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EXPERIMENT NO.

AIM: To design third and fifth order Prototype Butterworth and Chebyshev Low Pass
filter and compare their specifications

DESIGN SPECIFICATION

1. PLR = 3 dB
2. Frequency = 5 GHz
3. Impedance = 50 Ω
4. Permittivity of Substrate= 4.5
5. Height of substrate= 1.5 mm
6. Thickness of substrate = 18 μm.

DESIGN STEPS

1. Butterworth LPF

LAR = 3dB
𝜔𝑐 = 2𝜋𝑓 = 3.1415𝑥 1010 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

a) N=3

(2𝑘−1)𝜋
𝑔𝑘 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2𝑁
(1.1)
𝑔0 = 1.0 ;𝑘 = 0
(1.2)
(2−1)𝜋 𝜋
𝑔1 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 6 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 6 = 1 ; 𝑘 = 1
(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋
𝑔2 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 ;𝑘 = 2
6 6
(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋
𝑔3 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 1 ;𝑘 = 3
6 6
Value of capacitance and inductance are
𝑔1
𝐶1 = = 795.8 𝑓𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜
𝑔2 𝑅𝑜
𝐿2 = = 3.979 𝑛𝐻
𝜔𝑐
𝑔3
𝐶3 = = 795.8 𝑓𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

b) N=5
(2𝑘 − 1)𝜋
𝑔𝑘 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
2𝑁
𝑔0 = 1.0 ;𝑘 = 0
(2 − 1)𝜋 𝜋
𝑔1 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.618 ; 𝑘 = 1
10 10
(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋
𝑔2 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 1.618 ; 𝑘 = 2
10 10
(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋
𝑔3 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 =2 ;𝑘 = 3
10 10
(8 − 1)𝜋 7𝜋
𝑔4 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 1.618 ; 𝑘 = 4
10 10
(10 − 1)𝜋 9𝜋
𝑔5 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.618 ; 𝑘 = 5
10 10
Value of capacitance and inductance are
𝑔1
𝐶1 = = 491.8 𝑓𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜
𝑔2 𝑅𝑜
𝐿2 = = 3.219 𝑛𝐻
𝜔𝑐
𝑔3
𝐶3 = = 1.592 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜
𝑔2 𝑅𝑜
𝐿4 = = 3.219 𝑛𝐻
𝜔𝑐
𝑔1
𝐶5 = = 491.8 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

2. Chebyshev LPF

LAR = 3dB
𝜔𝑐 = 2𝜋𝑓 = 3.1415𝑥 1010 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

a) N=3

2𝑎1
𝑔0 = 1.0 , 𝑔1 = ,
𝛾
4𝑎𝑘−1 𝑎𝑘
𝑔𝑘 = 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 2,3 … … … 𝑁
𝑏𝑘−1 𝑔𝑘−1
(2𝑘 − 1)𝜋
𝑎𝑘 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁
2𝑁
𝑘𝜋
𝑏𝑘 = 𝛾 2 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁
𝑁
𝐿𝐴𝑅
𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )}
17.37
𝛽
𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( )
2𝑁
10𝐿𝐴𝑆 /10 − 1
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (√ 𝐿𝐴𝑅 /10 )
10 −1
𝑁≥ 𝜔
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (𝜔𝑆 )
𝐶
(2 − 1)𝜋 𝜋
𝑎1 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.5 ;𝑘 = 1
6 6
(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋
𝑎2 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 =1 ;𝑘 = 2
6 6
(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋
𝑎3 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.5 ; 𝑘 = 3
6 6
3
𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )} = 1.766
17.37
1.766
𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( ) = 0.298
6
𝜋
𝑏1 = 0.2982 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.839
3
2𝜋
𝑏2 = 0.2982 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.839
3
3𝜋
𝑏3 = 0.2982 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.088
3
𝑔0 = 1.0 ; 𝑘=0
2𝑎1
𝑔1 = = 3.349 ; 𝑘=1
𝛾
4𝑎1 𝑎2
𝑔2 = = 0.7118 ; 𝑘=2
𝑏1 𝑔1
4𝑎2 𝑎3
𝑔3 = = 3.349 ; 𝑘=3
𝑏2 𝑔2
Value of capacitance and inductance are
𝑔1
𝐶1 = = 2.665 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜
𝑔2 𝑅𝑜
𝐿2 = = 1.416 𝑛𝐻
𝜔𝑐
𝑔3
𝐶3 = = 2.665 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

b) N=5

2𝑎1 4𝑎𝑘−1 𝑎𝑘
𝑔0 = 1.0 , 𝑔1 = , 𝑔𝑘 = 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 2,3 … … … 𝑁
𝛾 𝑏𝑘−1 𝑔𝑘−1
(2𝑘 − 1)𝜋
𝑎𝑘 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁
2𝑁
𝑘𝜋
𝑏𝑘 = 𝛾 2 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑘 = 1,2 … … … 𝑁
𝑁
𝐿𝐴𝑅
𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )}
17.37
𝛽
𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( )
2𝑁
10𝐿𝐴𝑆 /10 − 1
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (√ 𝐿𝐴𝑅 /10 )
10 −1
𝑁≥ 𝜔
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ−1 (𝜔𝑆 )
𝐶
(2 − 1)𝜋 𝜋
𝑎1 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.309 ; 𝑘 = 1
10 10
(4 − 1)𝜋 3𝜋
𝑎2 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.809 ; 𝑘 = 2
10 10
(6 − 1)𝜋 5𝜋
𝑎3 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 =1 ;𝑘 = 3
10 10
(8 − 1)𝜋 7𝜋
𝑎4 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.809 ; 𝑘 = 4
10 10
(10 − 1)𝜋 9𝜋
𝑎5 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 0.309 ; 𝑘 = 5
10 6
.5
𝛽 = 𝑙𝑛 {𝑐𝑜𝑡ℎ ( )} = 1.766
17.37
1.766
𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ ( ) = 0.1775
10
𝜋
𝑏1 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.3769
5
2𝜋
𝑏2 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.9360
5
3𝜋
𝑏3 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.9360
5
4𝜋
𝑏4 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.3769
5
5𝜋
𝑏5 = 0.17752 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ( ) = 0.0315
5
𝑔0 = 1.0 ; 𝑘=0
2𝑎1
𝑔1 = = 3.4817 ; 𝑘=1
𝛾
4𝑎1 𝑎2
𝑔2 = = 0.7619 ; 𝑘=2
𝑏1 𝑔1
4𝑎2 𝑎3
𝑔3 = = 4.5377 ; 𝑘=3
𝑏2 𝑔2
4𝑎3 𝑎4
𝑔4 = = 0.7619 ; 𝑘=4
𝑏3 𝑔3
4𝑎4 𝑎5
𝑔5 = = 3.4817 ; 𝑘=5
𝑏4 𝑔4
Value of capacitance and inductance are
𝑔1
𝐶1 = = 2.77 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜
𝑔2 𝑅𝑜
𝐿2 = = 1.516 𝑛𝐻
𝜔𝑐
𝑔3
𝐶3 = = 3.611 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜
𝑔4 𝑅𝑜
𝐿4 = = 1.516 𝑛𝐻
𝜔𝑐
𝑔5
𝐶5 = = 2.77 𝑝𝐹
𝜔𝑐 𝑅𝑜

DESIGN AND RESPONSE

1. Butterworth LPF (N=3): 3rd Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter circuit Using
QUCS is shown in the Figure 1.5 and its plot is shown in the Figure 1.6.
Figure 1. 3rd Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter Circuit

AFTER SIMULATION:

Figure 2. Plot for 3rd Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter


2. Butterworth LPF (N=5): 5th Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter Using QUCS
and its plot is shown in the Figure.

Figure 3. 5th Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter Circuit

Figure 4. Plot for 5th Order Butterworth Low Pass Filter


3. Chebyshev LPF (N=3): 3rd Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Using and its plot
is shown in the Figure.

Figure 5. 3rd Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Circuit

AFTER SIMULATION:
Figure 6. Plot for 3rd Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter

4. Chebyshev LPF (N=5): 5th Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Using and its plot
is shown in the Figure..

Figure 7. 5th Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Circuit


AFTER SIMULATION:

Figure 8. Plot for 5th Order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter

RESULT

We have designed and analysed third and fifth order Butterworth and Chebyshev Low
Pass Filter using QUCS. Butterworth and Chebyshev LPF simulated values are shown
in Table 1.1.
Table: Butterworth & Chebyshev LPF simulated values.

Filter Software Order Cut off Insertion Return loss Ripple


frequency loss (dB) (dB)
(GHz) (dB)
QUCS N=3 5 -3.02 -9.79 0
Butterworth
N=5 5 -3.03 -2.99 0
QUCS N=3 5 -3.05 -62.6 3
Chebyshev
N=5 5 -2.09 -2.91 3