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Chapter 1

Lecture 1- Chapter 1

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Lecture 1
 Introduction

 Definitions

 General Mole Balance Equation


 Batch (BR)
 Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
 Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)
 Packed Bed Reactor (PBR)

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Chapter 1

Chemical Reaction Engineering


 Chemical reaction engineering is at the heart of
virtually every chemical process. It separates the
chemical engineer from other engineers.

Industries that Draw Heavily on Chemical


Reaction Engineering (CRE) are:
CPI (Chemical Process Industries)
Examples like Dow, DuPont, Amoco, Chevron

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

Let’s Begin CRE


 Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) is the
field that studies the rates and mechanisms of
chemical reactions and the design of the reactors
in which they take place.

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Chapter 1

Chemical Identity
 A chemical species is said to have reacted when
it has lost its chemical identity.
 The identity of a chemical species is determined
by the kind, number, and configuration of that
species’ atoms.

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Chapter 1

Chemical Identity
 A chemical species is said to have reacted when
it has lost its chemical identity.
 There are three ways for a species to loose its
identity:

1. Decomposition CH3CH3  H2 + H2C=CH2


2. Combination N2 + O2  2 NO
3. Isomerization C2H5CH=CH2  CH2=C(CH3)2

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Chapter 1

Reaction Rate
 The reaction rate is the rate at which a species
looses its chemical identity per unit volume.

 The rate of a reaction (mol/dm3/s) can be


expressed as either:
 The rate of Disappearance of reactant: -rA
or as
 The rate of Formation (Generation) of product: rP

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Reaction Rate
Consider the isomerization
AB
rA = the rate of formation of species A per unit
volume
-rA = the rate of a disappearance of species A
per unit volume
rB = the rate of formation of species B per unit
volume

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Chapter 1

Reaction Rate
EXAMPLE: AB
If Species B is being formed at a rate of
0.2 moles per decimeter cubed per second, i.e.,
rB = 0.2 mole/dm3/s

Then A is disappearing at the same rate:


-rA= 0.2 mole/dm3/s
The rate of formation (generation of A) is:
rA= -0.2 mole/dm3/s

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Chapter 1

Reaction Rate
 For a catalytic reaction we refer to –rA’ , which is the
rate of disappearance of species A on a per mass of
catalyst basis. (mol/gcat/s)

NOTE: dCA/dt is not the rate of reaction

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Chapter 1

Reaction Rate
Consider species j:
1. rj is the rate of formation of species j per unit volume
[e.g. mol/dm3s]
2. rj is a function of concentration, temperature,
pressure, and the type of catalyst (if any)
3. rj is independent of the type of reaction system
(batch, plug flow, etc.)
4. rj is an algebraic equation, not a differential equation
(e.g. -rA = kCA or -rA = kCA2)

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Building Block 1: Chapter 1

General Mole Balances


System
Volume, V

Fj0 Gj Fj

 Molar Flow  Molar Flow   Molar Rate   Molar Rate 


 Rate of    Rate of   Generation    Accumulation 
       
 Species j in   Species j out  of Species j  of Species j 
dN j
Fj 0  Fj  Gj 
dt
 mole   mole   mole   mole 
          
15  time   time   time   time 
Building Block 1: Chapter 1

General Mole Balances


If spatially uniform:
G j  rjV

If NOT spatially uniform:

 V1
V2
rj1
rj 2
G j1  rj1V1
G j 2  rj 2 V2

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Building Block 1: Chapter 1

General Mole Balances


n
G j   rji Vi
i 1

Take limit
n

Gj   rji Vi   r dV
j
i1 lim V  0 n  

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Building Block 1: Chapter 1

General Mole Balances


System
Volume, V

FA0 GA FA

General Mole Balance on System Volume V

In  Out  Generation  Accumulation


dNA
FA 0  FA   r dV
A 
dt
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Chapter 1

Batch Reactor - Mole Balances

Batch

dN A
FA0  FA   rA dV 
dt
FA0  FA  0

Well-Mixed  r dV  r V
A A

dNA
 rAV
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Chapter 1

Batch Reactor - Mole Balances


dN A
Integrating dt 
rAV

t  0 N A  N A0
when
t  t NA  NA

NA
dN A
t 
N A0
 rAV

Time necessary to reduce the number of moles of A from NA0 to NA.


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Chapter 1

Batch Reactor - Mole Balances


NA
dN A
t 
N A0
 rAV

NA

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Chapter 1

CSTR - Mole Balances

CSTR

dNA
FA 0  FA   rA dV 
dt

dNA
Steady State 0
 dt
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Chapter 1

CSTR - Mole Balances

Well Mixed  r dV  r V
A A

FA 0  FA  rAV  0

FA 0  FA
V
 rA
CSTR volume necessary to reduce the molar flow
rate from FA0 to FA.
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
Chapter 1

Plug Flow Reactor - Mole Balances

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Chapter 1

Plug Flow Reactor - Mole Balances


V

FA FA


V V  V
 

 In  Out  Generation
at V       0
  at V  V  in V 
FA V  FA V  V  rA V 0
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Chapter 1

Plug Flow Reactor - Mole Balances


Rearrange and take limit as ΔV0

FA V  V  FA V
lim  rA
V 0 V

dFA
 rA
dV

This is the volume necessary to reduce the entering molar


flow rate (mol/s) from FA0 to the exit molar flow rate of FA.
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
Chapter 1

Plug Flow Reactor - Mole Balances


PFR

dN A
FA0  FA   rA dV 
dt
dN A
Steady State 0
dt

FA0  FA   rA dV  0
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Alternative Derivation Chapter 1

Plug Flow Reactor - Mole Balances


Differientiate with respect to V

0
dFA
 rA
dFA
 rA
dV dV
FA
dFA
The integral form is: V  rA
 FA 0

This is the volume necessary to reduce the


entering molar flow rate (mol/s) from FA0 to the
exit molar flow rate of FA.
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Chapter 1

Packed Bed Reactor - Mole Balances


W
PBR
FA FA

W W  W
 
    
FA W  FA W  W  rA W 
dN A
dt
Steady State dN A
0
dt
FA W  W  FA W
lim  rA
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W 0 W
Chapter 1

Packed Bed Reactor - Mole Balances


Rearrange:
dFA
 rA
dW
The integral form to find the catalyst weight is:
FA
 dFA
W 
FA 0
rA

PBR catalyst weight necessary to reduce the


entering molar flow rate FA0 to molar flow rate FA.
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Chapter 1

Reactor Mole Balances Summary


The GMBE applied to the four major reactor types
(and the general reaction AB)
Reactor Differential Algebraic Integral
NA
NA
dN A
Batch dN A
 rAV t 
dt rV
N A0 A
t
CSTR FA 0  FA
V
rA FA
FA
PFR dFA V 
dFA
 rA
dV FA 0
drA
V

FA FA
dFA dFA
PBR
 dW
 rA W 
FA 0
rA
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W
Algorithm

Separations

Filtration Distillation Adsorption

These topics do not build upon one another.

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Algorithm

Reaction Engineering

Mole Balance Rate Laws Stoichiometry

These topics build upon one another.

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Algorithm

Heat Effects
Isothermal Design

Stoichiometry
Rate Laws
Mole Balance

CRE Algorithm

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Algorithm

Mole Balance Rate Laws

Be careful not to cut corners on any of the


CRE building blocks while learning this material!

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Algorithm

Heat Effects
Isothermal Design

Stoichiometry
Rate Laws

Mole Balance

Otherwise, your Algorithm becomes unstable.


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End of Lecture 1

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