F]

-+ _. _. -+ -+ -+ -+ .....
lr = -[R· (a X (a X j3))) . . I k [R · ({3....x({3_ x a))]
or "2 _. -+ S1m11ar y, 1 = - -..:..;.-4 ~--.:..:..... ____...~

l,axf3f · lax{Jf
.... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -t '-+ -+ _. -t
R=-[R· [{3 x({3 x a))] a _.[R· (ax (ax jJ))] {3 + [(R· (a x {J))](ax {3)
-t -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
I a x f3 f . I a x {3 F (a x {3)
2

-+ -+ -+ .... -+ .... .... -+ .... .... .... -+ .... -+ ....

or R+ [R·(f3x(f3xa))]a + [R·(ax(ax{3))]{3 = [R · (a X ,B)](a X j3)


.... -+ -+ -+ -t -+
lax,Bf lax,Bf laxpf
~ - - -- ~ ·-· - - -·-- --·
.... ....
--·-----
- -----· . -
......
~..-----· - -·-
-+-+ .... -+
---- ·- ·· --- - ------- ~- -~
I
1ttlustratton 2.90 If a, b and c arc three non ..copJanar non-zcrQ vectors, then prove that (a· a) b x <;
I -4 -t ._. -t -+-+ -+ -+ -+-+-+ -t . .
j~ _i~_· b!5 _~ a. : ~~_'__c_) . ~ ~ ~ ,_ ~ .? -~--~ ]_a : _ -·- .. . . -.- - __ . _
-+-+ -+ ...... -t-+-+ -+-+
Sol. As a , b and c are non-coplanar, b x a , c x a and a x b are also non-coplanar.
So, any vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these vectors.
-+ ...... _. -t-+ -+-+
Let a=J..bxc +Jl cxa +v axb
-t ...... -+-t-+ .... -+ -+-+-+ ...... -+ ...............
a ·a= A. [ b c a], a · b = fJ. [ c a b ], a· c = v [a b c]
,
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ .... -+ .... .... -+
-+
a = (a · a)bxc + (a ·b)cxa + ..;;..._.........;..
(a -c)__ axb
............... -+-+-+ -+-+-+
[bca] [cab] [abc]

RECIPROCAL SYSTEM OF VECTORS


Two systems of vectors are called reciprocal systems of vectors if by taking the dot product we get unity.
.... -+ ....
Thus, if a, b and c are three non~coplanar vectors, and if
-+ -+ -+ .... .... ....
-+ bxc -+ cxa · -+ axb -+-+ -+
a' = -+-+ .... ,
b' = -+-+-+
and c' = -t-t-+ ,then a', b', c' are said to be the reciprocal systems ofvectors
[abc] [abc] [abc]
.... _. -t
for vectors a, b and c . ·
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.51

Properties
-t -t
. --+. -t ... --+
-+-+ ~ -+ -+ -+ -+ ~ a·(bx c) [abc]
1. lf a,b and c and a' , b' and c' arereciprocalsystemofvectors,then a·a' = ............. = ....~ ..... =1.
~ -+ -+ -+ (abc) [abc]
Similarly, b ·h' =c ·c' =l .
Due to the above property, the two systems of vectors are called reciprocal systems.
-+ .... -t -+ .... -+ -+ -+ .... -+ -+ ....
..
2. a ·b' = a ·c' = b ·a' = b·c' = c·a' = c·b' = 0
-+-+ -+ --+ -+ -+
3. [abc][a'b'c']=l
Proof:

U7
vve
have [~b~~]
a c =[ bx; ; X
; ; Xb] -+-+~ .............. ..........
= - --
-+-+-+
x c c x a a x -+b]
(-+b -+ -+ -+-+

[abc][abc][abc] [abcf
1 -+ -+ -+
2
1
=
-+ -+-+
[abc] = - -
-+ -+ -+
[abcf [abc]
-+ -+ -+ ............
[a' b' c'J[ a b c] =1
" 1\ "

4. The orthogonal triad of vectors i , j and k is self-reciprocal.


" " 1\
" "
Let i', j' and k' be the system of vectors reciprocal to the system i, j and k. Then, we have
1\ 1\

" J' xk ,.
•I
J = --;::;;-;:-- = ,•.
[i j k]
1\ A 1\ 1\

Similarly, j' = j and k ' = k .


...... -+ ...... -t ...... ......
5. a , b .and c are non-coplanar iff a',b' and c' arc non-coplanar.
-+ ..... ...... -+ .... ...... -+ -+ ..... ...... ...... ......
As [a b c J· [a' b' c'] = 1 and [a b c ] -:t 0 are non-coplanar <=> -+-+-+
~ 0 ~ [a'b' c'] are
non-coplanar. [a b cJ
A A A A 1\ A A A A
Illustration 2.91 Find a set of vectors reciprocal to the set - i + j + k, i - j + k, i + j + k.

-+ 1\A 1\ -+ /\A A-+ /\ A A

Sol. Let a = - i + j + k , b = i - j + k , c = i + j + k
A /\ 1\ A A

...... ......
j k 1\ A __. ~
i j k
A 1\

Then bxc=l - l =-2i+2k, c xa= 1 I = -2} +2k,


I -1 1 I

j"
1\
"I k
-+ ...... 1\ A

axb= -I 1 :::: 2 i +2}


-1
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2.52 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-1 )
...........
[abc]= 1 -1 =4
I 1
If a', b', c' is the reciprocal system of vectors, then
~ -+ -+ -+-+-+ 1 A -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ) 1\ 1\ 1\

· a'= (bxc)l[abc] = . (-.i+k) , b' = (cxa)/ [abc] = 2(-j+k),


2
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ --+ 1 " 1\

c' =(ax b)l[a b c ] =- (i+ j)


2
-~---~ ---- ·~---- ~- --- - ~--~
-+-+ ..... -+-+ ...... '
Illustration 2.92 Let a, band c be a set of non-coplanar vectors and a', b' and c' be its reciprocal set. :
-+ b'xc'
Prove that a =-+--+-+' --
[a' b' c'] .
-+
b ==
· c'xa'
-+-+-+
[a' b' c']
and
-+
c =
a'xb'
-+-+-+
[a' b' c']
. I
-- ...... -·- -·- -··--
---·--~- - .. ·-- .. ···---·- . ... ··-- -· .... ··-·---·· ·- .. ·- - ---·
~-+ -+-+

Sol. We have, b
~
xc =
~ (cxa)x(axb)
~-.......;...--'--...:....
...... -+-+
[a b cf
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ..... -+ ..... -+ -+ -+ -+ ...... -+ -+ -+ .....
{(cxa) · b}a - {(cxa) · a}b [cab ]a-[caa]b [abc]a - 0 a
= -+-+-+
= ....... ...
; -+-+-+
=-----
-+-+-+
[abcf [ab cf [ab cf [abc].
..... -+ -+ . -+ -+ -+
............... ...... -+ ...... bxc a = [ab c ] = __
Also, [a'b'c']=a'·
.
(b'xc') = --+ -+-+
- -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
[abc] [a b c ] [a b c ]2 [a b c ]
... -+

=> .
b'xc' = -+a
........... ...,
[a' b' c'J
... ...
c'x a' .....
-+ .....
-+ a'xb'
Similarly, b= - - - c =-+-.-+
-+ -+-+
- --
(a' b' c'] [a' b' c'J

·;

_.. , _;I
-+ -+ ...... ... -+ ..... ...... .... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ .....

Sol.
;X;=...;:..(b_x
_c):;_x_(.:....c_x_a~) = {(bxc)·a}c-{(bxc) · c}a = [b ca ] c =[abc]c = c
-+ ~-+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+ -+ -+-+
[abcf [ab cf [ab c f [abc]2 [ab c ]
..... -+
-+-+ a b -+-+
Similarly, b'x c' = - ----
-+ ..... -+
and c'x a' ;;;; - - -
-+ -+--+
[a x bx c ) [ab c ]
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.53

-+ -+ -+
-+ -+ -+a+ b+ c -+ -+ -+
Adding, a'x b' + b'x c' + c'x a' :: --.-......-....-

..... ....
[ab c]
....
. -- ·-·· ,
I

· Illustration 2.94 If a , b and c be three non-coplanar vectors and a', b' and c' constitute the reciprocal
system of vectors, then prove that
.......................... ...... ................. _..
i. r = ( r ·a') a + ( r · b') b + ( r · c') c
...... -+-+ ...... -+-+-+ -+-+ ....
li. r =(r·a)a'+(r·b)b'+(r · c)c'

Sol.
i. Since a vector can be expressed as a linear combination of three non-coplanar vectors, let
...... ..... -+ ......
r::xa+yh+zc (i)
where x, y and z are scalars.
. ......
Multiplying both sides of (i) scalarly by a', we get
.......... ..... ....................... .......... ......... .... ......
- xa ·a I +y b ·a I +zc ·a I =x · 1 =x
r ·a I _ (·: a ·a'=l, b.a'=O = c·a')
-+ -+
Similarly, multiplying both sides of (i) scalarly by b' and c' , successively, we get
-+-+ ...... ....
y = r ·b' and z = r ·c'
..... -+-+-+ .......... -. ...............
Putting in (i), we get r = ( r ·a') a+ ( r ·b') b+ ( r ·c') c
..... ...... ..... . -+-+-+ ....
ii. Since a' , b' and c' arc three non-coplanar vectors, we can take r = x a'+ y b'+ z c' '(ii)
....
Multiplying both sides of (ii) scalarly by a , we get
_.._. ......... -+-+ .... ..... .......... -+ -+ -+ -+
r · a =x(a'· a)+ y(b'· a)+z(c'· a)=x (·: a'· a =1, b'· a =0 == c'· a)
-+ -+
Similarly, multiplying both sides of (i) scalarly by b and c successively, we get
-+-+ -+ -+
y = r · b and z = r · c
_. -+ -+ _. -+ -+ -+ ...... -+ -+
Putting in (H), we get r =(r · a )a'+( r · b )b'+ ( r · c )c' .
Concept Application Exercise 2.3
...... -+ -+ ...... -+
1. If a , b , c and d are four non-coplanar unit vectors such that d makes equal angles with
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ .... -+
all the three vectors a , b , c, then prove that [d a b]=[d c b]=[d c a].
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2.54 Vectors and 30 Geometry

--+ -+ -+ -+ --+
l ·a l ·b I
.............. ..... .............. --+ ..... -+ ......... --+
2. Prove that if[/ m n] are three non-coplanar vectors, then[/ m n](a xb)= m· a m· b m
-+--+ ..............
n ·a n ·h n
-+ 1\1\ A -+1\ 1\ 1\

3. If the volume of a parallelepiped whose adjacent edges are a = 2 f + 3 j + 4 k , b = i +a j + 2 k,


-+A A 1\

c = i +2j+ak is 15, then find the value of a if (a> 0).


..... " 1\ A ..... " " A .... --+ .... ..... ..... .....
4. (f a = i + j + k and b ~ i - 2j + k , then find vector c such that a ·· c = 2 and a x c = b .
--+ ..... --+ -+ --+ -+ -+ .... --+ .....
S.If x · a=O, x·b=O and x · c=O forsomcnon-zerovector x , thenprovethat [a b c]=O.
6. If ii =i + j-+ k
1"1 A A. - .I'll

and b = i - 2 j + k , then find the vector


I> ,..

c such that a·c = 2 and ii x c=b. -

..... --+ .... --+ --+ --+ ..... --+ --+ --+ --+ ....
7. If a, band c are three vectors such that ax b = c, b x c =a, c x a= b, then prove that
--+ -+ ....
lal=lbl=lcl .
-+ .... --+
--+ .... .... .... ..... --+ -+-+ bx(axb)
8. If a = p + q , p X b = 0 and q · b = 0, then prove that ..... ..... = q .
b·b
..... -+ A A -+ ..... 1\ A -+ .... "" .... ....
9. Prove that (a·(b xi) i +(a·('b xj))j+(a·(b x k))k = a x b .
.... .... --+ -+ .... .... ..... ..... --+ .... -+ ..............
10. For any four vectors a, b, c and d , prove that d ·(a x( b x(c xd))) = (b · d)[a c d].
-+ .... --+ .... --+ 1-+
1.1 . If a and b be two non-collinear unit vectors such that a x (a x b)=- b • then find the angle
.... .... 2
between a and b .
.... .... .... .... .... .... --+ --+ .... .... --+ --+
12.Showthat (axb) x c=ax(bxc) if andonJy if a and c arecollincaror (axc)xb:;:Q .
--+ .... ..... . ..... --+ --+
13. Let a , b and c be non-zero vectors such that no two arc co11inear and (a x b) x c
I --+ -+ --+ -+ --+
= 3 I b II c I a . If 8 is the acute angle between vectors b and c , then find the value of sin 8.
~......... --+ ......... ~-+.... --+ ..............
14. If p , q , r denote vectors b x c, c x a , a x b , re?pectivcly, show that a is parallel to q x r, b
....., .... ~ -+--+
. · is parallel to r :.< p, c is parallel to p x q .
IS. Let a, b, c be non-coplanar vectors and let the equations a', b', c' arc reciprocal system of vector
a, b, C, then prove that ii X a' + b X b' + C X c' is a null vector.
16. Given unit vectors m,nand p such that angle between ,;, and n is a and angle between P and
(1l1 X n) is also a, if (n p 1n] = 1/4, then find the Value of a.
17. a, b, c are three unit vectors and every two are inclined to each other at an angle cos- (3/5). lf 1

a X b- = pa + qb-_+ rc, where p, q, r arc scalars, then find the value of q.


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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.55

. -··-
II
. '·'
Exercises ,,

Subjective Type
(a- x)2 (a- Yi (a - z)2
-+ ....... -+ ....... " 1\ 1\
l. If (b - x)2 (b- y)2 (b - z)2 = 0 and vectors A, Band C, where A = a 2 i + aj + k, etc., are
(c - x) 2 (c- y)2 (c - a)2
--+ -+ -+ -+ 1\ 1\ 1\
non-coplanar, then prove that vectors X, Y and Z, where X = x2 i + xj + k , etc. may be coplanar.
2. If OABC is a tetrahedron where 0 is the origin and A, .Band Care the other three vertices with position
-+ -+ -+
vectors a, b .and c, respectively, then prove that the centre ofthe sphere circumscribing the tetrahedron
-+ -+ ....... ·-t -+ -+
2 2 2
is given by position vector a (bx c)+b (cx a)+c (a x b) .
-+-+ .......
2[a b c J
3. Let k be the length of any edge of a regular tetrahedron (a tetrahedron whose edges are equal in length
is called a regular tetrahedron). Show that the angle between any edge and a face not containing the
edge is cos- 1(1 I .J3).
4. In !J.ABC, a point Pis taken on AB such that APIBP- 113 and a point Q is taken on BC such that
CQIBQ = 3/1. If R is the point of intersection of the lines AQ and CP, using vector method, find the
area of MBC if the area of t:JJRC is 1 unit.
----t ----t ----+ -+
5. Let 0 be an interior point of A.ABC such that OA + 2 08 + 3 OC = 0 . Then find the ratio of the area
of MBC to the area of M OC.
6. The lengths of two opposite edges of a tetrahedron arc a and b; the shortest distance between thes~
edges is d, and the angle between them is 9. Prove using vectors that the volume of the tetrahedron is
abdsin8
6 -+
7. Find the volume of a parallelepiped having three cotenninus vectors of equal magnitude I a I and
equal inclination 8 with each other.
-+ ....... ..... ....... -+
8. Let p and q be any two orthogonal vectors of equal magnitude 4 each. Let a, band c be any three
vectors of lengths 7, ../15 and 2.[33, mutually perpendicular to each other. Then find the distance of
-+ -+ ....... -+ -+-+ -+-+-+ -+ -+ ......... -+ -+-+ ....... -+ ....... -+ -+ -+
the vector (a · p) p + (a· q) q + (a · (p. x q ))(p x q) + ( b · p) p + ( b · q) q + ( b · (p x q ))-(p x q)
..................... -+-+-+ -+ ........ -+ .......
+ ( c ·p) p + ( c · q) q + ( c · (p x q ))(p x q) from the origin.
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2.56 Vectors and 3D Geometry

-4 -4 -+ -+ ~ -4
9. Given that vectors A , B and C fonn a triangle such that A = B + C . Find a, b, c and d such that
the area of the triangle is 5 where J6
~ A /1 A
A = ai +bj +ck
~ A A 1\

B = di+3j +4k
~ 1\ A A
C = 3i+}-2k
-4 ~

10. A line I is passing through the point b and is parallel to vector c . Determine the dista~ce of point
-4 -+ -7
~

A( a ) from the line I in the fonn or I(b - a) x c 1.


-4

Ic I
-4-4-+ -4-+ -4 ~ ~ ~ ~

11. If e1, ~, e:J and E1, £ 2 , E:J are ~o sets ofvectors such that e; · E1 = 1, if i = j and el · E1 = 0 and if i * j ,
-+~ -4 ~ ~ -4
then prove that [e1 £2 ~ ][E1 E2 ~] = 1.
12. In a quadrilateral ABCD, it is given that AB II CD and the diagonals A C and BD are perpendicular to
each other. Show that AD · BC ~ AB · CD.
13. OABC is a regular tetrahedron in which Dis the circumcentre of ~OAB and E is the midpoint of edge
A C. Prove that DE is equal to half the edge of tetrahedron.
14. If A (ii), B (b) and C (c) are three non-collinear points and origin does not lie in the plane of the
. -
points A, B and C, then for any point P (p) in the plane of the MBC such that vector OP is .L to
- [a Ec](a x;; +;; x c + c x a) .
plane of MBC, show that OP;;;;; 2
, where 6 1s the area of the AABC.
. . 46
15. If a, b, c are three given non-coplanar vectors and any arbitrary vector r in space, where
r·ii b·ii c·ii a·ii r·ii c. ·a
.!\ 1 = r·b b·b c·h ' ~2 = ii ·b r ·b c·b
r·c h·c c·c ii ·c r ·c C· C
a·a b·ii r·a a·a b·ii c·ii
.!\3 = ii ·b b·b r·b ' 6 = h prove
ii ·b b ·b c ·E , ten . . that r- =-61 a+- ~3c-
- 6 2 b +-
6 6 6
ii ·c h·c r·c c;.c; h· c c·c

Single Correct Answer Type


Each question has four choices a, h, c and d, out of which
_,
only one answer is correct. Find the correct
answer~

1. Two vectors in space are equal only if they have equal component in
a. a given direction b. two given directions
c. three given directions d. ,in any arbitrary direction
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.57

_. _. _.
2. Let a, b and c be the three vectors having magnitudes 1, 5 and 3, respectively, such that the angle
_. _. _. _. _. _.
between a and b is 8 and a ?< (a x b) = c . Then tan 6 is equal to
a. 0 b. 2/3 c. 3/5 d. 3/4
_. _. _.
3. a, b and c are three vectors of equal magnitude. The angle between eac~ pair of vectors is Trl3 such
_. _. _. _.
that I a + b + c I= [6. Then I a I is equal to
a. 2 b. - 1 ~· 1 d. J6 I 3
_. _. _.
4. If a, b and c are three mutuaHy perpendicular vectors, then the vector which is equally inclined to
these vectors is · ·~
_. _. _.
_. _. _.
a b c
a. a+ b + c b.-+-+
-. _. - _.
_. _. -. Ia I Ib I I c I
a b c
_. _. _. -. _. _.
c.-+
_. -
_. +4 - d. ·1a 1a -I b 1b + 1c I c
La 1 2
Ib f Ic f
-+A I'\_. I\ 1'\ ""'+ -+-+-+-+ -+-+-+ _.
5. Let a =i + j; b = 2 i - k .Then vector r satisfY,ingtheequations r x a = b x a and r x b =a x b
IS
A I\ 1'\ 1'\ " 1'\ 1'\ 1'\ 1'\ A 1'\ 1'\

a. i - j + k b. 3 i - j + k c. 3 i + j - k d. i - j - k
-+ -+ · -+ -+ _. _. -+ -+
6. If a and b arc two vectors, such that a · b < 0 and I a· b I= I a x b I , then the angle between
-+ -+
vectors a and b is
a. n b. 7Tri4 c. 1rl4 d. 3Tri4
AA I\ 1'\ 1'\ 1\

7. If a, band c are three unit vectors, such that a+ b + c is also a unit vector and 81, 82 and 83 are
1\1\11.1\ AI\

angles between the vectors a, b; b, c and c, a, . respectively, then among 81, 82 and 83
a. all are acute angles · b. aU are right angles
, .
c. at least one is obtuse angle . d. none of these
• _._._. -+-+ -+-+ -+ -+
8. If a, b, c are unit vectors such that a· b = 0 = a· c and the angle between b and c is 1rl3, then
_. ... ... -+
the value of I a x b - a x c I is
a. 1/2 b. 1 c. 2 d. none of the~e
-+ ... -+
9. P (p) and Q ( q) arc the position vectors of two fixed points and R ( r ) is the position vector of a
-+ -+ -+ -.. -+
variable point. If R moves such that ( r - p) x ( r - q) = 0 , then the locus of R is
--+ --+
a. a plane containing the origin 0 and parallel to two non-collinear vectors OP and OQ
b. the surface of a sphere described on PQ as its diameter
c. a line passing through points P and Q
d. a set of lines parallel to line PQ
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2.58 Vectors and 30 Geometry

" 1\ 1\ 1\ " 1\
I 0. Two adjacent sjdes of a parallelogram ABCD are 2 i + 4 j - 5 k and i + 2 j + 3 k. Then the value of
-+ -+
I AC x BD I is
a. 20 ../5 b. 22 ...[5 c. 24 ...[5 d. 26 :.rs
11. If a, band c are three unit vectors inclined to each other at an angle 8, then the maximum value of
8 is
1C rc · 2tr d. 5Tt
a.- . b. - . c.-
3 2 3 6
-+ -+ -+ -+
12. Let the. pairs ~, b and c , d each detennine a plane. Then the planes are parallel if
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ . -+ -+ -+-+ -+
a. (a X C) X ( b X d) = 0 b. (a X c)· ( b X d) = 0
.... ..... -+-+ ..... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
• C. (a X b) X ( C X d)= 0 d. (a X b) · ( C X d) = 0
-+-+ -+ -+ -+-+ ..... ..... ....
13. If r · a = r · b = r · c = 0, where a , b and c arc non-coplanar, then
-+ -+ .... .... -+ ..... -+ .... .... .... -+
a. r .L ( c x a) b. r ..L (a x b) C. 1' .l (b X C) d. r =0
.... ... . " " " " 1\ ....
14. If a satisfies ax (i + 2j + k) = i - k, then a is equal to
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ " 1\
a. A. i + (2/. - 1) j + J.k, A. e R b. A. i + (1 - 2A.) j + ,t k, A. e R
1\

c. A. i + (2). +I) j + A.k, A. e R


1\ 1\
" " " A.eR
d. A.i-(1+2A.)j+A.k,
......... -+ -+ -+ ......... ....
15. Vectors 3 a - 5 b and 2 a + b are mutually perpendicular. lf a + 4 b and b- a are also mutually
-+ -+
perpendicular, then the cosine of the angle between a and b ts

a~ b~ c~
· s/43 · 3/43 · 2J"45
" II , "
16. The unit vector orthogonal to vector - i + 2) + 2k and making equal angles with thex- andy-axes is
1 1\ 1\ 1\ l 1\ 1\ 1\ l II 1\ II
a. ±-(2i+2j-k) b. ±-(i+j-k) c. ±-(2i-2j-k) d.Noneofthcse
3 3 3 .
-+ 1\ A 1\ -+ II 1\ 1\
17. The value of x for which the angle between a = 2.x2 i + 4x j + k and b =7 i - 2 j + x k is obtuse
-+
and the angle between b and the z-axis is acute and less than rd6 is
a. a <x< 1/2 b. l/2<x< 15 c. x> I/2orx<O d. none of these
..... -+
18. Ifvec.tors a and b are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the vector representing the altitude
-+
of the parallelogram which is perpendicular to a 1s
-+ -+ 4 -+ ..... ~ ...; -+ -+
-+ bxa a·b -+ b · a -+ d. ax (b x a)
a. b +-+- - b.-+
- c. b - - - a -+
-+
Ia F Ib F la f Ib F
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.59

~~-+-+ -+ -+ -+ ~

19. A parallelogram is constructed on 3 a+ b and a- 4 b , where I a I == 6 and I b I = 8, and a and; b


are anti-paralJel. Then the length of the longer diagonal is
a. 40 b. 64 c. 32 d. 48
-+-+ -+ ~ ~

20. Let a · b = 0, where a and b are unit vectors and the unit vector c is inclined at an angle 8 to both
..... -+ -+ -+-+ -+-+
a and b . Jf c =m a + n b + p( a x b), (m, n, p E R), then
1r 1r 1r 3n n . 3n
a. - - ~ 8 ~-
4 4
b. -
4
~ 8 ~-
4
c. 0 S 8 S -
4
d. 0~ OS 4
-+ -+ -+ ~ ..... -+ ..... -+
21. a and c are unit vectors and 1b 1 = 4. The angle between a and c is cos -I ( l/4) and b - 2 c = ,t a .
The value of A. is
a. 3,- 4 b. 114, 3/4 c. -3,4 d. -1/4, 3/4
/\A 1\ 1\ 1\ A .

22. LctthepositionvectorsofthepointsPandQbe 4i + j+A.k and 2i- j+A.k,respectively. Vector


1\ 1\ 1\

i - j + 6 k is perpendicular to the plane containing the origin and the points P and Q. Then ,t equals
a. - 1/2 b. 112 c. 1 d. none of these
23. A vector of magnitude .J2 coplanar with the vectors a= i +} + 2k and b 1+ 2} + k, and =
perpendicular to the vector c = i + } + k , is
a. -} + k b. i - k
A A

c. i - j d. i -}
~ ~ -+
· 24. Let P be a point interior to the acute triangle ABC. If PA + PB +PC is a null vector, then w.r.t.
triangle ABC, point P is its
a. centroid b. orthocentre c. incentre d, circumcentre
25. G is the centroid of triangle ABC and A 1 and B 1 are the midpoints of sides AB and A C, respectively.
If 6 1 is the area of quadrilateral GA 1AB1 and 6 is the area of triangle ABC, then 6/6 1 is equal to
3 1
a. - b. 3 c. - d. none of these
2 3
~ .......... -+ -+ --+ -+ ~ ~

26. :Points a , b, c and d are coplanar and (sin a) a + (2 sin 2{3) b + ·(3sin 3y) c - d =0. Then the least
value of sin2 a+ sin2 2{3 + sin2 3y is ·
a. 1114 b. 14 c. 6 d. 1I J6
-+ -+ ..... ~

2.7. If a and b are any two vectors of magnitudes l ·and 2, respe~tively, and (1 - 3 a · b )2
~ ..... ~..... -+-+
+ 12 a+ b + 3 (ax b)f = 47, then the angle between a and b 1s

a. 1fl3
2
1r b. Tr- ~s- 1 (I I 4)
d. cos- 1 (l I 4) c.
-+ -+
3
28. 1f a and b are any two vectors of magnitudes 2 and 3, respectively, such that
-+ --+ . .-+ -+
12 (a x b) I+ 13 (a · b) I= k, then the maximum value of k is
a. Jl3 b. 2.Jl3 c. 6Jl3 · d. Io.JJ3
-+ -+ -+ . -+ ..... ~ -+ ~

29. a , b and c are unit vectors such that 1a + b + 3 c I= 4. Angle between a and b is ~~, between
~ ~ ~ ~

b and c is 92 and between a and c varies [.m'6, 2m'3]. Then the maximum value of cos 8 1 +
3cos 92 is
a. 3 b. 4 . c. 2J2 d.6
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2.60 Vectors and 30 Geometry

~ ~

30. If the vector product of a constant vector OA with a variable vector OB in a fixed plane OAB be
a· constant vector, then the locus of B is
I
----+ ~

a. a straight line perpendicular to OA b. a circle with centre 0 and radius equal to I OA I


---;
c. a straight line parallel to OA d. none of these
---+ -+ --+ -t -t -t -t --+
31. Let u, v and w be such that I u I= 1, I vI= 2 and Iw I= 3. Ifthe projection of v along u is equal to
-t --+ --+ -t --+ -+ --+ .
that of w along u and vectors· v and w are perpendicular to each other, then I u - v + w I equals
a. 2 b. fi c. J14 d. 14
,, -+ -+ -+--+
32.· ·Ii the two adjacent sides of two rectangles are represented by vectors p = 5 a - 3 b ; q
-+ -+ -+ -+ --+ -+ --+ -+
= - a - 2 b and r = -4 a - b ; s =- a + b, respectively, tllen the angle between the vectors
. -+ 1 -+ --+ --+ --t 1 -+ --+
x. =- (p + r + s ) and y = - ( r + s ) is
3 5
.
a. - cos '
-1 ( 19 )
.b
"s.J43 -1
. cos (-l9
sJ43 ) c. n cos-1 (~J d. cannot be evaluated
. 5~
. --+ -+ "
-+ --+ --t -+ --t
33. If a II (/3 x y), then (ax /3) · (ax y) equal~ to
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ · -t
b.J ,Bit <r · a) d. Ia IIJ3 II r l
1\1\1\1\ 1\1\ 1\ 1\ · 1\ ' I
34. The position vectors of points A, B and Care i + j + k, i + 5 j- k and 2 i + 3 j + 5 k, respectively. The
greatest angle of triangle ABC is
a. 120° b. 90° c. cos-1 (3/4) d. none ofthese
-+ -+ -+ -t -+
35. Given t~ee vectors a , b and c , two ofwhich are non-collinear. Further if (a + b) is collinear with
-+ -+ -+ ' -+ -+ --+ -t. -+-+ -+-+ -+-+
c , ( b + c ) is collinear with a , I a I = I b I = I c I = .fi . Find the value of a · b + b · c + c · a.
a. 3 b. - 3 c. 0 d. cannot be evaluated
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ : .-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
36. If a and b are unit vectors such that (a + b) · (2 a + 3 b) x (3 a - 2 b) .,= 0 , then angle between a
-+
and b is
a. 0 b. n/2 . c. n d. indeterminate
---; ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~

37. Ifin aright-angled triangleABC, thehypotenuseAB = p, then AB · AC + BC · BA + CA · CB is


equal to

d. none of these
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
38. Resolved part of vector a and along vector b 1s a t and that perpendicular to b is· a2 , then
-+ -+
a1 x a2 is equal to
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+' -+ -+
(a ·b)a · . (a · b)(b x a) d. ·(a · b)(b x a)
b. -+ c. -+ -+
I a 12 Ib x a I
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.61

-+ 1\ 1\ 1\-+ 1\ 1\ /\ -+ 1\ 1\ 1\ ~ -+
39. a= 2 i ._ j + k, b = i + 2j- k, c =i + j- 2k. A vector coplanar with b and c whose projection
~ . . d {2 .
on a ts magmtu e ~3 IS

1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ " 1\
a. 2 i + 3 j - 3 k b.-2i-j+5k . c. 2 i + 3 j + 3 k d. 2i+j+5k
40. If Pis any arbitrary point on the circumcircle of the equilateral triangle of side length I units, then
---+ ---+ ---+
I PA 12 + I PB 12 +I PC 12 is always equal to
a. 2P. b. 2 J3 P c. p d. 3'P
41. If r and s ·are non-zero constant vectors and the scalar b is chosen such that Ir + bs I is minimum,
then the value of Ibs f +I r + bs f is equal to
a. 21 r F b. p= F12 c. 31 r F d. 1r F
~ -+
42. a and b are two unit vectors that are mutually. perpendicular. A unit vector that is equally inclined
~ -+ ~ ~

to a , b and a x b is
I~_.~-+ 1_._,. ......
a. .J2 (a + b + a x b) b. 2' (a x b + a + b)
I~ ~...... J-+-+-+~
c. .fj (a + b + a x b) d. ) (a + b + a x b)

43. Given that a,b, p,q arc four vectors such that a+ b = Jl.p, b·q =0 and (b)2 =1, where J1 is a scalar.
Then I(a· q)p- ('p :q)a I is equal to
a. 2lfi·ql · b. (1/2)1p·ql c. I p x q I d. lfi·ql
1\ " "
44. The position vectors of the vertices A, B and C of a triangle are three unit vectors a, b and c,
.... -+I\ ...... ,.. ... ,.. ... "" .
respectively. A vector d is such that d · a =- d · b ;;: d · c and d =A (b +c). Then triangle ABC is
a. acute angled b. obtuse angled c. right angled d. none of these
45. If a is a real constant and A, B a~d Care variable angles and ~a2 - 4 tan A +a tan 8 + .J~a2_+_4
tan c = 6a, then the least value of tan2 A + tan2 B + tan2 C is
a. 6 b. I 0 c. 12 d. 3
...... 1\ "· "
46. The vertex A of triangle ABC is on the line r = i + j +A k and the vertices Band C have respective
( " 1\
position vectors i and j . Let ll be the area of the triangle and ll e [3/2, .J33 I 2]. Then the range
of values of Acorresponding to A is
a. (-8, -4] v [4, 8] b. [-4, 4] c. [-2, 2) d. [-4, -2] u [2, 4)
A A A #\

~ i + j -i + j - '
47. A non-zero vector_.a is such that its projections along vectors J2 , J2 ~nd k are equal, then
unit vector along a ts
.fi]-fc
-
j-k
..
a. J3 d. Ji
48. Position vector k" is rotated about the origin by angle 135° in such a way that the plane made by it
bisects the angle between "; and "j . Then its new position is
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2.62 Vectors and 30 Geometry

.
1\
.
1\ 1\ 1\

k
±-~- ± _)__
I
a. J2 . J2 c --- d. none of these
" J2 .fi
---+ _. ---+ ---+ ---+
49. In a quadrilateral ABCD, · AC is the bisector of AB and AD , angle.betwecn AB and AD is 2tr/3,
-
151 AC I= 3 I--+ - ---+ ---+
AB I = S I AD 1.Then the angle between BA and CD ts

Jl4 J2i 2 2J7.


a. cos-1 J2 b. co~-· J3 c. cos-• J7 d. cos-• --
7 7 14
SO. In Fig. 2.33, AB, DE and GF are parallel to each other and AD, .BG and
EF are parallel to each other. If CD : CE = CG : CB = 2 :1, then the
value of area (aAEG) : area (aABD) is equal to
a. 7/2 b. 3
c. 4 d. 912
" ... 1\1\ ... 1\1\1\

. St. Vector a in the plane of b = 2 i + j and c = i - j + k is such that it ftg. 2.33


... -+ ... /\ 1\ 1\

is equally inclined to b and d where d =j .+ 2k . The value of a is

2;" + j"
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

i+j+k 2/ + j
a. ..fj c. .J5 d. .J5
52. Let A:BCD be a tetrahedron such that the edges·AD, A C and AD are mutually perpendicular. Let the
area of triangles ABC, ACD and ADB be 3, 4 and 5 sq .. units, respectively.' Then the area of triangle
BCD is

a. sJ2 . b. 5 c. -
JS .
53.
... ." " "
Let f (I)= (t) i + (t- [t]) j +.(t + 1] k,
2
where [.) denotes the greatest integer function. Then the

vectors 7(!) and 7(1),0 < t <I, are


a. parallel to each other b. perpendicular to each other

c. inclined at cos·• ~ 2 8+1


d. inclined at cos-• --:= =
7{1 - 12 ) 9P
... . ... ...... ... ... ... -+
54. If a is parallel to b x c , then (ax b) · (ax c) is equal to
... -+ ...... ... ...... ...... -+ ~ ...
a.laf·(b · c ) b. I b F(a · c) c. 1c F(a· b) d. none of these
1\ "" 1\ 1\ 1\ •
SS. Three vectors i + j, j + ic and k + i taken two at a time form three planes. The three unit vectors
drawn perpendicular to these three planes form a par~llelepiped of volume
a. 1/3 b. 4 c. (3J3) /4 d. 4../3
...... ~...... ..... ... ... ...... -+ -+ .... ...... ...... ~ ...... ...
56. If d:::; ax b + b x c + c x a is anon-zerovectorand ICd ·c) (ax b)+ (d ·a) (b x c) +(d ·b)
-+ ...
( c x a) I = 0, then
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.63

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -) -+
a. Ia I = I b I = I c I b. I a I + I b I + I c I = Id I
~~ ~

c. a, b and c are coplanar d. none of these


-+ ~ ~~ -+ ~ -+ -+ -+
57. If I a I= 2 and .I b I = 3 and a · b = 0, then (a x (a x (a x ( a x b)))) is equal to ·
A A A A
a. 48 b b. - 48 b. c. 48 a d. - 48 a
A 1\ 1\ 1\

58. If the two diagonals of one of its faces are 6 i + 6 k and 4 j + 2 k and of the edges not containing
-+ 1\ 1\

the given diagonals is c = 4j - .8 k, then the volume of a parallelepiped is


a. 60 b. 80 c. 100 d. 120
-+ -+ -+
59. The volume of a tetrahedron formed by the cotenninus edges a , band c is 3. Then the volume of
. -+ ~ -+ ~ -+ -+
the parallelepiped formed by the co terminus edges a + b, b + c and c + a is
a. 6 b. 18 c. 36 d. 9
~ ~ ~

60. If a , b and c are three mutually orthogonal unit Vectors, then the triple product
~ ~ ~~ -+ -+ ~

[a + b + c a + b b + c ] equals
a. 0 b. 1 or - 1 c. 1 d. 3
~ ~ -+ .
61. Vector c is perpendicular to vectors a = (2, - 3, 1) and b = ( 1, - 2, 3) and satisfies the condition
~ A A A , ~

c · (i + 2j - 7 k) = 10. Then vector c is equal to


a. (7, 5, 1) b. {-7, - 5, - 1) c. {1 , 1, - 1) d. none of these
-+ 1\ A 1\-+ 1\1\ 1\~ A A-+~ --7 --7
62, Given a = xi + y j + 2 k , b = i - j +.k, c = i + 2 j ; a l_ b , a·c = 4. Then
-+-+-+ -+ -+~~ ~ ~ -+ -+ -+ -+ ~ -+
a. [a b c ] 2
= Ia I · b. [a b c ] =I a I c. [a b c ] =0 d. [a b c] = Ia f

then the value of a2

a. 0 b. 1
_!_ (a I 2 +a22 +a 32) (b I 2 + b22 +b 32)
c'4 ~ (a I2 +a22 +a32) (b I2 +b22 + b32)
d '4

-+ -+-+ -+ ~ -+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
64. Let r, a, band c befournon-zerovectors suchthat r ·a = 0, lr x bl = lrl/b jandlr x cl=/r/lc/.
Then [ab c] is equal to
a. lal lbllcl b. - lal lhllcl c. 0 d. no~e of these
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
65. If a , band care such that [ab c ]= 1, c =A. a x b , angle between a and b is 2m3,/ a I = ..fi,
-+ ~ -+ ' 1 -+ -+
I b I = -v3 and I c I= ~ , then the angle between a and b is
v3 . I

1C
a.
6
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2.64 Vectors and 30 Geometry

-+ ...... -+ .-+ -+ -+ ..... ..... ......


66. If 4 a + 5 b + 9 c = 0, the~ (a x b) x [( b x c) x ( c x a)] is equal to
-+ -+ -+
a. a vector perpendicular to the plane of a, b and c b. a scalar quantity
-+
c. 0 d. none of these
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
67. Value of [a x b a x c d] is always equal to
-+ -+ -+-+-+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+ ..... -+ -+-+-+
a. (a ·d)[ abc] b. (a · c)[a bd] t. (a · b)[ a b d] d. none of these
1\ 1\ -+
68. Let a and b be mutually p~rpendicular unit vectors. Then for any arbitrary r,
-+ -+ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ /\ /\

a. r = ( r · a) a + ( r ·b) b + ( r ·(a x b))(a x b)


-+ -+ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ /\ 1\
b. r =(r ·a)-(r ·b)b-(r·(axb))(a.·xb)
.... -+1\/\ -+1\/\ -+ "' "'1\ "'

c. r = ( r · a) a - ( r ·b) b + ( r · (a x b))(a X b)
d. none of these
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
69. Let a and b be unit vectors that are perpendicular to each other. Then [ a + (a x b)
-+ ... -+ . .:.. -+
b +(ax b) ax b] will always be equal to
a. l b. 0 c. - l d. none of these
70. a and b are two ve~tors. such that IaI= I, Ib I= 4 and a·b = 2 . If c =(2a x b)- 3b, then find the
angle between b and c.
1t
b. Tr 31f d. 5n
a. - c.-
3 6 4 6
-+ -+ -+ ... -+ -+ ...... ..... ......
71. b and c are unit vectors. Then for any arbitrary vector a, (((a x b ) + (a x c )) x ( b x c ))
-+ .....
· ( b - c ) is al~ays equal to
-+ I -+ I -+
. a. I a I b. - I a I c. ]I a I d. none of these
2
...... ... -+ -+ -+ -+
72. If a . b = {J and a X b = c, then b is
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ..... -+ -+

a.
(/3 a - a x c) b. (/3 a + a x c) c.
(/3 c - ax ~) d. (/3 a + a x c)
-+
....:.:.......---~
-+ . .....
Ia F Ia F Ia F
... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
73. If a(a x /3) + b(/3 x y) + c(r x a)= 0 and at least one of a, band c is non-zero, then vectors
-+ -+ -+
a, /3 and r are
a. parallel · b. coplanar c. mutually perpendicular d. none of these
-4 -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
74. lf (ax b) x (b x c)= b, where a, b and c are non-zero vectors, then
-+-+ ...... -+-+ -+
a. a, b and c can be coplanar b. a, b and c must be coplanar
... -+ ~

c. a, b and c cannot be coplanar d. none of these


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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.65

~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 -t .
75. If r . a = r . b = r . ·c = - for some non-zero vector r, then the area of the triangle whose vertices
2 .
~ ~ -t . ~ ~ ~

are A (a), B( b) and C( c) is (a, b, c are non-coplanar)


~~ ~ -t -t~-7 -t
a. I[a b c ] I b. I r j
c. I[a b c ] r I d. none of these
76. A vector of magnitude 10 along the nonnal to the curve 3x2 + 8xy + 2y2- 3 = 0 at its point P( 1, 0)
can be
· a. 6i +8} b. - Sf +3} c. 6f -8} d. 8t +6}
-+ --? ~ ~ --? -+ ~

77. If a and b are two unit vectors inclined at an angle 1r/3, then {a x (b + a x b)}· b is equal to

a. --3
b. .!. c. ~ d. .!.
4 4 . 4 2
~ -+ ~ ~ -+
78. If a and b are orthogonal unit vectors, then for a vector r non-coplanar with a and b , vector
-+ -+
r x a is equal to
-+-t~ -+ ~ ~ -+ -t -+ -+ -+ ~ -+
a. [ r a b] b - ( r · b) ( b X a) ·b. [r a b](a +b)
~~ -+ -+ -+-+ ~ -+
c. [ r a b ] a + ( r · a) a xb d. none of these
~-+-+ -+ -+-+ -+-+ -+
79. If a, b, c are any three non-coplanar vectors, then the equation [ b x c c x a a x b] x 2
-t -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -t -+ -+ ~-+

+ [a + b b + c c + a ]x + l + [ b - c c- a a- b] = 0 has roots
a. real and distinct b . real c. equal d. imaginary
80. Tf x + c x ji =a and y + c x x = b, where c is a non-zero vector, then which of the following is not
correct?
- bxc+a+(c·a)c b - cxb+b·+(c ·i.i)c
a. X= • X=
1+ c·c I+ c·c
_ a x c + E+ (c. E)c d. none of these
c. y = 1 +c·
- c-
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
81. The condition for equations r x a = b and r ~ c = d to be consistent is
-+ -+ -+ -+ -t -+ -+ -+ --+ --+ -+ --? ~-+ -+-+
a. b·c = a·d b. a· b = c ·d ~c. b · c + a ·d = 0 d. a· b + c ·d = 0
-t --? -+ -+ /\ /\ -+ -+ 1\ 1\ ~ -+ 1\1\

82. If a and b are non-zero non-collinear ~ectors, then [a b i] i + [a b j] j + [a b k] k is equal to


-t -+ -+ --+ --+ ....... -+ -+
a. a + b b. a x b c. a - b d. b x a
-+ "1\ 1\~ 1\ 1\ /\ ~ 1\" /\ " 1\
83. If a = 2 i + j + k, b = i + 2 j + 2k, c = i + j + 2 k t
and (I+ a) + j3 (1 +a) j + r(l + a) (1
-+
1\ -+ · --?
+ fJ) k = a x ( b x c), then a, j3 and r are
2 2 2 2
a. - 2,-4, - "3 b.2,-4, c. -2, 4,3 d.2, 4,-3
3
84. Let a(x) =(sin x) i +(cos x)] arid b(x) =(cos 2x)f +(sin 2x) J be two variable vectors (x E R).
Then ii (x) and b (x) are
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2.66 Vectors and 30 Geometry


.· ~

a. collinear for unique value of x b. perpendicular for infinite values of x


c. zero vectors for unique value of x d. none of these
.... -t'l\-+ ... -+ 1\-+ 1\ -+ 1\ ..... 1\

8S. For any two vectors a and . b, (ax i).(b x i)+ ' (a x j).(b x j)+(a x k) ·(b x k) is always
equal to
-+ -+ ..... -+
a. a·b b. 2 a · b c. zero d. none of these
-+-+ ..... -+
86. Let a, b and c be three non-coplanar vectors and r be any arbitrary vector. Then
..... ..... ...... ..... -+ ...... -+ ...... -+ -+ ..... ......
(a x b) x ( r x c)+ { b x c) x { r x a)+ ( c x a) x ( r x b) is always equal to
-+-+-+-+ -+-+ ..... -+ ................ -+
a. [a b. c] r b. 2 [ab c] r c. 3 [ab c ] r d. none of these
..... -+ -+ -+ ..... -+
-+ bxc -+ cxa -+ axb -+ ..... -+ ·
87. If p = -+ -+-+
,q= ·
-+ ..... -+
and r = -+-+-+
. , where a, b and c are three non-coplanar vectors,
[abc] [abc] [abc]
................. -+-+-+
then the value of the expression (a + 6 + c) . (p + q + r) is
a. 3 b. 2 c. 1 d.O
...... ...... .... -+
88. · A(a) , B( b) and C( c) are the vertices of triangle ABC and R( r) is any point in the plane oftriangle
.......... -+-+-+ ............
ABC, then r .(a x b + b x c + c x a) is always equal to
...... -+-+ ..... -+-+
a. zero b. [a h c 1 c. -[abc] d. none of these
-+ -+ -+ -+. -+ -+ ...... -+
89. If a, b and c arc non-coplanar vectors and a x c is perpendicular to ax( b x c), then the value
-+ -+ -+ -+
of [a x ( b x c)] x c is equal to
-+ -+-+ -+ -+-+-+ -+ -+ ............... ......
a. [ab c ] c b. [a h c ] b c. 0 d.[ab c ]a
90. If V be the volume' of a tetrahedron and V' be the volume of another tetrahedran fanned by the
centroids of faces of the previous tetrahedron and V = KV', then K is equal to
a. 9 b. l 2 c. 27 d. 81
................ -+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ..... ..... -+-+ -+
91. [(ax b) x (b x c) (b x c)x(c xa) (c x a) x (ax b)] is equal to (where a, band c are
non-zero non-coplanar vectors)
...... -+-+ -+ -+-+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+
a. [a b cf b. [a b c f c. [a b c r · d. [a b c]
-+ -+ ...... -+ -+ -+ -+ .................
92. If r = x1(a x b)+x,(b x a)+X:J(c x d) and 4{a b c ] = 1, thenx 1 + x2 + x3 is equal to
)-+-+ -+ -+ J-+-+ -+ -+ ..... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ..... -+
a. - r ·(a + b + c) b.-r·(a+b+c) c. 2 r ·(a + b +c) d. 4 r ·(a + b + c)
2 4 '
-+ -+ -+ ...... -+ -+-+ -+-+
93. If a .L b, then vector v in tenns of a and b satisfying_the equations v · a = 0 and v · b =·1 and
-+-+-+
[v a b] = I is
-+ ...... :-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ...... -+
b ax b b ax b b axb
a.--+-
-+ -+
--+- b. - -+ +-+- -
......
- c .-+- - +-+- -.....- d. none of these
lbf Ja x bf Jbl Ja xbf Jbf Ja xbj
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.67

-+ 1\ A-+ A 1\ 1\-+ 1\1\1\

94. Jf a' = i + j, b' = i - j + 2 k and c' = 2 i + j - k , then the altitude of the parallelepiped formed
-+-+ -+ -+ ... -+ -+
by the vectors a , band c having base formed by b and c is (where a' is reciprocal vector a,
etc.)
a. I b. 3./2/2 c. 11J6 d. 1/ J2
... 1\' 1\ ... 1\ 1\ --+ 1\ 1\ ... -+ -+ ...
95. If a =i + ), b = j + k, c =k + i , then in the reciprocal system of vectors a, b, c reciprocal a
...
of vector a is
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ " 1\ 1\
i+j+k i-j+k -1-j+k i + j- k
a. b.---"-- .c.--~- d.-...;;...._-
2 2 2 2
.. - --· · · ----·---·--~-------~--~- ...........
Multiple Correct Answers Type
Each question has four choices a, b, c and d, out of which. one or more are correct.
-+ -+ . ... -+
1. 1f unit vectors a and b are inclined at an angle 28 such that I a - b I < J and 0 S 8 S n, then 8lies
in the interval
b. (Sn/6, n] · c. [1d6, 1d2) d. (n/2, 51TI6]
... --+ -+ -+-+ --+--+--+ -+ -+
2. band c arenon-coUinear 'if ax (bxc) + (a·b).b =(4-2x-siny) b +(r-l)c and
-+ --+ --+ -+
( c · c) a = c . Then
1t: 1!
a. x = I b. x=- I c. y = (4n +1)-, n e 1 d. y = (2n + 1) 2, ne I
2 ......... . -+
-+ -+ ...
3. Unit vectors a and b are perpendicular, and unit vector c is inclined at an angle 8 to both a and
... --+ -+ -+ --+ --+
b . If c =a a + /3 b +r(a ~ b), then

-+
a. a= {3
-+
b. r = 1 -2cr 2
c. r =-cos 28 d. /32 = 1+ cos28
4. a and h are two given vectors. With these vectors as adjacent sides, a parallelogram is constructed.
-+
The vector which is the altitude of the parallelogram and which is perpendicular to a is
-. -+
(<J · b)-t --+ 1 --+ -+ ..............
a. ---+- a - b b. ~{I a f b -(a ·b)a}
Ia F Ia F
--+ -+ -. -+ -+ -+
ax(axb) a x(b x a)
c. ... d.

--+ ~
Ia f
-+ --+ --+ -+
1b
--+
r
5. Jf ax (b x c) is perpendicular to (ax b) x c, we may have
-+-+ --+ -+--+ -+-+ -+ -+
a. (a · c) I b f = (a · b)( b · c) b. a · b = 0
-+ ..... ... -+
c. a· c ;:; 0 d. b · c = 0
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2.68 Vectors and 30 Geometry

. . .... ~ -+--+ --+ -+


axb
6. Let ; ;·band ; be vectors fonning right-hand triad. Let ; = -+-+
bx c
~
, ; = -+-+-+
c. x a and ; -+--+--+
Ifx u R~, then . [a b c1 [a b c] [a b c]
-+ --+-+ -+--+-+
4 --+ -+ --+ [p q r] .
a. x[;b;]+(p q r] has 1castvalue2 b. x [a b c f + x2 has least value (3/2213)
X
.......... -+
c. [p q r]> 0 d. none of these
7. a., a2, a3 eR- {0} and a 1 + a 2 cos 2x + a3 sin2 x;::; 0 for all x E R, then
-+• 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ /\ /\ 1\

a. vectors a = a 1 i + a2 j +ark and b = 4 i + 2 j + k are perpendicular to each other


-+ /\ " /\ ..... /\ 1\ 1\ •
b. vectors a = a 1 i + a2 j + a 3 k and b =- i + j + 2 k are parallel to each other ·
-+ A /\ 1\

c. if vector a =a, i + a 2 j + a 3 k is oflength .J6 un~ts, then one of the ordered tripplet (a., a 2, a 3)
= (1, - 1,-2)
1\ 1\ . " r;
d. if2a 1 + 3a2 +6a3 =26,thenla 1 i +a2 j +a3 kjis 2v6
-+ --+
8. If a and b are two vectors and angle between them is 9, then ·

i : ; ; ra 1 1b r
--+ --+ ......... -+ -+
2 2
a. I a X b 1 +(a ·b
..... --+ .... ~

b. I ax b I= (a ·b), if(J= 7r/4


-+-+ -+--+ " 1\

c. ax b = (a ·b) n (where n is a nonnal unit vector), if()= 7r/4


--+ --+ --+ -+
d. (ax b)· (a+ b) = 0 .
..... -+ -+ -+ -+ --+
9. Let a and b be two non.zero perpendicular vectors. A vector r satisfying the equation r x b =fi ·
can be
-+ -+ -+ -+ ..... -+
axb
-+
a. b - - -
-+
b. 2b- ax-+ b c. I; Ib - a~. b
Ib F 1b r Ib F
b = (tan~ - I , 2,Jsina/2Land -+(•
10. If vectors -+ c= tan 3 ) are orthogonal and a., tana,-
-+ .Jsina/2 •
vector a = ( 1, 3, sin 2a.) makes an obtuse angle with the z-axis, then the value of a is
a. a = {4n + I) 1r + tan -I 2 b. a;:: (4n + 1) 1r- tan-1 2
c. a= (4n + 2) n- + tan-1 2 d. a= (4n + 2) tr- tan-• 2
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
fl. Let r be a unit vector satisfying r x a = b, where I a I =.J3 ·and I b I =J2. T.hen
-+ 2-+-+ ...... --+ 1-+-+-+
a. r = '3 (a + a x b) b. r =-(a + a x b)
3
-+ 2-+-+-+ -+ I -+ -+ --+
c. r = - (a - a X b) . d. r ::;;; -(-a + a x b)
3. 3
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.69

..... ..... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ .....


12. If a and b are unequal unit vectors such that (a- b) x [(b +a) x (2a +b)]= a+ b, then
..... -+
angle e b'etween a and b is
a.O b.m2 c. m4 d. n
..... ..... -+ ..... -+ ..... .....
13. If a and b are two unit vectors perpendicular to each other and c = At a + ~ b + ~ (a x b),
then which of the following is (are) true?
..........
a. A. 1 -= a· c
..... ..... ..... ..... ..... -+ ..........
c. J~ = I(a x b) x c I d. A.1 + ~ + ~ = (a + b + a x b)· c
..... .....
-+ -+ a b
14. If vectors a and b are non-collinear, then - ..... +...- is

..... . ..... Ia I I b I
a. a unit vector b. in the plane of a and b
... -+ . ..... .....
c. equally inclined to a and b d. perpendicular to a x b
..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...
15. Jf a and b are non-zero vectors such that I a + b I =I a .:.. 2 b I, then
..... ..... ..... ..... -+ .....
a. 2a·b =I b F b. a· b = 1 b F
. -+-t r:: ..... ..... 1
c. least value of a ·b + ..... is v2 d. least value of a · b + - -+
- - is J2 - 1
1b F+ 2 I b I+ 2
.......... ... ..... -+ ... ..... ..... -+ ..........
16. Let a , band c be non-zero vectors and Vj = ax (b x c) and V2 = (ax b) x c. Vectors
-+ .....
~ and V2 are equal. Then
..... ..... ..... .....
a. a and b are orthogonal b. a and c are collinear
... ..... ..... ..... ...
c. b and c are orthogonal d. b =A.( a x c) when A. is a scalar
-+ ..... ..... ... ..... ... ..... ..... ..... ..... -+
17. Vectors A and B satisfying the vector .equation A+ B =a, Ax B =b and A· a =1, where a
..... .
and b are given vectors, are
..... -+ .....
a. A= (a x b) - a
a2
-+ ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ·,.
-+A=(axb)+a (b x a)- a(a2 -1)
c. a2 d. B
-+
=~--'--~----....;..
a2
-+ -+ " 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -+ " "
18. A vector d is equally inclined to three vectors q = i - j + k, b =2 i + j and c = 3 j - 2k: Let
-+-+ -+ -+-t-+-+-+-+
x, y and z be three vectors in the plane of a , b; b, c; c, a, respectively. Then
-+ -+ _, -+
a. x·d =-1· b. y·d = 1
-+ -+ -+~ ..... -+ -+ .....
c. z ·d =0 d. r ·d = 0, where r = ). x + J1 y + o z
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2.70 Vectors and 30 Geometry

1\ 1\1\ A A 1\ /11\ A

19. Vectors perpendicular to i - j - k and in the plane of i + j + ~ and - i + j +k are


1\ 1\ 1\ . 1\ /1 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ A
a. i + k b. 2 i +' j + k c.3i+2j +k d. - 4 i - 2 j - 2 k
- 1\ ~
20. If side AB ofan equilateral triangle ABC lying in the x-y plane is 3 i , then side CB can be
3 3 3 A • r,; 1\ 3 ~ 1\
. a. -
2
A
(i - ~ j)
1\ •
. b.-
2
\i - .J3 j)
1\ 1\
c.- (i + v3 j)
2
d.
2
1\
(i + v3 j)
. · ' A-+ A /\ 4A
21. The angles of a triangle, two of whose sides are represented by vectors .J3(a x b) and b - (a· b )a,
-+ • A _.

where b is a non-zero vector and a is a unit vector in the direction of a , are

a. tan-1 ( J3) b. tan-1 (1 I J3) d. tan- 1 (1)


~ -+ -+ -+ .
22. a, b and c are unimodular and coplanar. A unit vector d is perpendicul~r to them. If
_. ' -+ 1" -+-+ } A 1/\ .-+ -+ -+
(a x b) x (c x d)= i ~
6
3j ~ 3k, and the angle between a and b is 30°, then .·c is
A 1\ A A 1\ 1\ A 1\ /\ 1\ A A
a. ( i - 2 j + 2 k) I 3 b. (- i + 2 j - 2 k) / 3 c. (2 i + 2 j - k) I 3 d. (-2 i :....2j + k) / 3
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ~ -+ -+ -+ -+
23. If a + 2 b + 3 c = 0, then .a x b + b X c + c x a ""'
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
. a. 2(a x b) b. (i (b x c) c. 3 (c x q) d. 0 '
_. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
24. a and b are two non-collinear unit vectors, and u = a - (a · b) b and v = a x b . Then I v I is
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a. Iu I b. \ u I + I u · b I . c. 1 u 1 + I u · a 1 d. none of these
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+- -+ -+
25. If a x b = c, b x c = a, where c ~ 0, then
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+',
b. I a\ .=IhI c.lb l= 1 d. I a I= I b I= I c I ;: ;: 1
-+-+ -+ ' -+
26. Let a, b and c be three pon-coplanar vectors and d be a non-zero vector, which is perpendicular
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
to (a + b + c). Now d = (a x b) sin x + ( b x c ) cosy + 2 ( c x a). Then.
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a. d ·(a + c) = 2 b. d·(a +c) = _ 2
-+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+
[ab c ] [a b c]
c. minimum value .o f x2 + y is ;f/4 d. minimum value of x2 +I is 51f!/4
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+. 1-+ -+ -+
27. If a, b and c are three unit vectors such that a · x ( b x c ) = - b , then ( b and c being non- .
parallel) - 2
-+ -+ -+ -+
a. angle between a and b is 1r/3 b. angle between a and c is 1r/3
~ -+ -+ -+
c. angle between a a~d b is ;r/2 d. angle between a ·and c · is rr/2
-+ -4 -+
-4 u v -4 2u -+ -+
28. If
.
in triangle ABC, AB = - - .-
-+ -+
and AC ....;: ;: -.-,
.y,
where I u I* I v I, then
I u I I vI · .' I u I
_,.,.':· .,.
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..·

Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2. 71

a. 1 + cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C = 0 b. sin A = cos C


c. projection of AC on BC is equal to BC d. projection of AB on BC is equal to AB
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
29. [a x b c x d e x f ] is equal to
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a. [a b d][c e f]-[a b c ][d e f] b. [a b e ][f c d]- [a b f][e c d]
-+ -+-+ -+-+-+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+-+ -+-+-+ -+-+-+
c. [ c d a][ b e f] - [a d b ][a e f] .d. [a c e][b d f]
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
30. The scalars I and m such that l a + m b = c, where a, b and c are given vectors, are equal to
+ -+ ... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
= (c x b) ·(a x b) b. /'= ( c x a) · ( b x a)
a. l -+ -+ -+ -+
(a· x b )2 (b X a)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
( c x a)·(b x a) d. m = ( c x a) · ( b x a)
c. m = ....;........_-'-._:_-----'-
-+ -+ -+ -+
(b x ai (b x a)
-+ -+ -) -+ -+ -+
31. If (ax b) x (c x d)·(a x d)= 0, thenwhichoftbefollowingmaybetrue?
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a. a, b, c and d are necessarily coplanar b. a lies in the plane of c and d
-+ -~ -+ -+ -+ -+
c. b lies in the plane of a and d d. c lies in the plane of a and d
----+ 1\ 1\ 1\ ----+ 1\ 1\

32. A, B, C and D are four points such that AB =m(2i -6 j.+2k), /JC =(i- 2j)and
----+ 1\ 1\ 1\
CD = n(- 6 i + 15 j -3 k). If CD intersects AB at some pointE, then
a. m ~ 1/2 b. n ~ 1/3 c. m = n d. m <n
-+ -+ -+
33. If vectors a , b and c are non-coplanar and I , m and n are distinct scalars, then
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
[{l a + m b + n c )(l b + m c + n a )(l c + m a + n b)]= 0 implies
·a. l+m +n = 0
b. roots of the equation /x2 + mx + n = 0 are real
c. J2 + m 2 + n 2 = 0
d. f3 + m 3 + n3 = 3/mn
-+ 1\ 1\ . II-+ 1\ II II . -+ 1\ 1\ 1\

34. Let a = a i + b j + c k, {3 =b i + c j + a k and y =c i + a j + b k be three coplanar vectors with


-+ II 1\ 1\ · -+
a~ b, and v = i + j + k . Then v is perpendicular to
-+
a. a b. {3 c. r d. none of these
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ II -· -+
35. If vectors A= 2 i + 3 j + 4k, B = i + j + 5k and C form a left-handed system, then C is
II 1\ II 1\ II II 1\ II i-, 1\ 1\ II
a. 11 i - 6 j - k b. - 11 i + 6.j + k c. 11 i - 6 j + k d. -11 i t- 6 j - k .
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2.72 Vectors and 30 Geometry

c;:: zt + x} + yk,, then a X (b X c) is


36. If a ; ; ; xt + y} + zk, b;;;;; yt + z} + xk and
a. parallelto(y-z)i' +(z-x)] +(x -y)k b. orthogonal to i + ] + k

c. orthogonal to .(y + z) i -+ (z + x)} + (x + y) k d. orthogonal to xi + y} + z k


37. Ifli x(b xc)=(axb) x c,then
a. (c X Ci) X b ; ; ; 0 c X (a X b)== 0 b.
c. b x(cxa)=O
- -
d. (c X a) X b =b X (c X li) =0
-
38. A vector (d) .is equally inclined to three vectors a= i-} + k, b= 2i +] and c = 3}- 2k . Let
x, ji, z be three vectors ·i n the plane of ii, b; b, c;c,a, respectively. Then
a. z · d =0 b. x ·d =1

c. y · d = 32 d. r ·d = 0 , where r = A.i + J.l} + rz


39. A parallelogram fs construc.t ed on vectors ii = 3a - ~. b =a+ 3!3 if Ia I= 1~1 = 2, and angle between

a and ~ is 1r3 ' then the length of a diagonal


.
of parallelogram is

a. 4J5 b. 4../3 c. 4J7 d. None of these

Reasoning Type
Each question ~as four choices a, b, c and d, out of which only one is correct. Each equation contains
Statement 1 and Statement 2.
a. Both the statements are true and Statement 2 is the correct explanation for Statement 1.
b. Both the statements are true but Statement 2 is not the correct-explanation for Statement 1.
c. Statement 1 is true and Statement 2 is false.
d. Statement I is false and Statement 2 is true.
-+ 1\1\1\ ~ /\ 1\ 1\

1. Statement I : Vector c = -5 i + 7 j + 2 k is along the bi~ector of angle between a = i + 2 j + 2 k and


~ 1\ 1\ 1\

b=-8i+j-4k.
~ ~ ~

Statement 2: c is equally inclined to a and b.


~ 1\ 1\ /\

2. Statement 1: A component of vector b = 4 i + 2 j + 3 k in the direction perpendicular to the direction


~I\ /\ 1\ 1\ 1\

of vector a = i + j + k is i - j.
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

Statement 2: A component of vector.in the direction of a =i + j +k is 2 i + 2 j + 2 k.


3. Statement 1: Distance of point D(l, Ol - 1) from the plane of points A(l , -2, 0), B(3, 1, 2) and
. 8
C(- 1' 1' - 1) l S ~.
'.1229 • . ~ -529
Statement 2: Volume of tetrahedron fonned by the potrtts A, B, C and D ts - - ·
~ ~-+ -+ -+ ~ -+ 2 ~~ ~
4. Let r be a non-zero vector satisfying r · a = r · b = r · c = 0 for given non-zero vectors a , b and c .
~ ~ ~~~ -)

Statement 1: [a - b b- c c - .a] = 0
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2. 73

-.-. '""'*
Statement 2: [ab c ] = 0
A A 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\

5. Statement J: If a1 i +a2 j + a3 k, f1 i +b,. j +b.J kand G i + ~ j + c3 k are three mutually


1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

perpendicular unit vectors, then a1 i + q j + '1 k, a2 i + bz. j + ~ k and a3 i + ~ j + C:3 k may be


mutually perpendicular unit vectors.
Statement 2: Value of detcnninant and its transpose are the same.
--+ 1\ 1\ A '""'* A 1\ A --+ A 1\ A
6. Statement l: If A = 2 i + 3 j + 6 k, B =i + j- 2 k and C = i + 2 j + k, then
-+ -+· -. --+ -.
lA X (A X (A X B))·CI =243.
--+ --+ --+ --+ -. --+ -+--+--+
Statement 2: I A x (Ax (Ax B)) ·C I'"'" ·1A 12 1[A BC]I
--+--+ --+ -+ .
7. Statement 1: a , b and c are three mutually perpendi-cular unit vectors and d is a vector such
--+ --+ --+ --+ '""'* --+ --+ --+ -+ ... --+ -+ --+ -+ -. --+ -.
that a, b, c and d arenon-coplanar. If[dbc]=[dab] = [dca]=I , then d=a+b+c .
-+ --+ --+ ... '""'* --+ --+ --+ --+ --+ -+ -+ --+
Statement 2: [db c ] =[dab] =[d c a] => d is equally inclined to a, band c .
-+ --+ -+
8. Consider three vectors a , b and c .
-+ --+ 1\ --+ -+ A 1\ --+ --+ ' 1\ 1\ -+ -+ 1\

Statement 1: a~ b = ((i x a)· b)i + ((j x a)· b)j + ((k x a) · b)k


-+ A -+ A A-+A 1\--+A
Statement2: c ;::(i ·C)i +(j· c)j+(k·c )k

linked Comprehension Type


Based on each paragraph, three multiple choice questions have to be answered. Each question has four
choices a, b, c and d, out of which only one is correct.

For Problems 1-3


-+ -. -+ --+ -+ -+ --+ -+ --+ --+ -+ --+ -. --+ -+
Let u, v and w be three unit vectors such that u + v + w= a, u x(v xw)= b, (ux v)Xw= c,
-+ -+ -+ --+ -+
a · u = 3/2, a · v = 7 I 4 and I a I =2.
-+
l. Vector u is
--+ 2-+ --+ --+ 4-+ 8--+ ... --+ }-+ 4-+ -+ 2 -+
a. a - - b + c b. a + - b +-c c. 2a -b + -c d. -a -b +-c
3 3 3 3 3 3
.....
2. Vector v is
..... --+ --+ -+ ..... -+ -+
a. 2 a - 3 c b. 3 b - 4c c. -4c d. a+ b + 2 c
-+
3. Vector w is
2 1" -+ '""'* -+ ]-+ 4 -+
-2-+b, 2.-+c
--+ -+ --+
a. -(2 c- b) b. -(a - b - c) c. -a- d. -(c- b)
3 3 3 3 3
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2.74 Vectors and 30 Geometry

For Problems ~
-+-+ -+ ..... -+ -+ . -+
Vectors x, y an'd z , each of magnitude .J2 , make an angle of 60° with ea(fh other. x x (y x z); a, .
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
·y X ( Z X X) =b and X Xy =C .
-+
4. Vector x is
} · -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 1 -+.-+ -+ -+ -+
a. - [(a - b) x c + (a + b)] b. -((a +b)xc +(a -b)]
2 . 2
] -+-+-+ -+-+ 1-+-+ -+-+-+
c. 2' [-(a + b) x c + (a + b)] d. -((a+ b)x c -(a +b)]
2
-+
5. Vector y is
}-+-+-+-+-+ }-+-+ ..... -+-+
a. [(a+c)xb - b-a] b. -[(a- c)xc + b +a]
2 2
1-+-+-+-+-+ ]-+-+-+-+-+
c. '2[(a + b)x c + b +a] d. -[(a -c)xa +b -a ]
2
-+ .
6. Vector z is
} ...... -+ -+-+-+ J-+-+-+-+-+
a. '2[(a - c)xc - b+a] b. -[(a +b) x c + b -a]
2
)-+-+-+ .... -+
c. -[ c x (a - b)+ b + a] d. none of these ·
2 . .
For Problems 7-9
..... -+ · -+ -+ ..... -+ -+ -+ . -+ -+ -+-+
If X X y :: a' y X z = b, X. b= r, X •y = I and y . z = I
-+
7. Vector x is
-+ -+ -+ r ...................
a. -+ -+ [a x (a x b)] b.-+ -+ [axb-ax(axb)]
.· I ax b F Ia xb F
r ...................
c. -+ -+ (a X b +b X (a X b)) d. none of these
Ia X b r
-+
8. Vector y is
-+ -+ -+,-+ -+ -+
a xb ·a x b
-+ -+axb-+
, a.-- b. a + - - c.a+b+-- d. none of these
.r r r
-+
9. Vector z is

a. r·-+ [; + bx (; x b)] r .... ............... .


-[a+ b- a x (a x b)]
b. - ,...--'-....
j.a
-+
X b r I ax b 12
r ...................
c. -+ -+ (a X b +b X (a X b)] d. none of these
I ax b 12
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.75

For Problems 10-12


~ ~ ~ '
Given two orthogonal vectors A and B each of length unity. Let p be the vector satisfying the equation
~ -t -+ ~

P x B = A - P. Then
~ -+ ~
10. (P x B ) x B is equal to
~ ~ ~ ~

a. p b. -P c. 2B d. ·A
~

11. p is equal to
..... ~ ~ ~ -+ ~ -+ ~ ~
.....~

a. - + --
A AxB b. ~+BXA AxB
c.--
A
d. AxB
2 2 2 2 2 2
12. Which of the following statements is false?
~ ~ .... ~

a. vectors P, A and P x B are linearly dependent.


-+.... ~ ~

b. vectors P, Band P x B are linearly independent.


~ ~

c. P is orthogonal to B and has length 1/ J2.


d. none of the above.
. '

For Problems 13- 15


~ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ · 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ 1\ • -+ .... ....
Let a = 2 i + 3 j- 6 k, b = 2 i- 3 j + 6 k and c = -2 i + 3 j + 6 k . Let a1 be the projection of a .on b and
' a..... be the projection of a~ on ~
c . Then
2 1
.....
13. a2 is equal to ·
943 943
a.
. 49
(2l-3J-6k) b. 492 (2i-3j-6k)
1\ 1\ 1\

943· " " " 943 " 1\ 1\


c. 49 (- 2 i + 3 j + 6k) ' d. 492(-2i+3j+6k)
.... ~

14. a1· b is equal to


a. - 41 b. - 41/7 t. 41 d.287
15. Which of the following is true?
.... -+ ..... ~

a. a and a2 are collinear b. a1 and c are collinear


-+ ~ -+ ~ ~ ~

c. a, a1 and b are coplanar d. a, a1 and a2 are coplanar

For Problems 16-l8


Consider a triangular pyramid ABCD the position vectors of whose angular poi~ts are A(3 , 0, l), B(- J, 4,· 1),
C(5, 2, 3) and D(O, - 5, 4). Let G be the point ofint.ersection of the medians of triangle BCD.
---+
16. The length of vector AG is
a. Ji7 ····b. J5i I 3 c. 31.J6 d. $9/4
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2.76 Vectors and 30 Geometry

17. Area of triangle ABC in sq. units is


a. 24 b. s.J6 c. 4.J6 d. none of these
18. The length of the perpendicular from vertex D on the opposite face is
a. 14/ .J6 b. 2 I .J6 c. 3/ .J6 d. none of these

For Problems 19-21


Vertices of a parallelogram taken in order are A(2, -1 , 4); B( 1, 0 - 1); C(J, 2, 3) and D.
19. _The distance betwee~ the parallel lines AB and CD is
-a. J6 b. 3.J6/5 c. 2../2 d. 3
20. Distance of the point P.(8, 2, - 12) from the plane of the parallelogram is

a. 4J6 b. 32./6 c. 16./6 d. none


9 9 9
21. The orthogonal projections of the parallelogram on the three coordinate plancsxy,yz andzx-, respectively,
are
.
· a. 14, 4, 2 b. 2,4, 14 c. 4, 2, 14 d. 2, 14, 4
For Problems 22-24
-+ -+ 1\ " -+
Let r be a position vector of a variable point in Cartesian OXY plane such that r · (1 0 j- 8 i - r) = 40 and
-+ 1\ " -+ " 1\ •
p 1 == max{lr + 2 i- 3 j F}, p2 = min{l r+ 2 i- 3 j f}. A tangent line is drawn to the curve y = 8b? at point A
with abscissa 2. The drawn line cuts the .x-axis at a point B.
22. p 2 is equal to
a. 9 b. 2../2- 1 c. ·6../2 + 3 d. 9 - 4Ji
23. p 1 + p 1 is equal to
a. 2 b. 10 c. 18 d. 5
---+ ---+
· 24. AB · OB is equal to
a. I b.2 c. 3 d.4
For Problems 25-27
AB, AC and AD arc three adjacent edges of a parallelepiped. The diagonal of the parallelepiped passing
through A and directed away from it is vector a. The vector area of the faces containing vertices A, B, C
b and c, respectively, i.e.,
and A, B, D arc AB KAC = b and AD x AB::; c. The projection of each edge
AB and ~Con diagonal vector a. is Ia I.
3
25. Vector AB is
1_ ax (b- c) I _ ii X (b- c) 3 (b X a)
a. -a + 12
b. -a+ +--.----
3 liil 3 !aF laF
1_ a x cE -c) 3(c x a)
c. 3a + lal2 - laf d. none of these
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2. 77

26. Vector A C is
1 _ ax (b- c) l _ ax(b-c) 3(bxii)
a. -a+ b . -a+ + .......;....--=-....:....
3 lal2 3 jaf liif
l _ ax(b-c) 3(cxa)
c. -a+ 12 - d. none of these
3 lo 1 1a 112
27. Vector AD is
1 _ ax (b - c) . I_ ax(b-c) 3(bxa)
a. -a+ 12 b . -a + + ---'-----:---'-
3 lol 3 liif lol2
1 _ a x (b -c) 3(c x a)
c. -a+ - d. none of these
3 Pi112 lol2
Matrix-Match Type

Each question contains statements given in two columns which have to be matched. Statements (a, b, c,
d) in Column I have to be matched with statements (p, q, r, s) in Column II. If the correct matches are
a ~ p, s; b ~ q, r; c ~ p, q and d ~ s, then the correctly bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should be as follows:
p q r s
8
®@0.0
b®®00
c®0)00
d®®00
1.

Column I Column II
.... p. -4
a. The possible value of a if r = (i" + "j) + A(i" + 2}-k)
" " and
-+ 1\

+ 2 j) + )1.(- "i + "j + a k)


" are not consistent, where A.. and J1 are
1\

r = (i
scalars, is
.... -+ q. -2
b = 2A. i + A"j -
1\ /\ /\ 1\ 1\

b. The angle between vectors a = Ai - 3 j - k and k


-+
is acute, whereas vector b makes an obtuse angle w~th the axes of
coordinates. Then).. may be
r. 2
c. The possible value of a such that 2 i - j + k, i + 2 "j + (1 + a) "k and
1\ /\ /\ 1\

3 "i + a "j + 5 k" are coplanar is


-+
. -+ A ~ -+ ~ s. 3
1\

d. If A = 2 i +)., j + 3k. 8
1\ 1\
" C =3 i + j
= 2 "i +)., j + k,
1\ 1\

and A +A. B is
-+
perpendicular to C, then 12~ is
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2.78 Vectors and 30 Geometry

2.
Column I Column II
~ -+ -+ p. - 12
a. 1f a, b and c are three mutually perpendicular vectors wbcre
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
I a I == I b I=2, I c I = 1, then [a x b bxc c x a]' is
-+ 4 q. 0
b. If a and b are two unit vectors inclined at rc/3 , then
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
16 [a b+axb b) is
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ r. 16
c. Jf band c are orthogonal unit vectors and b x c =a , then
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ ...... -+
[a + b + c a+b b + c ] is
-+-+-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ s. I
d. If[x y a]=[x y b]= [ a b c] t=Q,cachvectorbcinganon-zero
-+ -+ -+
vector, then [ x y c] is
3.
Column I Column II
-+ -+ -+ n p. 3
a. If I a I = I b I= I c
I, angle between each pair of vectors is - and
-+ -+ -+ -+ 3
I a + b + c I = J6, then 21 a Iis equal to
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ q. 2
b. If a is perpendicular to b + c, b is perpendicular to c + a, c
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
is perpendicular to a + b > I a I = 2, I b I= 3 and I c I= 6, then
-+ -+ -+
I a + b + c 1- 2 is equal to
-+ " " -+ " " " -+ "
r. 4
c. a = 2 i + 3 j - k, b = - i + 2 j - 4 k, c
1\
i + j + k and = IV\

-+ " 1 -+ -+ -+ -+
. 1\ "
d = 3i + 2j + k, then -(ax b) ·(c x d) is equal to
7
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -4 -+ -+ -+ s. 5
d. If I a I=I b I= I c I=2 and a · b =b · c = c ·a = 2, then
-+ -+ -+
[a b c]cos 45° is equal to
-+ A A A -+ A 1\ A

4. Given two vectors a=- i + j + 2kand b;;;;; - i - 2j - k.

Column I Column 11

a. Area of triangle formed by a and b


-+ -+
. p. 3

-+ -+
q. " t2J3
b. Area of parallelogram having sides a and b
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.79

__. -+
c. Area of parallelogram having diagonals 2 a and 4b r. 3.,/3
-+ -+ -+ 1\ 1\ 1\

d. Volume of paralJelepiped fonned by · a, b and c = i + j + k 3../3


s. --2
-+ A A A __. A A 1\

5. Given two vectors a =- i + 2 j + 2 k and b = - 2i + j + 2k.

Column l Column II
-+ -+
p. -3 "i + 3j + 4k"
1\

a. A vector coplanar with a and b

-+ -+
b. A vector which is perpendicular to both a and b " "
q. 2i -2j+3k
1\

__. -+ 1\ 1\

c. A vector which is equally inclined to a and b r. i+j

-+ .... 1\ 1\ 1\

d. A vector which forms a triangle with a and b s. i- j + 5k

6.
Column I Column II
-+ -+ -+ -+ .... -+ P· 90o
a. ]f I a + b I= I a + 2 b 1. then angle between a and b is
-+ .... -+ .... .... -+ q. obtuse
b. If I a + b I =I a - 2 b 1. then angle between a and b is
-+ -+ -+ .... .... -+ r. 0°
c. If I a. + b I;;;; I a - b 1. then angle between a and b is
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ s. acute
d. Angle between a x b and a vector perpendicular to the vector c x (a x b) is

.... -+-+-+-+-+
7. Volume of parallelepiped fonned by vectors a x b, b x c and c x a is 36 sq. units.

Column 1 Column II
-+ -+ -+ p. 0 sq. units
a. Volume of parallelepiped formed by vectors a, band c is
-+ -+ -+ q. 12 sq. units
b. Volume of tetrahedron fonned by vectors a, b and c is
.... -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ r. 6 sq. units
c. Volume of parallelepiped formed by vectors a + b, b + c and c+a IS

-+ -+ -+ -+ ...... -+ s. l sq. units


d. Volume of parallelepiped fonned by vectors a - b, b - c and c - a is
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2.80 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Integer Type
·r

1. If a and b are any two unit vectors, then find the greatest positive integer in the range of

3la+bl + 2la-bl .
2
2. Let ;; be a vector on rectangular coordinate system with slopi!lg angle 60°. Suppose that Iii- i I is
geometric mean of I ii I and Iu- 2i I, where i is the unit vector along the x·axis. Then find the value
of(J2+1)Iiil . . .
3. Find the absolute value ofparal!'eter 1 for which the area of the triangle whose vertices are A(-1 , 1,
2); B(l , 2, 3) and C(t, I, I) is minimum.
4. If a= aJ'+ a2 ) + a3k; b = b,i + ~) + b/' , c =~; + ~) + ~k and [3a + b 3b + c 3c +a]
a·i- a·J a·k
A
=A.b·f h·)
- A

b · k , then find the value of - .


.
c·i c·J c·k
. A 4

5. Let a= ai + 2)- 3k , b = i + 2a) - 2k and c = 2i- a}+ k. Find the. value of 6a, such that
{(a X b) X (b X c)} X (c X a)= 0 .
6. Jf x, y arc two non·zero and non-collinear vectors satisfying
2
[(a- 2)a + (b- 3)a + c] x +[(a - 2){1 + (b- 3)/3 + c] Y + [(a- 2)/ + (b - 3)y+ c] (x x ji) = 0,
2 2
where a, {3, rare three distinct real numbers, then find the value of (a + b + c - 4).
-+ .... -+-+ ...... -+ ........ -+ -+-+-+
7. Let u and v be unit vectors such that u x v + u = w and w xu = v . Find the value of [u v w] .
8. Find the value of A if the volume of a tetrahedron whose vertices are with position vectors
i- 6} + lOk, - i - 3] + 1k, sf-)+ Ak and 71- 4) + 1k is 11 cubic unit.
9. Given that ii=f-2)+3k; v=2t+} +4k; w=f+3)+3k and
(u · R- 15)1 + (v · R- 30)} + (iv· R- 20)k:: 0. Then find the greatest integer less·than or equal to IR1.

a
10. Let three·dimensional vector
Then find the value ofm.
vsatisfy the condition, 2V + v X (i + 2}) = 2i + k. If 31 vI= ..r,;; .
-+ -+-+ -+-+ .......... ..... -+ 1C
11. If a , h , c are unit vectors such that a · b = 0 =a · c and the angle between b and c is - , then find
-+ ..... -+ -+ 3
the value of I a x b - a x c j.
-+ -+-+ -+ .... -+ -+
12. Let OA = a, OB :::: 10 a + 2 b and OC = b , where 0, A and Care non-collinear points. Let p denote
the area of quadrilateral OACB, and let q denote the area of parallelogram with OA and OC as adjacent
sides. Ifp = k q, then find k.
13. Find the work do.ne by the force F = 3i-) - 2k acting on a panicle su~h that the particle is displaced
from point A(- 3, -4, 1} to point B (- 1, - I ,- 2}.
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.81

Archives

Subjective type
1. From a point 0 inside a triangle ABC, perpendiculars OD, OE and OF are drawn to the sides BC, CA
and AB, respectively. Prove that the perpendiculars from A, B and C to the sides .EF, FD and DE are
concurrent. (liT-JEE, 1978)
2. A., A2 , • .• , An are the vertices of a regular plane polygon with n sides and 0 as its centre. Show that
n-1 ----t --+ ----t ~
I, (OAt x OA;+I) =((l-n)(OA2 x OA1). (JIT-JEE,t998)
ic l
~ ~ ~ · ~

3. Jf cis a given non-zero scalar, and A and B are given non-zero vectors such that A j_ B, then find
~ ..... ..... ..... ..... -+
vector X which satisfies the equations A · X ""' c and A x X = B . (IIT..JEE, 1983)
--+ - --+ - ---+
4. If A, B, C, D are any four points in space, prove. that I----t
AB x CD+ BC x AD+ CA x BD I
= 4 (area of triangle ABC). OIT-JEE, 1986).
..... ..... .....
a b c
.......... ..... -+ ..... ~ ~ ..... ~ .....
5. If vectors a, band c are coplanar, show that a·a a · b a · c = 0· (IIT-JEE, 1989)
.......... ..... -+ -+ .....
b·a b · b b · c

~ ............................................. -+ ..... ..... .....


6. Let A =2 i + k , B =i + j + k and C = 4 i - 3 j +·7 k . Detennine a vector R satisfying R x B
-+ -+ ..........
= Cx Band R· A =0. ·(IIT-JEE, 1990)

7. Detennine the value of c so that for all real :x, vectors ex i - 6 j - 3 k and xi + 2 j + 2cx k make
" " " ;\, " "
an obruse angle with each other. (IJT-JEE, 1991)
..... ..... ..... -+ ...... ..... ..... -+ ......
8. If vectors b, c and d are not coplanar, then prove that vector (a x b) x ( c x d) + (a x c)
.................... -+-+ ~

x (dxb) +(axd) x (bxc) ·isparallel to a . (IIT-JEE, 1994)


1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

9. The position vectors of the vertices A, B and C of a tetrahedron ABCD are i + j + k, i and 3 i,
respectively. The altitude from vertex D to the opposite face ABC meets the median line through A
of triangle ABC at a point E. Jf the length of the side AD is 4 and the volume· of the tetrahedron is
2.fi I 3 , find the position vectors of the pointE for all its possible positions. (IIT-JEE, 1996)
..... ..... .....
10. Let a, band c be non-coplanar unit vectors, equally inclined to one another at an angle e. If
.................... -+-+ .....
a x b +b x c =p a + q b + r c , fin'd scalars p, 'q and r in tenns of 8. (IJT~JEE, 1997)
..... ..... ..... ..... . _;j
11. lf A, B and' C are vectors such that I B I= I C 1. Prove that
-+-+ ................ ...... -+-+
[(A+ B) x (A+ C)] x (B +C) · (B +C)= 0. (IIT-J EE, 1997)
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2.82 Vectors and 30 Geometry

~ ~

.12. For any two vectors u and v , prove that


----+----+ -t ~ ----+ -t
a. ( u . v )~ + I u x v f = I u 12 I v f and
----+ ----+ -t ~ ~~ ----+----+ ----+----+
2 2 2
b. ( 1 + I u 1 )( 1 +I v 1) = (1 - u . vi + I u + v + (u X v) 1 (IIT..JEE, 1998)
-+ ~ -t · -t ----)----) --+ ----+-+-+
13. Let u and v be unit vector~. If w is a vector such that w + ( w x u) = v , then prove that I(u x v) · w I
-+ -+
~ 1/2 and that the equality'holds if and only if u is perpendicular to v .. (IIT-JEE, 1999)
-+----) ~ ----+----+ -+-+ -+-+ -+~

14. Find three-dimensional vectors v1, v2 and v3 satisfying v1 · v1 = 4, v1 · v 2 =- 2, v1 · v3 = 6, v 2 · v2


-+ ----+ -+ ----+
= 2, v2 · v3 =- 5, v3 ·v3 =29. (IIT-JEE, 2001)
-+ 1\ /1 1\

. 15. Let V be the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the vectors a = a1 i + ~ j + a3 k ,


-+ /1 /1 1\ ·~ 1\ 1\ 1\

b = ht i + b,. j + ~ k and · c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k. If ar, b, and c,, where r = l, 2, 3, are non-negative


3 .
real numbers and L (a, ~ br + cr) = 3L, show that V $ L 3
• (IIT-JEE, 2002)
r c)
-+~ -+ --+ ----+ -+ ----+
16. u, vand w arethreenon-cop1anarunitvectorsanda,,Bandyaretheanglesbetweenu and v, v and w,
-+ ~ -+ -+ -t
and wand u , respectively, and x, y and z are unit vectors along the bisectors of the angles a, ,8 and

r, respectively. Prove that [ x x y


----) -t -+ -+----+ -+ 1 -+ -+-+ a ,8
y x z z x x] =- [u v w ] 2 sec2 - sec2 - sec2 - .
r
16 2 2 2
(IIT-JEE, 2003)
~-+ ----+ -+ -+ -+-+----+ -+ ~ -t-+
17. If a , b , c and d are ~istinct vectors such that a x c = b x d and a x b = c x d, prove that
-+ -+ -+ -+ -t-+ -+-t -+-+ -+-+
(a -d}·(b- c):;tO, i.e., a·h +d ·c =l=d ·h +a · c. (IIT-JEE, 2004)
18. P 1 and P 2 are planes passing through origin. L 1 and L2 are two lines on P 1 and P2, respectively, such
that their intersection is the origin. Show that there exist points A, B and C, whose permutation A',
B' and C, respectively, can be chosen such that (i) A is on Ll' Bon P 1 but n~t on L 1 and C not on P 1;
(ii) A' is on L 2, B' on P 2 but not on L 2 and C not on P 2• (IIT-JEE, 2004)
~ ~

19. If the incident ray on a surface is along the unit vector v, the reflected ray is along'the unit vector w
. 1\ •/\ 1\ 1\

and the normal is along the unit.vector a outwards, express w in terms of a and v.
(liT-JEE, 2005)

Fig. 2.34
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.83

Fill in the blanks


~~ ~ ~

1. Let A, Band C be vectors of length, 3, 4 and 5, respective~y. Let A be perpendicular to .


~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ --) ~ ~ .~ ~

B + C, B ~o C + A and C to A +B. Then the length of vector A+ B + C is_ _ _ __


(IIT..JEE, 1981)
2. The unit vector perpendicular to the plane detennined by P (1 ,- l, 2), Q (2, 0,- 1) and R (0, 2, 1)
IS (IIT-JEE, 1983)
3. The area of the triangl~ whose vertices areA (1,- 1, 2), B (2, 1, - 1), C(3, - 1, 2) is._ _ _ __
' T::;, (IIT-JEE, 1983)
-t -t -t -t -t --)
~--) ~ A·BXC B· AXC
4. If A, B and C are three non-coplanar·vectors, then -t -t -t + -t -t --) =-----
C x A· B C. A xB
(IIT-JEE,198S)
-t 4 -t -t-t
S. If A = (1 , 1, l) and C = (0, 1, - 1) are given vectors, then vector B satisfying the equations Ax B
-t -t-t .
== C and A· B = 3 is·-- - - - (IIT..JEE, 1985)
-t
=4 i + 3 j
--) • A A

6. Let b and c be two vectors perpendicular to each other in the xy-plane. All vectors in
--) -t
the same plane having proJections l and 2 along band c , respectively, are given by~---­
(IIT-JEE, 1987)
~ -t
7. The components of a vector a along and perpendicular to a non-zero vector b are_ _~---
and , respectively. (11'~'-JEE, 1988)
~~--) -t -t-t -t-+~

8. A unit vector coplanar with i + j + 2 k and i + 2 j + k and perpendicular to i + j + k


ts (IIT-JEE, 1992)
~ A A A
9. A non-zero vector a is parallel to the line of intersection ofthe plane determined by vectors i and i + j
AA AA -t A A A

and the plane determined by vectors i - j and i + k . The angle between a and vector i - 2 j + 2 k
is (IIT-JEE, 1996)
~ -t ~

10. If b and c are mutually perpendicular unit vectQrs and a is ariy vector, then
-t -t --)
4 ~--) -t -t ~ a ·(bxc) _. ~

(a· b) b +(a· c) c +-~.;.__-_.-...:.. (bxc) =---- (IIT-JEE, 1996)


I b X cI
-t -t -t ' ~ -t ~ ~ -t
11. Let a, b and c be three vectors having magnitudes 1, 1 and 2, respectively. If a ~ (a x c)+b =0, .
_. -+
then the acute angle between a and c is_ _ __ _ (liT-JEE, 1997)
. ~-t -+ -t
12. A, B, C and D are four points in a plane with position vectors a, b, c and d, respectively, such that
-t-+ ~~ ~-+ -t-t ·.
(a - d) · ( b - · c) = ( b - d) · { c - a) = 0. Then point D is the._ _ _ _ _o.f triangle ABC.
. (IIT-JEE, 1984)
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2.84 Vectors and 30 Geometry

----+ -+ ----+ -+ -+ ----+ -+


13. Let OA = a , OB = I 0 a + 2 b and OC ·= b, where 0 , A and Care non-collinear points. Let p denote
the area of the quadrilateral OABC, and let q denote the area of the parallelogram with OA and OC as
adjacent sides. Ifp = kq, then k = (llT-JEE-, 1997)
14. If a=}+ J3k, b =- } + J3i: and c =2J3k form a triangle, then the internal angle of the triangle
-+
between a and b is
- - - - -· (IIT-JEE, 2011)
Trne or false
-+ -+ -+ -+ .... -+ -+ -+ -+
1. Let A, B and C be unit vectors such that A · B =A · C = 0 and the angle between B and C be rr/3.
'
-+ -=-+ -+
Then A =± 2 {B x C) . (IIT-JEE, 1981)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
2. If X · A =0, X·B = Oand ·X · C = Oforsomenon-zerovector X , then [ABC] =0.
(IIT-JEE, 1983)
..... ... -+ -+ . -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+
3. For any three vectors a, b and c, (a - b): ( b - c) x ( c - a) = 2 a · b x c . (IIT-JEE, 1989)
Single correct answer type
-+-+-+ ..............
1. The scalar A · (B +C) x (A+ B +C) equals
_........... ............. -+-+-+
a. 0 b. [A B CJ + [B C A] c. [ABC] d. none of these
(IIT~JEE, 1981)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
2. For non-zero vectors a , band c , I( a x b) · c I= I a II b II c I hold~ if and only if
..... -+ -+ -+ -- t -+ -+-+
a. a · b = 0, b · c =0 b. b . c = 0, c · a ·= 0
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+-+
c. c · a = 0, a · b =0 d. a · b =b·c = c·a =0 (IIT-JE.E , 1982)
---+ ---+
3. The volume of the parallelepiped whose sides are given by OA = 2i- 2j, OB = i + j - k and
----+
OC =3i - kis
a. 4113 b. 4 c. 2/7 d. 2
(IIT-JEE, 1983)
-+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+
4. Let a, band c be three non-coplanar vectors and p , q and r the vectors defined by the relations
-+ -+ -+ . .... -+ -+ • •
-+ b xc -+ c xa -+ a x b -+ -+ ~

p = -+ --+ _. , q = -+ ~ --+ and r = -+ -+ -+


Then the valu·e of the expression (a + b) · p
[ab c ] [abc] [a b c )
-+ -+-+ .... -+-+
+ ( b + c ) · q + (c + a) · r is
a. 0 b. I c. 2 d. 3 (IIT-JEE, J988)
-+ A A-t 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ -t -+-+ -+-+-+
5. Let a =i - j , b = j - kand c = k- i . lf d is a unit vector such that a· d = 0 = [b c d], then
-+
d equals
" 1\
i + j - 2k
1\
"i+j" - "k 1\
i+j+k
" "

a.± .J6 b. ± .Jj c.± :../3 d.± "k


(IIT-JEE, 1995)
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.85

-> -+
-> -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ b+ c
6. If a, b and c are non-coplanar unit vector~ such that a x ( b x c) = .J2 , then the angle between
-+ ->
• a and b is
• a. 31C/4 b. m'4 c. m'2 d.n
(IIT..JEE, 1995)
-> -+ -+ -+ -> -+ -+ -+ -+
7. Let u, v and w be vectors such that u + v + w = 0 . If I u I= 3, Iv / = 4 and I w I= 5, then
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
U· V + V ·• W + W· U is .,
a. 47 b. - 25 c. 0 d.25
(IIT-JEE, 1995)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
8. If a, b and c are three non-coplanar vectors, then (a + b + c) · [(a + b) x (a + c)] equals ·
-+-+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ -+
a. 0 b. [a b c] c. 2 [a b c] d. - [a b c ]
(IIT-JEE, 1995)
->-+ -+ -+ ·
9. p , q and r are three mutually perpendicular vectors of the same magnitude. If vector x satisfies the
-+ -+ -+ -+ -> -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
equation px((x-q)xp)+qx((x-r)xq)+r x ((x - p) x r)=O, then x isgivenby
J -+-+ -+ } -+-> -+ } -+-+-> 1 -+ -+ ->
a. - (p + q - 2 r) b. - (p + q + r) c. - (p + q + r) d. - (2 p + q - r)
2 2 ·3 3
(l1T-JE~, 1997)
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
10. Let a = 2i +j - 2k and b·= i +j . If c is a vector such that a· c =I c I, I c -a I = 2.J2 and the angle
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
between· a x b and c is 30°, then I (a x b) x c I is equal to
a. 2/3 b. 3/2 c. 2 . d. 3
(IIT-JEE, 1999)
..... . -+ -> -> -+
Jt. Let a = 2i + j + k, b = i + 2j - k and a unit vector c be coplanar. If c is perpendicular to a , then
C lS

a. ~ (- j+k) b. ~ (- i- j - k) c. ~ (i- 2j) d. ~ (i - j - k)


v3 .
-+ -+ ->
12. If the vectors a, b and c form the sides BC, CA and AB, respectively, of triangle ABC, then
-+ -> -+ -> -+ -+ -+ -> -+ -+ -+ -+
a. a · b + b · c + c · a = 0 b. a X b=bX C = C X a
-+ -> -+ -+ -> -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
c. a · b = b · c = c · a d. a X b+b X C +C X a=0
(IIT-JEE, 2000)
. -+ -+ -+ . -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
13. Let v~ctors a , b, c and _d be such that (a x b) x ( c x d)= 0. Let P 1 and P2 be planes determin~d
-+-+ ' -+->
by the pairs of vectors a, b and c, d , respectively. Then the angle between P 1 and P 2 is
a. -0 · b. n/4 c. 7r/3 d. m'2
(IIT-JEE, 2000)
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2.86 Vectors and 30 Geometry

_. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ _. -+ -+
14. If a, b and c are unit coplanar vectors, then the scalar triple product [2 a - b 2 b - c 2 c - a] is
a. 0 b. I c. - ..[j d. J3
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\
(IIT-JEE, 2000)
15. lf a, band c are unit vectors, then 1a- b F+ lb- c F+I c -a ! does not exceed 2

a. 4 b. 9 c. 8 d. 6
_. -+,
(IIT-JEE, 2001)
-+ -+ -+ -+
16. If a and b are two unit vectors such that a + 2 b and 5 a - 4 b are perpendicular to each other, then
-+ -+
the angle betwe\~n , a and b is
a. 45° b. 60° c. cos·' ( 1/3) d. cos·• (2/7)
(IIT-JEE, 2002)
-+ "" " -+ 1\1\-+ .
J7. Let v : :; 2 i + j - k and w = j + 3 k . If u is a unit vector, then the maximum value of the sca)ar triple
-+-+ _.
product [U V W] is
a. -1 b• .JlO +J6 d. J60
(liT-lEE, 2002)
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

18. The value of a so that the volume of parallelepiped formed by i +a j + k, j +a k and a i + k is


minimum is
a.- 3 b. 3 c. d. t/J3 J3
(IIT-JEE, 2003)
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ -+ -+ -+ 1\ 1\ -+
19. If a= (i + j + k), a · b = ·J and ax b =j - k , then b is
... 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\
a. i - j + k b. 2j- k . c. i d. 2 i
(IIT-JEE, 2004)
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

20. The unit vector which is orthogonal to the vector 5 j + 2 j + 6 k and is coplanar with vectors 2 i + j + k
1\ 1\ 1\

and i - j + k is
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ A 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\
21 -6j+k 2i-3j 3i -k 4 i +3j-3k
a. b. ~ c. JlO d. r;;;
J4i "13 "34
(liT-JEE, 2004)
-+-+ _. -:+
-+-+ -+ . · -+ -+ b · a -+ -+ -+ b · a-+
21. lf a , band c are three non-zero, non-coplanar vectors and ht = b - -_..- a , b 2 = b + - -+ a,
Ia F Ia F
-+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ . .... ......
-+ -+ . b · c -+ -+
_. c ·a-+ c . a ~ b.. c -+
r~ =c- -- a- --h r-=c - --+- a + - -"
- i -+ -+ "'' ' -J • -+ "'' '
laf l~f l cf lcf
-+ -+ -+ -+
-+ c · a-+ b ·c -+
-+
c4 = c - -::::;- a = -:;-- ~ , then the set of orthogonal vectors is
Ic f Ib f
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.87.

-+-+ --+
d. (a,~ . c2 )
(IIT7JEE, 2005)
-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ " -+ 1\ 1\1\ ~ --+
22. Let a= i + 2} + k, b = i - j + k and c = i +} - k .Avectorintheplaneof a and b whoseprojection
--+
on c is 1I J3 is
1\ 1\ 1\ " 1\ 1\ . 1\ 1\ 1\
1\ " 1\
a. 4 i - j + 4k b. 3i + j - 3k c. 2 i + j - 2k d. 4i + j - 4k
• 1\ 1\
(DT-JEE, 2006)
23. Let two non-collinear unit vectors a and b form an acute angle. A point P moves so that at any time
~ " 1\
1, the position vector OP (where 0 is the origin) is given by a cot t + b sin t. Wh~n.P is farthest
~ 1\ . ----+
from origin 0, let Mbe the length of OP and U· be the unit vector along OP . Then
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

" a- b · ""
a. u" = a+b
1\ 1\
""
and M = (1 + a· b)lf2 b. u = 1\ 1\ and M = (1 + a·b)112
la+bl ja - bj
" /\
1\ 1\

" a+b and M = (1 + 2a" ·bY


" 12 · " a- b /\ 1\
2
c. u = d. u = and M =:= (1 + 2a·b)11
la+bj ·
1\ 1\
" "
la-bl
(IIT-JEE, 2008)
-+ -+ ..,.. -+ I --+ --+ --+ --+ --+ --+
24. If a , b, c and d are unit vectors such that (a x b) · ( c x d) = 1 and· a · c = - , then
-+ -+ --+ -+ --+ --+ . 2
a. a , b and c are non-coplanar b. b, c and d are non-coplanar
--+ --+ --+ -+ --+ --+
c. b and d are non-parallel d. a and d are parallel and b and c are parallel
(JIT-JEE, 2009)
· 25. TwoadjacentsidesofaparallelogramABCDaregivenby AB = 2i + IO} +Ilk and AD = - i + 2} + 2k.
The side AD is rotated by an acute angle a in the plane of the parallelogram so that AD becomes AD'.
If AD' makes a right angle with the side AB, then the cosine of the angl~ a is given by
8 .Jl7 1 . 4F5 .
a. 9 b. - 9- c. d. - 9- 9.
(IIT-JEE, 2010)
- 26. LetP, Q,R and S bethepoints on theplanewithposition vectors .- 2i- }, 4t, 3i + 3} and -3} + 2},
respectively. The quadrilateral PQRS must be a .
a. parallelogram, which is neither a rhombus nor a rectangle
b. square
c. rectangle, but not a square
d. "rhombus, but not a square (IIT-JEE, 2010)
--+ 1\ " /\ --+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -4 1\ /\ 1\ --+
27. Let a = i + j + k, b = i .- j + k and c = i - j - k be t~ee vectors. A vector v in the plane of ·a
and b, whose projection on ; is ~ , is given by
a. i -3}+3k b. - 3i - 3) + k c. 31 - J+ 3k d. i + 3]- 3k
(IIT-JEE, 2011) ..
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2.88 Vectors and 30 Geometry

28. Let PR = 3f +]- 2k and SQ:;;; i- 3}- 4k determine diagonals of a parallelogram PQRS, and
PT = l + 2} + 3k be another vector. Then the volume of the parallelepiped dctennined by the vectors
- - and PS is
PT ,'PQ
a. 5 b.20 c. 10 d.30
(JEE Advanced 2013)
Multiple correct answers type
_. 1\ 1\ 1\ ' _. 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ 1\ 1\ 1\.

1. Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k; b = ~ i + b;, j + ~ k and c = c1 i + ~ j + ~ k be three non-zero vectors

a. 0
b. I

c. ±(ar + ai + ai )(b? + b1 + b})


·d. ~ (ar + a? + at )(bt2 + 1>1 + b]) (q +.c1 +·~) (JIT-JEE, 1986)
. -+ -+ .
2. The number of vectors of unit length perpendicular to vectors ·a = (I~ 1, 0) and b = (0, I~
I) is
a. one b. two c. three d. infinite
(IIT-JEE, 1987)
-+ 1\ 1\ A-+ 1\ 1\ 1\ -+ .1\ 1\ 1\ -+
3. Let a =2 i - j + k, b == i + 2 j - k and c =i + j - 2 k be three vectors. A vector in the plane of b
-+ -+
and c, whose projection on a is of magnitude .Jif3, is
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ " .1\ " 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

a. 2 i + 3 j - 3k b. 2i + 3j + 3k d. 2 i + j + Sk c. - 2 i - j +5k
(IJT-JEE, 1993)
-+-+ ' -+
4. For three vectors u, v and w which of the following expressions is not equal to any of the remaining
three?
-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a. u · ( \! x w) b. (v x w)· u c. v· (u x w) d. (u x v)· w
(JIT-JEE, 1998)
S. Which of the following expressions arc meaningful?
-+ -+ -+ -+. ~ -+
a. u·(v X w) b. (u· v)· w .
_. ........ -+ ~ -+
c. (u · v) w d. u x (v· w) (IIT-JEE, 1998)
-+ -+ -+-+ -+-+~.-+-+-+ -+
6. Let a and b be two non-collinear unit vectors. If u =a- (a. b) b and \1 =a X b ' then I \) I is
-+ -+ -+ '-+ .... ~-+ -+ -+ -+ -+
a. Iu I b. 1u 1+ 1u · a 1 c. 1 u 1+ I u · b 1 d. I u I+ u · {a + b)
(IIT-JEE, .1999)
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applications 2.89

1 1\1\1\
7. Vector - (2 i - 'l j + k) is
3 1\ 1\ "
a. a unit vector b. makes an angle ;r/3 with vector (2 i - 4 j + 3 k)

I k1\J
• 1\ 1\ 1\

c. parallel to vector ( - "i +. "j - 2 d. perpendicular to vector 3 i + 2 j - 2 k


(liT-JEE, 1994)
....
8. Let A be a vector parallel to the line of intersection pfplanes P 1 and Pr Plane P 1 is parallel to vectors
1\/\ "1\ . 1\1\ 1\1\ -+
2 j + 3.k and 4 j - 3 k and P2 is parallel to j - k and 3 i + 3 j . Then the angle between vector A
1\ 1\ 1\

and a given vector 2 i + j - 2k is


a. tr/2 b. tr/4 c. ;r/6 d. 37r/4
(IIT-JEE, 2006)
9. The vector(s) which is/are coplanar with vectors i +} + 2k and i + 2} + k, and pcrj,endic'ular to vector
J+ } + k, is/are
..
-i + J
~ A
"
a. j-k b. c. i - j d. -}+.k
(IJT-JEE, 2011)
Matrix-match type
1.

a. Volume of parallelepiped detennincd by vectors a, band c is 2. Then the volume p. 100


of the parallelepiped detennined by vectors 2(a x b). 3(b x c) and (c x ii) is

b. Volume of parallelepiped determined by vectors a, i) and is 5. Then the volume c q. 30


of the parallelepiped detennined by vectors 3(a+ b), (b + c) and 2(c +a) is
r. 24 ·
c. Area of a triangle with adjacent sides determined by vectors a and h is 20.
Then the area of the triangle with adjacent sides determined by vectors
(2ii + 3b) and (a -b) is

d. Area of a paraJlelogram with adjacent sides detennincd by vectors and b is a s. 60


30. Then the area of the parallelogram with adjacent sides detennined by vectors
. (a +b) and a is
.- (JEE Advanced 2013)
lnteger type
- and b- are vectors m
J. If a . space gtven
. - j - ~2) and b- = 2 '~ + r.-;
by a= } + 3k , then fi nd thevaI ue of
~5 vl4
(2a +b)· ((ii X b) X (a- 2b)) . (JIT-JEE, 2010)
2. Let a= - i- k, b = ...:. j + J and c= 1+ 2] + 3k be three given vectors. Jf r is a vector such that
-+-+ .... -+ -+-+
r x b = c x d and ;: ·a= 0, then find the value of r · b . (IIT..JEE, 2011)
3. If a,handc areunitvcctorssatisfying la - hf+lb-cf+lc - iif = 9 , thcn j2a+5b+5cl is.
(IIT-JEE, 2012)
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2.90 Vectors and 30 Geometry

&

Answers Key
Subjective l)'pc
13 .
4. -sq. umts 5. 3 7. ja f Jl + 2cos8 (1 - cosO)
9
8. 224 9. a.= - 8. b := 4, c =2, d =- 1I
Single Correct Answer Type
1. c. 2. d. 3. c. 4. b. 5. c. 6. d. 7. c. 8. b. 9. c. 10. b.
11. c. 12. c. 13. d. 14. c. 15. a. 16. a. 17. d. 18. c. 19. d. 20. b.
21. a. 22. a. 23. a. 24. a. 25. b. 26..· a. 27. c. 28. c. 29. b. 30. c.
31. c. 32. b. 33. a. 34. b. 35. b. 36. d. 37. c. 38. c. 39. b. 40. a.
41 . . d. 42. c. 43. d. 44. c. 45. c. 46. d. 47. c. 48. b. 49. . c. 50. a.
Sl. b. 52. a. 53. d. ·54. a. 55. d. 56. c. 57. a. 58. d. 59. c. 60. b.
61. a. 62. d. 63. c. 64. c. 65. b. 66. c. 67. a. 68. a. 69. a. 70. d.
71. d. 12: a. 73. b. 74. c. 75. c. 76. a. 77. a. 78. a. 79. c. 80. b.
81. c. 82. b. 83. a. 84. b. 85. b. 86. b. 87. a. 88. b. 89. c. 90. c.
91. c. 92. d. 93. a. 94. d. 95. d.

Multiple Correct Answers Type


I. a, b. 2. a, c. 3. a, b, c, d. 4. a, b, c~ 5. a, c.
6. a, c. 7. a, b,c,d. 8. a, b, c, d. 9. a, b, c, d. 10. b, d.
ll. b, d. 12. b, d. 13. a, d. 14. b, c, d. 15. a, d.
16. b, d. 17. b, c. 18. c, d. 19. b, d. 20. b,d.
21. a, b, c. 22. a, b. 23• .a, b, c. 24. a, b. 25. a, c.
26. b, d. 27. b, c. 28. a, b, c. 29. a, b, c. 30. a, c.
31 .. b, c, d. 32. a, b. 33. a, b, d. 34. a, b, c. 35. b, d.
36. a, b, c, d. 37. a, c, d. 38. a, d. 39. b, c.
Reasoning 1)•pe
I. b. 2. c. 3. d. 4.· b. 5. a. 6. d.
\
7. b. 8. a.
Linked Comprehension Type
1. b. 2. c. 3. d. 4. d. 5. c~ 6. b 7. b. 8. a. 9. c 10. b.
11. b. 12. d. 13. b. 14. a. 15. c. 16. b 17. c. 18. a. 19. c . 20. b.
21. d. 22. d. . 23. c. 24. c. 25. a. 26. b 27. c.
Matrix-Match J'Ype
1. a ~ p; r, s; b ~ q, q; c ~ p, r ; d ~ r 2. a. ~ r; b -+ p; c ~ s; d -.:+ q.
3. a-+ q; b-+ s; c ~ p; d-+ r 4. a -+ s; b -+ r; c -+ q; d ~ p
5. a -+ p, r; b ~ q; c -+ p, q, s; d -+ p 6. a -+ q; b -+ s; c .~ p; d ~ r
6. a -+ r; b ~ s; c -+ q; d ~ p
Integer Type
. 1. (5) 2. (1) 3. (2) 4. (7) 5. (4) 6. (9) 7. (1) 8. (7) 9. (6) 10. (6)
11. (1) 12. (6) 13. (9)
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Different Products of Vectors and Their Geometrical Applicat ions 2.91

Archives
Subjective type
~ ~ ......
3. X=B x A+cA
...... ~
6. -i -8]+2k 7. -4/3< c< 0
(A · A)
1 - 2cos9 1
9. ·-i + 3]+3kor3i - }-k 10. p= q= , r= -;====
~l+2cos9' ~1 +2cos9 ~1+2cos 9
19. w=v- 2(a.v)a
Fill in the blanks
2f + }+k 5" 2 " 2 "
1. sJ2 2. .J6 3. Ft3 4. 0 5. - i +- j + - k
3 3 3

6. 2i - J 7.
;.
( ;].. . . . (;
--banda - - - b
~
.b)~
~
8.
.}- k
J2 or
-]+k
J2 9. n/4 or 31r/4
I b f
2
I b 1
......
}(); a 11. 1d6 12. orthocenter 13. 6
True or false
1. True 2. True 3. False
Single correct answer type
1. a. 2. d. 3. d. 4. d. S. a. 6. a. 7. b. 8. d. 9. b. . 10. b.
11. a. 12. b. 13. · a. 14. a. 15. b. 16. b. 17• .c. 18. c. 19. c. 20. c.
21. c. 22. a. 23. a. 24. c. 25. b. 26. a. 27. c. 28. c.
Multiple correct answers type
1. c. 2. b. 3. a, c. 4. c. 5. a., c.
6. a, c. 7. a, c, d. 8. b, d. 9. a, d.
Matrix-match type
a~ r; b ~ s; c ~ p; d ~ q

Integer type
1. (S) 2. (9) 3. (3)
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Three-Dimensional
Geometry
DIRECTION COSINES AND DIRECTION RATIOS
From Chapter 1, recall that if a directed line L, pass"
ing through the origin, makes angles a , f3 and r with the
z
x-, y- and z-axes, respectively, called direction angles, then the
cosines of these angles, namely1 cos a, cos {3 and cosy, are called
the direction cosines of the directed line L. ..
lf we reverse the direction of L, the direction angles are
replaced by their supplements, i.e., 1C- a , tc- {3 and tc- y. Thus,
.,..., ....
the signs of the direction cosines are reversed.
Note that a given line in space can be extended in two op-
posite directions, and so it has two sets of direction cosines. Jn z
order to have ·a unique set of direction cosines for a given line
in space, we must take the given line as a directed line. These
unique direction cosines are denoted by /, m and n.
If the given line in space does not pass through the olig'in, then
in order to find its direction cosines, we draw a line through the
...
y
y
origin and parallel to the given line. Now take one of the directed .
lines from the origin and find its direction cosines as two parallel
lines have the same set of direction cosines.
.....·
Any three numbers which are proportional to the direction cosines
X
ofalinearecalledthedirectionratiosofthe line.lf/,mandnaredirec" Fig. 3.1
tion cosines and a, band c arc the direction ratios ofa line, then a= JJ,
b = A.m and c = A.n for any non-zero A. e R.

Notes:
1. Direction cosines of the x"axis arc (I, 0, 0).
Direction cosines of they-axis arc (0, I, 0).
Direction cosines of the ~-axis are (0, 0, 1).
2. Let OP be any line passing through the origin 0 which has direction cosines cos a, cos {3 and cos y,
i.e., (/, m, n) where distance OP = r, i.e., coordinates of Pare (r cos a, r cos {3, r cos '}?.
3. lf /, m and n arc the direction cosines of a vector, then P + m2 + n2 = 1.
-t -t " " " " 1\ 1\ 1\
4. r = Ir I (/i + m j + n k) and r = J i + m j + n k.

Direction Ratios
.....
Let/, m and n be the direction cosines of a vector r and a, band c be three numbers such that a, b, care
proportional to/, m and n. Therefore,
''•.
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3.2 Vectors and 30 Geometry

I m ·n
= -b = - = k or(/, m, n) = (ka, kb, kc)
-
a c
Hence, a, band c arc direction ratios.
~

For example,· if (1/...[3, -li.J3, 11J3) are direction cosines of a vector r, then its direction ratios are
(1, -1, I) or (-1, 1, - .1) or (2, -2, 2) or (A, -A., A.) ...
It is evident from the above definition that to obtain the direction ratios of a vector from its direction cosines,
we just multiply them by a common number.
~

"That shows there can be an infinite number ofdirection ratios for a given vector. butthe direction cosines
are unique. "

Direction ratios of a line joining two points


For points P(x 1,y1, z1) and Q(x2 , y 2 , z2),
---+ " " "
Vector PQ = (l2 ~ x1 )i + (y2 - y1)j + (z2 - z1)k
Then the direction ratios of PQ are ((x2 - x 1), (y2 -y1), (z2 - z1)).

To obtain direction cosines from direction ratios


~

Let a, band c be the direction ratios of a vector r having direction cosines/, m and t.J. Then
I= A.a, m ::= Ab, n = Ac (by definition)
2 2
t2 + m + n = I
f
=> a2;..2 + h2;.2 + cJ.2 = 1
1
;t = ±--;;=====
Ja2 + b2+ c2
a b ·c
I=± m= ± n = ± -;:::.=====--
~a2 + b2 + ~ c2 ' a2 + b2 + c' ~a2 + b2 + ~
Example:
Let the direction ratios of a line be 3, 1 and -2.
Direction cosines are

~32 + /+(-2) ~32 +1' + (-2)'. ~32 + ~~: (:..2)


1
( 2 • 2 ) => ( ~. _k. J.r) .
i - · - - · - ·- ·- . - _..,,___ ..., . .
i Notes: '
~_ ....______ _ ______ - ..._.... ··-
--- --------..
I
1. If ~
r =a ~1 + b~J + c k" ts
. a vector h avmg
. d'1rechon
. cosmes
' I, mand n, then I = -::;- b n :c: -:;-
a , m = -::;-, c •
2. Direction cosines of parallel vectors: · Ir I Ir I Ir I
4 ... ... ....
Let a and b be two parallel vectors. Then b = A. a for some A.
.... i\ " " -+ ~ -+ i\ i\ i\
If a=a1 i+a2 j+a3 k, then b = A.a ~ b = (A.a1)i+(A.a2 )j+(A.a3 )k
~

This shows that b has direction ratios A.a1, A.a2 and A.a3, i.e., a 1, a 2 and a3 because A.a1 : At72 : A.a3
-+ ~

= a1 : a2 : a3. Thus, a and b have equal direction ratios and hence equal direction cosines too.
. ·- · · ------~--- -
--- - ·-. . - .. . --- - - - -- ------·--- . -
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Three.Olmensional Geometry 3.3

-4

3. If the direction ratios of; are a, hand c, then ; = ~ ; ir I (a f +b} +ck}.


· a +b~+~
-+ -+ -+ -+
4. Projections of ,. on the coordinate axes are: II r 1. mIr I and nIr j. ' .
5. The projection ofa segment joining points P (x 1,y1, z 1) and Q(x2,y2, z 2) on a line with direction cosines
I, m and n is (x2 - x 1) I+ U'2 - y 1) m + (z2 - z 1) n.
6. If /1, m 1, n 1 and /2, m2, n 2 are the direction cosines of two concurrent lines, then the direction cosines 1
of the lines bisecting the angles between them arc proportional to / 1 ± /2, m 1 ± m2 and n 1 ± n2• ; ·
7. Acute angle 8 between the two lines having direction cosines / 1, m1, n 1 and /2, m2, n-1. is given by

cos 8 = j/1/2 + m1m2 + n 1n 2j, sin 8= J(l, m2


2
-12 m,i + (m1 "2- "'2 "J ) + (111 /2 - "2 11) 2
8. If a 1, b 1, c 1 and a 2 , h2 , c2 arc the direction ratios of two lines, then the acute angle 8 between them is :
. ja, a2 + 11 ~ + G ~~
gtven by cos 8 = ,
~a~ + f>r2 + cf ~ai + 6f + ci
. ~(a, bz - ~ - ~ ct )2 + (c, a2 -
a2 br )2 + (ht c2 a, )2
sm 8 =
Jat + 112 +cf ~a~ + IJ.! + ci
9. Two lines having direction cosines !1, m 1, n 1 and /2, m2, n 2 are
a. perpendicular if and only if / 1/ 2 + m 1m 2 + n 1n2 = 0.
/ m1 n1
b. parallel if and only if - 1 =- = _,
/2 "'2 112

10. Two lines having direction ratios a 1, b 1, c 1 and a 2, b2, c2 are


a. perpendicular if and only if a 1a2 + b 1b2 + c 1c2 = 0
b. parallel if and only if ~ = !!J_ = 5..
a2 ~ ~

Direction ratio of line along the bisector of two given lines


If / 1, m 1 and n 1 and /2, m2 and n2 are the direction cosines of the two lines inclined to each other at an angle
9, then the direction cosines of the
11 12 11 13
a. internal bisector of the angle between these lines are + , "'• + "'2 · and 1+ 2 and
· 2 cos(8/2) 2 cos(8/2) 2 cos(8/2)'

b. external bisector of the angle between these lines arc


1, - /2
. ),
"'2m, -and
111 - n2
2 sm(812 2 sin(B/2) · 2 sin(8/2)
Proof:

B' 0 B
Fig. 3.2
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3.4 Vectors and 30 Geo~etry

Let OA and 08 be two lines with direction cosines / 1, m1, n 1 and /2, m2, n2 . Let OA = 08""' 1. Then the
coordinates of A and Bare (11• m1, n 1) and (/2, m2, n2) , respectively. Let OC be the bisector of LAOB. Then
Cis the midpoint of AB and so it~ coordiQates are
/1 + 12 m1+ m2 n1+ n2 )
( 2 , 2 , 2
Therefore, the direction ratios of OC are 11 + 12 , m, + 1112 and n, +n2 . We have
2 2 2

OC ~ ( 7 )\('"•:'";)\(n,:n, )'
= !_J(/12 + m~ + nf) + (li + m~ + ni) + 2(11/2 + m1 1~12 + n1n2 )
2 .
= 2..J2
2
+ 2cosO (·:cos()-= / 1/2 + m 1m2 + n 1n2)

= ~ ~2(1 + cos 0) = cos ( ~)


. . . f --+
. erefiore, the d1recuon cosmes o OC are
Th
/I + /2
,
+ m2 + n2
, ___,!_._.::..
m, n,
2(0C) 2(0C) 2(0C)
/1 +/2 m1+m2 n1+n2
or
2 cos(8/2) ' 2 cos(0/2) ' 2 cos(0/2)
In Fig. 3.2, OE is the external bisector.
. l - 1 m-m n-n
The coordinates of E are -1 - 2 1 2 and 1 2 .
2 , 2 2
Therefore, direction ratios of OE are
I, - s'z
,
m, - "'2 and n, - "2 ·
2 2 2

Also, OE = !_~2- 2 cosO


2
= }_~2(1- cosO)
2
= sin (8/2)
. --+ I, - /2 m, - mz n, - llz
Therefore, the direction cosines of 0£ are , and . .
2 sin(8/2) 2 sin(8/2) 2 sm(8!2)

Illustration 3.1 r
1f a, f3 and are the angles which a directed li~e makes with the positive directions~(
the co-ordinates axes, t~cn ~~d the v~lue of sin2 a+ si.~ 2 f3 + _sin2 y.
Sol. The direction cosines of the line are I= cos a, m = cos {3 and n =cos r.
·· t2 + m2 + n2 = I, cos2 a + cos2 f3 + cos2y= 1
· ·I - sin2a + I - sin2/3 + 1- sin2 y =1
2 2
or sin a + sin 2
fJ + sin y = 2
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Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.5

Illustration 3.2 A line OP through origin 0 is incJined at 30° and 45° to OX and OY, respectively. Then
find the angle at which it is inclined to OZ.
Sol. Let /, m and n be the direction cosines of the given vector. Then P + m2 + n2 = I.

If /z cos 30°= J312 m = cos 45° = ll.fi then ~ + ..!. + n2 = 1.


' ' 4 2
2
_ ..n =- 1/4, which is not possible. So, such a line cannot exist.

Illustration 3.3 ABC is a triangle and A = (2, 3, 5), A(2, 3, 5)


B • (- 1, 3, 2) and C =(A, 5, Jl). If the median through
A is equally inclined to the axes, then find the value
of A and Jl.

Sol. Midpoint of BC is (A; , 4, ~ J1)


1 2
B(-1, 3, 2) C(l.., 5, JJ)
fig. 3.3
Direction ratios of the median through A are
1 2
A - - 2 4 - 3 and + 11 - 5 i.e. A. - 5 J and J1 - 8 ·
2, 2 , '2' 2
The median is equally inclined to the axes; so the direction ratios must be equal. Therefore,
A.- 5 = 1 = J.l- 8 ~A= 7, J1 = I0
2 2

Illustration 3.4 A line passes through the points (6, - 7,- 1) and (2,- 3~ 1). Find the direction cosines of
the line if the line makes an acute angle with the positive direction of the x-axis.
Sol. Let /, m and n be the direction cosines of the given line. As it makes an acute angle with the x-axis,
I> 0. The line passes through (6,- 7,- l) and (2,- 3, 1); therefore, its direction ratios are (6- 2,- 7 + 3,- 1
- 1) or ( 4, - 4,-2 ). Hence, the direction cosines of the given line arc 2/3,-2/3 and- 1/3.

Illustration 3.5 Find the ratio in which the y-z plane divides the join of the points (-2, 4, 7) and (3, -5, 8)
Sol. Let the y-z plane divide the join of P(-2, 4, 7) and Q(3,- 5, 8) in the ratio A.: 1.
3.:t - 2 , - 5A.+4 8A.+7) .. h ) h . d' .
JS m t e y-z p ane, t en 1ts x-coor: mate 1s zero.
There.ore,
r:
lf( "'
~~.+I
"'
A+l
,
1
A+l
3A.-2
- - =0 or3A.-2 =0
A+l
or A.= 2/3
Illustration 3.6 If A(3, 2,- 4), 8(5, 4,- 6) and C(9, 8,- 10) are three collinear points, then find the ratio
in which point C divides AB.
Sol. Let C divide AB in the ratio A.: I. Then
C= (5A.+3 4A.+2 -6A. -4) =(9 S-IO)
A.+l' A.+1 ' A.+l '
Comparing, we get
SA.+3==9A.+9or4A.=-6 or A.=-3/2
Also, from 4A. + 2 = 8A + 8 and - 6A - 4 = -1 OA.- I0, we get the same value of A.
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3.6 Vectors and 30 Geometry

. Illustration 3.7 If the sum of the squares·of the distance of a point from the three coordinate axes is 36,
--.. .
then find its distance from the origin.
.. .......... -~ ·-- -·----"' ·---- - - - --- ....- _____ . _..
Sol. Let P(x, y, z) be the point. Now· under the given condition,

[~xl+ lr +c~l'+ zlf+ rJil+ x2 f =.36


or x2 + y +. z2 = 18
Then distance from the origin to point (x, y, z) is
~xl + y + z2 = .Jl8 = 3../2
Iltustratton 3.8 A line makes angles
cos2 a
~--------.:'"-
+ cos2
a, /3, r and owith the diagonals of a cube. Show that
f3 + cos2 y + cos2 8 =-·,.,.,....
4/3.
__
·-- -.., . ... ,__
· J
---·-~----~-·-

Sol. The fourdiag~nals ofa cube areAL•.BM, CNand OP. z


1 1
. .on cosmes
D •recti . ofOP are l , J3 and .J3 .
.J3
. . cosmes
. 1
D arechon ofAL are - r:;, lr:; and l~.
· v3 v3 v3
1
. . cosmes
Duechon . ofBM are ..J3
l •J3
-l and .fj .·

. . cosmes
D trectJon . ofC'N are r:;
J l
• r:; an
d -I
c ·
"3 "'3 '\13

Let /, m and n be the direction cosines of a line which is


inclined at angles a, /3, rand ~~ respectively, to the four
· diagonals; then . y
. 1 1 J Ftg. 3.4
cos a = I· .Jj + m · .J3 + n · .J3

r::
l+m+n
Jj
- 1 +m+ n
Similarly, cos {3 = .J3
. 1-m+n
cos r= .J3
. l+m~n
cos <5= jj
1
cos2a+ cos2{3 + cos2 y+ cos2 8 =- [(/+ m + n)2 + (- l+m + n)2 +(1- m+ n)2 +(I+ m-nil
3 .
4
= ! · 4(P + m2 + n2) .;
3 3
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Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.7

..------ -- ··- - - -·
Iltustration 3.9 Find the angle between the lines whose direction cosines are giveo by J + m + n = 0 and :
2f2 + 2m2 - n2 == 0. '
- - · ----
· Sol. P+ m2 + n2 = 1 (i)
J+m+n==O (ii)
2 2
2P + 2m - n = 0 (iii)
2(1 - n2) = n2 or 3n2 = 2 or n = ±jii3 (iv)
2 2 2
2(P + m ) = n ==(-{/+m)) or 1 = m (v)

I+ m = ± .fiJ3 or 21 = ±.Jii3 ..
I=± 11..J6 , m == ± 11J6
Direction cosines are

or

The angle between these lines in. both the cases is cos- 1 ( -~) .

i-IUust;:;.ti(,f."'i1oA mi~orand ~-w~r~e oflight a;;situated at·the origio 0 and at a point on ox,respectively. I

! A ray of light from the source strikes the·mirror and is reflected. If the direction ratios of the normal to the ~
~ plane are l , - 1, 1, then find the DCs of the reflected ray. · ·
. ·-·--. .. . ·-·-- .--- .. _ _ .. - - - --- -. --- - - -- .... .. · - - - .. .. ---·-·- ___ _.!
Sol. Let the source of light be situated at A(a, 0, 0), where·a'# 0.
Let OA be the incident ray and OB the reflected ray.
ON is the nonnal to the mirror at 0. Therefore,
LAON = LNOB = 812 (say)
Direction ratios of OA are a, 0 and 0 and so its direction cosines are 1, 0 and 0.
Direction ratios of ON are li.J3, -I/.J3 and 1/.J3. Therefore,
LAON = L NOB = (8/2) (say)
cos ((J/2) = J/J3
Let I, m and n be the direction cosines of the reflected ray OB. Then

I +1 = _!__ m+0 =_ 1 and n + 0 = _1_


2 cos((J/2) .J3 ' 2 cos{(J/2) J3 2 cos(6!2) .J3
2 -2 2
/ =- -1m = - n = -
3 , 3 , 3
I 2 2
or I= -- m = -- n = -
3' 3, 3
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3.8 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Concept Application Exercise 3.1


J. lfthcx-coordinate of a point P on the join of Q(2, 2, 1) and R(5, 1, -2) is 4, then find its z-coordinate.
- 2. Find the distance of the point P(a, b, c) from the x-axis.
~ ~

3. If r is a vector of magnitude 21 and has direction ratios 2,-3 and 6, then find r.
4. If P(x, y, z) is a point on the line segment joining Q(2. 2, 4} and R(3, 5, 6) such that the projections
_.
of OP on the axes are 13/5, 19/S and 26/5, respectively, then find the ratio in which P divides QR.
5. If 0 is the origin, OP = 3 with direction ratios - I, 2 and -2, then find the coordinates of P.
6. A line makes angles a, {3 and r with the coordinate axes. If a+ {3 = 90°, then find r.
7. The line joining the points (-2, 1, -8} and (a, b, c) is parallel to the line whose direction ratios are
6, 2 and 3. Find the values of a, band c.
8. lf a line makes angles a, {3 and r with three-dimensional coordinate axes, respectively, then find
the value of cos 2a +cos 2/3 +cos 2y.
9. A parallelepiped is fonned by planes drawn through the points P(6, 8, I 0) and Q(3, 4, 8) parallel to
the coordinate planes. Find the length of edges and diagonal of the parallolepiped.
10. Find the angle between any two diagonals of a cube.
U. Direction ratios of two lines arc a~ b, c and Jibe, 1/ca, 1/ab. Then the lines arc
- ---
12. Find the angle between the lines whose direction cosines arc connected by the relations I + m + n
= 0 and 2/m + 2nl - mn = 0.
EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE PASSING THROUGH A GIVEN POINT AND
PARALLEL TO A GIVEN VECTOR
Vector Form
~

Line passing throug~ point A(a ) and parallel


~

to vector b
Let A be the given point and let AP be the given
line through A.
~

Let b be any vector parallel to the given Jine.


~

Position vector of point A is a .


Let P be any point on line AP, and let its position vector
~
X
be r . Fig. 3.5
..... ~~-.~ ~ --+ .....
Then, we have r = OP = OA + AP = a+ lb (where AP = A.b ).
-+ ..... -t
Hence, the vector equation of straight line, r = a + A.b. (i)
~ -+ " 1\ 1\
Here, r is the position vector of any point P(x, y, z) on the line. So r = xi + y j + z k.
~ ~ -+
In particular, the equation of straight line through origin and parallel to b is r = A.b .
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Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.9

Cartesian Form
.I....ct the coordinates of the given point A be (x 1,;11, z1) and the direction ratios of the line be a, band c. Consider
the coordinates of any point P be (x, y, z). Then
-+ A 1\ 1\-t 1\ 1\ 1\ -t 1\ 1\ 1\
r;;;,,·i+ yj+zk, a;;;x1i+ytJ'+z1k and b .=ai+bj+ck
1\ 1\ 1\

Substituting these values in (i) and equating the coefficients of i , j and k , we get ·
X= Xt + A.a; y = Yl +A b; z = ZJ + Ac

These arc parametric equations of the line.


. . . h '] X - XI y - Yt z- 21
E) 1mmaung t c parameter "" we get --;;-- = h =-- ·
c

Notes:
J. Here any point on the line is (x, y, z) =(x 1 + J..a, y 1 + Ah, z 1 + A.c) (}.being a parameter).
2. Since the x-, y- and z-axcs pass through the origin and have direction cosines (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and !I

(0, 0, I), their equations are ,


i
r-0 y-0 z-0 i
Equation of x-axis : -·-;:: - - = - or y = 0, z = 0
] 0 . 0
Equation ofy-axis : x- 0 =Y - 0 = z - 0 or x = 0, z = 0
0 1 0
. . x-0 y-0 z-0
Equatton of z-ax1s : - - = - - =- - or x = 0, y = 0
0 0 1

EQUATION OF LINE PASS~NG THROUGH-TWO GIVEN POINTS


Vector Form
--+ --,) --+ -t - -t
From the figure, OP =r, OA = a and OB = b.
----+ ---+ --+ ----+
Since AP is collinear with AB , AP = J. AB for
some scalar A., we ha.ve
----+ - --+ --+
OP - OA = A.( 08 - OA)
-+ -+ -t -+
or r - a = A.(h- a)
-+ --+ -+ -+
or r = a + it( b - a) (i)
. Therefore, the equation of a straight line passing
--+ -+ --+ -+ -+ -t
through a and h is r:;; a+ }.,(b- a). X
Fig. 3.6
Cartesian Form
-t 1\ A A-+ I> A 1\ -t 1\ A A

Wehave r=xi+ yj+zk , a;::x1i+y1j+z1k and b .;;::x2i +y2j+.z2k .


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3.10 Vectors and 30 Geometry

Substituting these values in (i), we get


1\ 1\ " 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

xi+yj +zk = x1 i+y1 j+z1k +A.[(x2 -x1)i+(y2 -y1)j+(z2 -z1)k]


1\ 1\ 1\

Equating the coefficients of i, j and k, we get


x=x1 + A(x2 -xl);y= Yt + A(y2- Yt); z =z, + A.(z2 -zt)
x-x1 y-y1 z-z1
On eliminating A., we obtain = = = A
x2 - X, Y2- Yt Z2 - z1
which is the equation of the line in Cartesian fonn:

' 3.11 The Cartestan


Illustration . equatJon
. . o f a .I'me ts
. -x -- y +-1= _.._.
·:3 = - z - 3 F'md the vector equation
. of
the line. 2 -2 5
- - - · . ----- ·~ -----·~-.

'Th . . . x-3 y+l z-3


SoI• e gtven 1me ts - - = -=2 = - - ·
2 5
Note that it passes through (3, -1, 3) and·is parallel to the line whose direction ratios arc 2,-2 and 5. Therefore,
~ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ "

its vector equation is r = 3i- j + 3k +. A(2~- 2} + Sk), where A is a paramete~.


_..,..,.. ... ---~---·-------·- -----~~---- - --·
Illustration 3.12 The Cartesian .equations of a line are 6x - 2 = 3y-+: 1 z::: 2z ~ 2. Find its direction ratios·
.~~~.~!~~.~~d_a_~~cto~-~eq_~~i~n.~_fth<:l.~~!::,. -····-· ______ .. . _ ........, ... .. ...-.- -........ _ . ______..J
Sol. The given line is 6x- 2 = 3y + 1 = 2z- 2 (i)
To put it in the symmetrical form, we must make the coefficients ofx, y and z as I. To do this, we divide each
' .
of the expressaons . (')
m b d b .
1 y 6 an o tam
X- (1/3) = y + (1/3) =--·
Z- )
I 2 3
This shows that the given line passes through (1/3, - l/3, 1) and is parallel to the line whose direction ratios
are 1, 2 and 3. Therefore, its vector equation is
~ 1 1\ 1 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\• 1\

r =-i - - j+k+A(i +2j+3k)


3 3

~lustra~o~~-A line·~:sscs through th~;~:~·wit~ pos:~i~n v~cto;·;·; _


-;j ~~k a:~-i~-i~.t~e d~ecti:~;
I 1\ 1\ 1\ I

l~.of~- 3i + 4}- 5k . Find the equations of the line in vector and Cartesian fonns.
--·~-... . · - - · - - .. . .. --------· ... . ··---·----·-· . - ... -----· . . ..... ----- .
:
J
• 1\ 1\ " . 1\ 1\ 1\
Sol. Since the line passes through 2 i - 3j + 4k an~ has direction of 3i + 4 j - 5k, its vector equation is
.... I\ 1\ ~ 1\1\1\ 1\1\1\

r =a+ A.b ~ r ~ 2i- 3} + 4k + A.(3i +4}- 5k), where A. is a parameter. (i)

1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\

. Sol. Since the line passes through A(3i + 4} -7k) and B(i - j + 6k), its vector equation is
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Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.11

~ A A A A A A A A A
r = 3 i + 4 j - 7k + A[( i - j + 6k) - (3 i + 4 j - 7k)]
A A A A A A
=3 i + 4 j - 7 k - )..(2 i + 5j - 13k) (i)
where A. is a parameter.
. . f ( ') . X - 3 y - 4 Z + 7
The Cartcs1an eqUlva1cnt o J 1s - - : - - = - - ·
2 5 - 13
·-'
Illustration 3.15 Find Cartesian and vector equation of the line wh1ch passes through the point (-2, 4, · ~

x+3 y-4 z+8 ·


-5) and parallel to the line given by - - = - -
3 5 6
=- . (NCERT)
.. ...... . (•

. f . )' . 3 )'- 4 Z + 8
So I. E quahon o gtvcn me IS
3
X+
- - =- 5
-=- 6 (i)

Direction ratios of line (i) are 3, 5, 6.


Therefore, direction ratios of required line arc also 3, 5, 6 .
Required tine passes through the point (-2, 4, - 5).
: f . d . . X+ 2 y- 4 Z + 5
Hence, cquat1on o requne 1me IS - = - -= -
3 5 6

Itsvectorformis r = (-2i+4}-Sk)+A.(3f+5)+6k)
. '

Illustration 3.16 Find the equation of a line which passes through the point (2, 3, 4) and which has equal
intercepts on the axes.
Sol. Since line has equal intercepts on axes, it is equally inclined to axes.
,.
Line is along the vector a(i + j + k)

Equation of line = x - 2 =Y - 3 = z - 4
1 1 1
x-1 y+2 ' z .
Illustration 3.17 Find the points where line - - = - - =- mtersects xy, yz and zx planes.
2 -1
Sol. Line meets xy-plane where z = 0
Hence, from the given equation of line, x - 1 Y + 2 = 0 =
2 -1 1
~ x= J andy= - 2.
=> Line meets xy-plane at ( 1. - 2, 0).
Line meets yz-plane where x = 0
. . f) ' 0-1 y + 2 z
Hence, from the g1ven equation o me, - - = - - = -
2 -J 1
-1 3
z=-andy=--
2 2

=> Line meets yz·p1ane at 0, - ( '2,3T-1)


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3.12 Vectors and 30 Geometry

.Line meets zx-plane where y = 0


.
Hcnce, from t he g•ven . fJ"
equation o me -
X -J 0+2 Z
= --= -
2 -1 l
z =-2,x=-3
Line meets zx-plane at(- 3, 0,- 2)
• - • • • • - A • •• 401oft IJt

· Illustration 3.18 Find the equation of line x + y- z- 3 = 0""' 2x + 3y + z + 4 in symmetric fonn. Find the ,
~ ~irectio~ ra~~~~ ~(t~e line. · _~
Sol. In the section of planes we will see that equation of the .form ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the
equation of the plane in the space.
Now equation of line in the fonn x + y - z- 3 =0 = 2x + 3y + z + 4 means set of those points in space which
are common to the planes x + y- z- 3 = 0 and 2x + 3y + z + 4 = 0, which lie on the line of intersection ofplanes.
For example, equation of x-axis is y = z = 0 where .\)'-plane (z = 0) and xz-planc (v = 0) intersect.
Now to get the equation of line in symmetric fonn , in above equations, first we eliminate any one of the
variables, say z. Then adding x + y - z- 3 = 0 and 2x + 3y + z + 4 = 0, we get
3x + 4y + 1 = 0 or 3x =- 4y - I =A. (say)
1.. A.+]
or x = J, y = ---=4
A. A.+ 1
Putting these values in x + y- z - 3 = 0, we have - + - - - z - 3 = 0
3 -4
or A.= 39 + 12z
Comparing values of A., we have equation of line as
3x :::- 4y-l = 12z + 39
1 13
y +- z+-
3x - 4 y - I 12z + 39
or ···-= = or ~=-- 4 = 4
12 12 .:2 4 -3 1

Hence, th~ liue is passing through point ( 0, - ~, - ~) a{ld have direction ratios 4,- 3, l.
lfwe eliminate x or y first we will get equation ofline having same direction ratio but with different point
on the line.
Illustration 3.19 Find the .vector equation of line passing through the point (1 , 2, -4) and perpendicular
to the two lines:
x- 8 "== y + 19 = z - 10 and x -15 = y - 29 = z- $ (NCERT)
3 -16 7 3 8 -5
Sol. Since the line to be dctcnnined is perpendicular to the given two straight lines, it is directed towards
A

i j k
Vector (3t -16} + 7k) x (3i + 8}- 5k) = 3 - 16 7 = 24i +36]+12k
3 8 -5
Therefore, direction ratios of the line are 24, 36, 72 or 2, 3 ~
Hence, equation of line passing through the point ( 1, 2, -4) and parallel to the vector 2f + 3} + 6k is
r=(i +2) - 4k)+ 1.(21 +3}+6k)
'
This is the equation of the required line.
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Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.13

- · - ·•--- · - · -• . ,,.,.. _ _·-..--·---·--·#1..------;----;-


- - - : - •• - : ;..
••• : : - · - • • A ' ~ A I'll ~

; Illustration 3.20 If r = (i + 2} + 3k)+ A.(i- j + k) and ;: = (i + 2j + 3k) + J1 (i + j - k) are two lines,


:_~n find the equation of acute angle bisector of two lines. . __ . . ..- _ __j
Sol. Lines are r = (i + 2} + 3k) + A,(t-} -f. k) and r = (i + 2} + 3k) + J1 (i + J'- k)
along vectors (i - j + k) and (i +}- k) , respectively.
.
Angle between two hnes = cos
- •( (l) x (J)+(- 1)(1)+(1)(-1))
.fj .fj
-•(
cos -3 = I)
which is an obtuse angle.

-
'
. Vector along acute angle bisector=).,
[i-}+k
J3 i+J-k] 2).,
J3 = .J3 (- j + k) A A

Equation of acute angle bisector= (i + 2} + 3k) + t<}- k)


;- ' .. - -- - . ---. - . ---·- ... - .-- -· -. --·-------· - - .. -- --· ·=2l
1
: Illustration 3.21 Find the equation of the line drawn through point (1, 0, 2) to meet tbe line x + =.L2_ 1

~ z+ l . . 3 -2 ;
. = - at nght angles.
-1 - ___j
. . . AB x+l y-2 z +l
S o.
I G tven 1mets =--=--;;:;- (i)
3 -2 -1
Let P = (1, 0, 2)
Any point on line (i) is Q <= (3r - 1, - 2r + 2, - r- 1)
Direction ratios of PQ are 3r- 2,- 2r + 2, - r - 3
Direction ratios oflineAB are 3, -2,-1
·· PQ J_AB
.. 3(3r - 2)- 2 (-2r + 2) - 1 (- r- 3) = 0
1
or 14r "" 7 or r = -
. 2

Therefore, direction ratios of PQ are - .!_ , 1, _7._ or 1, -2, 7


2 2
.
Eq uatlono ' PQ = -x-I
fl me z-2
- =y - = -
1 -2 7
.... 0... .. .. . . . -· - -~ -· .. - - 4"'-- -..;. ··--..·· - - .....- - ., - .. - · -- ------..
Illustration 3.22 Line L 1 is parallel to vector a= - 3i + 2j +4k and passes through a point A(7, 6, 2) and .
line L2 is parallel to a vector p= 21 +] + 3k and passes through a point B(S, 3, 4). Now a line L 3 parallel .
: t~. a -~ector
~ = ~i - 2]- k.. ~~terse~~~!h~ lines~~ _and L2 ~-t-~~in_ts ~-~~d-~, r~~_Pect~~ely~.t~-~fi~d_ f_~D f. J
Sol. Line L1 is parallel to vector ii = - 3f + 2) + 4k and passes through a point A(1, 6, 2).
Therefore, position vector of any point on the line is 7i + 6} + ik + A, (-3i + 2] + 4k) ; line L2 is parallel to
a vector ~ =21 + J+ 3k and passes throl-Jgh a point 8(5, 3, 4).
Position vector of any point on the line is Sf+ 3 j + 4k + J1 (2f +] + 3k)
·e n= 2i+3}-2k +A.(-3i +2}+4k) - J.L(2i+ ]+3k)
Since it is paraiJel to 2i- 2)- k, we have
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3.14 Vectors and 30 Geometry

2-3A.-2JJ ~+2A.-,u - 2+4A.- 3JJ


== =
2 -2 -1
Solving these equations we get A. = 2 and ,u = I. Therefore,
CD= ~j +.6}+3k
or
. d-h-~ d' -- f · th I' x-l y+l d.· r.; fr
Illustratfon 3.23 Fm t e coot mates o a pomt on e me . - - = - - = z at a tstance 4v 14 rrom l
1

__j
the point (1, - 1, 0).
.... , _ ..... _... - - .. --..---- - ...
2 -3 .
.........__ --.. - ~ - -- -- ·--- - .. - .. ____ _____ - --
........
Sol. Any point on the given line is (2r + l , - 3r- I, r) and its distance from (1-, - 1, 0) is
(2r)2 + (- 3'r)2 + r 2 = (4JI4Y .·
or r=±4
Thus, coordinates are (9, - 13, 4) and (-7, 11,- 4) and the point nearer to the origin is (-7, 11,- 4) .

.A~GLE BETWEEN TWO LINES


Let the given lines be
... . -+
r =a+ A.b
...
(i) } . Vector form
~
~ -+ -+
r =a'+ /.,b' (ii) .

~ Cartesian fonn
x - a1' y - a2' z - a3,
--= = --
~' h2 bJ .
-+ -+
Clearly (i) and (ii) are st~ight lines in the directio'ns of b and b', respectively.
·Let 8 be the angle between the straight lines (i) and (ii).
-+ -+ .
Then 9 is the angle between vectors b and b'. Therefore,
-+ -+
b ·b'
cosfJ = --+ -+
lbllb'l
... 1\ 1\ " -+ ," ·" ,t\
b = b i + bz. j + ~ k ' b' = ba i + b, j + ~ k
-+ -+
b . b' ;:; bah{+ ~bl + ~b3
and ,;, = Jba2+bJ+b] ' ,~ , = Jq12+bl2+~1l
babJ+~b2+~b3
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Three·Dimensional Geometry 3.15

Notes:
~ ~

1. If the lines are perpendicular, then b · b' = 0 => ~b{ + ~1>2 + ~1>3 = 0.

2. If the Jines are parallel, the~ b= ~b- for some scalar A ~ !1_ =~ =~ ·
b2 b2 !>;

Illustration 3.24 Find the angle between the following pair of lines:
~ Ao A A A A A --+ .... "' A A ,..

i. r = 2i- 5} + k + A.(3i + 2} + 6k) and r = 1i- 6k + p(i + 2} + 2k)


.. ~=Y=!.andx - 5=y-2=z-3
II. (NCERT)
2 2 1 4 1 8

Sol.
-+
i. The given tines are parallel to the vectors b1 3i + 2} + 6k and b2
-.

= A A "'

=i + 2} + 2k , respectively. If 9
A A A

is the angle between the given pair of lines, then

....... ... .... ... -+ .... ,. ""'


ii. The given lines are parallel to the vectors b1 = 2i + 2} + k and b2 = 4i + j + 8k, respectiveJy. lf 9
is the angle between the given pair of lines, then
-+ ~

bt.b2 (2)(4)+(2)(1)+(1)(8) 18 2
cos8=-+ ~ = ../22+22+12 /42+12+82 c 3x9=3
lb•llb2l "

9= cos-
1
(~) 0

Illustration 3.25
0 1- x 7y-14
Fmd the values ofp so that hne - - =
• z-3
=- - and 7-7x 6-z
=-~v--I 5 = -
3 2p 2 3p 5
are at right angles. (NCERT)
Sol. The given equations can be written in the standard fonn as
x- 1 y- 2 z- 3 x - 1 y - 5 z-6
--= - = -- and = - -=--
-3 2pl7 2 -3p/7 1 -5

2 3
The direction ratios of the lines are -3, P; 2 and - p, l,- 5; respectively.
7 7
Lines are perpendicular to each other. Therefore,

(-3) 0

(-3p) + (2p)
-7- ·-:;- ·(1)+2 · {-5)=0
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3.16 Ve~tors and 30 Geometry

or
9p
- +-
2p 70
= 10 or 11p = 70 or p = -
7 7 11
; ~- . . ----~. - ~ -· + \. V - 3 - -;.=..~
X- } y +1 Z X
= -e· ,
I. Illustration 3.26 Find the acute angle between the lines ~-t
=:= - - = - and - - = -· -
m n • m n
\ where e> m > n, and €, m, n are the ro~ts of the cubic equation~+ J?- 4x = 4. .
L ---•woo 0 ----- ··- ·-----··-~- - _ , _ .-......:___ _ _ • ..,, •

x-1 y+l · z x+l y-3 z-1


Sol. Given lines are - -
l n m
= - m-
= - and - - = -n- = --
e
Angle between lines is given by
f m+mn+nl
cosfJ=----- (i)
.e2 +m2 +n2
Now e, m, n are the roots of the cubic equation il + il- 4x = 4. Thus,
C+ m + n =-I and em -f: mn + nC = -4
(C + m + n)2 =·e2 + m2 + n2 + 2(€m + mn + nC)
or (-1)2 =C2 + m2 + n2 + 2(-4)
or C2 + m2 + n2 = 9
4
cos 9= --
9
4
Therefore, ·acute angle between the lines is cos-1 .
9
l.Itlustratlo~ 3.27 Find the conditio~-·if lines x
perpendicular.
= ay + b~ z = cy+d and x = a'y + b', z = c'y + t! are 1
. ,
l______ .... - ·-·- .. ---- - - - - - - - . ·- _ _ _ __ ,_ --~~- -··- . - ----~... . _ ,.J

Sol. The equations of straight lines can be rewritten as


x-b y-0 'z - d
x=ay+b, z=cy+d~ - - = - - = --
a I c
X- b' ' )'- 0 Z- d '
and x=a';,+b' z=c'v + a:::::::>--=-- = - -
1 • a' 1 c'
The above lines arc perpendicular if aa' + I -1 + c-c' = 0.

PERPENDICULAR DISTANCE OF A POINT FROM A LINE


Foot of Perpendicular from a Point on the Given Line
• P(a, (3,)')
.
....
Cartesian form '

X - X1 __ )' - Y1 __ Z - Zt • '
Heret the equation of line AB is
...
'
b a
c
Let L be the foot of the perpendicular drawn from P( {3, a, non the ..
• X - x1 )' - Yt Z - z1
lme --= =--·
a b c Ae CJ
L "
.. A A
•B
Let the coordiantes of L be (x 1 + aA., y 1 + bA, z 1 +cA..). ai+ bj+ck
Fig. 3.7
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Three-Dimensional Geometry 3.17

·Then the direction ratios of PL are (x 1 + aA..- a, y 1 + bA.. - /3, z 1 + cA - 'f?.


Direction ratios of ABare (a, b, c).
Since PL is perpendicular to AB,
a(x 1 + aA..- a)+ b(y1 + bA.. - /3) + c(z 1 + cA. - /? = 9
A = a(a - x1)+b(/3-·y1)+ c(y- z1)
a2+ b2 + c2
Putting the value of A. in (x 1 + aA, y 1 + bA, z 1 + cA.), we get the foot of the perpendicular. Now we can get
distance PL using the distance formula. ·
Vector form
_.. --+ --+ --+
LetL be the foot of the perpendicular drawn from P (a) on the line r =a+ A b .
--+ --+ _.. --')
Since r denotes the position vector ofany point on the line r = a + A. b, -->
--+ _.. P(a)
the position vector of L will be (a + A. b)
--') --+ --+
Directions ratios of PL = a - a+ A. b
~ --+
Since PL is perpendicular to b, we have
_.. _.. --+ --+
(a -a+Ab)·b =0 A,.,__ _ ___......L...------eB
-+ -
-+ --+ --') . _..-+ L(a +A.b)
or (a - a) · b+A.b · b = 0 Fig. 3.8
-+ -+ --+

or
A. = _-(.;_a_-_a~)-·_b
--+
lbl2
--+ --+ --+]
Thus, position vector of Lis ; -
(
(a --ta) · b b, which is the foot of the perpendicular.
2
lbl
Image of a Point in the Given Une
! P(a.,{J,y)

A ••------~h~-----•• B
:L .

•Q(Image)(a', {3', y')


Fig. 3.9
Since L (foot of