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AIM: To design third and fifth order Prototype Butterworth and Chebyshev Low Pass

filter and compare their specifications

DESIGN SPECIFICATION

1. PLR = 3 dB

2. Frequency = 5 GHz

3. Impedance = 50 Ω

4. Permittivity of Substrate= 4.5

5. Height of substrate= 1.5 mm

6. Thickness of substrate = 18 μm.

DESIGN STEPS

1. Butterworth LPF

LAR = 3dB

𝜔𝑐 = 2𝜋𝑓 = 3.1415𝑥 1010 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

a) N=3

(2𝑘−1)𝜋

𝑔𝑘 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2𝑁

(1.1)

𝑔0 = 1.0 ;𝑘 = 0

(1.2)

(2−1)𝜋 𝜋

𝑔1 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 6 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 6 = 1 ; 𝑘 = 1

(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋

𝑔2 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 ;𝑘 = 2

6 6

(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋

𝑔3 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 1 ;𝑘 = 3

6 6

Value of capacitance and inductance are

𝑔1

𝐶1 = = 795.8 𝑓𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

𝑔2 𝑅𝑜

𝐿2 = = 3.979 𝑛𝐻

𝜔𝑐

𝑔3

𝐶3 = = 795.8 𝑓𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

b) N=5

(2𝑘 − 1)𝜋

𝑔𝑘 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛

2𝑁

𝑔0 = 1.0 ;𝑘 = 0

(2 − 1)𝜋 𝜋

𝑔1 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.618 ; 𝑘 = 1

10 10

(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋

𝑔2 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 1.618 ; 𝑘 = 2

10 10

(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋

𝑔3 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 =2 ;𝑘 = 3

10 10

(8 − 1)𝜋 7𝜋

𝑔4 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 1.618 ; 𝑘 = 4

10 10

(10 − 1)𝜋 9𝜋

𝑔5 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.618 ; 𝑘 = 5

10 10

Value of capacitance and inductance are

𝑔1

𝐶1 = = 491.8 𝑓𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

𝑔2 𝑅𝑜

𝐿2 = = 3.219 𝑛𝐻

𝜔𝑐

𝑔3

𝐶3 = = 1.592 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

𝑔2 𝑅𝑜

𝐿4 = = 3.219 𝑛𝐻

𝜔𝑐

𝑔1

𝐶5 = = 491.8 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

2. Chebyshev LPF

LAR = 3dB

𝜔𝑐 = 2𝜋𝑓 = 3.1415𝑥 1010 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

a) N=3

2𝑎1

𝑔0 = 1.0 , 𝑔1 = ,

𝛾

4𝑎𝑘−1 𝑎𝑘

𝑔𝑘 = 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 2,3 … … … 𝑁

𝑏𝑘−1 𝑔𝑘−1

(2𝑘 − 1)𝜋

𝑎𝑘 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁

2𝑁

𝑘𝜋

𝑏𝑘 = 𝛾 2 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁

𝑁

𝐿𝐴𝑅

𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )}

17.37

𝛽

𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( )

2𝑁

10𝐿𝐴𝑆 /10 − 1

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (√ 𝐿𝐴𝑅 /10 )

10 −1

𝑁≥ 𝜔

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (𝜔𝑆 )

𝐶

(2 − 1)𝜋 𝜋

𝑎1 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.5 ;𝑘 = 1

6 6

(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋

𝑎2 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 =1 ;𝑘 = 2

6 6

(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋

𝑎3 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.5 ; 𝑘 = 3

6 6

3

𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )} = 1.766

17.37

1.766

𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( ) = 0.298

6

𝜋

𝑏1 = 0.2982 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.839

3

2𝜋

𝑏2 = 0.2982 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.839

3

3𝜋

𝑏3 = 0.2982 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.088

3

𝑔0 = 1.0 ; 𝑘=0

2𝑎1

𝑔1 = = 3.349 ; 𝑘=1

𝛾

4𝑎1 𝑎2

𝑔2 = = 0.7118 ; 𝑘=2

𝑏1 𝑔1

4𝑎2 𝑎3

𝑔3 = = 3.349 ; 𝑘=3

𝑏2 𝑔2

Value of capacitance and inductance are

𝑔1

𝐶1 = = 2.665 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

𝑔2 𝑅𝑜

𝐿2 = = 1.416 𝑛𝐻

𝜔𝑐

𝑔3

𝐶3 = = 2.665 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

b) N=5

2𝑎1 4𝑎𝑘−1 𝑎𝑘

𝑔0 = 1.0 , 𝑔1 = , 𝑔𝑘 = 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 2,3 … … … 𝑁

𝛾 𝑏𝑘−1 𝑔𝑘−1

(2𝑘 − 1)𝜋

𝑎𝑘 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁

2𝑁

𝑘𝜋

𝑏𝑘 = 𝛾 2 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁

𝑁

𝐿𝐴𝑅

𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )}

17.37

𝛽

𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( )

2𝑁

10𝐿𝐴𝑆 /10 − 1

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (√ 𝐿𝐴𝑅 /10 )

10 −1

𝑁≥ 𝜔

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (𝜔𝑆 )

𝐶

(2 − 1)𝜋 𝜋

𝑎1 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.309 ; 𝑘 = 1

10 10

(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋

𝑎2 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.809 ; 𝑘 = 2

10 10

(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋

𝑎3 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 =1 ;𝑘 = 3

10 10

(8 − 1)𝜋 7𝜋

𝑎4 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.809 ; 𝑘 = 4

10 10

(10 − 1)𝜋 9𝜋

𝑎5 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.309 ; 𝑘 = 5

10 6

.5

𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )} = 1.766

17.37

1.766

𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( ) = 0.1775

10

𝜋

𝑏1 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.3769

5

2𝜋

𝑏2 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.9360

5

3𝜋

𝑏3 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.9360

5

4𝜋

𝑏4 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.3769

5

5𝜋

𝑏5 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.0315

5

𝑔0 = 1.0 ; 𝑘=0

2𝑎1

𝑔1 = = 3.4817 ; 𝑘=1

𝛾

4𝑎1 𝑎2

𝑔2 = = 0.7619 ; 𝑘=2

𝑏1 𝑔1

4𝑎2 𝑎3

𝑔3 = = 4.5377 ; 𝑘=3

𝑏2 𝑔2

4𝑎3 𝑎4

𝑔4 = = 0.7619 ; 𝑘=4

𝑏3 𝑔3

4𝑎4 𝑎5

𝑔5 = = 3.4817 ; 𝑘=5

𝑏4 𝑔4

Value of capacitance and inductance are

𝑔1

𝐶1 = = 2.77 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

𝑔2 𝑅𝑜

𝐿2 = = 1.516 𝑛𝐻

𝜔𝑐

𝑔3

𝐶3 = = 3.611 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

𝑔4 𝑅𝑜

𝐿4 = = 1.516 𝑛𝐻

𝜔𝑐

𝑔5

𝐶5 = = 2.77 𝑝𝐹

𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

1. Butterworth LPF (N=3): 3rd Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter circuit Using

QUCS is shown in the Figure 1.5 and its plot is shown in the Figure 1.6.

Figure 1. 3rd Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter Circuit

AFTER SIMULATION:

2. Butterworth LPF (N=5): 5th Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter Using QUCS

and its plot is shown in the Figure.

3. Chebyshev LPF (N=3): 3rd Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Using and its plot

is shown in the Figure.

AFTER SIMULATION:

Figure 6. Plot for 3rd Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter

4. Chebyshev LPF (N=5): 5th Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Using and its plot

is shown in the Figure..

AFTER SIMULATION:

RESULT

We have designed and analysed third and fifth order Butterworth and Chebyshev Low

Pass Filter using QUCS. Butterworth and Chebyshev LPF simulated values are shown

in Table 1.1.

Table: Butterworth & Chebyshev LPF simulated values.

frequency loss (dB) (dB)

(GHz) (dB)

QUCS N=3 5 -3.02 -9.79 0

Butterworth

N=5 5 -3.03 -2.99 0

QUCS N=3 5 -3.05 -62.6 3

Chebyshev

N=5 5 -2.09 -2.91 3

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